Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.732
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0230541, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170844

RESUMO

The development of insecticide-resistance mechanisms in aphids has been associated with inhibitory, pleiotropic fitness costs. Such fitness costs have not yet been examined in the UK's most damaging cereal aphid, Sitobion avenae (grain aphid) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). This study aimed to evaluate the fitness trade-offs of the insecticide-resistant S. avenae clone versus an insecticide-susceptible S. avenae clone. Additionally, the parasitoid, Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), was introduced to examine its potential as a biological control agent. This study found that insecticide-resistant clones had significantly lower population growth and individual relative growth rate. Furthermore, insecticide-resistant clones suffered from a significantly greater rate of parasitisation (mummification) compared to their insecticide-susceptible counterparts. The successfulness of the parasitoid as a biological control agent could prevent the spread of the insecticide-resistant genotype. However, for this to be possible, insecticide spraying regimes need to be moderated, and habitat modification and parasitoid manipulation must be considered.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Himenópteros/fisiologia , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Afídeos/genética , Afídeos/imunologia , Afídeos/parasitologia , Feminino , Genótipo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242159, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206703

RESUMO

Evolutionary interactions between parasitoid wasps and insect hosts have been well studied at the organismal level, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms that insects use to resist wasp parasitism. Here we study the interaction between a braconid wasp (Aphidius ervi) and its pea aphid host (Acyrthosiphon pisum). We first identify variation in resistance to wasp parasitism that can be attributed to aphid genotype. We then use transcriptome sequencing to identify genes in the aphid genome that are differentially expressed at an early stage of parasitism, and we compare these patterns in highly resistant and susceptible aphid host lines. We find that resistant genotypes are upregulating genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and several key innate immune system genes in response to parasitism, but that this response seems to be weaker in susceptible aphid genotypes. Together, our results provide a first look into the complex molecular mechanisms that underlie aphid resistance to wasp parasitism and contribute to a broader understanding of how resistance mechanisms evolve in natural populations.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Afídeos/parasitologia , Transcriptoma , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Imunidade Inata , Medicago sativa , Fenótipo , RNA/análise , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Simbiose , Vicia faba
3.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0241870, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170896

RESUMO

Understanding the factors that influence predator-prey dynamics requires an investigation of oscillations in predator and prey population sizes over time. However, empirical studies are often performed over one or fewer predator generations. This is particularly true for studies addressing the non-consumptive effects of predators on prey. In a previous study that lasted less than one predator generation, we demonstrated that two species of parasitoid wasps additively suppressed aphid populations through a combination of consumptive and non-consumptive effects. However, the non-consumptive effects of one wasp reduced the reproductive success of the other, suggesting that a longer-term experiment may have revealed antagonism between the wasps. The goal of our current study is to evaluate multi-generation consumptive and non-consumptive interactions between pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and the wasps Aphidius ervi and Aphidius colemani. Aphidius ervi is a common natural enemy of pea aphids. Aphidius colemani is a non-consumptive enemy that does not consume pea aphids, but negatively affects pea aphid performance through behavioral disturbance. Large field cages were installed to monitor aphid abundance in response to the presence and absence of both species of wasp over four weeks (two parasitoid generations). We found that the non-consumptive enemy A. colemani initially controlled the pea aphid population, but control in the absence of parasitism was not sustainable over the long term. Aphidius ervi suppressed pea aphids through a combination of consumptive and non-consumptive effects. This suppression was more effective than that of A. colemani, but aphid abundance fluctuated over time. Suppression by A. ervi and A. colemani together was complementary, leading to the most effective and stable control of pea aphids. Therefore, promoting a diverse natural enemy community that contributes to pest control through consumptive and non-consumptive interactions may enhance the stability of herbivore population suppression over time.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Vespas/fisiologia , Animais , Afídeos/parasitologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Reprodução
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1937): 20201349, 2020 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081611

RESUMO

A key focus of evolutionary developmental biology is on how phenotypic diversity is generated. In particular, both plasticity and developmental instability contribute to phenotypic variation among genetically identical individuals, but the interactions between the two phenomena and their general fitness impacts are unclear. We discovered a striking example of asymmetry in pea aphids: the presence of wings on one side and the complete or partial absence of wings on the opposite side. We used this asymmetric phenotype to study the connection between plasticity, developmental instability and fitness. We found that this asymmetric wing development (i) occurred equally on both sides and thus is a developmental instability; (ii) is present in some genetically unique lines but not others, and thus has a genetic basis; and (iii) has intermediate levels of fecundity, and thus does not necessarily have negative fitness consequences. We conclude that this dramatic asymmetry may arise from incomplete switching between developmental targets, linking plasticity and developmental instability. We suspect that what we have observed may be a more widespread phenomenon, occurring across species that routinely produce distinct, alternative phenotypes.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Asas de Animais , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Ervilhas , Fenótipo
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 206: 111302, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080437

