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1.
J Sports Sci Med ; 20(3): 421-430, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34267581

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to identify coherence, hope for success and coping strategies as predictors of mood among this year's Olympians in the context of coronavirus events. The relationships between the above variables and the mood of athletes were analysed. The study group consisted of 57 athletes - women (29) and men (28) between 18 and 39 years of age - representing various sports disciplines who were preparing for the Tokyo Olympics. The research was conducted in the period of April 7-28, 2020 during the first threat of COVID-19 pandemic, following the decision to move the Summer Olympics to the year 2021. It was time of the greatest national restrictions and information about the postponement of the games had been received. As a result of the step regression analysis, three predictors of vigour were established: sense of meaningfulness, coping with stress through positive reframing, and not using the self-blaming strategy. A positive predictor of anger was the use of substances. Confusion was predicted based on the frequency of behavioral disengagement. Behavioral disengagement predicted the severity of depression. Predictors of fatigue were the sense of meaningfulness, and the strategies of positive reframing and self-blaming. The results obtained emphasize the importance of positive reframing as a factor contributing to maintaining a positive mood state. In contrast, behavioral disengagement and self-blaming were strategies that lowered the mood of elite athletes. The results confirm the importance of factors included in the salutogenic model (sense of coherence, coping strategies) as predictors of athletes' mood during a pandemic.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Atletas/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Senso de Coerência , Adulto , Afeto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Polônia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tóquio , Adulto Jovem
2.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61(1): 41, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193303

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, individuals faced psychological stress caused by fear and anxiety due to the high transmission and mortality rate of the disease, the social isolation, economic problems, and difficulties in reaching health services. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic centralized pain sensitivity disorder. Psychological, physical and/or autoimmune stressors were found to increase FM symptoms. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the COVID-19 fear and anxiety level, and to examine their effect on disease severity, sleep quality, and mood in FM patients compared to control group. METHODS: This pilot study conducted as a cross-sectional study, and included 62 participants. Participants were divided into two groups: FM patient group (n = 31) and control group (n = 31). Symptom severity, sleep quality, and mood were determined using the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR), Pitsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS), respectively. In order to evaluate the level of COVID-19 fear and anxiety, the Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) and Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) were used compared to control group. RESULTS: FIQR, PSQI, HAD-A, HAD-D, FCV-19S and CAS scores were significantly higher in the FM group (p = 0.01). A positive significant correlation was found between FCV-19S and CAS results and FIQR, PSQI, and HAD-anx results in FM patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This pilot study showed that, the individuals with FM can be more affected by psychological stress, and this situation negatively affects the symptom severity, sleep quality, and mood in FM patients, so these patients should be closely monitored in terms of psychological stressors and their effects during pandemics. More studies with more participants are necessary to describe the challenges lived by fibromyalgia population.


Assuntos
Afeto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , COVID-19/psicologia , Medo , Fibromialgia/psicologia , Sono , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos
3.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 89(6): 551-562, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264702

RESUMO

Though popular across many audiences, engagement with a service dog has undergone limited empirical evaluation as a complementary or alternative treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study took advantage of a service dog training intervention underway in a Department of Veterans Affairs residential PTSD treatment program to perform a within-subjects comparison of a range of phenotypic markers. The present report considers negative and positive affect, assessed throughout the day, contrasting weeks when participants were or were not accompanied by their service dog. Fifty-four veterans were studied for 2-6 weeks. Negative and positive affect were sampled five times per day using items from the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Participants also wore a single-patch ECG/activity recorder and slept on beds recording sleep actigraphically. Linear mixed effects regression was employed to estimate the effect of the presence of service dog on momentary affect in the context of other presumable influences. Missing data were managed using methods applicable to random and nonrandom missingness. In this sample, the presence of a service dog was associated with reduced negative and increased positive affect, with both effects diminishing over time. Only negative affect was associated with time in residential treatment, and only positive affect was associated with concurrent heart rate, activity, and the interaction of activity and prior-night actigraphic sleep efficiency. These results concur with prior reports of reduced PTSD symptomology in association with the presence of a service dog, and with the distinct neurocircuitries underlying defensive and appetitive emotion and motivation. Limitations derive from the artificial environment and brief duration of study. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Terapia Assistida com Animais/métodos , Tratamento Domiciliar/métodos , Animais de Trabalho , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Animais , Cães , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sono
4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 373, 2021 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226504

