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4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(40): 1464-1468, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031360

RESUMO

Wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) transmission is ongoing only in Afghanistan and Pakistan (1). Following a decline in case numbers during 2013-2016, the number of cases in Afghanistan has increased each year during 2017-2020. This report describes polio eradication activities and progress toward polio eradication in Afghanistan during January 2019-July 2020 and updates previous reports (2,3). Since April 2018, insurgent groups have imposed bans on house-to-house vaccination. In September 2019, vaccination campaigns in areas under insurgency control were restarted only at health facilities. In addition, during March-June 2020, all campaigns were paused because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The number of WPV1 cases reported in Afghanistan increased from 21 in 2018 to 29 in 2019. During January-July 2020, 41 WPV1 cases were reported as of August 29, 2020 (compared with 15 during January-July 2019); in addition, 69 cases of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2), and one case of ambiguous vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (aVDPV2) (isolates with no evidence of person-to-person transmission or from persons with no known immunodeficiency) were detected. Dialogue with insurgency leaders through nongovernmental and international organizations is ongoing in an effort to recommence house-to-house campaigns, which are essential to stopping WPV1 transmission in Afghanistan. To increase community demand for polio vaccination, additional community health needs should be addressed, and polio vaccination should be integrated with humanitarian services.


Assuntos
Erradicação de Doenças , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Programas de Imunização , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliovirus/isolamento & purificação , Vacina Antipólio Oral/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Zootaxa ; 4763(1): zootaxa.4763.1.6, 2020 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056880

RESUMO

The peculiar lebiine genus Disciferella gen. n. is described as a representative of the subtribe Dromiusina Bonelli, 1810. The genus is very distinct habitually and could be easily recognized among other lebiines already by its appearance. In combination of its distinctive features, it is most similar to the enigmatic monotypic genus Brachynopterus, but distinguished from it by several sufficient characters, including the shape of the gonocoxite which is very characteristic (elongate and slightly arcuate) in the latter genus and typical for Dromiusina (short and wide) in Disciferella gen. n. The new genus includes two newly described species: D. kabakovi sp. n. (type species) from Afghanistan and Pakistan, and D. psammophila sp. n. from south-eastern Iran. The very characteristic habitus of the two new species with their wide discoidal elytra is similar to that of some species of the genera Discoptera Semenov, 1889 and Graphipterus Latreille, 1802 living in sandy habitats. This resemblance suggests a similar specialized mode of life, most likely in sandy deserts and dunes. The systematic position of the new genus is discussed.


Assuntos
Besouros , Afeganistão , Animais , Irã (Geográfico) , Paquistão
6.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240031, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035249

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This observational study analyzed the performance of the National TB Control Program (NTP) in Afghanistan in household contact screening from 2011 to 2018 and its use as an entry point for isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), as well as the IPT completion rates for children under age five. METHODS: From 2011 to 2018, the Afghanistan NTP released guidelines for passive and active contact screening of bacteriologically confirmed TB cases. Health workers were trained in contact screening. Presumptive TB cases gave sputum for AFB smear microscopy; other diagnostics were used if patients could not produce sputum. Children under five (excluding those with active TB) were treated for latent TB infection. We calculated the yield and the number needed to screen and number needed to test to find a case of TB, as well as the rates of IPT initiation and completion. RESULTS: From 2011 to 2018, 142,797 bacteriologically confirmed TB cases were diagnosed in Afghanistan. The number of household members eligible for screening was estimated to be 856,782, of whom 586,292 (81%) were screened for TB and 117,643 (20.1%) were found to be presumptive TB cases. Among the cases screened, 10,896 TB cases (all forms) were diagnosed (1.85%, 95% CI 1.82-1.89), 54.4% in females. The number needed to screen to diagnose a single case of TB (all forms) was 53.8; the number needed to test was 10.7. Out of all children under five, 101,084 (85.9%) were initiated on IPT, and 69,273 (68.5%) completed treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Program performance in contact screening in Afghanistan is high, at 81%, and the yield of TB is also high-close to 10 times higher than the national TB incidence rate. IPT initiation and completion rates are also high as compared to those of many other countries but need further improvement, especially for completion.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle , Afeganistão , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
7.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(3): 67-70, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969006

