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1.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 143-164, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28581016

RESUMO

When secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles are formed by ozonolysis in the presence of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their formation and properties are significantly different from SOA particles formed without PAHs. For all SOA precursors and all PAHs, discussed in this study, the presence of the gas-phase PAHs during SOA formation significantly affects particle mass loadings, composition, growth, evaporation kinetics, and viscosity. SOA particles formed in the presence of PAHs have, as part of their compositions, trapped unreacted PAHs and products of heterogeneous reactions between PAHs and ozone. Compared to 'pure' SOA particles, these particles exhibit slower evaporation kinetics, have higher fractions of non-volatile components, like oligomers, and higher viscosities, assuring their longer atmospheric lifetimes. In turn, the increased viscosity and decreased volatility provide a shield that protects PAHs from chemical degradation and evaporation, allowing for the long-range transport of these toxic pollutants. The magnitude of the effect of PAHs on SOA formation is surprisingly large. The presence of PAHs during SOA formation increases mass loadings by factors of two to five, and particle number concentrations, in some cases, by more than a factor of 100. Increases in SOA mass, particle number concentrations, and lifetime have important implications to many atmospheric processes related to climate, weather, visibility, and human health, all of which relate to the interactions between biogenic SOA and anthropogenic PAHs. The synergistic relationship between SOA and PAHs presented here are clearly complex and call for future research to elucidate further the underlying processes and their exact atmospheric implications.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Aerossóis/metabolismo , Gases/química , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula
2.
Faraday Discuss ; 200: 59-74, 2017 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28598469

RESUMO

Films of biogenic compounds exposed to the atmosphere are ubiquitously found on the surfaces of cloud droplets, aerosol particles, buildings, plants, soils and the ocean. These air/water interfaces host countless amphiphilic compounds concentrated there with respect to in bulk water, leading to a unique chemical environment. Here, photochemical processes at the air/water interface of biofilm-containing solutions were studied, demonstrating abiotic VOC production from authentic biogenic surfactants under ambient conditions. Using a combination of online-APCI-HRMS and PTR-ToF-MS, unsaturated and functionalized VOCs were identified and quantified, giving emission fluxes comparable to previous field and laboratory observations. Interestingly, VOC fluxes increased with the decay of microbial cells in the samples, indicating that cell lysis due to cell death was the main source for surfactants and VOC production. In particular, irradiation of samples containing solely biofilm cells without matrix components exhibited the strongest VOC production upon irradiation. In agreement with previous studies, LC-MS measurements of the liquid phase suggested the presence of fatty acids and known photosensitizers, possibly inducing the observed VOC production via peroxy radical chemistry. Up to now, such VOC emissions were directly accounted to high biological activity in surface waters. However, the results obtained suggest that abiotic photochemistry can lead to similar emissions into the atmosphere, especially in less biologically-active regions. Furthermore, chamber experiments suggest that oxidation (O3/OH radicals) of the photochemically-produced VOCs leads to aerosol formation and growth, possibly affecting atmospheric chemistry and climate-related processes, such as cloud formation or the Earth's radiation budget.


Assuntos
Tensoativos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/síntese química , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Atmosfera/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
3.
Biomaterials ; 118: 84-93, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27974266

RESUMO

Tremendous progress has been made in the development of delivery carriers for small RNA therapeutics. However, most achievements have focused on the treatment of liver-associated diseases because conventional lipid and lipidoid nanoparticles (LNPs) readily accumulate in the liver after intravenous (i.v.) administration. Delivering RNAs to other organs and tumor tissues remains an ongoing challenge. Here, we utilized a 540-member combinatorial functional polyester library to discover nanoparticles (NPs) that enable efficacious siRNA delivery to A549 lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PE4K-A13-0.33C6 and PE4K-A13-0.33C10 NPs were efficiently internalized into A549-Luc cells within 4 h. The addition of PEG 2000 DMG lipid or Pluronic F-127 onto the surface of the polyplexes reduced the surface charge of NPs, resulting in an increase of serum stability. We then explored aerosol delivery of stabilized PE4K-A13-0.33C6 and PE4K-A13-0.33C10 NPs to implanted orthotopic lung tumors. We found that by altering the administration route from i.v. to aerosol, the NPs could avoid liver accumulation and instead be specifically localized only in the lungs. This resulted in significant gene silencing in the A549 orthotopic lung tumors. Due to the ability to deliver siRNA to non-liver targets, this approach provides a privileged route for gene silencing in the lungs.