RESUMO

Bipolar disorders (BDs) exhibit high heritability and symptoms typically first occur during late adolescence or early adulthood. Affected individuals may experience alternating bouts of mania/hypomania and depression, with euthymic periods of varying lengths interspersed between these extremes of mood. Clinical research studies have consistently demonstrated that BD patients have disturbances in circadian and seasonal rhythms, even when they are free of symptoms. In addition, some BD patients display seasonal patterns in the occurrence of manic/hypomanic and depressive episodes as well as the time of year when symptoms initially occur. Finally, the age of onset of BD symptoms is strongly influenced by the distance one lives from the equator. With few exceptions, animal models useful in the study of BD have not capitalized on these clinical findings regarding seasonal patterns in BD to explore molecular mechanisms associated with the expression of mania- and depression-like behaviors in laboratory animals. In particular, animal models would be especially useful in studying how rates of change in photoperiod that occur during early spring and fall interact with risk genes to increase the occurrence of mania- and depression-like phenotypes, respectively. Another unanswered question relates to the ways in which seasonally relevant changes in photoperiod affect responses to acute and chronic stressors in animal models. Going forward, we suggest ways in which translational research with animal models of BD could be strengthened through carefully controlled manipulations of photoperiod to enhance our understanding of mechanisms underlying seasonal patterns of BD symptoms in humans. In addition, we emphasize the value of incorporating diurnal rodent species as more appropriate animal models to study the effects of seasonal changes in light on symptoms of depression and mania that are characteristic of BD in humans.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Adulto , Afeto , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Fotoperíodo , Estações do Ano
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065588

RESUMO

It has been recently suggested that contact with nature improves mood via reducing the activity of the prefrontal cortex. However, the specific regions within the prefrontal cortex that underlie this effect remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify the specific regions involved in the mood-improving effect of viewing images of nature using a 52-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Specifically, we focused on the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), two regions associated with affective processing and control. In a randomized controlled crossover experiment, we assigned thirty young adults to view images of nature and built environments for three minutes each in a counterbalanced order. During image viewing, participants wore a fNIRS probe cap and had their oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) measured. Immediately following each image viewing, participants indicated their mood in terms of comfortableness, relaxation, and vigor. Results showed that viewing images of nature significantly increased comfortableness and relaxation but not vigor compared to viewing images of built environments, with a large effect size. Meanwhile, the concentration of oxy-Hb in only the right OFC and none of the other regions significantly decreased while viewing the images of nature compared to built environments, with a medium effect size. We speculate that viewing images of nature improves mood by reducing the activity of or calming the OFC. Since the OFC is hyperactive in patients with depression and anxiety at rest, contact with nature might have therapeutic effects for them.


Assuntos
Afeto , Oxiemoglobinas , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Relaxamento , Humanos , Oxiemoglobinas/análise , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Adulto Jovem
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 350, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099627

