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1.
Addict Behav ; 136: 107494, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36162335

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: MDMA/Ecstasy motives differ from those of other substances such as alcohol, cannabis, and methamphetamine. Previous literature on alcohol and cannabis use identified social, expansion, enhancement, coping, and conformism as primary motives for use. MDMA/Ecstasy users also report using the drug for increases in self-awareness and energy. The development of an MDMA/Ecstasy use motives assessment has potential to inform treatment interventions and public policy on harm reduction. METHOD: An MDMA/Ecstasy use motives assessment was developed from alcohol and cannabis motives measures and qualitative feedback from MDMA/Ecstasy users. Participants included an international sample of adults (N = 1754) who completed an online questionnaire regarding their motives for using recreational MDMA/Ecstasy. RESULTS: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 4-factor MDMA/Ecstasy motives scale. The four motive scales showed good internal consistency reliabilitySocial (α = 0.88) Expansion (α = 0.81), Coping (α = 0.82), and Energy (α = 0.75). Conformity and Enhancement did not emerge as significant factors. Analyses demonstrated convergent and discriminant validity with relevant constructs including quantity/frequency of use, MDMA use disorder, sensation seeking personality, and positive and negative consequences of use. CONCLUSIONS: MDMA/Ecstasy use motives differ from those of other substances due to the distinctly stimulating, emotional, and empathic effects sought by users. By identifying salient MDMA/Ecstasy motives, this study highlights the unique aspects of recreational MDMA/Ecstasy use. This research has utility for informing clinical practice and contributing to public health harm reduction efforts.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Metanfetamina , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina , Adulto , Afeto , Alucinógenos/farmacologia , Humanos , Metanfetamina/farmacologia , Motivação , N-Metil-3,4-Metilenodioxianfetamina/farmacologia
2.
J Affect Disord ; 321: 320-328, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36302491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) to reduce negative affect, but it is not clear why they engage in this harmful type of behavior instead of using healthier strategies. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate whether people choose NSSI to reduce negative affect because they perceive it to be less cognitively costly than other available strategies. METHOD: In experiment one, 43 adults completed a novel, relief-based effort discounting task designed to index preferences about exerting cognitive effort to achieve relief. In experiment two, 149 adults, 52 % with a history of NSSI, completed our effort discounting task. RESULTS: Our main results suggest that people will accept less relief from an aversive experience if doing so requires expending less effort, i.e. they demonstrate effort discounting in the context of decisions about relief. We also found and that effort discounting is stronger among those with a history of NSSI, but this association became nonsignificant when simultaneously accounting for other conditions associated with aberrant effort tradeoffs. LIMITATIONS: The use of a control group without NSSI or other potentially harmful relief-seeking behaviors limits our ability to draw specific conclusions about NSSI. The ecological validity of our task was limited by a modestly effective affect manipulation, and because participants made hypothetical choices. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that preferences about exerting cognitive effort may be a barrier to using healthier affect regulation strategies. Further, the preference not to exert cognitive effort, though present in NSSI, is likely not unique to NSSI. Instead, effort discounting may be a transdiagnostic mechanism promoting an array of harmful relief-seeking behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Humanos , Adulto , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Afeto , Nível de Saúde , Cognição
4.
J Affect Disord ; 320: 499-506, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36208689

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the time to affective recovery from daily-life stressors between healthy controls (HC) and two groups with an increased risk for developing depression: individuals with subclinical symptoms of depression (SSD), and individuals remitted from a depressive episode with residual symptoms of depression (RRS). METHOD: The experience sampling method (ESM) was used to measure affective recovery to daily-life stressors. Affective recovery was defined as the moment that negative affect (NA) returned to baseline level following the first stressful event of the day. We assessed two different operationalizations of the baseline: NA at the moment before the stressful event (t-1), and mean-person NA. The effect of stress intensity, and cumulative stress were also assessed. RESULTS: Survival analyses showed significantly longer recovery times for the at risk groups in comparison to healthy individuals, albeit no significant difference was found between the two at risk groups (i.e. SSD and RRS). There was also an effect of cumulative stress, but not stress intensity on time to recovery in that cumulative stress resulted in significantly longer recovery times for all three groups. LIMITATIONS: The present study is limited by the ESM sampling design, assessments take place post-stress and therefore do not capture peak stress. Additionally, we are only able to assess patterns at the group level. Finally, there is a significant age difference between groups. CONCLUSION: Individuals at risk for depression display a delayed recovery to daily-life stressors when compared to healthy controls, which is not explained by differences in stress intensity or cumulative stress. Understanding what is driving this delay may help combat the development of depression.


