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1.
An. psicol ; 39(3): 425-434, Oct-Dic, 2023. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-224944

RESUMO

La relación con los progenitores es un aspecto clave en el desa-rrollo adolescente, pues el sentimiento de aceptación o rechazo por parte de estos se ha visto relacionado con el ajuste psicológico de la descenden-cia. A su vez, la resiliencia, habitualmente conceptualizada como capacidad para gestionar o adaptarse a los retos y la adversidad, resultaría fundamental para el ajuste en dicho periodo, caracterizado por numerosos cambios y re-tos simultáneos en distintos aspectos vitales. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la capacidad predictiva de las dimensiones de socializa-ción parental afecto-comunicacióny crítica-rechazosobre la resiliencia adolescen-te. Método:Participan 899 adolescentes (50.4% mujeres) de entre 12 y 19 años (M= 14.68; DT= 1.73). Mediante regresiones lineales se analiza la capacidad predictiva de las dimensiones de socialización parental sobre la resiliencia filial. Resultados:Se comprueba que las dimensiones paternas, es-pecialmente la crítica-rechazo, resultan más significativas a la hora de predecir las puntuaciones en resiliencia. Discusión: Los resultados apuntan a la rele-vancia de la crítica-rechazo sentida por los y las adolescentes, especialmente en el caso de proceder del padre. Se discute la posible interpretación dife-rencial de los y las adolescentes de las dimensiones en función del sexo de los progenitores.(AU)


Parent-child relations are a key aspect in adolescent develop-ment, since feelings of parental acceptance or rejection have been found to be associated with teenagers’ psychological adjustment. Resilience, usually conceptualised as the ability to manage or adapt to challenges and adversi-ty, is a fundamental factor in adjustment during adolescence, a period characterised by numerous simultaneous changes and challenges in differ-ent aspects of life. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyse the predictive capacity of different dimensions of parental socialisation (affec-tion-communication and criticism-rejection) on adolescent resilience. Meth-od:Participants were 899 adolescents (50.4% female), aged 12 to19 years (M= 14.68; SD= 1.73). Linear regressions were performed to analyse the predictive capacity of the different dimensions of parental socialisation on adolescent resilience. Results:Paternal dimensions, especially paternal criti-cism-rejection, were revealed as relevant factors for predicting resilience scores. Discussion:The results point to the important impact of the criti-cism-rejection felt by adolescents, especially if perceived from the father. Different possible interpretations of these dimensions are discussed, in ac-cordance with whether they are perceived from the mother or the fathe.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Resiliência Psicológica , Psicologia do Adolescente , Poder Familiar , Relações Mãe-Filho , Relações Pai-Filho , Rejeição em Psicologia , Afeto , Comunicação , Psicologia Social , Psicologia Clínica , Comportamento do Adolescente
2.
An. psicol ; 39(3): 487-495, Oct-Dic, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-224950

RESUMO

Antecedentes: La Inteligencia Emocional (IE) rasgo es una característica personal que puede actuar como factor protector contra circunstancias vitales desafiantes y ser un predictor del estado de ánimo en situaciones naturales como las derivadas del contexto social de la pandemia COVID-19. El objetivo general fue estudiar la relación entre IE rasgo y los estados anímicos docentes durante el confinamiento. Método: Se contó con 478 participantes, 316 docentes de Educación Infantil (EI) y Primaria (EP) de centros públicos de la Región de Murcia y 162 estudiantes de los Grados de EI y EP. Los instrumentos empleados fueron: para evaluar la IE rasgo, el TEIQue-SF; para evaluar los estados de ánimo vividos durante el impacto de la COVID-19 se utilizó una versión breve del POMS. Resultados: Los docentes con IE elevada se percibieron más enérgicos y considerados con los demás; así como menos nerviosos, malhumorados, tristes y cansados, justo el patrón contrario al de docentes con perfil de IE baja. Además, las maestras obtienen puntuaciones mayores en los estados emocionales negativos. Conclusiones: Si bien el estudio es correlacional, los resultados avalan la idea de la IE rasgo como factor protector frente al estrés, lo que refuerza su papel como promotor del bienestar docente.(AU)