RESUMO

In agroecosystems, plant-pest interactions are at the basis of complex food webs, which can be affected by both biotic and abiotic factors. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of the insecticide beta-cypermethrin on interspecific interactions between the specialist aphid Aphis glycines and the generalist aphid Aulacorthum solani on soybean. Aphis glycines showed higher fecundity than A. solani on soybean and the aphids caused unbalanced reduction in population growth on each other. A sublethal concentration of beta-cypermethrin (LC5 for A. glycines) stimulated the reproduction of A. glycines but it did not impact the fecundity of A. solani. However, the LC5 of beta-cypermethrin enhanced the interspecific inhibition of fecundity between the two aphid species. Moreover, the two species showed different spatial distribution on soybean seedlings. Aphis glycines mainly aggregated on the stem of soybean plant while A. solani colonized soybean leaves. The LC5 of beta-cypermethrin drove A. solani migrating from soybean leaves to stems independently of interspecific competition. Aphis glycines facilitated A. solani colonization on soybean plant through impacting host susceptibility, and vice versa. Nevertheless, such facilitated colonization-induced susceptibility could be modulated through exposure to the LC5 of beta-cypermethrin. These findings hinted that the pyrethroid insecticide beta-cypermethrin has the potential to mediate the interspecific competition between specialist and generalist aphids (at the sublethal concentration of LC5), and that it could influence aphid population growth and community structure in soybean crops. This knowledge could contribute to rationalize application of insecticides and to optimize Integrated Pest Management in soybean.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Soja/fisiologia , Animais , Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Piretrinas/farmacologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201493, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873201

RESUMO

Legumes can meet their nitrogen requirements through root nodule symbiosis, which could also trigger plant systemic resistance against pests. The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, a legume pest, can harbour different facultative symbionts (FS) influencing various traits of their hosts. It is therefore worth determining if and how the symbionts of the plant and the aphid modulate their interaction. We used different pea aphid lines without FS or with a single one (Hamiltonella defensa, Regiella insecticola, Serratia symbiotica) to infest Medicago truncatula plants inoculated with Sinorhizobium meliloti (symbiotic nitrogen fixation, SNF) or supplemented with nitrate (non-inoculated, NI). The growth of SNF and NI plants was reduced by aphid infestation, while aphid weight (but not survival) was lowered on SNF compared to NI plants. Aphids strongly affected the plant nitrogen fixation depending on their symbiotic status, suggesting indirect relationships between aphid- and plant-associated microbes. Finally, all aphid lines triggered expression of Pathogenesis-Related Protein 1 (PR1) and Proteinase Inhibitor (PI), respective markers for salicylic and jasmonic pathways, in SNF plants, compared to only PR1 in NI plants. We demonstrate that the plant symbiotic status influences plant-aphid interactions while that of the aphid can modulate the amplitude of the plant's defence response.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Medicago truncatula/fisiologia , Fixação de Nitrogênio/fisiologia , Animais , Nitratos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ácido Salicílico , Serratia , Simbiose
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0228367, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976485

RESUMO

The Zigzag ladybird beetle, Cheilomenes sexmaculata (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is a biological control agent that feeds on a variety of aphid species. Life table and predation data of C. sexmaculata were collected under laboratory conditions at 25±2°C, 60±5% RH and L14: D10 h in connection with feeding on four different aphid species; Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach), Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Aphis nerii (Boyer de Fonscolombe) and Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). Larval development of C. sexmaculata was long when fed on M. persicae (12.18 days) and shorter on D. noxia (10.64 days). The male's lifespan was longer on M. persicae (26.70 days) and shorter on L. erysimi (23.67 days). Fecundity was maximum when the beetle was fed D. noxia (316.8 eggs/female) and minimum on M. persicae (199.1 eggs/female). Net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase were highest on D. noxia with values of 158.4 (offspring individual-1), 0.22 d-1, and 1.24 d-1, respectively whereas the respective parameters were lowest on L. erysimi (99.5 offspring individual-1, 0.19 d-1, and 1.20 d-1, respectively). However, the mean of the generation (T) was shorter on A. nerii (22.48 d-1) and longer on M. persicae (24.68 d-1). Based on life table parameters obtained under laboratory conditions, the most appropriate host of C. sexmaculata was D. noxia. This study should help us to improve mass rearing and use of C. sexmaculata in the biological control of aphids on field and horticultural crops.


