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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0225023, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326450

RESUMO

Dog training methods range broadly from those using mostly positive punishment and negative reinforcement (aversive-based) to those using primarily positive reinforcement (reward-based). Although aversive-based training has been strongly criticized for negatively affecting dog welfare, there is no comprehensive research focusing on companion dogs and mainstream techniques, and most studies rely on owner-reported assessment of training methods and dog behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of aversive- and reward-based training methods on companion dog welfare within and outside the training context. Ninety-two companion dogs were recruited from three reward-based schools (Group Reward, n = 42), and from four aversive-based schools, two using low proportions of aversive-based methods (Group Mixed, n = 22) and two using high proportions of aversive-based methods (Group Aversive, n = 28). For evaluating welfare during training, dogs were video recorded for three sessions and six saliva samples were collected, three at home (baseline levels) and three after training (post-training levels). Video recordings were used to examine the frequency of stress-related behaviors (e.g., lip lick, yawn) and the overall behavioral state of the dog (e.g., tense, relaxed), and saliva samples were analyzed for cortisol concentration. For evaluating welfare outside the training context, dogs participated in a cognitive bias task. Results showed that dogs from Group Aversive displayed more stress-related behaviors, were more frequently in tense and low behavioral states and panted more during training, and exhibited higher post-training increases in cortisol levels than dogs from Group Reward. Additionally, dogs from Group Aversive were more 'pessimistic' in the cognitive bias task than dogs from Group Reward. Dogs from Group Mixed displayed more stress-related behaviors, were more frequently in tense states and panted more during training than dogs from Group Reward. Finally, although Groups Mixed and Aversive did not differ in their performance in the cognitive bias task nor in cortisol levels, the former displayed more stress-related behaviors and was more frequently in tense and low behavioral states. These findings indicate that aversive-based training methods, especially if used in high proportions, compromise the welfare of companion dogs both within and outside the training context.


Assuntos
Animais de Estimação/psicologia , Reforço Psicológico , Afeto/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Condicionamento Psicológico/fisiologia , Cães , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Masculino , Punição/psicologia , Recompensa , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gravação em Vídeo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242326, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206691

RESUMO

The present study examines the extent to which individuals' self-efficacy beliefs about their capacity to manage distinct emotions, such as anger, sadness, fear, shame and guilt, are associated with negative affect and life satisfaction in a Spanish population of diverse ages. The results attest to the validity of the Multidimensional Negative Emotions Self-Regulatory Efficacy Scale (MNESRES) and show that self-efficacy beliefs related to basic and self-conscious/moral emotions are associated differently with negative affect and life satisfaction. These findings corroborate previous findings from American and Italian populations, and they support the view that discrete emotions deserve distinct attention, either regarding their management or their association with individuals' well-being and adjustment.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Emoções , Satisfação Pessoal , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Sexuais
3.
Seizure ; 83: 187-192, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181426

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate psychosocial long-term outcome in patients diagnosed with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) and to predict outcome of PNES, economic status, and quality of life (QoL) at follow-up. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with PNES in the video-EEG-monitoring unit at our Epilepsy center between 2002-2016 were contacted by phone 1-16 years after communicating the diagnosis. Patients underwent a structured interview asking for current PNES status, psychosocial situation (economic status, marital status, setting of living, driving), depression, and QoL. RESULTS: Of 70 PNES patients without comorbid epilepsy (age: 41.1 ± 13.5 years; 74 % female, follow-up: 5.2 ± 4.2 years), 23 patients (33 %) reported to be free of PNES during the last 12 months. Patients with cessation of PNES were younger at PNES onset (p < .01) and diagnosis (p < .01) and had a higher education (p < .05). At follow-up, the proportion of economically active patients only increased in individuals with cessation of PNES (p < .001) while an increased number of patients with persisting PNES relied on governmental support (p < .001). Cessation of PNES was associated with better mood (p < .01) and QoL (p < .001). In multiple regression models, cessation of PNES was only predicted by younger age at onset, while good economic outcome was determined by younger age and good economic status at diagnosis and cessation of PNES at follow-up. Good QoL at follow-up was predicted by low depressive symptoms, freedom of PNES, and economic activity at follow-up. CONCLUSION: Long-term outcome in patients with PNES remains to be poor and the majority of patients continue to have PNES. Cessation of PNES was associated with good economic outcome, mood, and QoL.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Convulsões/psicologia , Transtornos Somatoformes/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Convulsões/diagnóstico , Convulsões/terapia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos Somatoformes/diagnóstico , Transtornos Somatoformes/terapia
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5939, 2020 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230131