Background: Trait Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a personal characteristic that can act as a buffer factor against vital challenging cir-cumstances and be a predictor of mood in a variety of natural situations such as those derived from the social context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The general aim of this research was to study the relationship between trait EI and teacher moods during confinement. Method: The study included 478 participants, 316 Preschool teachers and Elementary teachers from public centers in the Region of Murcia and 162 university students of Pre-school and Elementary education degrees. The instrument used to assess trait EI was the TEIQue-SF; to assess the moods experienced during the impact of COVID-19, a short version of the POMS was used.Results: Teachers with high trait EI were perceived to be more energized and kind-er, as well as less nervous, moody, sad and tired, just the opposite pattern of teachers with a low trait EI profile. In addition, female teachers ob-tained higher scores in negative mood states. Conclusions: Although the study is correlational, the results support the idea of trait EI as a protective factor against stress, which reinforces its role as a promoter of teacher well-being.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Docentes/psicologia , Pandemias , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Inteligência Emocional , Afeto , Saúde Ocupacional , Psicologia , Psicologia Clínica , Saúde Mental , Esgotamento Psicológico , Estresse Psicológico , Esgotamento Profissional
3.
BMJ Ment Health ; 26(1)2023 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37657816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of understanding depressive symptom constellations during adolescence and specifically in looked-after children, studies often only apply sum score models to understand depression in these populations, neglecting associations among single symptoms that can be elucidated in network analysis. The few network analyses in adolescents have relied on different measures to assess depressive symptoms, contributing to inconsistent cross-study results. OBJECTIVE: In three population-based studies using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, we used network analyses to study depressive symptoms during adolescence and specifically in looked-after children. METHOD: We computed cross-sectional networks (Gaussian Graphical Model) in three separate datasets: the Mental Health of Children and Young People in Great Britain 1999 survey (n=4235, age 10-15 years), the mental health of young people looked after by local authorities in Great Britain 2002 survey (n=643, age 11-17 years) and the Millennium Cohort Study in the UK 2015 (n=11 176, age 14 years). FINDINGS: In all three networks, self-hate emerged as a key symptom, which aligns with former network studies. I was no good anymore was also among the most central symptoms. Among looked-after children, I was a bad person constituted a central symptom, while this was among the least central symptom in the other two datasets. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition symptom I did not enjoy anything was not central. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that looked-after children's depressive symptoms may be more affected by negative self-evaluation compared with the general population. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Intervention efforts may benefit from being tailored to negative self-evaluations.


Assuntos
Afeto , Depressão , Criança , Humanos , Adolescente , Depressão/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
4.
Psychol Sport Exerc ; 69: 102511, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37665945

RESUMO

Research has recently begun to examine the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and athletes' post-competition mood. However, to date, there have been few attempts to examine the interaction between dimensions of perfectionism or model possible explanatory processes. To address these limitations, in the current study we tested a novel conditional process model whereby the relationship between perfectionistic strivings and post-competition affect was mediated by the degree to which goals were considered to have been met (goal-realization) and that this indirect effect was, in turn, moderated by levels of perfectionistic concerns. We tested this model in a sample of 251 athletes who took part in a "Runmageddon" event - a cross-country obstacle race. Athletes completed measures of perfectionism (perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns) before the race and measures of goal-realization and mood (tense arousal, energetic arousal, and hedonic tone) between 24 and 48 h after the race. Analyses revealed that perfectionistic strivings were indirectly linked to a more unpleasant post-competition mood (higher tense arousal and lower hedonic tone) via perceptions of lower goal-realization. In addition, these two indirect effects were statistically significant only when perfectionistic concerns were medium and high. The results support the proposed conditional model and suggest the interplay between dimensions of perfectionism is important for athletes' post-competition mood, and the level of perfectionistic concerns, especially.