RESUMO

Early-warning signals (EWS) have been successfully employed to predict transitions in research fields such as biology, ecology, and psychiatry. The predictive properties of EWS might aid in foreseeing transitions in mood episodes (i.e. recurrent episodes of mania and depression) in bipolar disorder (BD) patients. We analyzed actigraphy data assessed during normal daily life to investigate the feasibility of using EWS to predict mood transitions in bipolar patients. Actigraphy data of 15 patients diagnosed with BD Type I collected continuously for 180 days were used. Our final sample included eight patients that experienced a mood episode, three manic episodes and five depressed episodes. Actigraphy data derived generic EWS (variance and kurtosis) and context-driven EWS (autocorrelation at lag-720) were used to determine if these were associated to upcoming bipolar episodes. Spectral analysis was used to predict changes in the periodicity of the sleep/wake cycle. The study procedures were pre-registered. Results indicated that in seven out of eight patients at least one of the EWS did show a significant change-up till four weeks before episode onset. For the generic EWS the direction of change was always in the expected direction, whereas for the context-driven EWS the observed effect was often in the direction opposite of what was expected. The actigraphy data derived EWS and spectral analysis showed promise for the prediction of upcoming transitions in mood episodes in bipolar patients. Further studies into false positive rates are suggested to improve effectiveness for EWS to identify upcoming bipolar episode onsets.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Actigrafia , Afeto , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Humanos
7.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064102

RESUMO

Euhydration remains a challenge in children due to lack of access and unpalatability of water and to other reasons. The purpose of this study was to determine if the availability/access to a beverage (Creative Roots®) influences hydration in children and, therefore, sleep quality and mood. Using a crossover investigation, 46 participants were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or an intervention group and received Creative Roots® (INT) for two-week periods. We recorded daily first morning and afternoon urine color (Ucol), thirst perception, and bodyweight of the two groups. Participants reported to the lab once per week and provided first morning urine samples to assess Ucol, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine osmolality (Uosmo). Participants also completed the questionnaires Profile of Mood States-Adolescents (POMS-a) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Dependent t-tests were used to assess the effects of the intervention on hydration, mood, and sleep quality. Uosmo was greater and Ucol was darker in the control group (mean ± SD) [Uosmo: INT = 828 ± 177 mOsm·kg-1, CON = 879 ± 184 mOsm·kg-1, (p = 0.037], [Ucol:INT = 5 ± 1, CON = 5 ± 1, p = 0.024]. USG, POMS-a, and PSQI were not significant between the groups. At-home daily afternoon Ucol was darker in the control group [INT = 3 ± 1, CON = 3 ± 1, p = 0.022]. Access to Creative Roots® provides a small, potentially meaningful hydration benefit in children. However, children still demonstrated consistent mild dehydration based on Uosmo, despite consuming the beverage.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Bebidas/provisão & distribuição , Desidratação/urina , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/fisiologia , Aromatizantes/administração & dosagem , Sono/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Desidratação/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Gravidade Específica , Sede/fisiologia
8.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 218: 103353, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146977

RESUMO

Previous embodiment findings indicate a relationship between physical posture and mood states, suggesting upright postures induce positive mood states. Findings also showed a relationship between moods and cognitive performance. While positive mood states were found to be related to increased processing speed, negative mood states were associated with higher processing accuracy in cognitive task performance. This implies that posture may affect the aforementioned sub-aspects of cognitive performance via mood states. Additionally, most studies on posture effects rely on explicit posture manipulation. With that in mind, our research explores the effects of implicitly manipulated postures on processing speed and accuracy and whether these effects are mediated by general mood. The results revealed that subjects in our sample (N = 82, M = 23.09years) who adopted an upright posture showed a more positive general mood (d = 0.50) and higher processing speed (d = 0.42) compared to those in stooped postures. Surprisingly, no differences in processing accuracy were found. There was no evidence of the proposed mediation in our data.


Assuntos
Afeto , Emoções , Cognição , Humanos , Postura , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
9.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062937

