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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998207

RESUMO

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and its associated governmental recommendations and restrictions have influenced many aspects of human life, including exercise and mental health. This study aims to explore the influence of COVID-19 on exercise behavior and its impact on mood states, as well as predict changes in exercise behavior during a similar future pandemic in Taiwan. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted between 7 April and 13 May 2020 (n = 1114). Data on exercise behavior pre and during the pandemic and mood states were collected. A cumulative link model was used to predict changes in exercise frequency during a similar future pandemic by exercise frequency during the pandemic. A linear model was used to predict the influence of exercise frequency before and during the pandemic on mood states during the pandemic. A total of 71.2%, 67.3%, and 58.3% of respondents maintained their exercise intensity, frequency, and duration, respectively, during the pandemic. Frequent exercisers are more likely to maintain their exercise frequency during a similar pandemic (p < 0.001). Higher exercise frequencies during the pandemic were associated with better mood states (p < 0.05). Moreover, the effects of prepandemic exercise frequency on mood states are moderated by changes in exercise frequency during the pandemic (p < 0.05). Additionally, maintenance of exercise frequency during a pandemic specifically for frequent exercisers are recommended to preserve mood states. These results may provide evidence for health policies on exercise promotion and mental health before and during a future pandemic.


Assuntos
Afeto , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
3.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e040620, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933965

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous pandemics have resulted in significant consequences for mental health. Here, we report the mental health sequelae of the COVID-19 pandemic in a UK cohort and examine modifiable and non-modifiable explanatory factors associated with mental health outcomes. We focus on the first wave of data collection, which examined short-term consequences for mental health, as reported during the first 4-6 weeks of social distancing measures being introduced. DESIGN: Cross-sectional online survey. SETTING: Community cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: N=3097 adults aged ≥18 years were recruited through a mainstream and social media campaign between 3 April 2020 and 30 April 2020. The cohort was predominantly female (n=2618); mean age 44 years; 10% (n=296) from minority ethnic groups; 50% (n=1559) described themselves as key workers and 20% (n=649) identified as having clinical risk factors putting them at increased risk of COVID-19. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Depression, anxiety and stress scores. RESULTS: Mean scores for depression ([Formula: see text] =7.69, SD=6.0), stress ([Formula: see text] =6.48, SD=3.3) and anxiety ([Formula: see text] = 6.48, SD=3.3) significantly exceeded population norms (all p<0.0001). Analysis of non-modifiable factors hypothesised to be associated with mental health outcomes indicated that being younger, female and in a recognised COVID-19 risk group were associated with increased stress, anxiety and depression, with the final multivariable models accounting for 7%-14% of variance. When adding modifiable factors, significant independent effects emerged for positive mood, perceived loneliness and worry about getting COVID-19 for all outcomes, with the final multivariable models accounting for 54%-57% of total variance. CONCLUSIONS: Increased psychological morbidity was evident in this UK sample and found to be more common in younger people, women and in individuals who identified as being in recognised COVID-19 risk groups. Public health and mental health interventions able to ameliorate perceptions of risk of COVID-19, worry about COVID-19 loneliness and boost positive mood may be effective.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Emprego , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 142-145, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890378

RESUMO

The bipolar spectrum of mood, in its broadest sense that includes all kinds of mood instability, presents various symptoms related to instability and mood swing, including symptoms and manifestations of "mixed states" (the symptoms of "mixity") and symptoms of eating disorders (ED). It is essential not to forget that depression itself is only "a phase" of the wider bipolar spectrum of mood, which therefore remains the pathology to be treated adequately with a polytherapy composed by mood regulators and antidepressants. "Mixed" symptoms (including symptoms of eating disorders), if not properly treated, can subtly enter the patient's life, leading to a worsening of the clinical picture to a clear chronicity.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Afeto , Antidepressivos , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Humanos , Transtornos do Humor
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 2): 233-235, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970641