Assuntos
Objetivos , Perfeccionismo , Humanos , Afeto , Nível de Alerta , Atletas , Cafeína , Niacinamida
5.
Nutrients ; 15(17)2023 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37686747

RESUMO

The purpose of this narrative review is to emphasize the importance of food consumption and meal selection on mental health and brain function, including psychological and behavioral reactions such as mood, loving relationships, violence, and criminal activity. Additionally, by being aware of the link between food and mental health, the community can be encouraged to make informed food choices in order to avoid unfavorable outcomes like criminality. Food behaviors are shifting significantly over the world. There are also significant changes in mood, sadness, happiness, and violence, as well as the spread of the variety and severity of mental diseases that lead to violent acts. Food intake and meal selection have evolved over the last ten years as the variety and accessibility of food options have become easier and more diverse. These modifications might have both beneficial and bad consequences. This article examines the relationship between food intake and its impact on marital satisfaction. The goal of this review is to support or refute the claim that food influences mood, love, or criminal behavior, or vice versa. Various diets can have an impact on one's mental health and brain, influencing psychological reactions and behavioral responses such as mood, loving relationships, violence, and even criminal activity. Food insecurity has been demonstrated in various studies to have a negative impact on health and psychological well-being, leading to despair, loss of happiness, marital conflict, and violence. For example, herbal extracts and flavonoids have the potential to improve gut microbiota and treat mood disorders. Understanding how the gut-brain axis communicates might help guide interventions for mood and cognitive function. Since the root of most diseases and behaviors is significantly related to the type of food consumed, this research addresses this issue in order to reduce the cost of treatment and prevention of crime and delinquency at the community level by consciously choosing the food consumed by the society. In other words, prevention is always better than cure.


Assuntos
Crime , Violência , Humanos , Violência/prevenção & controle , Cognição , Encéfalo , Afeto
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 16(9)2023 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37666569

RESUMO

Intestinal malrotation is characterised by positional and congenital fixation abnormalities resulting from a failure in embryonic development in the normal 270° rotation around the axis of the superior mesenteric artery. Intestinal malrotation is primarily thought to affect neonates with an incidence of 1 in 500, however, only 1 in 6000 live births are symptomatic, and these usually present within the first month of life in 40% of cases and within the first year in over 5% of cases as an obstructive pathology or volvulus. In adults, however, the incidence has been documented at 0.2%. These patients usually present with postprandial symptoms that are intermittent such as bilious emesis, abdominal pain and malabsorption. Rarely, adults with congenital malrotation may present with acute obstruction due to volvulus, however, less than 100 adult cases are described in the literature. A high index of suspicion is required to identify cases of malrotation in the adult patient which leads to delays in diagnosis and therefore increases in morbidity can be seen.


Assuntos
Volvo Intestinal , Adulto , Feminino , Gravidez , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Volvo Intestinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Volvo Intestinal/cirurgia , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Afeto , Nascido Vivo , Artéria Mesentérica Superior
7.
An. psicol ; 39(2): 239-251, May-Sep. 2023. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-219763

RESUMO

Previous research shows that family functioning and an individ-ual’s temperamentalcharacteristics carry significant weight in explaining subjective happiness. However, thelink between these factors is scarcely considered in emerging adulthood. For moreunderstanding, the main aim of our study was to explore the mediating role of negativeaffect on the re-lationship between family functioning and subjective happiness among asample of 347 college students in Spain. Results showed moderate scores in family cohesion and flexibility were positively associated to a young per-son ́s subjective happiness, whilesome extreme scores in those scales showed the opposite pattern. In contrast, negativeaffect was negatively as-sociated to subjective happiness in collegestudents. SEManalyses revealed that negative affect fully mediates the relationship between bothbalanced and unbalanced family functioning and subjective happiness. As regardsdysfunctional family patterns, we found that negative affect fully mediated therelationship between disengaged, enmeshed and chaotic unbalanced scales, andsubjective happiness. However, this mediational pattern failed to replicate in theunbalanced rigid scale. The social and clinical implica-tions of these results on thepromotion of subjective happiness in early adulthood was discussed, taking into accountSpanishculturalbeliefsonfamily functioning and well-being.(AU)