Assuntos
Depressão , Estresse Psicológico , Humanos , Depressão/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Fatores de Risco , Afeto
5.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 21: e227228, jan.-dez. 2022. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1393377

RESUMO

Aim: to evaluate the association of the patients' perception about dentist's affect and cognition on trust and, consequently, on intention to return and patient satisfaction with life. Methods: Analytical cross-sectional study conducted in patients' adults and elderly at of two dentistry clinics in the south of Brazil. Patients had to have a previous relationship with the dentist (at least one previous consult) and 18 years of age or older. The data were collected through self-administrated questionnaire using measures adapted from other research, using structural equation modeling. We test using a chi-square difference test (p-value<0,05). Results: The mean age of the 197 patients was 37.0 years (σ = 15.5). The affect perceived by the patient at the dentist had a positive effect (ß = .53) on the trust that the patient develops in relation to the dentist. The same is true for the effect of the rational or cognitive aspects perceived by the patient at the dentist (ß = .41). The trust positively influences the patient's intention to return to that dentist (ß = .82). In addition, the intention to return to the dentist positively influences the patient's satisfaction with life (ß = .49). Conclusions: Affective and cognitive aspects positively influenced the patient's trust in the dentist. The greater the patient's trust in the dentist, the greater the intention to return to that dentist. Furthermore, a good relationship with the dentist improve the patient's satisfaction with life


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Percepção , Satisfação do Paciente , Cognição , Afeto , Confiança/psicologia , Relações Dentista-Paciente
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19302, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369250

RESUMO

The use of deception in research is divisive along disciplinary lines. Whereas psychologists argue that deception may be necessary to obtain unbiased measures, economists hold that deception can generate suspicion of researchers, invalidating measures and 'poisoning' the participant pool for others. However, experimental studies on the effects of deception, notably false-purpose deception-the most common form of experimental deception-are scarce. Challenges with participant attrition and avoiding confounds with a form of deception in which two related studies are presented as unrelated likely explain this scarcity. Here, we avoid these issues, testing within an experiment to what extent false-purpose deception affects honesty. We deploy two commonly used incentivized measures of honesty and unethical behavior: coin-flip and die-roll tasks. Across two pre-registered studies with over 2000 crowdsourced participants, we found that false-purpose deception did not affect honesty in either task, even when we deliberately provoked suspicion of deception. Past experience of deception also had no bearing on honesty. However, incentivized measures of norms indicated that many participants had reservations about researcher use of false-purpose deception in general-often considered the least concerning form of deception. Together, these findings suggest that while false-purpose deception is not fundamentally problematic in the context of measuring honesty, it should only be used as a method of last resort. Our results motivate further experimental research to study the causal effects of other forms of deception, and other potential spillovers.


Assuntos
Decepção , Projetos de Pesquisa , Humanos , Afeto
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Positive emotions help children and adolescents develop good personalities and interpersonal relationships. Evidence shows that participation in physical activity is associated with positive emotions in young people. However, there is still a lack of studies on the effects of physical activity on positive emotions in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effects of physical activity on positive emotions in children and adolescents. METHODS: Online databases (Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCOhost, and APA PsycInfo) were searched from inception to August 2022. RESULT: A total of 24 articles were eventually included representing 3907 participants from 14 different countries. Overall, the effect of physical activity interventions on positive emotions was significant. The studies revealed that positive emotions were statistically better in the physical activity participation group than in the control group without physical activity (SMD = 0.62, 95% CI: (0.24, 1.01), (p < 0.01). Based on subgroup analyses, we found that participation in aerobic exercise for 30-60 min in adolescents aged ≥12 years had a more significant intervention effect on positive emotions. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that the moods of children and adolescents who participate in physical activity significantly improved compared with the moods of those who do not participate in physical activity. The age, exercise type, and exercise duration of adolescents are important factors influencing the positive emotions resulting from physical activity interventions.