RESUMO

The gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects of dietary fibers are recognized, but less is known about their effects on non-GI symptoms. We assessed non-GI symptoms in a trial of the LDL-cholesterol lowering effect of oat ß-glucan (OBG). Participants (n = 207) with borderline high LDL-cholesterol were randomized to an OBG (1 g OBG, n = 104, n = 96 analyzed) or Control (n = 103, n = 95 analyzed) beverage 3-times daily for 4 weeks. At screening, baseline, 2 weeks and 4 weeks participants rated the severity of 16 non-GI symptoms as none, mild, moderate or severe. The occurrence and severity (more or less severe than pre-treatment) were compared using chi-squared and Fisher's exact test, respectively. During OBG treatment, the occurrence of exhaustion and fatigue decreased versus baseline (p < 0.05). The severity of headache (2 weeks, p = 0.032), anxiety (2 weeks p = 0.059) and feeling cold (4 weeks, p = 0.040) were less on OBG than Control. The severity of fatigue and hot flashes at 4 weeks, limb/joint pain at 2 weeks and difficulty concentrating at both times decreased on OBG versus baseline. High serum c-reactive-protein and changes in c-reactive-protein, oxidized-LDL, and GI-symptom severity were associated with the occurrence and severity of several non-GI symptoms. These data provide preliminary, hypothesis-generating evidence that OBG may reduce several non-GI symptoms in healthy adults.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/terapia , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Jejum/sangue , Fadiga/terapia , Feminino , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cefaleia/terapia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor Musculoesquelética/terapia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nueva York; Fondo de las Naciones Unidas para la Infancia; 20210600. 61 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1253248

RESUMO

La publicación contiene: introducción, grupos de objetivos en relación a como Unicef enfrentó el Covid-19 y como esta afectó a la infancia, luego describe las prioridades transversales y finalmente presenta las estrategias de cambios.


Assuntos
Nações Unidas , Criança , Estratégias de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus , Afeto , Objetivos
11.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(4): 365-376, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180701

RESUMO

Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) often lack insight into the nature of their perceived appearance flaws that are slight, if they exist at all. Despite the generally held assumption that insight fluctuates over time within individuals with BDD, its temporal instability and associated features remain unstudied. We examined insight as a multidimensional, contextually embedded, and dynamic factor using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), further assessing affect and self-esteem as potentially associated states. Thirty individuals with BDD and 30 mentally healthy controls (HCs) completed 6 days of EMA (M = 8.54 assessments per day, N = 3075 assessments in total). Multilevel analyses revealed substantial intraindividual fluctuations of insight dimensions (across 30 min to hours) that were more pronounced for individuals with BDD than for HCs. Poorer insight correlated with higher negative affect, lower positive affect, and lower self-esteem at concurrent time points in the BDD group. Considering all predictors at the same time point, poorer insight was characterized by lower self-esteem and, partly, negative affect in the BDD group. Across time, self-esteem and insight influenced each other reciprocally, with comparatively stronger effects for the prediction of poorer insight by previously lower self-esteem. These findings demonstrate that insight is a highly variable phenomenon in BDD, further suggesting a clinically and etiologically relevant link between self-esteem and insight in symptom maintenance. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Dismórficos Corporais/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(4): 413-422, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180705

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCZ) have overlapping symptomatology related to difficulties with social cognition. Yet, few studies have directly compared social cognition in ASD, SCZ, and typical development (TD). The current study examined individual differences in face recognition and its relation to affective theory of mind (ToM) in each diagnostic group. Adults with ASD (n = 31), SCZ (n = 43), and TD (n = 47) between the ages of 18 and 48 years-old with full scale IQ above 80 participated in this study. The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET) measured affective ToM, and the Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT) measured face perception. Adults with ASD and SCZ did not differ in their affective ToM abilities, and both groups showed affective ToM difficulties compared with TD. However, better face recognition ability uniquely predicted better affective ToM ability in ASD. Results suggest that affective ToM difficulties may relate to face processing in ASD but not SCZ. By clarifying the complex nature of individual differences in affective ToM and face recognition difficulties in these disorders, the present study suggests there may be divergent mechanisms underlying pathways to social dysfunction in ASD compared with SCZ. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Reconhecimento Facial , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria da Mente , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In many developed countries, mood disorders have become problematic, and the economic loss due to treatment costs and interference with work is immeasurable. Therefore, a simple technique to determine individuals' depressive state and stress level is desired. METHODS: We developed a method to assess specific the psychological issues of individuals with major depressive disorders using emotional components contained in their voice. We propose two indices: vitality, a short-term index, and mental activity, a long-term index capturing trends in vitality. To evaluate our method, we used the voices of healthy individuals (n = 14) and patients with major depression (n = 30). The patients were also assessed by specialists using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D). RESULTS: A significant negative correlation existed between the vitality extracted from the voices and HAM-D scores (r = -0.33, p < 0.05). Furthermore, we could discriminate the voice data of healthy individuals and patients with depression with a high accuracy using the vitality indicator (p = 0.0085, area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.76).