Estudios previos muestran que el funcionamiento familiar y las características temperamentales del individuo tienen un peso importante en la explicación de su felicidad subjetiva. Sin embargo, el vínculo entre estos factores ha sido escasamente estudiado en la adultez emergente. El objetivo de nuestro trabajo fue explorar el papel mediador del afecto negativo en la relación entre funcionamiento familiar y felicidad en una muestra de 347 estudiantes universitarios españoles. Los análisis mostraron que puntuaciones moderadas en cohesión y flexibilidad familiar se asociaron positivamente a la felicidad subjetiva, al contrario que las puntuaciones extremas de dichas escalas. Por el contrario, el afecto negativo se asoció negativamente con la felicidad. Los análisis SEM mostraron que el afecto negativo medió la relación entre funcionamiento familiar (equilibrado y desequilibrado) y felicidad subjetiva. Con respecto a los patrones familiares disfuncionales, encontramos que el afecto negativo medió la relación entre las escalas de desapego, dependencia y caos, y felicidad. Sin embargo, este patrón mediacional no se observó para la escala de rigidez. Se discuten las implicaciones sociales y clínicas que estos resultados tienen en la promoción de la felicidad subjetiva en la adultez temprana, teniendo en cuenta las creencias culturales españolas sobre funcionamiento familiar y bienestar.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Afeto , Felicidade , Família , Dependência Psicológica , Espanha , Conflito Familiar
8.
Sci Adv ; 9(36): eadh2301, 2023 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37683005

RESUMO

In adulthood, sleep-wake rhythms are one of the most prominent behaviors under circadian control. However, during early life, sleep is spread across the 24-hour day. The mechanism through which sleep rhythms emerge, and consequent advantage conferred to a juvenile animal, is unknown. In the second-instar Drosophila larvae (L2), like in human infants, sleep is not under circadian control. We identify the precise developmental time point when the clock begins to regulate sleep in Drosophila, leading to emergence of sleep rhythms in early third-instars (L3). At this stage, a cellular connection forms between DN1a clock neurons and arousal-promoting Dh44 neurons, bringing arousal under clock control to drive emergence of circadian sleep. Last, we demonstrate that L3 but not L2 larvae exhibit long-term memory (LTM) of aversive cues and that this LTM depends upon deep sleep generated once sleep rhythms begin. We propose that the developmental emergence of circadian sleep enables more complex cognitive processes, including the onset of enduring memories.


Assuntos
Drosophila , Memória de Longo Prazo , Animais , Lactente , Humanos , Afeto , Nível de Alerta , Larva , Sono
9.
Psychol Sport Exerc ; 67: 102422, 2023 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37665875