Assuntos
Afeto , Exercício Físico , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362131

RESUMO

Chronic stress, even stress of a moderate intensity related to daily life, is widely acknowledged to be a predisposing or precipitating factor in neuropsychiatric diseases. There is a clear relationship between disturbances induced by stressful stimuli, especially long-lasting stimuli, and cognitive deficits in rodent models of affective disorders. Regular physical activity has a positive effect on the central nervous system (CNS) functions, contributes to an improvement in mood and of cognitive abilities (including memory and learning), and is correlated with an increase in the expression of the neurotrophic factors and markers of synaptic plasticity as well as a reduction in the inflammatory factors. Studies published so far show that the energy challenge caused by physical exercise can affect the CNS by improving cellular bioenergetics, stimulating the processes responsible for the removal of damaged organelles and molecules, and attenuating inflammation processes. Regular physical activity brings another important benefit: increased stress robustness. The evidence from animal studies is that a sedentary lifestyle is associated with stress vulnerability, whereas a physically active lifestyle is associated with stress resilience. Here, we have performed a comprehensive PubMed Search Strategy for accomplishing an exhaustive literature review. In this review, we discuss the findings from experimental studies on the molecular and neurobiological mechanisms underlying the impact of exercise on brain resilience. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective potential of preconditioning exercise and of the role of exercise in stress resilience, among other things, may open further options for prevention and therapy in the treatment of CNS diseases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo , Corrida , Animais , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Cognição , Afeto , Estresse Psicológico/complicações
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361187

RESUMO

Risk and loss aversion are phenomena with an important influence on decision-making, especially in economic contexts. At present, it remains unclear whether both are related, as well as whether they could have an emotional origin. The objective of this review, following the PRISMA statements, is to find consistencies in the genetic bases of risk and loss aversion with the aim of understanding their nature and shedding light on the above issues. A total of 23 empirical research met the inclusion criteria and were included from PubMed and ScienceDirect. All of them reported genetic measures from human samples and studied risk and loss aversion within an economic framework. The results for risk aversion, although with many limitations, attributed mainly to their heterogeneity and the lack of control in the studies, point to the implication of multiple polymorphisms related to the regulation of the serotonergic and dopaminergic pathways. In general, studies found the highest levels of risk aversion were associated with alleles that are linked to lower (higher) sensitivity or levels of dopamine (serotonin). For loss aversion, the scarcity of results prevents us from drawing clear conclusions, although the limited evidence seems to point in the same direction as for risk aversion. Therefore, it seems that risk aversion could have a stable genetical base which, in turn, is closely linked to emotions, but more research is needed to answer whether this phenomenon is related to loss aversion, as well as if the latter could also have an emotional origin. We also provide recommendations for future studies on genetics and economic behavior.


Assuntos
Afeto , Emoções , Humanos , Polimorfismo Genético , Dopamina , Alelos , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is strongly associated with mood symptoms. This study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) technology to explore the features of brain neural activity in the dlPFC of anxious and depressed college students, during an emotional autobiographical memory task, and to understand the differences in brain cognitive mechanisms caused by anxiety and depression. METHODS: A simple random sampling method was used to test 440 college students at a university with a healthy control group (HC, 220 participants), a pure depression group (PD, 92 participants), and a pure anxiety group (PA, 128 participants). The average oxyhemoglobin in the dlPFC of the subjects during the emotional autobiographical memory task was collected by a 53-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy imaging device. RESULTS: The activation of the left dlPFC (ch13) in the pure depression group was significantly higher than in the pure anxiety group. The activation of the right dlPFC (ch48) was significantly higher under positive emotions than under negative emotions. The interaction between emotion valence and group was marginally significant, and the activation of the right dlPFC (ch41) in the pure depression group was significantly higher under positive emotion than in negative emotion. The activation of the pure depression group under positive emotions was significantly higher than that of the pure anxiety group. In comparison, the activation of the pure depression group under negative emotions was significantly lower than that of the healthy control group. The results of correlation analysis showed that the activation of the left dlPFC (ch13) was significantly negatively correlated with anxiety in positive emotions, but the activation of the right dlPFC (ch34, ch42) was significantly positively correlated with anxiety in positive and negative emotions. CONCLUSIONS: The right dlPFC was insensitive to positive emotions in college students with high-anxiety symptoms, whereas this region was insensitive to negative emotions in college students with high depressive symptoms, which might be one of the critical differences in the cognitive mechanisms of anxiety and depression. Furthermore, left and right dlPFC activation correlated differently with anxiety. The higher the anxiety level, the lower the activation on the left side, and the higher the activation on the right side. The results suggested that anxiety might reduce the function of the left dlPFC.