RESUMO

Different pain types may be encoded in different brain circuits. Here, we examine similarities and differences in brain processing of visceral and somatic pain. We analyze data from seven fMRI studies (N = 165) and five types of pain and discomfort (esophageal, gastric, and rectal distension, cutaneous thermal stimulation, and vulvar pressure) to establish and validate generalizable pain representations. We first evaluate an established multivariate brain measure, the Neurologic Pain Signature (NPS), as a common nociceptive pain system across pain types. Then, we develop a multivariate classifier to distinguish visceral from somatic pain. The NPS responds robustly in 98% of participants across pain types, correlates with perceived intensity of visceral pain and discomfort, and shows specificity to pain when compared with cognitive and affective conditions from twelve additional studies (N = 180). Pre-defined signatures for non-pain negative affect do not respond to visceral pain. The visceral versus the somatic classifier reliably distinguishes somatic (thermal) from visceral (rectal) stimulation in both cross-validation and independent cohorts. Other pain types reflect mixtures of somatic and visceral patterns. These results validate the NPS as measuring a common core nociceptive pain system across pain types, and provide a new classifier for visceral versus somatic pain.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Dor Nociceptiva/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Cognição/fisiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Dor Nociceptiva/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Visceral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dor Visceral/fisiopatologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241041, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112898

RESUMO

The sense of touch develops early in life and becomes a determinant aspect of our personal narratives, providing crucial information about the world around us and playing a prominent role in affective and social interactions. In this study we aimed to explore whether individual differences in touch experiences across the lifespan are related to adult attachment styles and to perceived touch deprivation. For this we first developed an instrument, namely the Tactile Biography, to quantify individual differences in affective touch experiences throughout life. Secondly, we performed a set of regressions models and a mediation analysis to investigate the role of attachment in relation to both the tactile history and perceived touch deprivation. We found that experiences of affective touch during childhood and adolescence seem to be closely associated with adult attachment styles and adult social touch experiences. Avoidant attachment appears to serve as a mediator in the relationship between earlier (childhood/adolescent) and later (adult) affective touch experiences, as well as between earlier affective touch experiences and perceived touch deprivation. These findings offer further support to existing literature, providing novel insights for the fields of social affective touch and attachment research.


Assuntos
Longevidade/fisiologia , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papel (figurativo) , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Health Psychol ; 39(12): 1078-1088, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897097

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Experimental evidence suggests that inadequate sleep disrupts next-day affective processing and evokes greater stress reactivity. However, less research has focused on whether sleep predicts next-day affective reactivity to naturally occurring stressors and positive events in daily life, as well as the reversed direction of association (i.e., affective reactivity to daily events as predictors of subsequent sleep). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the within-person, bidirectional associations between nightly sleep duration and day-to-day fluctuations in affect related to stressors and positive events. METHOD: Adults ages 33-84 (N = 1,982, 57% female) in the U.S. National Study of Daily Experiences II reported sociodemographics and chronic conditions at baseline, then completed telephone interviews for 8 consecutive days about their sleep duration, daily stressors, positive events, and affect. RESULTS: Prior-night sleep duration moderated the link between current-day events and positive affect, but not negative affect. Specifically, nights of shorter-than-usual sleep duration predicted more pronounced decreases in positive affect in response to daily stressors, as well as smaller increases in positive affect in response to daily positive events. Results for the reversed direction of association showed no evidence for affective reactivity to daily events as predictors of subsequent sleep duration. People with more chronic conditions were more reactive to positive events, particularly after nights of longer sleep. CONCLUSION: Affective reactivity to daily stressors and positive events vary based upon sleep duration, such that sleep loss may amplify loss of positive affect on days with stressors, as well as reduce positive affective responsiveness to positive events. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Afeto/fisiologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Health Psychol ; 39(12): 1109-1124, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940529