RESUMO

Working as a team with patients who are also recreational runners and managing a running school in the City of Mostar had made us thinking on how recreational running affects the mental health in individuals. Previous literature is pretty old dated, so we found this even more interesting. We have wondered why there is no more recent literature on this subject. So, while working on this mini review and discussing on this subjects we came up with an idea on a research about self esteem and life quality of individuals pre and post running school experience. Previous studies show that consistent running results in a number of positive psychological changes among diverse populations. In a study of Kenneth E.C. ordinary nonprofessional runners were surveyed about the psychological aspects of running. Many of the respondents had started running to improve their health, and almost all noted mental and emotional benefits including relief of tension, improved self-image, and better mood. Considering therapeutic effects of running Greist et al. define running as not expensive, and unlike sorne other treatments, it has beneficiai physical side effects. Their results compare favorably with those of patients in psychotherapy and have persisted for at !east one year in follow-up. Taking in mind all of the previously published research it can be concluded that running can be a therapeutic tool for a sereies of negative psychological conditions, such ass depression, anxieta, tension, mood changes, low self esteem etc. Although, these research are a few decades old there is still no recipe or dosage for running, especially in the area of physical ilness prevention. There is much to research and to be discovered in this field.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Corrida/psicologia , Afeto , Humanos , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Corrida/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899526

RESUMO

The spread of COVID-19 has altered sport in Spain, forcing athletes to train at home. The objectives of the study were: (i) to compare training and recovery conditions before and during the isolation period in handball players according to gender and competitive level, and (ii) to analyse the impact of psychological factors during the isolation period. A total of 187 participants (66 women and 121 men) answered a Google Forms questionnaire about demographics, training, moods, emotional intelligence, and resilience sent using the snowball sampling technique. T-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare sport level and gender differences. Linear regressions were used to analyse the psychological influence on training. Handball players reduced training intensity (in the whole sample; p = 0.44), training volume (especially in professional female handball players; p < 0.001), and sleep quality (especially in professional male handball players; p = 0.21) and increased sleep hours (especially in non-professional female players; p = 0.006) during the isolation period. Furthermore, psychological factors affected all evaluated training and recovery conditions during the quarantine, except for sleep quantity. Mood, emotional intelligence, and resilience have an influence on physical activity levels and recovery conditions. In addition, training components were modified under isolation conditions at p < 0.001. We conclude that the COVID-19 isolation period caused reductions in training volume and intensity and decreased sleep quality. Furthermore, psychological components have a significant impact on training and recovery conditions.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Esportes , Afeto , Betacoronavirus , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Resiliência Psicológica , Sono , Isolamento Social , Espanha
7.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899861

RESUMO

Perceived stress affects emotional eating and food choices. However, the extent to which stress associates with food choice motives is not completely understood. This study assessed whether emotional eating mediates the associations between perceived stress levels and food choice motives (i.e., health, mood, convenience, natural content, price, sensory appeal, familiarities, weight control, and ethical concerns) during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 pandemic. A total of 800 respondents were surveyed in the United States in June 2020. Their perceived stress, emotional eating, and food choice motives were assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale, Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, and Food Choice Questionnaire, respectively. Moderate to high levels of perceived stress were experienced by the majority (73.6%) of respondents. Perceived stress was significantly correlated with emotional eating (r = 0.26) as well as five out of nine food choice motives: mood (r = 0.32), convenience (r = 0.28), natural content (r = -0.14), price (r = 0.27), and familiarity (r = 0.15). Emotional eating was significantly correlated with four out of nine food choice motives: mood (r = 0.27), convenience (r = 0.23), price (r = 0.16), and familiarity (r = 0.16). The mediation analyses showed that emotional eating mediates the associations between perceived stress and five food choices motives: mood, convenience, sensory appeal, price, and familiarity. Findings were interpreted using theories and concepts from the humanities, specifically, folklore studies, ritual studies, and symbolic anthropology.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Betacoronavirus , Comportamento de Escolha , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Emoções , Feminino , Ciências Humanas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Percepção , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
8.
Croat Med J ; 61(4): 309-318, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881428