Assuntos
Emoções , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Ansiedade , Afeto/fisiologia , Estudantes
11.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 98, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399209

RESUMO

Several studies have investigated the effect of induced mood state on conceptual breadth (breadth and flexibility of thought). Early studies concluded that inducing a positive mood state broadened cognition, while inducing a negative mood state narrowed cognition. However, recent reports have suggested that valence and arousal can each influence conceptual breadth. Individual differences in affective dispositions may bias perceptions, thoughts, and behaviors and, in turn, may be biased by them. Here, we examine whether individual differences in valence and arousal dimensions of self-reported, naturally occurring affect relate to conceptual breadth (using the Remote Associates Test, the Object Categorization Task, and the Alternative Uses Task), with no mood manipulations or cues. The three conceptual breadth tasks loaded onto a latent conceptual breadth factor that was predicted significantly by the interaction of valence and arousal. For participants low in arousal, greater positive affect was associated with greater conceptual breadth. For participants high in arousal, greater positive affect was associated with reduced conceptual breadth. In contrast to most existing theories of conceptual breadth that highlight the importance of valence or arousal alone, the present results suggest that the interaction between arousal and valence is key to predicting individual differences in conceptual breadth. We posit that positive mood states predict greater conceptual breadth in the presence of low versus high arousal due to a relaxation of cognitive control under low arousal.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta , Individualidade , Humanos , Afeto , Cognição , Viés
12.
Brain Cogn ; 164: 105927, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36343582

RESUMO

Human beings have a strong preference for the fair distribution of resources in situations of both advantageous and disadvantageous inequity. Neuroimaging studies have shown that the process of advantageous and disadvantageous inequity aversion involves distinct brain regions. However, little is known about the causal roles of the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in these two types of inequity aversion. To clarify the roles of the dmPFC in both types of inequity aversion, 70 subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to two anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) groups: tDCS over the dmPFC and tDCS over the primary visual cortex. Participants then completed a dictator game, which was used to measure the aversion to inequity. This study found that tDCS over the dmPFC decreased the aversion to disadvantageous inequity, but not that to advantageous inequity, and the treatment effect was modulated by equity cost. These results show that the dmPFC plays different roles in these two types of inequity aversion.


Assuntos
Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Humanos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Encéfalo , Neuroimagem , Afeto
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20213, 2022 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418381

RESUMO

The framing-effect is a bias that affects decision-making depending on whether the available options are presented with positive or negative connotations. Even when the outcome of two choices is equivalent, people have a strong tendency to avoid the negatively framed option. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is crucial for rational decision-making, and dysfunctions in this region have been linked to cognitive biases, impulsive behavior and gambling addiction. Using a financial decision-making task in combination with magnetoencephalographic neuroimaging, we show that excitatory compared to inhibitory non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the vmPFC reduces framing-effects while improving the assessment of loss-probabilities, ultimately leading to increased overall gains. Behavioral and neural data consistently suggest that this improvement in rational decision-making is predominately due to an attenuation of biases towards negative affect (loss-aversion and risk-aversion). These findings recommend further research towards clinical applications of vmPFC-tDCS as in addictive disorders.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Impulsivo , Afeto
14.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276821, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36395144

RESUMO

The availability of mobile technologies has enabled the efficient collection of prospective longitudinal, ecologically valid self-reported clinical questionnaires from people with psychiatric diagnoses. These data streams have potential for improving the efficiency and accuracy of psychiatric diagnosis as well predicting future mood states enabling earlier intervention. However, missing responses are common in such datasets and there is little consensus as to how these should be dealt with in practice. In this study, the missing-response-incorporated log-signature method achieves roughly 74.8% correct diagnosis, with f1 scores for three diagnostic groups 66% (bipolar disorder), 83% (healthy control) and 75% (borderline personality disorder) respectively. This was superior to the naive model which excluded missing data and advanced models which implemented different imputation approaches, namely, k-nearest neighbours (KNN), probabilistic principal components analysis (PPCA) and random forest-based multiple imputation by chained equations (rfMICE). The log-signature method provided an effective approach to the analysis of prospectively collected mood data where missing data was common and should be considered as an approach in other similar datasets. Because of treating missing responses as a signal, its superiority also highlights that missing data conveys valuable clinical information.