Assuntos
Terapia Genética/métodos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Nanocápsulas/química , Poliésteres/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Células A549 , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Aerossóis/síntese química , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Inativação Gênica , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Nanocápsulas/administração & dosagem , Nanocápsulas/ultraestrutura , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 10: 4017-4030, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28008226

RESUMO

The objectives of this study were to prepare bosentan hydrate (BST) microparticles as dry powder inhalations (DPIs) via spray drying and jet milling under various parameters, to comprehensively characterize the physicochemical properties of the BST hydrate microparticles, and to evaluate the aerosol dispersion performance and dissolution behavior as DPIs. The BST microparticles were successfully prepared for DPIs by spray drying from feeding solution concentrations of 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v) and by jet milling at grinding pressures of 2, 3, and 4 MPa. The physicochemical properties of the spray-dried (SD) and jet-milled (JM) microparticles were determined via scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering particle size analysis, Karl Fischer titration, surface analysis, pycnometry, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro aerosol dispersion performance and drug dissolution behavior were evaluated using an Anderson cascade impactor and a Franz diffusion cell, respectively. The JM microparticles exhibited an irregular corrugated surface and a crystalline solid state, while the SD microparticles were spherical with a smooth surface and an amorphous solid state. Thus, the in vitro aerosol dispersion performance and dissolution behavior as DPIs were considerably different due to the differences in the physicochemical properties of the SD and JM microparticles. In particular, the highest grinding pressures under jet milling exhibited excellent aerosol dispersion performance with statistically higher values of 56.8%±2.0% of respirable fraction and 33.8%±2.3% of fine particle fraction and lower mass median aerodynamic diameter of 5.0±0.3 µm than the others (P<0.05, analysis of variance/Tukey). The drug dissolution mechanism was also affected by the physicochemical properties that determine the dissolution kinetics of the SD and JM microparticles, which were well fitted into the Higuchi and zero-order models, respectively.


Assuntos
Formas de Dosagem , Inaladores de Pó Seco , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Bosentana , Físico-Química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Propriedades de Superfície
5.
Skin Res Technol ; 22(3): 370-4, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26452436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypohidrosis is defined as diminished sweating in response to an appropriate thermal or sympathetic stimulus. When encountered in a clinical setting, it necessitates an accurate documentation of its pattern and extent to prognosticate the risk of associated heat-related illnesses. This can be achieved by thermoregulatory sweat testing which includes a starch-iodine sweat test that can be administered via various methods. OBJECTIVE: To describe and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a novel method of using an atomizer spray gun in administering the starch-iodine test. METHODS: We describe the administration of the starch-iodine test via an atomizer spray gun (Series 700 Lab Model; Mitsuba Systems, Mumbai, India). The method was utilized for the evaluation of 30 individuals who presented with symptoms of hypohidrosis. RESULTS: Application of iodinated starch powder prepared in-house with the atomizer spray gun achieved a lightweight and homogeneous coat on our patients' skin which allowed for clear visualization of the sweating pattern in areas of anhidrosis. The sharp demarcation of the pathological regions enabled the precise calculation of the affected body surface area of impaired sweating. Unlike the starch-iodine tests using the Minor and Wada methods, neither staining of the skin nor irritation was detected in this method. CONCLUSION: We report a novel method of using an atomizer spray gun to perform the starch-iodine test in a rapid, reproducible, effective, and safe manner suitable for use in the clinical evaluation of hypohidrosis.


Assuntos
Dermoscopia/métodos , Hipo-Hidrose/diagnóstico , Hipo-Hidrose/patologia , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Amido/análogos & derivados , Administração Cutânea , Adulto , Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Aerossóis/síntese química , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Amido/administração & dosagem , Amido/síntese química
6.
Nature ; 525(7568): 234-8, 2015 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26354482

RESUMO

The amount of ice present in clouds can affect cloud lifetime, precipitation and radiative properties. The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice-nucleating particles. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice. Sea-spray aerosol contains large amounts of organic material that is ejected into the atmosphere during bubble bursting at the organically enriched sea-air interface or sea surface microlayer. Here we show that organic material in the sea surface microlayer nucleates ice under conditions relevant for mixed-phase cloud and high-altitude ice cloud formation. The ice-nucleating material is probably biogenic and less than approximately 0.2 micrometres in size. We find that exudates separated from cells of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana nucleate ice, and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates is a likely candidate for the observed ice-nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. Global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, in combination with our measurements, suggest that marine organic material may be an important source of ice-nucleating particles in remote marine environments such as the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean and North Atlantic Ocean.