RESUMO

Over the course of nearly 19 years of conflict, Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) guidelines and their implementation have evolved to incorporate the latest advances in trauma research, casualty care, and transport, playing a large role in generating the lowest incidence of preventable deaths in the history of modern warfare. During the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, the adoption and implementation of TCCC principles by conventional forces have been extrapolated to have been responsible for saving the lives of more than 1,000 US Servicemembers. As the intensity and nature of the military conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq change, and a growing potential for a near peer conflict rises, it remains important that the lessons of TCCC continue to be instilled in our formations in garrison, before deployment, and while in theater. This article reviews the use of TCCC principles by an assault helicopter battalion, in combination with a variety of other factors, in the successful management of a mass casualty event during Operation Freedom's Sentinel 2019 in Afghanistan.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Liberdade , Medicina Militar , Afeganistão , Iraque , Ferimentos e Lesões
8.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(3): 76-80, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The United States (US) military utilizes combat wound medication packs (CWMP) to provide analgesia and wound prophylaxis in casualties who are still able to fight. We compared characteristics of combat casualties receiving CWMP to those not receiving CWMP. We also describe the proportions of casualties with injury patterns consistent with Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) guideline indications for CWMP use who received this intervention. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of Department of a Defense Trauma Registry (DODTR) dataset of US military personnel from January 2007 to August 2016. We searched for all subjects with documented use of at least one medication from the CWMP (acetaminophen, meloxicam, moxifloxacin). RESULTS: Within our dataset, 11,665 casualties were US military Servicemembers. Overall, <1% (84) of our study population received the CWMP. The median age and mechanism of injuries were similar between CWMP nonrecipients versus recipients. Median composite injury scores were higher for nonrecipients than recipients (6 versus 4, P < .001). Proportions of casualties with injury patterns meeting TCCC guideline CWMP indications who received this intervention were low: gunshot wound, <1% (14 of 1805), tourniquet applied, <1% (11 of 1912), major amputation, <1% (5 of 803), and open fracture, <1% (10 of 2425). Based on serious injuries by body region, we had similar findings for the thorax (<1%; 3 of 1122), abdomen (<1%; 1 of 736), and extremities (<1%; 11 of 2699). CONCLUSIONS: Subjects receiving the CWMP were less severely injured compared to those who did not receive this intervention. The CWMP had very infrequent use among those casualties with injury patterns meeting indications specified in the TCCC Guidelines for use of this intervention.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Medicina Militar , Militares , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Humanos , Iraque/epidemiologia , Guerra do Iraque 2003-2011 , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(11): e657-e664, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956236

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the discrepancy among and within low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) regarding PPE availability, use, and satisfaction. METHODS: The study population consisted of healthcare workers from LMICs who partook in the questionnaire survey from March 1, 2020, until April 15, 2020. RESULTS: In the bivariate analysis, gender (P = 0.05), HCWs (P < 0.01), and level of care (P < 0.01) were associated with the public or private sector (P < 0.05). Using multivariate analysis, PPE factors were associated with the health sector (p < 0.05). The multivariate logistic regression model determined a Pearson's χ value of 706.736 (df = 726, P = -0.689) and a c-statistic of 0.592, indicating a good model. CONCLUSION: In LMICs, huge discrepancies are present in PPE provision to HCWs, especially among the public healthcare sectors. Efforts at national and international levels ought to be addressed to protect frontline HCWs at higher risk of contracting COVID-19.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Países em Desenvolvimento , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão , Idoso , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Padrões de Prática Médica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 41(315): 28-30, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951693

RESUMO

The family provides a holding and benevolent environment, allowing the subject to construct himself psychically. Beyond the family, the group of belonging allows an individual to feel that he or she exists. During migration, belonging can be broken: loss of country, language, family, social status, etc. In France, a reception programme for migrants in families helps them to integrate and rebuild their lives. The initial family dynamic is modified. Some important points need to be taken into account during this reception: motivations, consequences on family dynamics and psychological reshuffling.