Assuntos
Afídeos/parasitologia , Besouros/fisiologia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Larva , Tábuas de Vida , Longevidade/fisiologia , Masculino , Paquistão
8.
J Insect Sci ; 20(5)2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997745

RESUMO

About 10% of aphid species show host alternation. These aphids migrate between primary and secondary host plant species in spring and autumn. Host alternation has not been observed in subfamily Lachninae, although it has been suggested on the basis of circumstantial evidence that Stomaphis japonica (Takahashi) may alternate its host between Quercus serrata (Murray) and Quercus acutissima (Carruth). However, a molecular phylogenetic study has indicated that the Stomaphis individuals feeding on these two plant species belong to two different lineages and aphids feeding on Q. acutissima and Pinus densiflora (Sieb. & Zucc.) belong to the same lineage. Here, we examined host alternation in Stomaphis species by comparing molecular phylogenetic identities, morphological features, and life cycles. The molecular analysis and morphological examination showed that aphids feeding on Q. acutissima were the same as those feeding on P. densiflora, whereas aphids feeding on Q. serrata were different from those feeding on Q. acutissima or on P. densiflora. Furthermore, winged aphids were observed on both Q. acutissima and P. densiflora in autumn, but we did not observe winged aphids on Q. serrata. These results indicate that Stomaphis (Walker) individuals feeding on Q. serrata and Q. acutissima belong to two species, one that feeds year-round on Q. serrata, and another, heteroecious species that feeds on P. densiflora as a primary host and on Q. acutissima as a secondary host. This study documents host alternation in subfamily Lachninae for the first time and discusses the acquisition of host alternation by Stomaphis from evolutionary and ecological perspectives.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Migração Animal , Animais , Afídeos/classificação , Afídeos/genética , Afídeos/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , DNA Mitocondrial , Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Plantas , Quercus , Estações do Ano
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10583, 2020 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601289

RESUMO

Productivity of Indian mustard (B. juncea), a major oil yielding crop in rapeseed-mustard group is heavily inflicted by mustard aphid, L. erysimi. Mustard aphid, a specialist aphid species on rapeseed-mustard crops, rapidly multiplies and colonizes the plants leading to successful infestation. In contrary, legume specific cowpea aphid, A. craccivora when released on B. juncea plants fails to build up population and thus remains unsuccessful in infestation. In the present study, differential host response of B. juncea to the two aphid species, one being successful insect-pest and the other being unsuccessful on it has been studied based on transcriptome analysis. Differential feeding efficiency of the two aphid species on mustard plants was evident from the amount of secreted honeydews. Leaf-transcriptomes of healthy and infested plants, treated with the two aphid species, were generated by RNA sequencing on Illumina platform and de novo assembly of the quality reads. A comparative assessment of the differentially expressed genes due to treatments revealed a large extent of overlaps as well as distinctness with respect to the set of genes and their direction of regulation. With respect to host-genes related to transcription factors, oxidative homeostasis, defense hormones and secondary metabolites, L. erysimi led to either suppression or limited activation of the transcript levels compared to A. craccivora. Further, a comprehensive view of the DEGs suggested more potential of successful insect-pests towards transcriptional reprogramming of the host. qRT-PCR based validation of randomly selected up- and down-regulated transcripts authenticated the transcriptome data.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Mostardeira/genética , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Animais , Afídeos/patogenicidade , Afídeos/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Inseticidas , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
10.
Planta ; 252(1): 14, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621008