Assuntos
Atmosfera/química , Gelo , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Ar , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Regiões Árticas , Diatomáceas/química , Congelamento , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Fitoplâncton/química , Água do Mar/química
7.
Langmuir ; 30(38): 11257-62, 2014 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25211031

RESUMO

A facile method for designing and synthesizing nanostructured carbon particles via ultrasonic spray pyrolysis of a self-organized dual polymer system comprising phenolic resin and charged polystyrene latex is reported. The method produces either hollow carbon particles, whose CO2 adsorption capacity is 3.0 mmol g(-1), or porous carbon particles whose CO2 adsorption capacity is 4.8 mmol g(-1), although the two particle types had similar diameters of about 360 nm. We investigate how the zeta potential of the polystyrene latex particles, and the resulting electrostatic interaction with the negatively charged phenolic resin, influences the particle morphology, pore structure, and CO2 adsorption capacity.


Assuntos
Carbono/química , Formaldeído/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Fenóis/química , Polímeros/química , Poliestirenos/química , Adsorção , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Porosidade , Propriedades de Superfície
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 48(17): 10227-34, 2014 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25093758

RESUMO

A large number of organic species emitted into the atmosphere contain cycloalkyl groups. While cyclic species are believed to be important secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors, the specific role of cyclic moieties (particularly for species with multiple or fused rings) remains uncertain. Here we examine the yields and composition of SOA formed from the reaction of OH with a series of C10 (cyclo)alkanes, with 0-3 rings, in order to better understand the role of multiple cyclic moieties on aerosol formation pathways. A chamber oxidation technique using high, sustained OH radical concentrations was used to simulate long reaction times in the atmosphere. This aging technique leads to higher yields than in previously reported chamber experiments. Yields were highest for cyclic and polycyclic precursors, though yield exhibited little dependence on number of rings. However, the oxygen-to-carbon ratio of the SOA was highest for the polycyclic precursors. These trends are consistent with aerosol formation requiring two generations of oxidation and 3-4 oxygen-containing functional groups in order to condense. Cyclic, unbranched structures are protected from fragmentation during the first oxidation step, with C-C bond scission instead leading to ring opening, efficient functionalization, and high SOA yields. Fragmentation may occur during subsequent oxidation steps, limiting yields by forming volatile products. Polycyclic structures can undergo multiple ring opening reactions, but do not have markedly higher yields, likely due to enhanced fragmentation in the second oxidation step. By contrast, C-C bond scission for the linear and branched structures leads to fragmentation prior to condensation, resulting in low SOA yields. The results highlight the key roles of multigenerational chemistry and susceptibility to fragmentation in the formation and evolution of SOA.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/síntese química , Alcanos/química , Aerossóis/química , Compostos Orgânicos/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Sulfatos/química , Fatores de Tempo
9.
J Phys Chem A ; 118(38): 8807-16, 2014 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25148415

RESUMO

The study of the chemistry underlying secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation is complicated by the large number of reaction pathways and oxidation generations available to a given precursor species. Here we simplify such complexity to that of a single alkoxy radical (RO), by forming SOA via the direct photolysis of alkyl nitrite (RONO) isomers. Chamber experiments were conducted with 11 C10 RONO isomers to determine how the position of the radical center and branching of the carbon skeleton influences SOA formation. SOA yields served as a probe of RO reactivity, with lower yields indicating that fragmentation reactions dominate and higher yields suggesting the predominance of RO isomerization. The largest yields were from straight-chain isomers, particularly those with radical centers located toward the terminus of the molecule. Trends in SOA yields can be explained in terms of two major effects: (1) the relative importance of isomerization and fragmentation reactions, which control the distribution of products, and (2) differences in volatility among the various isomeric products formed. Yields from branched isomers, which were low but variable, provide insight into the degree of fragmentation of the alkoxy radicals; in the case of the two ß-substituted alkoxy radicals, fragmentation appears to occur to a greater extent than predicted by structure-activity relationships. Our results highlight how subtle differences in alkoxy radical structure can have major impacts on product yields and SOA formation.