Assuntos
Relações Familiares/psicologia , Migrantes/psicologia , Afeganistão/etnologia , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4503, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32908145

RESUMO

Most humans believe in a god, but many do not. Differences in belief have profound societal impacts. Anthropological accounts implicate bottom-up perceptual processes in shaping religious belief, suggesting that individual differences in these processes may help explain variation in belief. Here, in findings replicated across socio-religiously disparate samples studied in the U.S. and Afghanistan, implicit learning of patterns/order within visuospatial sequences (IL-pat) in a strongly bottom-up paradigm predict 1) stronger belief in an intervening/ordering god, and 2) increased strength-of-belief from childhood to adulthood, controlling for explicit learning and parental belief. Consistent with research implicating IL-pat as a basis of intuition, and intuition as a basis of belief, mediation models support a hypothesized effect pathway whereby IL-pat leads to intuitions of order which, in turn, lead to belief in ordering gods. The universality and variability of human IL-pat may thus contribute to the global presence and variability of religious belief.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Intuição/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Religião e Psicologia , Religião , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
12.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(10): 1053-1060, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852513

RESUMO

Importance: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has highlighted the need to expand telemedicine solutions. Objective: To beta test a secure teleophthalmology mobile app at military treatment facilities in Afghanistan. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective case series included 16 military treatment facilities at diverse roles of care including forward operating bases in Afghanistan and 1 location outside of Afghanistan. Thirty point-of-care medics and medical professionals were included from September to November 2019. Interventions: Users placed teleophthalmology consults on their mobile phone using the mobile eye care app, and an expeditionary ophthalmologist stationed at a military hospital in Afghanistan responded. Users graded the mobile app using a rating scale from 1 to 5, with 1 being very dissatisfied and 5 being very satisfied. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean initial response time, agreement between the teleophthalmology diagnosis and final diagnosis, treatment and management following recommendations outlined in the Joint Trauma System clinical practice guidelines, prevention of the need for aeromedical evacuation, user satisfaction, and security and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act compliance of consult. Results: There were 28 consults placed over 6 weeks by 18 different users that were received by the expeditionary ophthalmologist. The mean (SD) patient age was 30.3 (9.8) years. Most patients were male (26 [93%]) and active duty US military (22 [78%]). The mean initial response time was 3 minutes 58 seconds (95% CI, 2 minutes 30 seconds to 5 minutes 26 seconds). There was agreement between the teleophthalmology diagnosis and final diagnosis in 24 consults (86%; 95% CI, 72%-100%). The treatment and management followed recommendations outlined in the Joint Trauma System Clinical Practice Guidelines for Eye Trauma: Initial Care in 28 consults (100%). Teleophthalmology consultation prevented the need for aeromedical evacuation in 4 consults (14%; 95% CI, 0.7%-28%). The patient returned to duty in 15 consults (54%; 95% CI, 34%-73%). Median overall satisfaction was 5 (minimum, 3; maximum, 5). All 28 consults (100%) were secure and compliant with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. Conclusions and Relevance: While only a limited number of consults were evaluated, this study suggests that teleophthalmology mobile phone apps may improve and extend ophthalmic care in combat zones.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Medicina Militar , Aplicativos Móveis , Oftalmologia , Telemedicina , Adulto , Afeganistão , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1367-1369, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32861265

RESUMO

Polio is a deadly viral disease that has been paralyzing many children in Afghanistan. Despite fundamental efforts, primarily vaccination, to reduce the number of cases in Afghanistan, there are still many children who are deprived of the vaccine every year. Afghanistan is one of the two remaining countries endemic for polio, and the country has undergone various challenges that have hampered the eradication of this disease. The underlying challenges include inaccessibility of unsecured areas, illiteracy, refusal, and, most recently, COVID-19. The country is in the midst of a battle against COVID-19, and polio has almost entirely been neglected. Sadly, polio cases are increasing in the country, particularly in polio-free provinces. After an initial lockdown, many businesses have been allowed to resume, but the mass polio vaccination campaign has not restarted. New cases of polio will surge if endemic regions remain unvaccinated or inaccessible. To curb the further spread of polio, Afghanistan needs to resume nationwide house-to-house vaccination as restrictions due to COVID-19 are loosened.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/epidemiologia , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/administração & dosagem , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Pré-Escolar , Coinfecção , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Doenças Endêmicas/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Alfabetização/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Poliomielite/economia , Poliomielite/imunologia , Poliovirus/patogenicidade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/ética , Terrorismo/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237787, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32822375