RESUMO

Objective: Appetitive risk behaviors (ARB), including tobacco use, alcohol consumption, consumption of calorie dense/nutrient-poor foods, and sexual risk behavior contribute substantially to morbidity and mortality. Affective states that arise from a wide array of unrelated circumstances (i.e., incidental affect) may carry over to influence ARB. A meta-analysis is needed to systematically examine causal evidence for the role of incidental affect (including specific emotions) in influencing ARB. Method: Integrating effect sizes from 91 published and unpublished experimental studies that include both an incidental-affect induction and neutral-control condition (k = 271 effect sizes: k = 183 negative affect, k = 78 positive affect), this meta-analysis examines how negative and positive affective states influenced ARB and related health cognitions (e.g., intentions, evaluations, craving, perceived control). Results: Negative affective states reliably increased ARB, in analyses where all negative affective states were analyzed (d = .29) and in stratified analyses of just negative mood (d = .30) and stress (d = .48). These effects were stronger among study populations coded as clinically at risk. Positive affective states generally did not influence ARB or related health cognitions, except in the presence of a craving cue. Design issues of extant literature largely precluded conclusions about the effects of specific positive and negative affective states. Conclusion: Taken together, findings suggest the importance of strategies to attenuate negative affect incidental to ARB to facilitate healthier behavioral patterns, especially among clinically at-risk individuals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde/fisiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239033, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925966

RESUMO

Mood and behaviour are thought to be under considerable influence of the seasons, but evidence is not unequivocal. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether mood and affect are related to the seasons, and what is the role of neuroticism in this association. In a national internet-based crowdsourcing project in the Dutch general population, individuals were invited to assess themselves on several domains of mental health. ANCOVA was used to test for differences between the seasons in mean scores on the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS). Within-subject seasonal differences were tested as well, in a subgroup that completed the PANAS twice. The role of neuroticism as a potential moderator of seasonality was examined. Participants (n = 5,282) scored significantly higher on positive affect (PANAS) and lower on depressive symptoms (QIDS) in spring compared to summer, autumn and winter. They also scored significantly lower on negative affect in spring compared to autumn. Effect sizes were small or very small. Neuroticism moderated the effect of the seasons, with only participants higher on neuroticism showing seasonality. There was no within-subject seasonal effect for participants who completed the questionnaires twice (n = 503), nor was neuroticism a significant moderator of this within-subjects effect. The findings of this study in a general population sample participating in an online crowdsourcing study do not support the widespread belief that seasons influence mood to a great extent. For, as far as the seasons did influence mood, this only applied to highly neurotic participants and not to low-neurotic participants. The underlying mechanism of cognitive attribution may explain the perceived relation between seasonality and neuroticism.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Periodicidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroticismo/fisiologia , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Endocrinology ; 161(9)2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738138

RESUMO

Organisms that inhabit the temperate zone exhibit various seasonal adaptive behaviors, including reproduction, hibernation, molting, and migration. Day length, known as photoperiod, is the most noise-free and widely used environmental cue that enables animals to anticipate the oncoming seasons and adapt their physiologies accordingly. Although less clear, some human traits also exhibit seasonality, such as birthrate, mood, cognitive brain responses, and various diseases. However, the molecular basis for human seasonality is poorly understood. Herein, we first review the underlying mechanisms of seasonal adaptive strategies of animals, including seasonal reproduction and stress responses during the breeding season. We then briefly summarize our recent discovery of signaling pathways involved in the winter depression-like phenotype in medaka fish. We believe that exploring the regulation of seasonal traits in animal models will provide insight into human seasonality and aid in the understanding of human diseases such as seasonal affective disorder (SAD).