Assuntos
Álcoois/química , Nitritos/química , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Estrutura Molecular , Fotólise
10.
Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) ; 62(5): 422-8, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24789924

RESUMO

Collagen is a promising biomaterial for drug delivery due to advantages including high biocompatibility and biodegradable property. However, transforming collagen into solid nanoparticles is difficult, although the solid dosage form is advantageous for some administration routes including pulmonary and oral drug delivery. In this study, collagen solid nanoparticles are prepared in one-step using electrospray deposition under ambient temperature and pressure conditions. Although collagen molecules formed micron-sized aggregates in acetic acid solutions spontaneously, electrospraying the collagen solutions resulted in formation of nanofibers. Solid nanoparticles were obtained by increasing conductivity of the solution and/or inducing structural perturbation of the collagen molecules using salts. The ability of solid collagen particles as a drug carrier was demonstrated by incorporating theophylline as a model drug using a coaxial spray technique. Release of theophylline was controlled by cross-linking collagen molecules. Electrospray deposition was proved to be a powerful method for producing solid collagen nanoparticles for drug delivery.


Assuntos
Colágeno/síntese química , Nanopartículas/química , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Colágeno/química , Eletrônica
11.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 9: 1823-32, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24748792

RESUMO

Vitamin K1 (VK1) is a very lipophilic and photosensitive molecule contained in some vegetables. Recently, the use of VK1 on the skin has been proposed for different pharmaceutical or cosmeceutical applications. In this study, an innovative strategy for the administration of VK1 on the skin was proposed. In particular, to overcome the drawbacks associated with a VK1-containing fatty ointment available on the market, an aqueous formulation suitable to be administered by nebulization was developed. The use of liposomes encapsulating VK1 enabled issues due to the lipophilicity of VK1 to be overcome. Thus, different liposomal formulations, with different VK1 concentrations, were prepared and characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, VK1 encapsulation into liposomes, and stability of the formulations during storage. After a first phase of screening, the selected formulation was tested by a portable device for nebulization. No alteration of the vesicle characteristics following the liposome supply through the nebulizer was found. Finally, permeation studies were carried out on pig-excised skin in Franz cells and the newly developed formulation was compared to a marketed VK1-containing ointment. In this test, an enhanced VK1 accumulation into the skin was found when using nebulized liposomes. In conclusion, in order to administer VK1 on the skin, the newly developed formulation could be a valid alternative to the products available on the market today. In particular, the use of liposomes could facilitate the multiple administrations per day by aerosol, but also increase, compared to a semi-solid preparation, the accumulation of VK1 into the epidermis and dermis.


Assuntos
Lipossomos/síntese química , Nanocápsulas/administração & dosagem , Nanocápsulas/química , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Absorção Cutânea/fisiologia , Vitamina K 1/administração & dosagem , Vitamina K 1/farmacocinética , Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/farmacocinética , Animais , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Técnicas In Vitro , Suínos , Vitamina K 1/química
12.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 172(3): 1254-64, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24158590

RESUMO

The currently used multistep chemical synthesis for making surfaces antimicrobial by attaching to them hydrophobic polycations is replaced herein by an aerosol-assisted plasma deposition procedure. To this end, N,N-hexyl,methyl-PEI (HMPEI) is directly plasma-coated onto a glass surface. The resultant immobilized HMPEI coating has been thoroughly characterized and shown to be robust, bactericidal against Escherichia coli, and virucidal against human influenza virus.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Poliaminas/química , Aerossóis/química , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Vidro/química , Humanos , Poliaminas/síntese química , Polietilenoimina/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23767617

RESUMO

The exponentially decaying acoustic pressure of scattered surface acoustic waves (SAWs) at the contact line of a liquid film pinned to filter paper is shown to sustain a high curvature conic tip with micron-sized modulations whose dimension grows exponentially from the tip. The large negative capillary pressure in the film, necessary for offsetting the large positive acoustic pressure at the contact line, also creates significant negative hydrodynamic pressure and robust wicking action through the paper. An asymptotic analysis of this intricate pressure matching between the quasistatic conic film and bulk drop shows that the necessary SAW power to pump liquid from the filter paper and aerosolize, expressed in terms of the acoustic pressure scaled by the drop capillary pressure, grows exponentially with respect to twice the acoustic decay constant multiplied by the drop length, with a universal preexponential coefficient. Global rapid aerosolization occurs at a SAW power twice as high, beyond which the wicking rate saturates.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/efeitos da radiação , Membranas Artificiais , Modelos Químicos , Reologia/métodos , Som , Água/química , Ação Capilar/efeitos da radiação , Simulação por Computador , Papel , Pressão , Doses de Radiação
14.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 25(2): 326-34, 2013 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23596953