RESUMO

The mindfulness-based intervention and psychological skills training are often used for maintaining the mental health or reducing undesirable mental states in athletes. However, their differences in acute effects on mental health and underlying neural mechanism are not well understood. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to examine the differential effects of brief mindfulness induction (MI) and relaxation induction (RI) on state anxiety, affect and brain activation. Thirty-five track and field athletes were recruited for this study. Using a within-subjects crossover design, participants underwent three conditions that incorporated two 30-min experimental conditions (i.e., MI or RI) and a control condition. State anxiety and affect were assessed before and after intervention, and brain activation (i.e., theta, alpha bands) were recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) during each 30-min condition. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that MI and RI similarly reduced state anxiety and negative affect from pre-test to post-test compared to the control condition. In terms of positive affect, there were no significant differences among the three conditions across times. Furthermore, participants exhibited higher frontal theta power during the MI and RI than control condition, whereas no differences in alpha power were observed among conditions. The current study provides initial evidence from an electrophysiological perspective that brief MI and RI both improve the negative psychological states in individual sport athletes through similar neural mechanisms. Nevertheless, the moderating effects of training experiences and long-term interventions on mental state and EEG activity in athletes need further investigation in future studies.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , Atletas , Atenção Plena , Humanos , Ansiedade/terapia , Atletas/psicologia , Encéfalo , Estudos Cross-Over , Afeto
10.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0291004, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37656757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of open-label placebos (OLPs) has been increasingly demonstrated and their use holds promise for applications compatible with basic ethical principles. Taking this concept one step further an imaginary pill (IP) intervention without the use of a physical pill was developed and tested in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). To explore participants' experiences and views, we conducted the first qualitative study in the field of IPs. METHODS: A reflexive thematic analysis (RTA) of semi-structured interviews with test anxious students (N = 20) was nested in an RCT investigating an IP and OLP intervention. In addition, open-ended questions from the RCT were evaluated (N = 114) to corroborate the RTA and pill characteristics were included to more accurately capture the IP experience. RESULTS: Four key themes were identified: (1) attitude towards the intervention, (2) applicability of the intervention, (3) experience of effects, and (4) characteristics of the imagination. The IP intervention was well-accepted, easily applicable, and various effects, pill characteristics and appearances were described. While many participants did not desire a physical pill, either due to the absence of the imagination component or aversion to pills, the approach was considered to be cognitively and time demanding, which in turn, however, encouraged the establishment of a therapeutic ritual that protected against the increase in test anxiety during the preparation phase. OLP findings were comparable, and especially the importance of a treatment rationale was stressed in both groups, counteracting an initial ambivalent attitude. The RTA findings were supported by the open-ended questions of the RCT. CONCLUSION: IPs appear to be a well-accepted and easily applicable intervention producing a variety of beneficial effects. Thus, the IP approach might serve as an imaginary based alternative to OLPs warranting further investigations on its application to harness placebo effects without a physical pill.


Assuntos
Afeto , Ansiedade aos Exames , Humanos , Comportamento Compulsivo , Imaginação , Obrigações Morais
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37657828

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to compare long-term physical and mental health outcome between SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected household members to differentiate between infection-related and pandemic-related outcomes after about two and a half years of the pandemic. Furthermore, possible differences in the outcome of adults and children and young people (CYP) were of interest. DESIGN: In a cross-sectional study design, we compared the long-term physical and mental health outcome of between infected and uninfected as well as between adult and CYP (household members). SETTING: The FamilyCoviDD19 study-a serology study in households-was initially conducted to evaluate virus transmission in a close contact setting focusing on households with children and adolescents in Germany. At least 1 year after initial infection in the respective households, a follow-up took place in which the prevalence and type of possible long-term consequences were surveyed on the basis of self-reported information on physical and mental health. PARTICIPANT: In this study, a total of 533 household members of 146 families participated and responded to our survey, including 296 (55.5%) adults and 237 (44.5%) CYP. RESULT: The difference in frequency of reported symptoms between infected and uninfected individuals was very moderate, suggesting that the vast majority of reported symptoms were not attributable to a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, regardless of age and infection status, this study showed overall high rates of self-reported symptoms with CYP having fewer long-term sequelae than adults one year after infection. Furthermore, over 50% of those reporting symptoms were not affected in their daily life, with CYPs reporting an even lower percentage compared with adults. CONCLUSION: CYP are at reduced risk not only to develop symptomatic infection or severe disease courses (previous analyses) but also to develop infection-associated long-term sequelae (this study). Independent of infection CYP reported high rates of neurocognitive, pain, somatic and mood symptoms, which makes the influence of the pandemic itself-including pandemic control measures-decisive.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , SARS-CoV-2 , Afeto , Progressão da Doença
12.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0290881, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37676862

RESUMO

According to influential theories about mood, exposure to environments characterized by specific patterns of punishments and rewards could shape mood response to future stimuli. This raises the intriguing possibility that mood could be trained by exposure to controlled environments. The aim of the present study is to investigate experimental settings that increase resilience of mood to negative stimuli. For this study, a new task was developed where participants register their mood when rewards are added or subtracted from their score. The study was conducted online, using Amazon MTurk, and a total of N = 1287 participants were recruited for all three sets of experiments. In an exploratory experiment, sixteen different experimental task environments which are characterized by different mood-reward relationships, were tested. We identified six task environments that produce the greatest improvements in mood resilience to negative stimuli, as measured by decreased sensitivity to loss. In a next step, we isolated the two most effective task environments, from the previous set of experiments, and we replicated our results and tested mood's resilience to negative stimuli over time, in a novel sample. We found that the effects of the task environments on mood are detectable and remain significant after multiple task rounds (approximately two minutes) for an environment where good mood yielded maximum reward. These findings are a first step in our effort to better understand the mechanisms behind mood training and its potential clinical utility.