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the effect of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown on lifestyle behaviors and mood changes in the Croatian general population. METHODS: During ten days of the COVID-19 lockdown in Croatia, 3027 respondents (70.3% female) from the general population completed an online, self-report questionnaire. Demographic data and data on lifestyle habits and mood changes before and during the COVID-19 lockdown were collected. RESULTS: A total of 95.64% of respondents reported to follow most or all restrictions, with female sex (P<0.001) and higher education level (P<0.001) being associated with higher restriction compliance. Women smoked an increased number of cigarettes (P<0.001). The proportion of respondents of both sexes who did not drink or drank 7 drinks per week or more increased (P<0.001). Women also reported lower frequency (P=0.001) and duration of physical exercise (P<0.001). In total, 30.7% of respondents gained weight, with female sex (OR, 2.726) and higher BMI (OR, 1.116; both P<0.001) being associated with an increased likelihood of gaining weight. Both men and women felt more frequently afraid (P<0.001), discouraged (P<0.001), and sad (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Public health authorities should promote the adoption of healthy lifestyles in order to reduce long-term negative effects of the lockdown.


Assuntos
Afeto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Coronavirus , Croácia/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal , Quarentena/psicologia , Tristeza , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236987, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745087

RESUMO

The relationship between mood states and state creativity has long been investigated. Exploring individual differences may provide additional important information to further our understanding of the complex mood-creativity relationship. The present study explored the state-level mood-creativity relationship from the perspective of trait creativity. We employed the experience sampling method (ESM) in a cohort of 56 college students over five consecutive days. The participants reported their state creativity on originality and usefulness dimensions at six random points between 9:00 a.m. and 11:00 p.m., along with a 10-item concurrent mood state report. Their trait creativity was measured by the Guildford Alternative Uses Test (AUT) and the Remote Associates Test (RAT). We found moderating effects of the participants' trait creativity on their state-level mood-creativity relationship. Specifically, whereas the positive correlation between positive mood state and originality of state creativity was stronger for the participants with higher AUT flexibility scores, stronger positive correlations between negative mood state and originality of state creativity were observed for individuals with higher AUT originality scores. Our findings provide evidence in support of introducing individual differences to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the mood-creativity link. The results could be of practical value, in developing individualized mood state regulation strategies for promoting state creativity.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Criatividade , Individualidade , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4179, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826918

RESUMO

Symptom expression in psychiatric conditions is often linked to altered threat perception, however how computational mechanisms that support aversive learning relate to specific psychiatric symptoms remains undetermined. We answer this question using an online game-based aversive learning task together with measures of common psychiatric symptoms in 400 subjects. We show that physiological symptoms of anxiety and a transdiagnostic compulsivity-related factor are associated with enhanced safety learning, as measured using a probabilistic computational model, while trait cognitive anxiety symptoms are associated with enhanced learning from danger. We use data-driven partial least squares regression to identify two separable components across behavioural and questionnaire data: one linking enhanced safety learning and lower estimated uncertainty to physiological anxiety, compulsivity, and impulsivity; the other linking enhanced threat learning and heightened uncertainty estimation to symptoms of depression and social anxiety. Our findings implicate aversive learning processes in the expression of psychiatric symptoms that transcend diagnostic boundaries.


Assuntos
Afeto , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Teorema de Bayes , Biologia Computacional , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Incerteza , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cerebrovasc Dis Extra ; 10(2): 94-104, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rates of depression after ischemic stroke (IS) and myocardial infarction (MI) are significantly higher than in the general population and associated with morbidity and mortality. There is a lack of nationally representative data comparing depression and suicide attempt (SA) after these distinct ischemic vascular events. METHODS: The 2013 Nationwide Readmissions Database contains >14 million US admissions for all payers and the uninsured. Using International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification Codes, we identified index admission with IS (n = 434,495) or MI (n = 539,550) and readmission for depression or SA. We calculated weighted frequencies of readmission. We performed adjusted Cox regression to calculate hazard ratio (HR) for readmission for depression and SA up to 1 year following IS versus MI. Analyses were stratified by discharge home versus elsewhere. RESULTS: Weighted depression readmission rates were higher at 30, 60, and 90 days in patients with IS versus MI (0.04%, 0.09%, 0.12% vs. 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.07%, respectively). There was no significant difference in SA readmissions between groups. The adjusted HR for readmission due to depression was 1.49 for IS versus MI (95% CI 1.25-1.79, p < 0.0001). History of depression (HR 3.70 [3.07-4.46]), alcoholism (2.04 [1.34-3.09]), and smoking (1.38 [1.15-1.64]) were associated with increased risk of depression readmission. Age >70 years (0.46 [0.37-0.56]) and discharge home (0.69 [0.57-0.83]) were associated with reduced hazards of readmission due to depression. CONCLUSIONS: IS was associated with greater hazard of readmission due to depression compared to MI. Patients with a history of depression, smoking, and alcoholism were more likely to be readmitted with depression, while advanced age and discharge home were protective. It is unclear to what extent differences in type of ischemic tissue damage and disability contribute, and further investigation is warranted.