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Afghanistan is affected by one of the world's longest protracted armed conflicts, frequent natural disasters, disease outbreaks and large population movements and it suffers from a high burden of tuberculosis (TB), including rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB). The study shows Médecins Sans Frontières' experiences with care for patients with RR-TB in Kandahar Province. We describe the uptake of RR-TB treatment, how World Health Organisation criteria for the choice between the short and an individualized regimen were implemented, and treatment outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort analysis of routinely collected data from RR-TB patients enrolled in care from 2016 until 2019. Descriptive analysis was performed to present characteristics of patients and treatment outcomes. Multivariable Cox analysis was performed to identify risk factors for having an unfavourable treatment outcome. RESULTS: Out of 146 enrolled RR-TB patients, 112 (76.7%) started treatment: 41 (36.6%) and 71 (63.4%) with the short and individualized treatment regimen, respectively. Of 82 with results for fluoroquinolone susceptibility, 39 (47.6%) had fluoroquinolone-resistant TB. Seven patients with initially fluoroquinolone-resistant TB and three pregnant women started the short regimen and 18 patients eligible for the short regimen started the injectable-free individualized regimen. Overall, six-month smear and culture conversion were 98.7% and 97.1%, respectively; treatment success was 70.1%. Known initial fluoroquinolone resistance (aHR 3.77, 95%CI:1.53-9.27) but not choice of regimen predicted having an unfavourable outcome. CONCLUSION: Even though criteria for the choice of treatment regimen were not applied strictly, we have achieved acceptable outcomes in this cohort. To expand RR-TB care, treatment regimens should fit provision at primary health care level and take patient preferences into account.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236955, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood vaccination plays a key role in reducing morbidity and mortality from vaccine-preventable diseases. Numerous studies have assessed the influence of demographic and socioeconomic factors on child immunization around the world. There are few such studies in Afghanistan, however. Therefore, this study aimed to identify factors influencing vaccination status among children age 12-23 months in Afghanistan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nationally representative data from the 2015 Afghanistan Demographic and Health Survey were used for this study. A sample of 5,708 children age 12-23 months with a vaccine card and immunization history was analyzed. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify significant relationships between cofactors and vaccination status. RESULTS: In the study, 51% the subjects were boys, 48% were born at home, and 76% were residents of rural areas. Background characteristics positively associated with vaccination status included delivery in a health facility (RRR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.9-3.3), maternal age of 30-39 years (RRR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.1), attending at least four visits for antenatal care (RRR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.7-4.5), health facility visit in the past 12 months (RRR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4-2.5), paternal professional occupation (RRR = 4.9, 95% CI = 2.0-12.3), family with richer wealth index (RRR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.4-4.1), and living in the northeast region (RRR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-3.9)were positively associated with vaccination status. Living in the southern region (RRR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.2-0.5) was negatively associated with vaccination status. CONCLUSION: This study identified maternal age, ANC visits, place of delivery, health facility visits in past 12 months, paternal occupation, wealth quintile, and geographic region as the factors influencing child's vaccination status in Afghanistan.


Assuntos
Cobertura Vacinal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afeganistão , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/estatística & dados numéricos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008637, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Development of vaccines and therapies against Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) have been hindered by the lack of immunocompetent animal models. Recently, a lethal nonhuman primate model based on the CCHFV Hoti strain was reported. CCHFV Hoti caused severe disease in cynomolgus monkeys with 75% lethality when given by the intravenous (i.v.) route. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a series of experiments, eleven cynomologus monkeys were exposed i.v. to CCHFV Hoti and four macaques were exposed i.v. to CCHFV Afghanistan. Despite transient viremia and changes in clinical pathology such as leukopenia and thrombocytopenia developing in all 15 animals, all macaques survived to the study endpoint without developing severe disease. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We were unable to attribute differences in the results of our study versus the previous report to differences in the CCHFV Hoti stock, challenge dose, origin, or age of the macaques. The observed differences are most likely the result of the outbred nature of macaques and low animal numbers often used by necessity and for ethical considerations in BSL-4 studies. Nonetheless, while we were unable to achieve severe disease or lethality, the CCHFV Hoti and Afghanistan macaque models are useful for screening medical countermeasures using biomarkers including viremia and clinical pathology to assess efficacy.