Assuntos
Afeto , Ambiente Controlado , Humanos , Felicidade , Punição , Recompensa
13.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1204977, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37674685

RESUMO

Background: Cognitive decline and negative emotions are common in aging, especially decline in cold cognition which often co-occurred with depression in middle-aged and older adults. This study analyzed the interactions between cold cognition and depression in the middle-aged and elder populations using network analysis and explored the effects of grandparenting on the cold cognition-depression network. Methods: The data of 6,900 individuals (≥ 45 years) from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) were used. The Minimum Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Epidemiology Research Center Depression Scale-10 (CESD-10) were used to assess cold cognition and depressive symptoms, respectively. Centrality indices and bridge centrality indices were used to identify central nodes and bridge nodes, respectively. Results: Network analysis showed that nodes "language ability" and "depressed mood" were more central nodes in the network of cold cognition and depression in all participants. Meantime, nodes "attention," "language ability" and "hopeless" were three key bridge nodes connecting cold cognition and depressive symptoms. Additionally, the global connectivity of the cold cognition and depression network was stronger in the non-grandparenting than the grandparenting. Conclusion: The findings shed a light on the complex interactions between cold cognition and depression in the middle-aged and elder populations. Decline in language ability and depressed mood can serve as predictors for the emergence of cold cognitive dysfunction and depression in individuals during aging. Attention, language ability and hopelessness are potential targets for psychosocial interventions. Furthermore, grandparenting is effective in alleviating cold cognitive dysfunction and depression that occur during individual aging.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva , Depressão , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Idoso , Estudos Longitudinais , Cognição , Afeto
14.
BMC Psychiatry ; 23(1): 644, 2023 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37667200

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is ongoing debate regarding the treatment of severe and multiple traumatized children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Many clinicians favor a phase-based treatment approach (i.e., a stabilization phase prior to trauma-focused therapy) over immediate trauma-focused psychological treatment, despite the lack of scientific evidence. Research on the effects of different treatment approaches is needed for children and adolescents with (symptoms of complex) PTSD resulting from repeated sexual and/or physical abuse during childhood. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the rationale, study design, and methods of the MARS-study, a two-arm randomized controlled trial (RCT) that aims to compare the results of phase-based treatment with those of immediate trauma-focused treatment and determine whether immediate trauma-focused treatment is not worse than phase-based treatment in reducing PTSD symptoms. METHODS: Participants are individuals between 12 and 18 years who meet the diagnostic criteria for PTSD due to repeated sexual abuse, physical abuse, or domestic violence during childhood. Participants will be blindly allocated to either the phase-based or immediate trauma-focused treatment condition. In the phase-based treatment condition, participants receive 12 sessions of the Dutch version of Skill Training in Affective and Interpersonal Regulation (STAIR-A), followed by 12 sessions of EMDR therapy. In the immediate trauma-focused condition, the participants receive 12 sessions of EMDR therapy. The two groups are compared for several outcome variables before treatment, mid-treatment (only in the phase-based treatment condition), after 12 trauma-focused treatment sessions (post-treatment), and six months post-treatment (follow-up). The main parameter is the presence and severity of PTSD symptoms (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents, CAPS-CA). The secondary outcome variables are the severity of complex PTSD symptoms (Interpersonal Problems as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationship-Revised, ECR-RC; Emotion Regulation as measured by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, DERS; Self Esteem as measured by the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, RSES), changes in anxiety and mood symptoms (Revised Anxiety and Depression Scale; RCADS), changes in posttraumatic cognitions (Child Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, CPTCI), changes in general psychopathology symptoms (Child Behavior Checklist, CBCL), and Quality of Life (Youth Outcome Questionnaire, Y-OQ-30). Furthermore, parental stress (Opvoedingsvragenlijst, OBVL) and patient-therapist relationship (Feedback Informed Treatment, FIT) will be measured, whereas PTSD symptoms will be monitored in each session during both treatment conditions (Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale, CRIES-13). DISCUSSION: Treating (symptoms of complex) PTSD in children and adolescents with a history of repeated sexual and/or physical abuse during childhood is of great importance. However, there is a lack of consensus among trauma experts regarding the optimal treatment approach. The results of the current study may have important implications for selecting effective treatment options for clinicians working with children and adolescents who experience the effects of exposure to multiple interpersonal traumatic events during childhood. TRIAL REGISTRATIONS: The study was registered on the "National Trial Register (NTR)" with the number NTR7024. This registry was obtained from the International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP) and can be accessed through the ICTRP Search Portal ( https://trialsearch.who.int/ ).