Assuntos
Afeto , Isquemia Encefálica/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/psicologia , Readmissão do Paciente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Alta do Paciente , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD007407, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32794606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic non-cancer pain, a disabling and distressing condition, is common in adults. It is a global public health problem and economic burden on health and social care systems and on people with chronic pain. Psychological treatments aim to reduce pain, disability and distress. This review updates and extends its previous version, published in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical efficacy and safety of psychological interventions for chronic pain in adults (age > 18 years) compared with active controls, or waiting list/treatment as usual (TAU). SEARCH METHODS: We identified randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological therapies by searching CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO to 16 April 2020. We also examined reference lists and trial registries, and searched for studies citing retrieved trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs of psychological treatments compared with active control or TAU of face-to-face therapies for adults with chronic pain. We excluded studies of headache or malignant disease, and those with fewer than 20 participants in any arm at treatment end. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two or more authors rated risk of bias, extracted data, and judged quality of evidence (GRADE). We compared cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), behavioural therapy (BT), and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) with active control or TAU at treatment end, and at six month to 12 month follow-up. We did not analyse the few trials of other psychological treatments. We assessed treatment effectiveness for pain intensity, disability, and distress. We extracted data on adverse events (AEs) associated with treatment. MAIN RESULTS: We added 41 studies (6255 participants) to 34 of the previous review's 42 studies, and now have 75 studies in total (9401 participants at treatment end). Most participants had fibromyalgia, chronic low back pain, rheumatoid arthritis, or mixed chronic pain. Most risk of bias domains were at high or unclear risk of bias, with selective reporting and treatment expectations mostly at unclear risk of bias. AEs were inadequately recorded and/or reported across studies. CBT The largest evidence base was for CBT (59 studies). CBT versus active control showed very small benefit at treatment end for pain (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.17 to -0.01; 3235 participants; 23 studies; moderate-quality evidence), disability (SMD -0.12, 95% CI -0.20 to -0.04; 2543 participants; 19 studies; moderate-quality evidence), and distress (SMD -0.09, 95% CI -0.18 to -0.00; 3297 participants; 24 studies; moderate-quality evidence). We found small benefits for CBT over TAU at treatment end for pain (SMD -0.22, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.10; 2572 participants; 29 studies; moderate-quality evidence), disability (SMD -0.32, 95% CI -0.45 to -0.19; 2524 participants; 28 studies; low-quality evidence), and distress (SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.24; 2559 participants; 27 studies; moderate-quality evidence). Effects were largely maintained at follow-up for CBT versus TAU, but not for CBT versus active control. Evidence quality for CBT outcomes ranged from moderate to low. We rated evidence for AEs as very low quality for both comparisons. BT We analysed eight studies (647 participants). We found no evidence of difference between BT and active control at treatment end (pain SMD -0.67, 95% CI -2.54 to 1.20, very low-quality evidence; disability SMD -0.65, 95% CI -1.85 to 0.54, very low-quality evidence; or distress SMD -0.73, 95% CI -1.47 to 0.01, very low-quality evidence). At follow-up, effects were similar. We found no evidence of difference between BT and TAU (pain SMD -0.08, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.17, low-quality evidence; disability SMD -0.02, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.19, moderate-quality evidence; distress SMD 0.22, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.54, low-quality evidence) at treatment end. At follow-up, we found one to three studies with no evidence of difference between BT and TAU. We rated evidence for all BT versus active control outcomes as very low quality; for BT versus TAU. Evidence quality ranged from moderate to very low. We rated evidence for AEs as very low quality for BT versus active control. No studies of BT versus TAU reported AEs. ACT We analysed five studies (443 participants). There was no evidence of difference between ACT and active control for pain (SMD -0.54, 95% CI -1.20 to 0.11, very low-quality evidence), disability (SMD -1.51, 95% CI -3.05 to 0.03, very low-quality evidence) or distress (SMD -0.61, 95% CI -1.30 to 0.07, very low-quality evidence) at treatment end. At follow-up, there was no evidence of effect for pain or distress (both very low-quality evidence), but two studies showed a large benefit for reducing disability (SMD -2.56, 95% CI -4.22 to -0.89, very low-quality evidence). Two studies compared ACT to TAU at treatment end. Results should be interpreted with caution. We found large benefits of ACT for pain (SMD -0.83, 95% CI -1.57 to -0.09, very low-quality evidence), but none for disability (SMD -1.39, 95% CI -3.20 to 0.41, very low-quality evidence), or distress (SMD -1.16, 95% CI -2.51 to 0.20, very low-quality evidence). Lack of data precluded analysis at follow-up. We rated evidence quality for AEs to be very low. We encourage caution when interpreting very low-quality evidence because the estimates are uncertain and could be easily overturned. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found sufficient evidence across a large evidence base (59 studies, over 5000 participants) that CBT has small or very small beneficial effects for reducing pain, disability, and distress in chronic pain, but we found insufficient evidence to assess AEs. Quality of evidence for CBT was mostly moderate, except for disability, which we rated as low quality. Further trials may provide more precise estimates of treatment effects, but to inform improvements, research should explore sources of variation in treatment effects. Evidence from trials of BT and ACT was of moderate to very low quality, so we are very uncertain about benefits or lack of benefits of these treatments for adults with chronic pain; other treatments were not analysed. These conclusions are similar to our 2012 review, apart from the separate analysis of ACT.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Terapia de Aceitação e Compromisso , Adulto , Afeto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Viés , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Humanos , Medição da Dor , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237032, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790683