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest that known resistant sorghum genotypes compensate for feeding pressure of sugarcane aphid by maintaining/increasing photosynthetic capacity and/or have higher chlorophyll content than susceptible genotypes. Knowledge of the physiological response of sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), to sugarcane aphid (SCA), Melanaphis sacchari (Zehnter) feeding will provide baseline information on defense responses and resistance mechanisms. This study documented the impact of SCA feeding on seven sorghum genotypes by measuring chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and carbon assimilation for a 14-d post-infestation evaluation. Carbon assimilation (A/Ci) curves were recorded at 3, 6, 9, and 15 d after aphid infestation to describe the pattern of physiological response of resistant and susceptible sorghums over time. Chlorophyll loss from resistant genotypes was significantly lower (≤ 10% loss) than from susceptible cultivars. Most resistant genotypes compensated for aphid feeding by either increasing or maintaining photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance. Carbon assimilation curves over time showed that infested resistant plants had delayed photosynthetic decreases, whereas susceptible plants rapidly lost photosynthetic capacity. This research also investigated the influence of aphid density (0, 50, 100, and 200 nymphs/plant) on the photosynthetic rates of 28-d-old resistant and susceptible sorghums measured at 72-h post-infestation. Although there were no visual symptoms in susceptible sorghums, photosynthetic rates were impaired when infested with ≥ 100 SCA. In contrast, resistant plants were able to compensate for SCA feeding. Differences in the physiological responses of susceptible versus resistant sorghums indicate that resistant sorghum plants can tolerate some physiological impacts of SCA feeding and maintain photosynthetic integrity.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Sorghum/fisiologia , Animais , Afídeos/patogenicidade , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Genótipo , Fotossíntese , Densidade Demográfica , Sorghum/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234137, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497152

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of rotenone stress on Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations in different habitats of Northeast China. The changes in kinase expression activity of endogenous substances (proteins, total sugars, trehalose, cholesterol, and free amino acids), detoxifying enzymes (cytochrome P450 and glutathione S-transferase), and metabolic enzymes (proteases and phosphofructokinases) in specimens from three populations were compared before and after stress with rotenone at median lethal concentration (LC50) and their response mechanisms were analyzed. Following a 24 h treatment with rotenone, the average LC50 rotenone values in A. glycines specimens from field populations A and B, and a laboratory population were 4.39, 4.61, and 4.03 mg/L, respectively. The degree of changes in the kinase expression activity of endogenous substances also differed, which indicated a difference in the response of A. glycines specimens from varying habitats to LC50 rotenone stress. The content of endogenous substances, detoxifying enzymes, and metabolic enzymes, except for that of free amino acids, changed significantly in all populations treated with rotenone at LC50 compared with that in the control (P < 0.05). The decrease in protein and trehalose content, and the obstruction of cholesterol transportation owing to decreased feeding in stressed individuals were the causes of A. glycines death after rotenone treatment. Aphis glycines resistance to rotenone may be related to cytochrome P450 expression.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Afídeos/fisiologia , Rotenona/farmacologia , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Afídeos/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Trealose/metabolismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(27): 7132-7142, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520552

RESUMO

In view of the common use of the herb basil (Ocimum basilicum) in nutrition and in phytomedicine, the contents of its leaves are of obvious interest. In extracts of fresh yellowish-green basil leaves, phyllobilins (PBs), which are bilin-type catabolites of chlorophyll (Chl), were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Two such PBs, provisionally named Ob-nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolite (NCC)-40 and Ob-YCC-45, exhibited previously unknown structures that were delineated by a thorough spectroscopic characterization. When basil leaves were infested with aphids or thrips or underwent fungal infections, areas with chlorosis were observed. HPLC analyses of the infested parts of leaves compared to those of the healthy parts showed a significant accumulation of PBs in the infested areas, demonstrating that the senescence-associated pheophorbide a oxygenase/phyllobilin (PAO/PB) pathway is activated by herbivore feeding and fungal infection.


Assuntos
Clorofila/metabolismo , Ocimum basilicum/metabolismo , Ocimum basilicum/parasitologia , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Senescência Celular , Clorofila/química , Comportamento Alimentar , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Ocimum basilicum/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Tisanópteros/fisiologia
13.
Chemosphere ; 256: 126986, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445995