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Criança , Adolescente , Humanos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Ansiedade , Afeto
15.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 239: 104018, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37677870

RESUMO

Ethically and socially aversive behaviors have been attributed to several personality traits, including characteristics collectively referred to under the umbrella term of impulsivity. It is an open question, however, whether such characteristics are an integral part of ethically and socially aversive personality. Relying on three large samples (total N = 9854) and implementing longitudinal assessments, the present study provides a comprehensive investigation of the role of impulse and interference control in aversive personality. Based on contemporary conceptualizations of the impulsivity domain, a total of 17 dimensions spanning both self-reports and behavioral tasks are assessed. To represent aversive personality, we consider the D Factor of Personality (D), i.e., the basic disposition shared by all aversive traits. Results indicate that D co-occurs with a deficit in inhibiting the incorrect action when multiple actions are available, a preference for immediate rewards while failing to consider the consequences of one's actions, and maladaptive behavior directed towards regulating strong affect. However, most associations between D and dimensions of impulsivity were small or non-significant, thereby disconfirming the notion that characteristics related to a lack of impulse control are an integral feature of aversive personality in general.


Assuntos
Comportamento Impulsivo , Personalidade , Humanos , Afeto , Formação de Conceito , Recompensa
16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 19(9): e1011217, 2023 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37669282

RESUMO

Heterogeneity in contact patterns, mortality rates, and transmissibility among and between different age classes can have significant effects on epidemic outcomes. Adaptive behavior in response to the spread of an infectious pathogen may give rise to complex epidemiological dynamics. Here we model an infectious disease in which adaptive behavior incentives, and mortality rates, can vary between two and three age classes. The model indicates that age-dependent variability in infection aversion can produce more complex epidemic dynamics at lower levels of pathogen transmissibility and that those at less risk of infection can still drive complexity in the dynamics of those at higher risk of infection. Policymakers should consider the interdependence of such heterogeneous groups when making decisions.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Motivação , Adaptação Psicológica , Afeto , Tomada de Decisões
17.
Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol ; 137: 269-291, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37709379

RESUMO

Most organisms on earth have evolved an internal clock in order to predict daily recurring events. This clock called circadian clock has a period of about 24 h and allows organisms to organize biochemical and physiological processes over one day. Changes in lighting conditions as they occur naturally over seasons, or man made by jet lag or shift work, advance or delay clock phase in order to synchronize an organism's physiology to the environment. A misalignment of the clock to its environment results in sleep disturbances and mood disorders. Although there are strong associations between the circadian clock and mood disorders such as depression, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. This review describes the currently known molecular links between circadian clock components and mood related behaviors in mice, which will help to understand the causal links between the clock and mood in humans in the future.