RESUMO

The behavioral activation system (BAS) and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) have been proposed to relate to stable traits that predict inter-individual differences in motivation. Prior reports point dopamine (DA) pathways, mainly including ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), implicate in subserving reward-related functions associated with BAS and inhibitory functions related with BIS. However, as an important factor that affects DA releasing, it remains an open question whether the ovarian hormones may also be related to BIS/BAS. Here, to investigate effects of the estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PROG) on BIS/BAS and related DA pathways, we employed a BIS/BAS scale and the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the late follicular phase (FP) and the mid-luteal phase (LP). On the behavioral level, when women had high PROG levels, their E2 levels were found positively correlated with BIS scores, but those women whose PROG levels were low, their E2 levels were negative correlation with BIS scores. On the neural level, we demonstrated BAS was related with the VTA pathway, included brain reward regions of nucleus accumbens (NAc) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Meanwhile, the BIS was correlated with the SN-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) pathway. ROI-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analyses further revealed that, RSFC between the SN and dlPFC was modulated by ovarian hormones. With higher PROG levels, increased E2 levels among women were accompanied by stronger RSFC of the SN-dlPFC, but when PROG levels were low, E2 levels were negatively correlated with the SN-dlPFC RSFC. These findings revealed a combined enhancement effect of E2 and PROG on BIS, and the SN-dlPFC pathway was mainly involved in this process.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Dopamina/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Motivação/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Estradiol/fisiologia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Progesterona/fisiologia , Psicofisiologia , Substância Negra/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Negra/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/diagnóstico por imagem , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237001, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790782

RESUMO

Why people differ in their susceptibility to external events is essential to our understanding of personality, human development, and mental disorders. Genes explain a substantial portion of these differences. Specifically, genes influencing the serotonin system are hypothesized to be differential susceptibility factors, determining a person's reactivity to both positive and negative environments. We tested whether genetic variation in the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) is a differential susceptibility factor for daily events. Participants (N = 326, 77% female, mean age = 25, range = 17-36) completed smartphone questionnaires four times a day over four to five days, measuring stressors, uplifts, positive and negative affect. Affect was predicted from environment valence in the previous hour on a within-person level using three-level autoregressive linear mixed models. The 5-HTTLPR fulfilled all criteria of a differential susceptibility factor: Positive affect in carriers of the short allele (S) was less reactive to both uplifts and stressors, compared to homozygous carriers of the long allele (L/L). This pattern might reflect relative affective inflexibility in S-allele carriers. Our study provides insight into the serotonin system's general role in susceptibility and highlights the need to assess the whole spectrum of naturalistic experiences.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Estresse Psicológico/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Alelos , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Modelos Psicológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748826