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Afeto/efeitos da radiação , Hormônios/fisiologia , Luz , Reprodução/efeitos da radiação , Estações do Ano , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica/efeitos da radiação , Afeto/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Fotoperíodo , Reprodução/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Transtorno Afetivo Sazonal/epidemiologia , Transtorno Afetivo Sazonal/etiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236987, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745087

RESUMO

The relationship between mood states and state creativity has long been investigated. Exploring individual differences may provide additional important information to further our understanding of the complex mood-creativity relationship. The present study explored the state-level mood-creativity relationship from the perspective of trait creativity. We employed the experience sampling method (ESM) in a cohort of 56 college students over five consecutive days. The participants reported their state creativity on originality and usefulness dimensions at six random points between 9:00 a.m. and 11:00 p.m., along with a 10-item concurrent mood state report. Their trait creativity was measured by the Guildford Alternative Uses Test (AUT) and the Remote Associates Test (RAT). We found moderating effects of the participants' trait creativity on their state-level mood-creativity relationship. Specifically, whereas the positive correlation between positive mood state and originality of state creativity was stronger for the participants with higher AUT flexibility scores, stronger positive correlations between negative mood state and originality of state creativity were observed for individuals with higher AUT originality scores. Our findings provide evidence in support of introducing individual differences to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of the mood-creativity link. The results could be of practical value, in developing individualized mood state regulation strategies for promoting state creativity.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Criatividade , Individualidade , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237032, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790683

RESUMO

The behavioral activation system (BAS) and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) have been proposed to relate to stable traits that predict inter-individual differences in motivation. Prior reports point dopamine (DA) pathways, mainly including ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN), implicate in subserving reward-related functions associated with BAS and inhibitory functions related with BIS. However, as an important factor that affects DA releasing, it remains an open question whether the ovarian hormones may also be related to BIS/BAS. Here, to investigate effects of the estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PROG) on BIS/BAS and related DA pathways, we employed a BIS/BAS scale and the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the late follicular phase (FP) and the mid-luteal phase (LP). On the behavioral level, when women had high PROG levels, their E2 levels were found positively correlated with BIS scores, but those women whose PROG levels were low, their E2 levels were negative correlation with BIS scores. On the neural level, we demonstrated BAS was related with the VTA pathway, included brain reward regions of nucleus accumbens (NAc) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Meanwhile, the BIS was correlated with the SN-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) pathway. ROI-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analyses further revealed that, RSFC between the SN and dlPFC was modulated by ovarian hormones. With higher PROG levels, increased E2 levels among women were accompanied by stronger RSFC of the SN-dlPFC, but when PROG levels were low, E2 levels were negatively correlated with the SN-dlPFC RSFC. These findings revealed a combined enhancement effect of E2 and PROG on BIS, and the SN-dlPFC pathway was mainly involved in this process.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Dopamina/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Motivação/fisiologia , Ovário/fisiologia , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Estradiol/fisiologia , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Progesterona/fisiologia , Psicofisiologia , Substância Negra/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Negra/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/diagnóstico por imagem , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 40(4): 391-395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32644323

RESUMO

PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Attentional bias toward drug-related cues is considered to be an indication of neurocognitive processes associated with drug dependence. While this phenomenon has been shown in other addictive substances, whether hypnotic medication would lead to similar processes remains an issue to be investigated. The present study examined attentional bias toward drug-related cues in long-term hypnotic users and the effect of negative affect on this process. METHODS/PROCEDURES: Thirteen long-term hypnotic users participated in this study. They spent 2 nights in the sleep laboratory: a mood-induction night and a neutral night. Attentional bias was measured through the recording of event-related potentials using a cue-reactivity paradigm; subjective craving for hypnotics was assessed using a single-item rating scale, and negative affect was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. FINDINGS/RESULTS: The results showed that the amplitudes of P300 and slow positive wave for hypnotic-related and sleep-related photographs were significantly higher than those for neutral photographs in both conditions. Negative mood induction did not significantly increase attentional bias. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: The findings provide preliminary evidence that long-term hypnotic users do have attentional bias for hypnotic-related photos, suggesting the possibility of neurocognitive processes associated with drug dependence. However, the results did not show higher attentional bias under negative mood, suggesting that the use of hypnotics is not reinforced by the desire to eliminate negative affect. Because of the limited sample size and lack of a control group, the results should be considered as preliminary findings that call for future studies to further investigate this issue.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Viés de Atenção/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/efeitos adversos , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fissura , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/induzido quimicamente , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11839, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32678247