RESUMO

Systemic neurotoxic insecticides are widely used to control aphid pests worldwide and their potential non-target effects on aphid predators are often unknown. Behavioral responses linked to biological control services are crucial when assessing the compatibility of chemicals with biocontrol organisms. This is particularly relevant for insecticides at low and sublethal concentrations. We studied the acute toxicity and the sublethal effect on the voracity of the generalist predator Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) caused by the exposure to three systemic insecticides routinely used against aphids. The tested insecticide concentrations were the Lethal Concentration 50% (LC50), 20% (LC20) and 1% (LC1) estimated for the target pest Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a companion study. The survival and the voracity differed among the tested chemicals and concentrations, but only thiamethoxam at LC50 caused a significant predator mortality, and individuals that survived showed a reduced predation rate. The predators showed a density independent functional response after the exposure to most of the insecticide-concentration combinations, while an inverse density dependence of the prey consumption rate was observed for coccinellids exposed to sulfoxaflor and thiamethoxam at their lowest tested concentration. The estimated parameters, i.e., the attack rate and the prey handling time, were affected at higher concentrations by both imidacloprid and sulfoxaflor. These findings stress the importance of carefully evaluating side effects of insecticides at very low concentrations on beneficial arthropods in the risk assessment schemes for sustainable pest control programmes.


Assuntos
Afídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Besouros/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana , Comportamento Predatório/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas , Compostos de Enxofre , Tiametoxam
14.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233077, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442185

RESUMO

The molecular bases of aphid virulence to aphid crop plant resistance genes are poorly understood. The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia, (Kurdjumov), and the greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), are global pest of cereal crops. Each species damages barley, oat, rye and wheat, but S. graminum includes fescue, maize, rice and sorghum in its host range. This study was conducted to compare and contrast the transcriptomes of S. graminum biotype I and D. noxia biotype 1 when each ingested phloem from leaves of varieties of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L., containing no aphid resistance (Dn0), resistance to D. noxia biotype 1 (Dn4), or resistance to both D. noxia biotype 1 and S. graminum biotype I (Dn7, wheat genotype 94M370). Gene ontology enrichments, k-means analysis and KEGG pathway analysis indicated that 94M370 plants containing the Dn7 D. noxia resistance gene from rye had stronger effects on the global transcriptional profiles of S. graminum and D. noxia relative to those fed Dn4 plants. S. graminum responds to ingestion of phloem sap from 94M370 plants by expression of unigenes coding for proteins involved in DNA and RNA repair, and delayed tissue and structural development. In contrast, D. noxia displays a completely different transcriptome after ingesting phloem sap from Dn4 or 94M370 plants, consisting of unigenes involved primarily in detoxification, nutrient acquisition and structural development. These variations in transcriptional responses of D. noxia and S. graminum suggest that the underlying evolutionary mechanism(s) of virulence in these aphids are likely species specific, even in cases of cross resistance.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Resistência à Doença , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Hordeum/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Ração Animal , Animais , Afídeos/classificação , Afídeos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Herbivoria , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Folhas de Planta/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
Virology ; 546: 98-108, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452421

RESUMO

Two members of the genus Capulavirus (Geminiviridae) are transmitted by aphids including Alfalfa leaf curl virus (ALCV) transmitted by Aphis craccivora. The capulavirus Euphorbia caput-medusae latent virus was shown here to be transmitted also by A. craccivora, using the population EuphorbiaSA. ALCV was transmissible by several A. craccivora populations including Robinia, but not the EuphorbiaSA population, reflecting a high transmission specificity. Typical of the circulative-persistent mode of transmission, ALCV persists through insect molts. ALCV accumulation and localization were analyzed in whole insects, midguts, hemolymphs, and heads of aphids from vector and non-vector populations of A. craccivora and from the non-vector species Acyrthosiphon pisum. Vector and non-vector populations could be distinguished by contrasted virus accumulations and midgut intracellular localization consistent with a gut barrier to the transmission of ALCV in A. pisum and a primary salivary gland barrier in A. craccivora.


Assuntos
Afídeos/virologia , Geminiviridae/fisiologia , Insetos Vetores/virologia , Medicago sativa/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Geminiviridae/classificação , Geminiviridae/genética , Geminiviridae/isolamento & purificação , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8209, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427843