Assuntos
Afeto , Comportamento Animal , Relógios Circadianos , Animais , Camundongos
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 15266, 2023 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37709826

RESUMO

In individuals with subjective cognitive impairments (SCI) the risk for the development of a neurodegenerative disease is assumed to be increased. However, it is not clear which factors contribute to the expression of SCI: Is it related to the cognitive resources already challenged, or is the psycho-affective state of more relevance? Using a novel online assessment combining self-report questionnaires and neuropsychological psychometric tests, significant predictors for the level of complaints were identified in two samples of elderly individuals: Help-seekers (HS, n = 48) consulting a memory clinic and a matched sample of non-help-seekers (nHS, n = 48). Based on the results of the online assessment, the SCI level was found to be significantly determined by the psycho-affective state (depressive mood) in the nHS group, whereas cognitive performance (cued recall) was the main predictor in the HS group. The predictive value of recall performance, however, is more-strongly expressed in memory tests which reduce the impact of compensatory strategies (face-name-association vs. word lists). Our results indicate that the problem-focused behavior of help-seeking individuals is also associated with a higher sensitivity for cognitive deficits-which can be uncovered with an appropriate psychometric test. Considering these factors, the conversion risk in individuals with SCI can probably be determined more reliably.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Disfunção Cognitiva , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Idoso , Humanos , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Afeto , Cognição
19.
J Neurodev Disord ; 15(1): 32, 2023 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37710171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is associated with a wide range of physical manifestations for which international clinical recommendations for diagnosis and management have been established. TSC is, however, also associated with a wide range of TSC-Associated Neuropsychiatric Disorders (TAND) that are typically under-identified and under-treated yet associated with a profound burden of disease. The contemporary evidence base for the identification and treatment of TAND is much more limited and, to date, consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and management of TAND have also been limited and non-specific. METHODS: The TANDem project was launched with an international, interdisciplinary, and participatory consortium of 24 individuals, including TSC family representatives, from all World Health Organization (WHO) regions but one. One of the aims of the TANDem project was to generate consensus recommendations for the identification and treatment of TAND. At the time of this project, no internationally adopted standard methodology and methodological checklists existed for the generation of clinical practice recommendations. We therefore developed our own systematic procedure for evidence review and consensus-building to generate evidence-informed consensus recommendations of relevance to the global TSC community. RESULTS: At the heart of the consensus recommendations are ten core principles surrounded by cluster-specific recommendations for each of the seven natural TAND clusters identified in the literature (autism-like, dysregulated behavior, eat/sleep, mood/anxiety, neuropsychological, overactive/impulsive, and scholastic) and a set of wraparound psychosocial cluster recommendations. The overarching recommendation is to "screen" for TAND at least annually, to "act" using appropriate next steps for evaluation and treatment, and to "repeat" the process to ensure early identification and early intervention with the most appropriate biological, psychological, and social evidence-informed approaches to support individuals with TSC and their families. CONCLUSIONS: The consensus recommendations should provide a systematic framework to approach the identification and treatment of TAND for health, educational, social care teams and families who live with TSC. To ensure global dissemination and implementation of these recommendations, partnerships with the international TSC community will be important. One of these steps will include the generation of a "TAND toolkit" of "what to seek" and "what to do" when difficulties are identified in TAND clusters.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Esclerose Tuberosa , Humanos , Consenso , Esclerose Tuberosa/complicações , Esclerose Tuberosa/diagnóstico , Esclerose Tuberosa/terapia , Afeto , Ansiedade
20.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 33(1): 56-57, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37710940

RESUMO

Omphalomesenteric duct (OMD) anomalies occur as a result of resorption failure during gestation. Various forms of OMD anomalies are documented depending upon the degree of resorption (complete or partial) including Meckels diverticulum, fistulas, fibrous bands, and cysts to umbilical polyps. Among these, Meckels diverticulum is the most common of these anomalies, and omphalomesenteric duct fistula (OMF) is the most rare. Complete persistence of OMD in neonates results in OMF, which has a male predominance. OMF is documented in less than 0.1% of the population. Differentials include urachal remnants and umbilical granuloma. We report a rare case of a 10-day male neonate who presented with umbilical swelling and discharge. This case is presented to highlight the occurrence of this extremely rare phenotype to raise a high index of suspicion and awareness among healthcare providers. Key Words: Omphalomesenteric duct fistula, Umbilical swelling, Sinogram.


Assuntos
Cistos , Fístula , Divertículo Ileal , Ducto Vitelino , Recém-Nascido , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Afeto
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