RESUMO

The influence of affective states on decision-making is likely to be complex. Negative states resulting from experience of punishing events have been hypothesised to generate enhanced expectations of future punishment and 'pessimistic'/risk-averse decisions. However, they may also influence how decision-outcomes are valued. Such influences may further depend on whether decisions at hand are germane to the rewards or punishers that induced the affective state in the first place. Here we attempt to dissect these influences by presenting either many or few rewards or punishers of different types (sucrose vs air-puff; 50 kHz vs 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalisations) to rats, and investigating their subsequent decisions in a judgement bias task that employed sucrose and air-puff as decision outcomes. Rats that received many sucrose pellets prior to testing were more risk-averse than those receiving many air-puffs. Ultrasonic vocalisations did not alter decision-making. Computational analysis revealed a higher weighting of punishers relative to rewards (in agreement with findings from a separate behavioural task) and a bias towards the risk-averse response following pre-test sucrose compared to pre-test air-puff. Thus, in this study reward and punisher manipulation of affective state appeared to alter decision-making by influencing both expectation and valuation of decision-outcomes in a domain-specific way.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Recompensa , Afeto/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento de Escolha/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/efeitos dos fármacos , Julgamento/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Punição/psicologia , Ratos , Som , Sacarose/farmacologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236825, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730311

RESUMO

Bodily movements representing abstract concepts (e.g., fluidity) can affect divergent creative thinking. A recent study showed that participants who performed fluid arm movements by tracing curved line-drawings (the fluid condition) subsequently generated a larger number of more original alternative uses for newspapers than did those who traced angular line-drawings (the non-fluid condition). This suggests that fluid movements enhance fluency and originality in divergent creative thinking. To replicate these findings, we employed the same task with a larger Japanese sample. Participants in the fluid condition generated more uses for newspapers than in the non-fluid condition, regardless of confounding variables: mood, subjective difficulty of the tracing, and daily use of newspapers. In contrast to previous findings, there were no effects on originality. Our results suggest that fluidity enacted by arm movements robustly enhances creative fluency, although other factors (e.g., culture) could interfere with its effect on originality.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Criatividade , Movimento , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235973, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658900

RESUMO

Various motivational theories emphasize that desired emotional outcomes guide behavioral choices. Although motivational theory and research has emphasized that behavior is affected by desired emotional outcomes, little research has focused on the impact of anticipated feelings about engaging in behavior. The current research seeks to partly fill that void. Specifically, we borrow from affective forecasting research in suggesting that forecasts about engaging in performance-relevant behaviors can be more or less accurate. Furthermore, we suggest that the degree of accuracy has implications for self-reported task performance. To examine these ideas, we conducted two studies in which individuals made affective predictions about engaging in tasks and then later reported how they actually felt during task engagement. We also assessed their self-reported task performance. In Study 1, 214 workers provided affective forecasts about upcoming work tasks, and in Study 2, 185 students made forecasts about studying for an exam. Results based on polynomial regression were largely consistent across the studies. The accuracy of the forecasts did not conform to the pattern of affective forecasting accuracy typically found outside the performance domain. Furthermore, anticipated and experienced affect jointly predicted self-reported task performance in a consistent manner. Collectively, these findings suggest that taking into account anticipated affect, and its relationship with later experienced affect, provides a more comprehensive account of affect's role in task performance.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Motivação/fisiologia , Autorrelato , Estudantes/psicologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Social
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235346, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667951