Assuntos
Afeto , Transtorno Bipolar , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Análise de Componente Principal
15.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 96: e202211083-e202211083, Nov. 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-211627

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTOS: Se considera relevante analizar la evolución del estado anímico en adolescentes de la provincia de Barcelona en los últimos seis años y el impacto específico de la pandemia y su vivencia. Así como los factores asociados tanto en el periodo prepandemia como durante. MÉTODOS: Desde 2015/2016 se realizó una encuesta de hábitos relacionados con la salud a alumnos de 4º de Enseñanza Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO). En el curso 2020/2021 se le añadió un bloque sobre la COVID-19. Hubo una muestra representativa provincial prepandemia (N=15.118) y una muestra durante la pandemia (N=4.966). A partir de seis ítems específicos se construyó la variable agregada dicotómica de estado anímico positivo/negativo a la que se realizaron los análisis bivariados y multivariantes a cada periodo. Análisis realizados con SAS. RESULTADOS: La pandemia intensificó significativamente la tendencia de empeoramiento en el estado anímico de la población adolescente y agrandó la brecha de género. Los chicos pasaron del 17,9% (prepandemia) al 25,7% (durante pandemia), con estado anímico negativo, mientras que las chicas variaron del 31,9% al 52,9%. En la modelización durante pandemia aparecieron relevantes y significativos los factores socioeconómicos y familiares, mientras que se mantuvieron como en prepandemia el sexo, la mala salud percibida, ser víctima de acoso, la autopercepción del peso, el uso excesivo de internet y la mala percepción del entorno residencial. CONCLUSIONES: El impacto negativo específico de la pandemia en el estado anímico de los adolescentes es apreciable, pero aún es pronto para saber si es o no reversible y para conocer la efectividad de las intervenciones al respecto.(AU)


BACKGROUND: To analyse the evolution of state of mind in adolescents in the province of Barcelona for the last six years and the specific impact of the pandemic and its experience. Likewise, analyse the associated factors both in pre-pandemic period and during. METHODS: Since 2015/2016 a Questionnaire on health related habits was carried out among 4th year high school students to which a COVID-19 chapter was added in the 2020/2021 academic year. There was a representative provincial pre-pandemic sample (N=15,118) and a sample during the pandemic (N=4,966). The dichotomous aggregate variable of positive/negative state of mind was constructed with six specific items to which the bivariate analyses and a multivariate generalized mixed linear model were carried out for both periods. Analysis performed with SAS. RESULTS: The pandemic significantly intensified the trend of worsening the state of mind adolescents, and widened the gender gap. Boys went from 17.9% (pre-pandemic) to 25.7% (during pandemic) with a negative mood, while girls from 31.9% to 52.9%. In modelling during pandemic, socioeconomic and family factors appeared relevant and significant. Sex, perceived poor health, being victim of harassment, self-perception of weight, excessive use of the internet and a poor perception of the residential environment remained significant as in the pre-pandemic model. CONCLUSIONS: The specific negative impact of the pandemic on adolescents’ mental well-being is perceived, but it is too early to tell whether it is reversible or not and to assess the effectiveness of interventions to tackle it.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Afeto , Pandemias , Hábitos , Estudantes , Ensino Fundamental e Médio , Saúde Mental , Ansiedade , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Infecções por Coronavirus , Vírus da SARS , Saúde Pública , Promoção da Saúde , Espanha , Inquéritos e Questionários , Betacoronavirus
16.
Accid Anal Prev ; 178: 106867, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36308858

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Road traffic crash fatalities disproportionately affect young male drivers. Driver distraction is a leading contributor to crashes. Mind wandering (MW) is a prevalent form of driver distraction that is linked to certain unsafe driving behaviours that are associated with increased crash risk (e.g., faster driving). Negative mood can lead to MW, and thus may represent a causal pathway to MW-related unsafe driving. This preliminary pre-post (T1, T2), randomized, controlled, single-blinded experiment tested whether negative mood, compared to neutral mood, increases MW while driving as well as unsafe driving and emotional arousal during MW. It also tested the moderating contribution of trait rumination and inhibitory control to this proposed causal pathway. METHODS: Forty healthy male drivers aged 20 to 24 were randomly allocated to a negative or neutral mood manipulation involving deception. Individual differences in trait rumination and inhibitory control were measured at T1. At T1 and T2, participants drove in a driving simulator measuring driving speed, headway distance, steering behaviour, and overtaking. Heart rate and thought probes during simulation measured emotional arousal and MW, respectively. RESULTS: Negative mood exposure led to more MW while driving (Odds Ratio = 1.79, p = .022). Trait rumination positively moderated the relationship between negative mood and MW (Odds Ratio = 2.11, p = .002). Negative versus neutral mood exposure led to increases in headway variability (Cohen's d = 1.46, p = .026) and steering reversals (Rate Ratio = 1.33, p = .032) during MW relative to focused driving. Between-group differences in emotional arousal were not significant. CONCLUSION: Results support a causal pathway from negative mood to unsafe driving via MW, including the moderating contribution of trait rumination. If replicated, these preliminary findings may inform the development of interventions targeting this potential crash-risk pathway in vulnerable young driver subgroups.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Direção Distraída , Humanos , Masculino , Acidentes de Trânsito/psicologia , Afeto , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Individualidade
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(38): e30792, 2022 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197264