Assuntos
Vírus da Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia-Congo/imunologia , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/virologia , Viremia , Afeganistão , Animais , Quimiocinas/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Febre Hemorrágica da Crimeia/patologia , Humanos , Macaca fascicularis , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 744: 140830, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721671

RESUMO

Because of the deficiency of water caused by the regional disparities of rainfall due to global warming, attention has been given to the use of well water as drinking water in developing countries. Our fieldwork study in Afghanistan showed that there was a maximum value of 3371 µg/L and an average value of 233 µg/L of lithium in well drinking water. Since the level of lithium in well water is higher than the levels in other countries, we investigated the health risk of lithium. After confirming no influence of ≤1000 µM lithium on cell viability, we found that lithium at concentrations of 100 and 500 µM promoted anchorage-independent growth of human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT) and lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) but not that of human keratinocytic carcinoma cells (HSC-5) or lung epithelial carcinoma cells (A549). The same concentrations of lithium also promoted phosphorylation of c-SRC and MEK/ERK but not that of AKT in the keratinocytes. Inhibitors of c-SRC (PP2) and MEK (PD98059) suppressed the lithium-induced increase in anchorage-independent growth of the keratinocytes. Our results suggested that lithium promoted transformation of nontumorigenic cells rather than progression of tumorigenic cells with preferential activation of the c-SRC/MEK/ERK pathway. Since previous pharmacokinetics studies indicated that it is possible for the serum level of lithium to reach 100 µM by drinking 2.5 L of water containing 3371 µg/L of lithium per day, the high level of lithium contamination in well drinking water in Kabul might be a potential oncogenic risk in humans.


Assuntos
Transformação Celular Neoplásica , Lítio , Afeganistão , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Queratinócitos
18.
Public Health ; 185: 196-198, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The main purpose of this study was to explore the reasons behind the late presentation of female patients with leishmaniasis to the clinic. STUDY DESIGN: A descriptive study design and qualitative method were used in this study. METHODS: For information generation, two focus group discussions and three in-depth interviews were conducted with healthcare providers. RESULTS: Many factors, including socio-economic status, lack of knowledge about the disease (i.e. signs and symptoms, transmission, prevention and treatment), the use of traditional or local treatment methods and lack of female healthcare providers, contribute to the late presentation of patients with leishmaniasis to the clinic. This late presentation of patients with leishmaniasis, especially in women, can result in damage to the body tissue, resulting in life-long scars that carry social stigmas. CONCLUSIONS: Leishmaniasis can result in life-long scars if it is not timely diagnosed and treated. As a result of the scars being highly stigmatised, the social life of patients with leishmaniasis can be impacted, especially for female patients.


Assuntos
Cicatriz/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Mulheres/psicologia , Afeganistão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pobreza , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Classe Social , Estigma Social
19.
J Oleo Sci ; 69(8): 795-800, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641612

RESUMO

In this study, chemical properties, amino acid contents, fatty acid compositions of sesame seeds dependin on growing locations of sesame plants were evaluated. Protein contents of sesame seeds changed between 20.80% (Afghanistan) and 26.01% (India). Oil contents of seeds were changed between 44.69% (Mozambique) and 55.37% (Niger-Kany). Crude fiber contents of sesame seeds ranged from 17.30% (Ethiopia-Volega) to 28.78% (Mozambique). The highest protein, crude oil and crude fiber were found in India, Niger-Kany and Mozambique sesame seed samples, respectively. In addition, while glutamic acid contends of seeds change between 3.28% (Uganda and Niger-Benje) and 4.57% (India), arginine contents of seeds ranged from 2.36% (Uganda) to 3.10% (India). The total amino acid contents of sesame seeds ranged from 18.12% (Uganda) to 23.51% (India). Palmitic acid contents of sesame oils ranged from 7.93% (Uganda) to 9.55% (Burkina Faso). While oleic acid contents of sesame seed oils are found between 35.88% (Mozambique) and 44.54% (Afghanistan), linoleic acid contents of oils ranged from 37.41% (Afghanistan) to 47.44% (Mozambique). The high amount of protein, oil contents, amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids can be positively considered from the nutritional point of view.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Sementes/química , Sesamum/química , Afeganistão , África , Índia , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/análise
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