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Afeto , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070131

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the effects of an acute bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) on affective responses in inactive women. Thirty women with normal body mass index (BMI) and 30 women with BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 participated in the study. All participants completed a graded exercise test and performed two exercise sessions (HIIE and MICE) in random order. Affective responses were assessed during and after each exercise session, using the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), Self-Assessment-Manikin (SAM), and Subjective Exercise Experience Scale (SEES). The results showed that the RPE scores were significantly higher in HIIE than in MICE. HIIE resulted in significantly lower pleasure scores using the SAM while arousal and dominance scores were significantly higher with HIIE compared to MICE. Positive well-being scores using the SEES were significantly lower with HIIE and both psychological distress and fatigue scores were significantly higher with HIIE. The results showed that affective responses with MICE were more positive than with HIIE, but no differences were found between normal and overweight/obese women. Based on these results, MICE may be a more acceptable exercise program for inactive women regardless of their weight status.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Afeto , Exercício Físico , Frequência Cardíaca , Prazer
15.
Molecules ; 26(10)2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063337

RESUMO

The functional food market is growing with a compound annual growth rate of 7.9%. Thai food recipes use several kinds of herbs. Lemongrass, garlic, and turmeric are ingredients used in Thai curry paste. Essential oils released in the preparation step create the flavor and fragrance of the famous tom yum and massaman dishes. While the biological activities of these ingredients have been investigated, including the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities, there is still a lack of understanding regarding the responses to the essential oils of these plants. To investigate the effects of essential oil inhalation on the brain and mood responses, electroencephalography was carried out during the non-task resting state, and self-assessment of the mood state was performed. The essential oils were prepared in several dilutions in the range of the supra-threshold level. The results show that Litsea cubeba oil inhalation showed a sedative effect, observed from alpha and beta wave power reductions. The frontal and temporal regions of the brain were involved in the wave alterations. Garlic oil increased the alpha wave power at lower concentrations; however, a sedative effect was also observed at higher concentrations. Lower dilution oil induced changes in the fast alpha activity in the frontal region. The alpha and beta wave powers were decreased with higher dilution oils, particularly in the temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. Both Litsea cubeba and turmeric oils resulted in better positive moods than garlic oil. Garlic oil caused more negative moods than the others. The psychophysiological activities and the related brain functions require further investigation. The knowledge obtained from this study may be used to design functional food products.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcuma/química , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Alho/química , Litsea/química , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Administração por Inalação , Ondas Encefálicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimento Funcional/análise , Alimento Funcional/economia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Odorantes , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Descanso/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tailândia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11563, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078968

RESUMO

Adolescence is a formative period for socio-emotional development which is threatened by the COVID-19 pandemic. The current longitudinal study examined two aims: (1) the short- and long-term effects of the pandemic on young people's mood (i.e. vigor, tension, and depression levels) and emotional reactivity (i.e. fluctuations in daily mood), and (2) the impact of stressors on mood, emotional reactivity, self-oriented (i.e. maladaptive behavior towards COVID-19 rules) and other-benefitting behaviors (i.e. behavior aimed at helping and comforting others). We conducted an online two-week daily diary study among 462 Dutch adolescents (Mage = 15.27 years, 64% females) and 371 young adults (Mage = 21.49 years, 81% females) in May 2020, with a follow-up in November 2020 (N = 238 and 231, respectively adolescents and young adults). In May 2020, young adults and older relative to younger adolescents showed higher levels and more fluctuations in tension and depression and lower levels of vigor. Vigor levels decreased and tension and depression levels increased between May 2020 and November 2020, especially for younger adolescents. There were positive associations between instability of negative emotions (i.e. tension and depression fluctuations) and the exposure to stressors (i.e. family stress and inequality of online homeschooling) in the adolescent sample. Together, this study demonstrates vulnerability regarding young people's mood and emotional reactivity during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for adolescents who experience more stressors.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Afeto , COVID-19 , Emoções , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , COVID-19/psicologia , Criança , Depressão/psicologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Países Baixos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Neuroscience ; 464: 1-2, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016292
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962925