RESUMO

As an important precursor of hydroxyl radical, nitrous acid (HONO) plays a key role in the chemistry of the lower atmosphere. Recent atmospheric measurements and model calculations show strong enhancement for HONO formation during daytime, while they are inconsistent with the known sources in the atmosphere, suggesting that current models are lacking important sources for HONO. In this article, heterogeneous photochemical reactions of nitric acid/nitrate anion and nitrogen oxide on various aerosols were reviewed and their potential contribution to HONO formation was also discussed. It is demonstrated that HONO can be formed by photochemical reaction on surfaces with deposited HNO3, by photocatalytic reaction of NO2 on TiO2 or TiO2-containing materials, and by photochemical reaction of NO2 on soot, humic acids or other photosensitized organic surfaces. Although significant uncertainties still exist in the exact mechanisms and the yield of HONO, these additional sources might explain daytime observations in the atmosphere.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/síntese química , Atmosfera/química , Ácido Nitroso/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Fotoquímica
15.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 47: 329-34, 2013 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23603129

RESUMO

Assisted by the aerosol co-deposition approach, Prussian blue (PB)-TiO2 composite film can be in-situ formed in one step. The architecture of this film is constructed by two layers: PB-TiO2 nano-particles as a ground layer and individual PB micro-cubes as a top layer. Together with the strong electrocatalytic ability from regular PB morphology, TiO2 can denote its high catalysis in H2O2 detection attributed by the extinction of band gap since the combination of PB. Under a low operation potential -0.05V, this sensor exhibits an ultrasensitive ability (1726.8µAmM(-1)cm(-2)), stability and low detection limit (1.5µM) in H2O2 analysis. The application of this composite material is hopeful to extend in complex physiological analysis, and the preparation approach is promising to extend in more composite materials in-situ synthesis.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/isolamento & purificação , Titânio/química , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Catálise , Eletroquímica , Ferrocianetos
16.
J Phys Chem A ; 116(24): 6059-67, 2012 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22510031

RESUMO

The refractive index is an important property affecting aerosol optical properties, which in turn help determine the aerosol direct effect and satellite retrieval results. Here, we investigate the real refractive indices (m(r)) of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from the photooxidation of limonene and α-pinene with different HC/NO(x) ratios. Refractive indices were obtained from polar nephelometer data using parallel and perpendicular polarized 532 nm light combined with measured size distributions, and retrievals were performed using a genetic algorithm and Mie-Lorenz scattering theory. The absolute error associated with the m(r) retrieval is ±0.03, and reliable retrievals are possible for mass concentrations above 5-20 µg/m(3) depending on particle size. The limonene SOA data suggest the most important factor controlling the refractive index is the HC/NO(x) ratio; the refractive index is much less sensitive to the aerosol age or mass concentration. The refractive index ranges from about 1.34 to 1.56 for limonene and from 1.36 to 1.52 for α-pinene, and generally decreases as the HC/NO(x) ratio increases. Especially for limonene, the particle diameter is also inversely related to the HC/NO(x) ratio; the final size mode increases from 220 to 330 nm as the HC/NO(x) ratio decreases from 33 to 6. In an effort to explore the ability of models from the literature to explain the observed refractive indices, a recent limonene oxidation mechanism was combined with SOA partitioning and a structure-property relationship for estimating refractive indices of condensing species. The resulting refractive indices fell in a much narrower range (1.475 ± 0.02) of m(r) than observed experimentally. We hypothesize the experimentally observed high m(r) values are due to oligomerization and the low values to water uptake, small soluble molecules such as glyoxal and other factors, each of which is not included in the oxidation mechanism. Aerosol formation yields were measured over the mass concentration range from 6 to ∼150 µg/m(3), over which they increased steadily, and were higher for high HC/NO(x) ratio experiments.


Assuntos
Cicloexenos/química , Monoterpenos/química , Terpenos/química , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Monoterpenos Bicíclicos , Limoneno , Compostos Orgânicos/síntese química , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Oxirredução , Processos Fotoquímicos
17.
J Phys Chem A ; 116(24): 6180-7, 2012 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22510110

RESUMO

Laboratory studies are described that suggest reactive uptake of glyoxal on particulate containing HNO(3) could contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the upper troposphere (UT). Using a Knudsen cell flow reactor, glyoxal is observed to react on supercooled H(2)O/HNO(3) surfaces to form condensed-phase glyoxylic acid. This product was verified by derivatization and GC-MS analysis. The reactive uptake coefficient, γ, of glyoxal varies only slightly with the pressure of nitric acid, from γ = 0.5 to 3.0 × 10(-3) for nitric acid pressures between 10(-8) and 10(-6) Torr. The data do not show any dependence on temperature (181-201 K) or pressure of glyoxal (10(-7) to 10(-5) Torr). Using the determined reactive uptake kinetics in a simple model shows that glyoxal uptake to supercooled H(2)O/HNO(3) may account for 4-53% of the total organic mass fraction of aerosol in the UT.


Assuntos
Glioxal/química , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Atmosfera/química , Glioxal/síntese química , Cinética , Ácido Nítrico/química , Oxirredução , Água/química
18.
Nano Lett ; 12(4): 1996-2002, 2012 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22429091

RESUMO

Water microdroplets containing graphene oxide and a second solute are shown to spontaneously segregate into sack-cargo nanostructures upon drying. Analytical modeling and molecular dynamics suggest the sacks form when slow-diffusing graphene oxide preferentially accumulates and adsorbs at the receding air-water interface, followed by capillary collapse. Cargo-filled graphene nanosacks can be nanomanufactured by a simple, continuous, scalable process and are promising for many applications where nanoscale materials should be isolated from the environment or biological tissue.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/síntese química , Grafite/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Óxidos/química , Aerossóis/química , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Níquel/química , Níquel/farmacologia , Óxidos/farmacologia , Tamanho da Partícula , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Propriedades de Superfície , Água/química
19.
J Phys Chem A ; 116(24): 5763-8, 2012 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22452294

RESUMO

We investigate the oxidation of methacryloylperoxy nitrate (MPAN) and methacrylicperoxy acid (MPAA) by the hydroxyl radical (OH) theoretically, using both density functional theory [B3LYP] and explicitly correlated coupled cluster theory [CCSD(T)-F12]. These two compounds are produced following the abstraction of a hydrogen atom from methacrolein (MACR) by the OH radical. We use a RRKM master equation analysis to estimate that the oxidation of MPAN leads to formation of hydroxymethyl-methyl-α-lactone (HMML) in high yield. HMML production follows a low potential energy path from both MPAN and MPAA following addition of OH (via elimination of the NO(3) and OH from MPAN and MPAA, respectively). We suggest that the subsequent heterogeneous phase chemistry of HMML may be the route to formation of 2-methylglyceric acid, a common component of organic aerosol produced in the oxidation of methacrolein. Oxidation of acrolein, a photo-oxidation product from 1,3-butadiene, is found to follow a similar route generating hydroxymethyl-α-lactone (HML).


Assuntos
Acroleína/análogos & derivados , Atmosfera/química , Ácidos Glicéricos/síntese química , Lactonas/síntese química , Acroleína/química , Aerossóis/síntese química , Aerossóis/química , Ácidos Glicéricos/química , Radical Hidroxila/química , Lactonas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Oxirredução , Teoria Quântica
20.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 19(3): 435-9, 2012 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22154732

RESUMO

A novel technique for anionic surfactant assisted separation and preconcentration of metal cations was developed using ultrasound induced nebulization at MHz frequency. The ions of copper, zinc, cadmium, and calcium were used as model analytes. Analysis of the aerosol using flame atomic absorption spectrometry showed enrichment factors for the metal ions studied between 5 and 8, when dilute solutions containing sodium dodecylsulfate and the metal ions were nebulized. The mechanism of metal ion enrichment was explained based on surfactant adsorption and the droplet model for aerosol droplets. It was demonstrated that further increase in the enrichment factor could be achieved by increasing the ultrasound frequency, thus producing smaller droplets.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/síntese química , Metais/isolamento & purificação , Metais/efeitos da radiação , Modelos Químicos , Sonicação/métodos , Tensoativos/química , Tensoativos/efeitos da radiação , Aerossóis/efeitos da radiação , Ânions , Simulação por Computador , Ondas de Choque de Alta Energia , Metais/química , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Doses de Radiação
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