RESUMO

Endurance physical exercise is accompanied by subjective perceptions of exertion (reported perceived exertion, RPE), emotional valence, and arousal. These constructs have been hypothesized to serve as the basis for the exerciser to make decisions regarding when to stop, how to regulate pace, and whether or not to exercise again. In dual physical-cognitive tasks, the mental (executive) workload generated by the cognitive task has been shown to influence these perceptions, in ways that could also influence exercise-related decisions. In the present work, we intend to replicate and extend previous findings that manipulating the amount of executive load imposed by a mental task, performed concomitantly with a submaximal cycling session, influenced emotional states but not perceived exertion. Participants (experienced triathletes) were asked to perform a submaximal cycling task in two conditions with different executive demands (a two-back version of the n-back task vs. oddball) but equated in external physical load. Results showed that the higher executive load condition elicited more arousal and less positive valence than the lower load condition. However, both conditions did not differ in RPE. This experimental dissociation suggests that perceived exertion and its emotional correlates are not interchangeable, which opens the possibility that they could play different roles in exercise-related decision-making.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Afeto , Emoções , Humanos , Carga de Trabalho
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1933): 20201636, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32842924

RESUMO

Whether and to what extent animals experience emotions is crucial for understanding their decisions and behaviour, and underpins a range of scientific fields, including animal behaviour, neuroscience, evolutionary biology and animal welfare science. However, research has predominantly focused on alleviating negative emotions in animals, with the expression of positive emotions left largely unexplored. Therefore, little is known about positive emotions in animals and how their expression is mediated. We used tail handling to induce a negative mood in laboratory mice and found that while being more anxious and depressed increased their expression of a discrete negative emotion (disappointment), meaning that they were less resilient to negative events, their capacity to express a discrete positive emotion (elation) was unaffected relative to control mice. Therefore, we show not only that mice have discrete positive emotions, but that they do so regardless of their current mood state. Our findings are the first to suggest that the expression of discrete positive and negative emotions in animals is not equally affected by long-term mood state. Our results also demonstrate that repeated negative events can have a cumulative effect to reduce resilience in laboratory animals, which has significant implications for animal welfare.


Assuntos
Afeto , Comportamento Animal , Camundongos/fisiologia , Animais , Ansiedade , Emoções
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237631, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790759

RESUMO

The COVID-19 crisis resulted in a large proportion of the world's population having to employ social distancing measures and self-quarantine. Given that limiting social interaction impacts mental health, we assessed the effects of quarantine on emotive perception as a proxy of affective states. To this end, we conducted an online experiment whereby 112 participants provided affective ratings for a set of normative images and reported on their well-being during COVID-19 self-isolation. We found that current valence ratings were significantly lower than the original ones from 2015. This negative shift correlated with key aspects of the personal situation during the confinement, including working and living status, and subjective well-being. These findings indicate that quarantine impacts mood negatively, resulting in a negatively biased perception of emotive stimuli. Moreover, our online assessment method shows its validity for large-scale population studies on the impact of COVID-19 related mitigation methods and well-being.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Emoções , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764151

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 has changed American society in ways that are difficult to capture in a timely manner. With this study, we take advantage of daily survey data collected before and after the crisis started to investigate the hypothesis that the crisis has worsened parents' and children's psychological well-being. We also examine the extent of crisis-related hardships and evaluate the hypothesis that the accumulation of hardships will be associated with parent and child psychological well-being. METHODS: Daily survey data were collected between February 20 and April 27, 2020, from hourly service workers with a young child (aged 2-7) in a large US city (N = 8222 person-days from 645 individuals). A subsample completed a one-time survey about the effects of the crisis fielded between March 23 and April 26 (subsample n = 561). RESULTS: Ordered probit models revealed that the frequency of parent-reported daily negative mood increased significantly since the start of the crisis. Many families have experienced hardships during the crisis, including job loss, income loss, caregiving burden, and illness. Both parents' and children's well-being in the postcrisis period was strongly associated with the number of crisis-related hardships that the family experienced. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with our hypotheses, in families that have experienced multiple hardships related to the coronavirus disease 2019 crisis, both parents' and children's mental health is worse. As the crisis continues to unfold, pediatricians should screen for mental health, with particular attention to children whose families are especially vulnerable to economic and disease aspects of the crisis.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Afeto , Betacoronavirus , Criança , Cuidado da Criança/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Renda , Desemprego/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(32): e21027, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769863

RESUMO

Mind-body training (MBT) programs are effective interventions for relieving stress and improving psychological capabilities. To expand our previous study which demonstrated the short-term effects of an 8-week online MBT program, the present study investigated whether those short-term effects persist up to a month after the end of the intervention.Among previous participants, 56 (64%) participated in this follow-up study, 25 in the MBT group and 31 in the control group. Outcome measures included the stress response, emotional intelligence, resilience, coping strategies, positive and negative affect, and anger expression of both groups at baseline, at 8 weeks (right after the training or waiting period), and at 12 weeks (a month after the training or waiting period).The MBT group showed a greater decrease in stress response at 8 weeks, and this reduction remained a month after the end of the intervention. The effect of MBT on resilience and effective coping strategies was also significant at 8 weeks and remained constant a month later. However, the improvement to emotional intelligence and negative affect did not persist a month after training.These findings suggest that the beneficial short-term effects of MBT may last beyond the training period even without continuous practice, but the retention of these benefits seems to depend on the outcome variables. Through a convenient, affordable, and easily accessible online format, MBT may provide cost-effective solutions for employees at worksites.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Terapias Mente-Corpo , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Afeto , Ira , Inteligência Emocional , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores de Tempo
20.
JAMA ; 324(5): 471-480, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32749491

RESUMO

Importance: Low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been associated with higher risk for depression later in life, but there have been few long-term, high-dose large-scale trials. Objective: To test the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on late-life depression risk and mood scores. Design, Setting, and Participants: There were 18 353 men and women aged 50 years or older in the VITAL-DEP (Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial-Depression Endpoint Prevention) ancillary study to VITAL, a randomized clinical trial of cardiovascular disease and cancer prevention among 25 871 adults in the US. There were 16 657 at risk for incident depression (ie, no depression history) and 1696 at risk for recurrent depression (ie, depression history but no treatment for depression within the past 2 years). Randomization occurred from November 2011 through March 2014; randomized treatment ended on December 31, 2017, and this was the final date of follow-up. Intervention: Randomized assignment in a 2 × 2 factorial design to vitamin D3 (2000 IU/d of cholecalciferol) and fish oil or placebo; 9181 were randomized to vitamin D3 and 9172 were randomized to matching placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were the risk of depression or clinically relevant depressive symptoms (total of incident and recurrent cases) and the mean difference in mood scores (8-item Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale [PHQ-8]; score range, 0 points [least symptoms] to 24 points [most symptoms]; the minimal clinically important difference for change in scores was 0.5 points). Results: Among the 18 353 randomized participants (mean age, 67.5 [SD, 7.1] years; 49.2% women), the median treatment duration was 5.3 years and 90.5% completed the trial (93.5% among those alive at the end of the trial). Risk of depression or clinically relevant depressive symptoms was not significantly different between the vitamin D3 group (609 depression or clinically relevant depressive symptom events; 12.9/1000 person-years) and the placebo group (625 depression or clinically relevant depressive symptom events; 13.3/1000 person-years) (hazard ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.87 to 1.09]; P = .62); there were no significant differences between groups in depression incidence or recurrence. No significant differences were observed between treatment groups for change in mood scores over time; mean change in PHQ-8 score was not significantly different from zero (mean difference for change in mood scores, 0.01 points [95% CI, -0.04 to 0.05 points]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults aged 50 years or older without clinically relevant depressive symptoms at baseline, treatment with vitamin D3 compared with placebo did not result in a statistically significant difference in the incidence and recurrence of depression or clinically relevant depressive symptoms or for change in mood scores over a median follow-up of 5.3 years. These findings do not support the use of vitamin D3 in adults to prevent depression. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT01169259 and NCT01696435.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Colecalciferol/farmacologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitaminas/farmacologia
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