RESUMO

A small proportion of patients with intellectual disabilities (IDs) and/or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit extraordinarily dangerous self-injurious and assaultive behaviours that persist despite long-term multidisciplinary interventions. These uncontrolled behaviours result in physical and emotional trauma to the patients, care providers and family members. A graduated electronic decelerator (GED) is an aversive therapy device that has been shown to reduce the frequency of severe problem behaviours by 97%. Within a cohort of 173 patients, we have identified the four most common patterns of response: (1) on removal of GED, behaviours immediately return, and GED is reinstated; (2) GED is removed for periods of time (faded) and reinstated if and when behaviours return; (3) a low frequency of GED applications maintains very low rates of problem behaviours; and (4) GED is removed permanently after cessation of problem behaviours. GED is intended as a therapeutic option only for violent, treatment-resistant patients with ID and ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Deficiência Intelectual , Comportamento Problema , Comportamento Autodestrutivo , Afeto , Agressão , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/terapia , Humanos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/terapia
19.
Psychopathology ; 54(3): 150-158, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951644

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Research on body aspects in depression primarily focuses on somatic complaints, while phenomenologists emphasize the pre-reflective bodily experience of depression as relevant for the psychopathology of it. Despite this increasing acknowledgement of the subjective body's impact on depression, empirically, it remains rarely studied. METHODS: Relying on the psychotherapy method of Focusing (Gendlin, 1982), interviews were developed, which enable participants with depression to get in contact with pre-reflective bodily experiences through turning inward, attentively observing all bodily feelings that arise, and finding symbolizations for these feelings. RESULTS: In 501 codings of the conducted interviews, the theme of passivity emerged on a continuum ranging from inhibition of drive to lack of drive. It can be split into 5 components (heaviness, emptiness, paralysis, blockage, and alienation), which were felt in the head or the whole body. Moreover, participants reported active, pressuring feelings in the chest and stomach areas, which were associated with specific emotions in some participants. DISCUSSION: In conclusion, through focusing, participants were able to take note of their pre-reflective bodily feelings and described feelings of passivity, active, pressuring feelings, and an ambivalence between these two parts. Results support the notion that depression is associated with specific pre-reflective bodily experiences and lay a foundation for future research.


Assuntos
Depressão/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Afeto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Addict Behav ; 120: 106959, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971500

RESUMO

Although broad dispositional negative affect predicts problematic alcohol use, emerging evidence suggests that individual differences in how people experience and respond to negative affect may play an important role in risk. In a sample of 358 college students assessed twice across their first year of college, the current study investigated the predictive roles of trait negative affect, affective lability (the tendency to experience rapid and intense shifts in mood), negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when highly emotional), and problem drinking via self-report measures completed online. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Individual differences in how negative affect is experienced and responded to, represented by affective lability and negative urgency, predicted problem drinking above and beyond trait negative affect, and trait negative affect had no incremental predictive power. Additionally, affective lability predicted increases in negative urgency, but the opposite was not true. A focus on characteristic ways in which individuals experience and respond to negative affect, rather than negative affect itself, may improve risk assessment and clarify the etiology of problem drinking. Continued work toward the development of comprehensive affect-based risk models for problem drinking is needed.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Universidades , Afeto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Personalidade , Estudantes
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