RESUMO

Several studies have recently suggested that an abnormal processing of respiratory interoceptive and nociceptive (painful) stimuli may contribute to eating disorder (ED) pathophysiology. Mood and anxiety disorders (MA) are also characterized by abnormal respiratory symptoms, and show substantial comorbidity with ED. However, no studies have examined both respiratory and pain processing simultaneously within ED and MA. The present study systematically evaluated responses to perturbations of respiratory and nociceptive signals across the levels of physiology, behavior, and symptom report in a transdiagnostic ED sample (n = 51) that was individually matched to MA individuals (n = 51) and healthy comparisons (HC; n = 51). Participants underwent an inspiratory breath-holding challenge as a probe of respiratory interoception and a cold pressor challenge as a probe of pain processing. We expected both clinical groups to report greater stress and fear in response to respiratory and nociceptive perturbation than HCs, in the absence of differential physiological and behavioral responses. During breath-holding, both the ED and MA groups reported significantly more stress, feelings of suffocation, and suffocation fear than HC, with the ED group reporting the most severe symptoms. Moreover, anxiety sensitivity was related to suffocation fear only in the ED group. The heightened affective responses in the current study occurred in the absence of group differences in behavioral (breath hold duration, cold pressor duration) and physiological (end-tidal carbon dioxide, end-tidal oxygen, heart rate, skin conductance) responses. Against our expectations, there were no group differences in the response to cold pain stimulation. A matched-subgroup analysis focusing on individuals with anorexia nervosa (n = 30) produced similar results. These findings underscore the presence of abnormal respiratory interoception in MA and suggest that hyperreactivity to respiratory signals may be a potentially overlooked clinical feature of ED.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Dor Nociceptiva/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Anorexia Nervosa/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Asfixia/fisiopatologia , Asfixia/terapia , Comorbidade , Medo/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos do Humor/complicações , Transtornos do Humor/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/fisiopatologia , Dor Nociceptiva/complicações , Dor Nociceptiva/epidemiologia , Dor/complicações , Dor/epidemiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Sistema Respiratório/fisiopatologia
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235378, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673334

RESUMO

Reminiscing, or thinking and talking about our past experiences, can have mood enhancing effects. Rumination is implicated in reminiscence and yet has been shown to have negative effects on mood, with important differences between age groups. However, age differences in the effects of reminiscing on mood, and particularly the effects of rumination within reminiscence, are less explored. Two different age groups completed self-report measures of the positive directive (planning for present and future behaviors) and social (communication) uses of autobiographical memory, as well as maladaptive rumination and depression symptom severity. Young participants (Mean age: 21.82) ruminated more and reported greater frequency of using the directive and social functions of thinking and talking about past experiences than older adults (Mean age: 71.82). These reminiscence processes were also differentially associated with depression symptoms between age groups when tested in structural equation models. In older participants, but not young participants, the directive function was negatively associated with depression severity; in young participants, but not old participants, the social function was negatively associated with depression severity. Furthermore, although depressive and abstract rumination was directly positively related to depression scores in both samples, this association was inverted when the effect of rumination on depression was calculated through functions of reminiscence. The implications of these results for intervention development in older versus young adults, is discussed.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Síndrome da Ruminação/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome da Ruminação/fisiopatologia , Autorrelato , Pensamento/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neuron ; 107(5): 972-985.e6, 2020 09 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645299

RESUMO

Neural decoding and neuromodulation technologies hold great promise for treating mood and other brain disorders in next-generation therapies that manipulate functional brain networks. Here we perform a novel causal network analysis to decode multiregional communication in the primate mood processing network and determine how neuromodulation, short-burst tetanic microstimulation (sbTetMS), alters multiregional network communication. The causal network analysis revealed a mechanism of network excitability that regulates when a sender stimulation site communicates with receiver sites. Decoding network excitability from neural activity at modulator sites predicted sender-receiver communication, whereas sbTetMS neuromodulation temporarily disrupted sender-receiver communication. These results reveal specific network mechanisms of multiregional communication and suggest a new generation of brain therapies that combine neural decoding to predict multiregional communication with neuromodulation to disrupt multiregional communication.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Animais , Estimulação Elétrica/métodos , Macaca mulatta
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