RESUMO

Schedule exercise therapy (SET) is a novel nonpharmacological intervention for the treatment of chronic insomnia disorder (CID). The aim of this study was to explore the effects of SET on CID. Methods: One hundred and eighteen CID were recruited and randomized into medication (MED) or medication combined with SET (MSET) groups. Over 12 observational weeks, sleep and mood status were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS). At the end of the observational period, the rates of clinically effective hypnotic use were calculated. At 12 weeks, the PSQI progressively decreased for all subjects combined (P < .001) as well as ISI (P < .001), ESS (P < .001), SDS (P < .001), and SAS (P < .001). The decreases in PSQI (P < .05), ISI (P < .05), SDS (P < .01), and SAS (P < .05) in the MSET group were significantly larger than those in the MED group, but not the same as those in the ESS group (P > .05). At the trial endpoint, the clinically effective rate was significantly higher (P < .05) and the hypnotic usage rate was lower (P < .05) in the MSET group than in the MED group. SET may be an effective treatment for insomnia in patients with CID.


Assuntos
Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Afeto , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Sono , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/terapia
18.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16876, 2022 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36207524

RESUMO

Using a novel wearable surface electromyography (sEMG), we investigated induced affective states by measuring the activation of facial muscles traditionally associated with positive (left/right orbicularis and left/right zygomaticus) and negative expressions (the corrugator muscle). In a sample of 38 participants that watched 25 affective videos in a virtual reality environment, we found that each of the three variables examined-subjective valence, subjective arousal, and objective valence measured via the validated video types (positive, neutral, and negative)-sEMG amplitude varied significantly depending on video content. sEMG aptitude from "positive muscles" increased when participants were exposed to positively valenced stimuli compared with stimuli that was negatively valenced. In contrast, activation of "negative muscles" was elevated following exposure to negatively valenced stimuli compared with positively valenced stimuli. High arousal videos increased muscle activations compared to low arousal videos in all the measured muscles except the corrugator muscle. In line with previous research, the relationship between sEMG amplitude as a function of subjective valence was V-shaped.


Assuntos
Músculos Faciais , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Afeto/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Emoções/fisiologia , Face/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Músculos Faciais/fisiologia , Humanos
19.
Behav Brain Sci ; 45: e231, 2022 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36281892

RESUMO

When communication is not disinterested, seemingly inconsistent preferences are predictable from language pragmatics and information non-equivalence. In addition, the classic risky choice framing effect found in the Asian disease task - risk-aversion with gains and risk-seeking with losses - applies to gambles, but tends to be overgeneralized to non-gambling situations.


Assuntos
Jogo de Azar , Assunção de Riscos , Humanos , Afeto , Comunicação , Tomada de Decisões , Comportamento de Escolha
20.
Psicothema ; 34(4): 610-620, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36268966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) is one of the few well-established available measures designed to assess childhood depression. The objective of the present study was to assess the psychometric properties and explore the differential item functioning (DIF) of the SMFQ in a community sample of Spanish children. Gender and age differences in SMFQ scores were also analyzed. METHOD: The sample included 824 students aged 8-12 years (Mage = 9.64, SD = 1.2) recruited from four public and private schools in urban areas in the southeast of Spain. RESULTS: Findings from factor analysis and Polytomous Rasch analysis supported a unidimensional interpretation of the SMFQ, thereby replicating findings across cultures and languages. The SMFQ had good reliability, and test-retest analysis indicated fair to good temporal stability. Evidence of construct validity was provided by a path diagram of the SMFQ and SDQ subscales. No age or gender differences in the SMFQ scores were observed. However, two items (3 and 11) exhibited gender-related DIF. CONCLUSIONS: The use of SMFQ sum-scores as a continuous measure of the severity of depressive symptoms can be supported. The measure shows promise as brief, reliable, valid instrument for the assessment of depressive symptoms in Spanish children.


Assuntos
Afeto , Emoções , Humanos , Criança , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Psicometria
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