RESUMO

Ecological intensification of cropping systems aims at restoring multi-functionality while supporting current productivity levels. Intercropping is a form of ecological intensification involving ecological processes beneficial to farmers that do not take place in monocultures. Thus, it represents a practical approach to decrease the use of synthetic inputs such as insecticides in cultivated systems. Whereas insecticide reduction via intercropping-facilitated suppression of aphids is reported in literature, the majority of published studies focussed on herbaceous crops. Thus, the effect of intercropping on aphid populations of cultivated trees remains largely unaddressed. In this study we hypothesized that intercropping a specific companion plant within perennial crops would divert ant attendance from an aphid attacking the crop to another aphid feeding on the newly introduced plant, reducing aphid damage on the crop. We tested our hypothesis in the system of apple (Malus domestica Borkhausen), the rosy apple aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea Passerini) and the black garden ant (Lasius niger L.). Bean plants (Vicia faba) with the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae Scopoli) were intercropped within apple trees inoculated with D. plantaginea. We measured ant attendance, aphid development and survival as well as honeydew composition on both plant species through semi-field and field experiments. The majority of ants chose to attend A. fabae over D. plantaginea in the semi-field experiment with potted plants. In the orchard, a larger majority of scouts were scored on A. fabae over D. plantaginea. A higher number of D. plantaginea colonies remained active in the apple control, whilst they were almost eradicated by intercropping. Although chemical analyses of honeydew disclosed differences in the carbohydrate and amino acid profiles between aphid species, the difference in honeydew composition did not explain the preference for A. fabae. Ants did not discriminate between the two honeydew mimics both in laboratory and field bioassays. Our results showed the potential of intercropping apple trees with beans as a method to reduce ant attendance and thus colony survival. We propose that intercropping represents a bottom-up approach towards ecological intensification of perennial crops. Together with other ecosystem-based measures such as habitat management, intercropping should be considered when planning ecosystem redesign to increase biological control of pests.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Afídeos/fisiologia , Malus/parasitologia , Vicia faba/parasitologia , Animais
17.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 339, 2020 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizaphis graminum is one of the most important and devastating cereal aphids worldwide, and its feeding can cause chlorosis and necrosis in wheat. However, little information is available on the wheat defence responses triggered by S. graminum feeding at the molecular level. RESULTS: Here, we collected and analysed transcriptome sequencing data from leaf tissues of wheat infested with S. graminum at 2, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hpi (hours post infestation). A total of 44,835 genes were either up- or downregulated and differed significantly in response to aphid feeding. The expression levels of a number of genes (9761 genes) were significantly altered within 2 hpi and continued to change during the entire 48 h experiment. Gene Ontology analysis showed that the downregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in photosynthesis and light harvesting, and the total chlorophyll content in wheat leaves was also significantly reduced after S. graminum infestation at 24 and 48 hpi. However, a number of related genes of the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defence signalling pathway and MAPK-WRKY pathway were significantly upregulated at early feeding time points (2 and 6 hpi). In addition, the gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, were rapidly increased at 2, 6 and 12 hpi. DAB staining results showed that S. graminum feeding induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation at the feeding sites at 2 hpi, and increased H2O2 production was detected with the increases in aphid feeding time. Pretreatment with diphenylene iodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, repressed the H2O2 accumulation and expression levels of SA-associated defence genes in wheat. CONCLUSIONS: Our transcriptomic analysis revealed that defence-related pathways and oxidative stress in wheat were rapidly induced within hours after the initiation of aphid feeding. Additionally, NADPH oxidase plays an important role in aphid-induced defence responses and H2O2 accumulation in wheat. These results provide valuable insight into the dynamic transcriptomic responses of wheat leaves to phytotoxic aphid feeding and the molecular mechanisms of aphid-plant interactions.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Imunidade Vegetal/genética , Triticum/imunologia , Animais , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Clorofila/genética , Clorofila/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/imunologia , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Folhas de Planta/imunologia , Folhas de Planta/parasitologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Triticum/genética , Triticum/parasitologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231005, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32243466

RESUMO

Silicon (Si) supplementation is well-known for enhancing plant resistance to insect pests, however, only recently studies revealed that Si accumulation in the plant not only confers a mechanical barrier to insect feeding, but also primes jasmonic acid-dependent defenses. Here, we examined whether Si supplementation alters wheat volatile emissions that influence the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) olfactory preference and the aphid parasitoid Lysiphlebus testaceipes. Even though Si accumulation in wheat did not impact aphid performance, we found that R. padi preferred constitutive volatiles from-Si wheat over those emitted by +Si wheat plants. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, the parasitoid was attracted to volatiles from +Si uninfested wheat, but not to those from-Si uninfested wheat. +Si and-Si aphid-infested plants released equally attractive blends to the aphid parasitoid; however, wasps were unable to distinguish +Si uninfested plant odors from those of aphid-infested treatments. GC-MS analyses revealed that +Si uninfested wheat plants emitted increased amounts of a single compound, geranyl acetone, compared to -Si uninfested wheat, but similar to those emitted by aphid-infested treatments. By contrast, Si supplementation in wheat did not alter composition of aphid-induced plant volatiles. Our results show that changes in wheat volatile blend induced by Si accumulation mediate the non-preference behavior of the bird cherry-oat aphid and the attraction of its parasitoid L. testaceipes. Conversely to the literature, Si supplementation by itself seems to work as an elicitor of induced defenses in wheat, and not as a priming agent.


Assuntos
Afídeos , Silício/farmacologia , Triticum/parasitologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Vespas , Animais , Afídeos/fisiologia , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Silício/metabolismo , Olfato , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/metabolismo
19.
J Insect Physiol ; 123: 104054, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275907

RESUMO

Sterols are essential membrane components and are critical for many physiological processes in all eukaryotes. Insects and other arthropods are sterol auxotrophs that typically rely on a dietary source of sterols. Herbivorous insects generally obtain sterols from plants and then metabolize them into cholesterol, the dominant sterol in most insects. However, there is significant variation in phytosterol structure, and not all phytosterols are equally suitable for insects. In the current study, we used seven Arabidopsis thaliana lines that display altered sterol profiles due to mutations in the sterol biosynthetic pathway or to overexpression of key enzymes of the pathway, and investigated how plant sterol profiles affected green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) growth and reproduction. We also characterized the sterol profile of aphids reared on these Arabidopsis genotypes. Aphids on two mutant lines (14R/fk and ste1-1) that accumulated biosynthetic sterol intermediates (Δ8,14-sterols, and Δ7-sterols, respectively) all showed significantly reduced growth and reproduction. Aphids on SMT2COSUP plants (which have decreased ß-sitosterol but increased campesterol) also displayed significantly reduced growth and reproduction. However, aphids on SMT2OE plants (which have increased ß-sitosterol but decreased campesterol) performed similarly to aphids on wild-type plants. Finally, Arabidopsis plants that had an overproduction of sterols (CD-HMGROE) or decreased sterol esters (psat1-2) had no impact on aphid performance. Two noteworthy results come from the aphid sterol profile study. First, ß-sitosterol, cholesterol and stigmasterol were recovered in all aphids. Second, we did not detect Δ8,14-sterols in aphids reared on 14R/fk plants. We discuss the implications of our findings, including how aphid sterol content does not appear to reflect plant leaf sterol profiles. We also discuss the potential of modifying plant sterol profiles to control insect herbivore pests, including aphids.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/química , Colesterol/análogos & derivados , Fitosteróis/metabolismo , Sitosteroides/metabolismo , Animais , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arabidopsis/genética , Colesterol/química , Colesterol/metabolismo , Cadeia Alimentar , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Fitosteróis/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Sitosteroides/química
20.
Bull Entomol Res ; 110(5): 597-610, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252840

RESUMO

The cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae L. (Hem: Aphididae), is one of the most serious pests of canola worldwide. In this research, the effects of Pseudomonas putida, salicylic acid (SA), and integrated application of both inducers were studied on the resistance of canola to B. brassicae. In free-choice situation, the number of B. brassicae attracted on canola plants under treatments containing P. putida and SA was significantly lower compared to control plants. In the life table study, pre-adult survival, longevity, reproductive period, and fecundity of this aphid were lowest on plants treated with P. putida + SA. The net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of population increase (r), and finite rate of increase (λ) of B. brassicae decreased significantly in the following order: control (47.19 offspring, 0.293 and 1.340 day-1), P. putida (16.7 offspring, 0.238 and 1.269 day-1), SA (6.37 offspring, 0.163 and 1.178 day-1), and P. putida + SA (3.24 offspring, 0.112 and 1.119 day-1). Moreover, the beneficial effect of the integrated application of P. putida and SA on plant growth parameters was significantly evident in our study. The highest values of glucosinolates, total phenol, and flavonoids were recorded in P. putida + SA treatment. We concluded that canola plants treated with P. putida + SA are more resistant to the cabbage aphid. These findings demonstrated that SA integrated with P. putida on canola plants act effectively for reducing the population of B. brassicae and can be used in integrated management programs of this pest.


Assuntos
Afídeos/fisiologia , Brassica napus/fisiologia , Pseudomonas putida/fisiologia , Ácido Salicílico , Animais , Antibiose , Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica napus/microbiologia , Feminino , Fertilidade
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA