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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260699, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34962933

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to examine whether positive and negative mood states affect auditory distraction in a serial-recall task. The duplex-mechanism account differentiates two types of auditory distraction. The changing-state effect is postulated to be rooted in interference-by-process and to be automatic. The auditory-deviant effect is attributed to attentional capture by the deviant distractors. Only the auditory-deviant effect, but not the changing-state effect, should be influenced by emotional mood states according to the duplex-mechanism account. Four experiments were conducted to test how auditory distraction is affected by emotional mood states. Mood was induced by autobiographical recall (Experiments 1 and 2) or the presentation of emotional pictures (Experiments 3 and 4). Even though the manipulations were successful in inducing changes in mood, neither positive mood (Experiments 1 and 3) nor negative mood (Experiments 2 and 4) had any effect on distraction despite large samples sizes (N = 851 in total). The results thus are not in line with the hypothesis that auditory distraction is affected by changes in mood state. The results support an automatic-capture account according to which the auditory-deviant effect and the changing-state effect are mainly stimulus-driven effects that are rooted in the automatic processing of the to-be-ignored auditory stream.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Música , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260952, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34965252

RESUMO

The endeavor to understand the human brain has seen more progress in the last few decades than in the previous two millennia. Still, our understanding of how the human brain relates to behavior in the real world and how this link is modulated by biological, social, and environmental factors is limited. To address this, we designed the Healthy Brain Study (HBS), an interdisciplinary, longitudinal, cohort study based on multidimensional, dynamic assessments in both the laboratory and the real world. Here, we describe the rationale and design of the currently ongoing HBS. The HBS is examining a population-based sample of 1,000 healthy participants (age 30-39) who are thoroughly studied across an entire year. Data are collected through cognitive, affective, behavioral, and physiological testing, neuroimaging, bio-sampling, questionnaires, ecological momentary assessment, and real-world assessments using wearable devices. These data will become an accessible resource for the scientific community enabling the next step in understanding the human brain and how it dynamically and individually operates in its bio-social context. An access procedure to the collected data and bio-samples is in place and published on https://www.healthybrainstudy.nl/en/data-and-methods/access. Trail registration: https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/7955.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Meio Social , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Comportamento , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Cognição/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Sensação/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261060, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34972120

RESUMO

Affective touch refers to the emotional and motivational facets of tactile sensation and has been linked to the activation of a specialised system of mechanosensory afferents (the CT system), that respond optimally to slow caress-like touch. Affective touch has been shown to play an important role in the building of the bodily self: the multisensory integrated global awareness of one's own body. Here we investigated the effects of affective touch on subsequent tactile awareness and multisensory integration using the Somatic Signal Detection Task (SSDT). During the SSDT, participants were required to detect near-threshold tactile stimulation on their cheek, in the presence/absence of a concomitant light. Participants repeated the SSDT twice, before and after receiving a touch manipulation. Participants were divided into two groups: one received affective touch (CT optimal; n = 32), and the second received non-affective touch (non-CT optimal; n = 34). Levels of arousal (skin conductance levels, SCLs) and mood changes after the touch manipulation were also measured. Affective touch led to an increase in tactile accuracy, as indicated by less false reports of touch and a trend towards higher tactile sensitivity during the subsequent SSDT. Conversely, non-affective touch was found to induce a partial decrease in the correct detection of touch possibly due to a desensitization of skin mechanoreceptors. Both affective and non-affective touch induced a more positive mood and higher SCLs in participants. The increase in SCLs was greater after affective touch. We conclude that receiving affective touch enhances the sense of bodily self therefore increasing perceptual accuracy and awareness. Higher SCLs are suggested to be a possible mediator linking affective touch to a greater tactile accuracy. Clinical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Pele , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Percepção do Tato/fisiologia , Tato/fisiologia , Adulto , Vias Aferentes/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684650

RESUMO

The brain is approximately 75% water. Therefore, insufficient water intake may affect the cognitive performance of humans. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of water restriction and supplementation on cognitive performances and mood, and the optimum amount of water to alleviate the detrimental effects of dehydration, among young adults. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 76 young, healthy adults aged 18-23 years old from Baoding, China. After fasting overnight for 12 h, at 8:00 a.m. of day 2, the osmolality of the first morning urine and blood, cognitive performance, and mood were measured as a baseline test. After water restriction for 24 h, at 8:00 a.m. of day 3, the same indexes were measured as a dehydration test. Participants were randomly assigned into four groups: water supplementation group (WS group) 1, 2, or 3 (given 1000, 500, or 200 mL purified water), and the no water supplementation group (NW group). Furthermore, participants were instructed to drink all the water within 10 min. Ninety minutes later, the same measurements were performed as a rehydration test. Compared with the baseline test, participants were all in dehydration and their scores on the portrait memory test, vigor, and self-esteem decreased (34 vs. 27, p < 0.001; 11.8 vs. 9.2, p < 0.001; 7.8 vs. 6.4, p < 0.001). Fatigue and TMD (total mood disturbance) increased (3.6 vs. 4.8, p = 0.004; 95.7 vs. 101.8, p < 0.001) in the dehydration test. Significant interactions between time and volume were found in hydration status, fatigue, vigor, TMD, symbol search test, and operation span test (F = 6.302, p = 0.001; F = 3.118, p = 0.029; F = 2.849, p = 0.043; F = 2.859, p = 0.043; F = 3.463, p = 0.021) when comparing the rehydration and dehydration test. Furthermore, the hydration status was better in WS group 1 compared to WS group 2; the fatigue and TMD scores decreased, and the symbol search test and operation span test scores increased, only in WS group 1 and WS group 2 (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between them (p > 0.05). Dehydration impaired episodic memory and mood. Water supplementation improved processing speed, working memory, and mood, and 1000 mL was the optimum volume.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Água/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , China , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Feminino , Hidratação , Humanos , Umidade , Masculino , Temperatura , Sede/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256759, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34525099

RESUMO

Five studies tested the effect of exposure to authoritarian values on positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and meaning in life (MIL). Study 1 (N = 1,053) showed that simply completing a measure of right-wing authoritarianism (vs. not) prior to rating MIL led to higher MIL. Preregistered Study 2 (N = 1,904) showed that reading speeches by real-world authoritarians (e.g., Adolf Hitler) led to lower PA, higher NA, and higher MIL than a control passage. In preregistered Studies 3 (N = 1,573) and 4 (N = 1,512), Americans read authoritarian, egalitarian, or control messages and rated mood, MIL, and evaluated the passages. Both studies showed that egalitarian messages led to better mood and authoritarian messages led to higher MIL. Study 5 (N = 148) directly replicated these results with Canadians. Aggregating across studies (N = 3,401), moderational analyses showed that meaning in life, post manipulation, was associated with more favorable evaluations of the authoritarian passage. In addition, PA was a stronger predictor of MIL in the egalitarian and control conditions than in the authoritarian condition. Further results showed no evidence that negative mood (or disagreement) spurred the boost in MIL. Implications and future directions are discussed.


Assuntos
Autoritarismo , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Idoso , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256983, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473768

RESUMO

Sleep loss is reported to influence affective processing, causing changes in overall mood and altering emotion regulation. These aspects of affective processing are seldom investigated together, making it difficult to determine whether total sleep deprivation has a global effect on how affective stimuli and emotions are processed, or whether specific components of affective processing are affected selectively. Sixty healthy adults were recruited for an in-laboratory study and, after a monitored night of sleep and laboratory acclimation, randomly assigned to either a total sleep deprivation condition (n = 40) or a rested control condition (n = 20). Measurements of mood, vigilant attention to affective stimuli, affective working memory, affective categorization, and emotion regulation were taken for both groups. With one exception, measures of interest were administered twice: once at baseline and again 24 hours later, after the sleep deprived group had spent a night awake (working memory was assessed only after total sleep deprivation). Sleep deprived individuals experienced an overall reduction in positive affect with no significant change in negative affect. Despite the substantial decline in positive affect, there was no evidence that processing affectively valenced information was biased under total sleep deprivation. Sleep deprived subjects did not rate affective stimuli differently from rested subjects, nor did they show sleep deprivation-specific effects of affect type on vigilant attention, working memory, and categorization tasks. However, sleep deprived subjects showed less effective regulation of negative emotion. Overall, we found no evidence that total sleep deprivation biased the processing of affective stimuli in general. By contrast, total sleep deprivation appeared to reduce controlled processing required for emotion regulation.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia , Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Vigília/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502393

RESUMO

Beta-phenylethylamine (ß-PEA) is a well-known and widespread endogenous neuroactive trace amine found throughout the central nervous system in humans. In this study, we demonstrated the effects of ß-PEA on psychomotor, rewarding, and reinforcing behaviors and affective state using the open-field test, conditioned place preference (CPP), self-administration, and ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) paradigms. We also investigated the role of the dopamine (DA) D1 receptor in the behavioral effects of ß-PEA in rodents. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western immunoblotting, we also determined the DA concentration and the DA-related protein levels in the dorsal striatum of mice administered with acute ß-PEA. The results showed that acute ß-PEA increased stereotypic behaviors such as circling and head-twitching responses in mice. In the CPP experiment, ß-PEA increased place preference in mice. In the self-administration test, ß-PEA significantly enhanced self-administration during a 2 h session under fixed ratio (FR) schedules (FR1 and FR3) and produced a higher breakpoint during a 6 h session under progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement in rats. In addition, acute ß-PEA increased 50-kHz USV calls in rats. Furthermore, acute ß-PEA administration increased DA concentration and p-DAT and TH expression in the dorsal striatum of mice. Finally, pretreatment with SCH23390, a DA D1 receptor antagonist, attenuated ß-PEA-induced circling behavior and ß-PEA-taking behavior in rodents. Taken together, these findings suggest that ß-PEA has rewarding and reinforcing effects and psychoactive properties, which induce psychomotor behaviors and a positive affective state by activating the DA D1 receptor in the dorsal striatum.


Assuntos
Fenetilaminas/farmacologia , Receptores de Dopamina D1/metabolismo , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Afeto/fisiologia , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Condicionamento Psicológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Dopamina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fenetilaminas/metabolismo , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Dopamina D1/efeitos dos fármacos , Reforço Psicológico , Recompensa , Autoadministração
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16966, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417475

RESUMO

Affective state can bias an animal's judgement. Animals in positive affective states can interpret ambiguous cues more positively ("optimistically") than animals in negative affective states. Thus, judgement bias tests can determine an animal's affective state through their responses to ambiguous cues. We tested the effects of environmental complexity and stocking density on affective states of broiler chickens through a multimodal judgement bias test. Broilers were trained to approach reinforced locations signaled by one color and not to approach unreinforced locations signaled by a different color. Trained birds were tested for latencies to approach three ambiguous cues of intermediate color and location. Broilers discriminated between cues, with shorter latencies to approach ambiguous cues closest to the reinforced cue than cues closest to the unreinforced cue, validating the use of the test in this context. Broilers housed in high-complexity pens approached ambiguous cues faster than birds in low-complexity pens-an optimistic judgement bias, suggesting the former were in a more positive affective state. Broilers from high-density pens tended to approach all cues faster than birds from low-density pens, possibly because resource competition in their home pen increased food motivation. Overall, our study suggests that environmental complexity improves broilers' affective states, implying animal welfare benefits of environmental enrichment.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Animais , Viés , Marcha/fisiologia , Julgamento/fisiologia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino
9.
J Neurosci ; 41(38): 8075-8087, 2021 09 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34380767

RESUMO

Despite many observations of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity related to cognition and affect in humans and nonhuman animals, little is known about the causal role of the ACC in psychological processes. Here, we investigate the causal role of the ACC in affective responding to threat in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), a species with an ACC largely homologous to humans in structure and connectivity. Male adult monkeys received bilateral ibotenate axon-sparing lesions to the ACC (sulcus and gyrus of areas 24, 32, and 25) and were tested in two classic tasks of monkey threat processing: the human intruder and object responsiveness tasks. Monkeys with ACC lesions did not significantly differ from controls in their overall mean reactivity toward threatening or novel stimuli. However, while control monkeys maintained their reactivity across test days, monkeys with ACC lesions reduced their reactivity toward stimuli as days advanced. Critically, this attenuated reactivity was found even when the stimuli presented each day were novel, suggesting that ACC lesions did not simply cause accelerated adaptation to stimuli as they became less novel over repeated presentations. Rather, these results imply that the primate ACC is necessary for maintaining appropriate affective responses toward potentially harmful and/or novel stimuli. These findings therefore have implications for mood disorders in which responding to threat and novelty is disrupted.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Decades of research in humans and nonhuman animals have investigated the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in a huge number and variety of psychological processes spanning cognition and affect, as well as in psychological and neurologic diseases. The structure is broadly implicated in psychological processes and mental and neurologic health, yet its causal role in these processes has largely gone untested, particularly in primates. Here we demonstrate that when anterior cingulate cortex is completely eliminated, rhesus monkeys are initially responsive to threats, but these responses attenuate rather than persist, resembling a pattern of behavior commonly seen in patients diagnosed with mood disorders.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Giro do Cíngulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Ibotênico , Macaca mulatta , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 14351, 2021 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34253773

RESUMO

The acute non-image forming (NIF) effects of daytime light on momentary mood had been-although not always-established in the current literature. It still remains largely unknown whether short-time light exposure would modulate emotion perception in healthy adults. The current study (N = 48) was conducted to explore the effects of illuminance (100 lx vs. 1000 lx at eye level) and correlated color temperature (CCT, 2700 K vs. 6500 K) on explicit and implicit emotion perception that was assessed with emotional face judgment task and emotional oddball task respectively. Results showed that lower CCT significantly decreased negative response bias in the face judgment task, with labeling ambiguous faces less fearful under 2700 K vs. 6500 K condition. Moreover, participants responded slightly faster for emotional pictures under 6500 K vs. 2700 K condition, but no significant effect of illuminance or CCT on negativity bias was revealed in the emotional oddball task. These findings highlighted the differential role of illuminance and CCT in regulating instant emotion perception and suggested a task-dependent moderation of light spectrum on negativity bias.


Assuntos
Cor , Emoções/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Afeto/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Temperatura
11.
PLoS Genet ; 17(7): e1009625, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237069

RESUMO

Light at night has strong effects on physiology and behavior of mammals. It affects mood in humans, which is exploited as light therapy, and has been shown to reset the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). This resetting is paramount to align physiological and biochemical timing to the environmental light-dark cycle. Here we provide evidence that light at zeitgeber time (ZT) 22 affects mood-related behaviors also in mice by activating the clock gene Period1 (Per1) in the lateral habenula (LHb), a brain region known to modulate mood-related behaviors. We show that complete deletion of Per1 in mice led to depressive-like behavior and loss of the beneficial effects of light on this behavior. In contrast, specific deletion of Per1 in the region of the LHb did not affect mood-related behavior, but suppressed the beneficial effects of light. RNA sequence analysis in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system revealed profound changes of gene expression after a light pulse at ZT22. In the nucleus accumbens (NAc), sensory perception of smell and G-protein coupled receptor signaling were affected the most. Interestingly, most of these genes were not affected in Per1 knock-out animals, indicating that induction of Per1 by light serves as a filter for light-mediated gene expression in the brain. Taken together we show that light affects mood-related behavior in mice at least in part via induction of Per1 in the LHb with consequences on mood-related behavior and signaling mechanisms in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Habenula/fisiologia , Proteínas Circadianas Period/genética , Afeto/fisiologia , Animais , Depressão/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Luz , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Proteínas Circadianas Period/metabolismo
12.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254716, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280225

RESUMO

Supportive communicative experiences within close relationships, such as dyadic support, have a protective effect on individuals' health and emotional well-being. However, little is known about how partners interact in determining their own and others' health or the mechanisms through which dyadic support influences physical health. We addressed those gaps by studying 1088 romantic couples from three consecutive years (T1, T2, T3; Swiss Household Panel). The study applied a data analysis strategy called Actor Partner Interdependence Model extended Mediation, which allows for mediation processes while considering the interdependence, or non-independence, of data coming from partners. Results showed that dyadic support was positively associated with perceived health over two years through the mediation of optimistic attitudes and depressive mood, both for person and partner effects. The present study demonstrates the interplay between the dyadic process and personality dispositions in maintaining good health.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Relações Interpessoais , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Elife ; 102021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34128464

RESUMO

Humans refer to their mood state regularly in day-to-day as well as clinical interactions. Theoretical accounts suggest that when reporting on our mood we integrate over the history of our experiences; yet, the temporal structure of this integration remains unexamined. Here, we use a computational approach to quantitatively answer this question and show that early events exert a stronger influence on reported mood (a primacy weighting) compared to recent events. We show that a Primacy model accounts better for mood reports compared to a range of alternative temporal representations across random, consistent, or dynamic reward environments, different age groups, and in both healthy and depressed participants. Moreover, we find evidence for neural encoding of the Primacy, but not the Recency, model in frontal brain regions related to mood regulation. These findings hold implications for the timing of events in experimental or clinical settings and suggest new directions for individualized mood interventions.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Adulto , Biologia Computacional , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/fisiologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recompensa
14.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 634, 2021 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112935

RESUMO

Fatigue is a pervasive public health and safety issue. Common fatigue countermeasures include caffeine or other chemical stimulants. These can be effective in limited circumstances but other non-pharmacological fatigue countermeasures such as non-invasive electrical neuromodulation have shown promise. It is reasonable to suspect that other types of non-invasive neuromodulation may be similarly effective or perhaps even superior. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of cervical transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (ctVNS) to mitigate the negative effects of fatigue on cognition and mood. Two groups (active or sham stimulation) of twenty participants in each group completed 34 h of sustained wakefulness. The ctVNS group performed significantly better on arousal, multi-tasking, and reported significantly lower fatigue ratings compared to sham for the duration of the study. CtVNS could be a powerful fatigue countermeasure tool that is easy to administer, long-lasting, and has fewer side-effects compared to common pharmacological interventions.


Assuntos
Privação do Sono/psicologia , Privação do Sono/terapia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago/métodos , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Fadiga/patologia , Fadiga/psicologia , Fadiga/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Privação do Sono/patologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Nervo Vago/metabolismo , Nervo Vago/fisiologia , Vigília/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253378, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143827

RESUMO

Film clips are established to induce or intensify mood states in young persons. Fewer studies address induction of mood states in old persons. Analysis of facial expression provides an opportunity to substantiate subjective mood states with a psychophysiological variable. We investigated healthy young (YA; n = 29; age 24.4 ± 2.3) and old (OA; n = 28; age 69.2 ± 7.4) participants. Subjects were exposed to film segments validated in young adults to induce four basic emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, sadness). We analyzed subjective mood states with a 7-step Likert scale and facial expressions with an automated system for analysis of facial expressions (FaceReader™ 7.0, Noldus Information Technology b.v.) for both the four target emotions as well as concomitant emotions. Mood expressivity was analysed with the Berkeley Expressivity Questionnaire (BEQ) and the Short Suggestibility Scale (SSS). Subjective mood intensified in all target emotions in the whole group and both YA and OA subgroups. Facial expressions of mood intensified in the whole group for all target emotions except sadness. Induction of happiness was associated with a decrease of sadness in both subjective and objective assessment. Induction of sadness was observed with subjective assessment and accompanied by a decrease of happiness in both subjective and objective assessment. Regression analysis demonstrated pre-exposure facial expressions and personality factors (BEQ, SSS) to be associated with the intensity of facial expression on mood induction. We conclude that mood induction is successful regardless of age. Analysis of facial expressions complement self-assessment of mood and may serve as a means of objectification of mood change. The concordance between self-assessment of mood change and facial expression is modulated by personality factors.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Filmes Cinematográficos , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11601, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078934

RESUMO

The tendency to ruminate (i.e., repetitive negative self-referential thoughts that perpetuate depressive mood) is associated with (a) an elevated propensity to maladaptively experience counterfactual thinking (CFT) and regret, and (b) hypo-activity of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The goal of this study was to investigate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the left DLPFC, in function of self-critical rumination tendencies, momentarily reduces counterfactual thinking and regret (assessed via self-report and psychophysiological indices). Eighty healthy participants with different levels of self-critical rumination received either anodal or sham tDCS while performing a decision making task in which they were repeatedly confronted with optimal, suboptimal, and non-optimal choice outcomes. The results showed that among rumination-prone individuals, anodal (versus sham) tDCS was associated with decreased CFT and attenuated psychophysiological reactivity to the differential choice outcomes. Conversely, among low rumination-prone individuals, anodal (versus sham) tDCS was associated with increased CFT and regret, but in absence of any effects on psychophysiological reactivity. Potential working mechanisms for these differential tDCS effects are discussed. Taken together, these results provide initial converging evidence for the adaptive effects of left prefrontal tDCS on CFT and regret to personal choice outcomes among individuals prone to engage in self-critical rumination.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Ruminação Cognitiva/fisiologia , Autoavaliação (Psicologia) , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Adulto Jovem
17.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 732, 2021 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127787

RESUMO

The central amygdala (CE) emerges as a critical node for affective processing. However, how CE local circuitry interacts with brain wide affective states is yet uncharted. Using basic nociception as proxy, we find that gene expression suggests diverging roles of the two major CE neuronal populations, protein kinase C δ-expressing (PKCδ+) and somatostatin-expressing (SST+) cells. Optogenetic (o)fMRI demonstrates that PKCδ+/SST+ circuits engage specific separable functional subnetworks to modulate global brain dynamics by a differential bottom-up vs. top-down hierarchical mesoscale mechanism. This diverging modulation impacts on nocifensive behavior and may underly CE control of affective processing.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Nociceptividade/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/citologia , Animais , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Optogenética/métodos , Proteína Quinase C-delta/metabolismo , Proteína Quinase C-delta/fisiologia , Somatostatina/metabolismo , Somatostatina/fisiologia
18.
Am Heart J ; 241: 1-5, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157300

RESUMO

Symptoms in atrial fibrillation are generally assumed to correspond to heart rhythm; however, patient affect - the experience of feelings, emotion or mood - is known to frequently modulate how patients report symptoms but this has not been studied in atrial fibrillation. In this study, we investigated the relationship between affect, symptoms and heart rhythm in patients with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation. We found that presence of negative affect portended reporting of more severe symptoms to the same or greater extent than heart rhythm.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Fibrilação Atrial , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Eletrocardiografia Ambulatorial/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Avaliação de Sintomas , Afeto/fisiologia , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Fibrilação Atrial/psicologia , Dor no Peito/etiologia , Dor no Peito/psicologia , Correlação de Dados , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Sintomas/métodos , Avaliação de Sintomas/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253296, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34157027

RESUMO

Human behavior lies somewhere between purely self-interested homo economicus and socially-motivated homo reciprocans. The factors that cause people to choose self-interest over costly cooperation can provide insights into human nature and are essential when designing institutions and policies that are meant to influence behavior. Alcohol consumption can shed light on the inflection point between selfish and selfless because it is commonly consumed and has global effects on the brain. The present study administered alcohol or placebo (N = 128), titrated to sex and weight, to examine its effect on cooperation in a standard task in experimental economics, the public goods game (PGG). Alcohol, compared to placebo, doubled the number of free-riders who contributed nothing to the public good and reduced average PGG contributions by 32% (p = .005). This generated 64% higher average profits in the PGG for those who consumed alcohol. The degree of intoxication, measured by blood alcohol concentration, linearly reduced PGG contributions (r = -0.18, p = .05). The reduction in cooperation was traced to a deterioration in mood and an increase in physiologic stress as measured by adrenocorticotropic hormone. Our findings indicate that moderate alcohol consumption inhibits the motivation to cooperate and that homo economicus is stressed and unhappy.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Comportamento Social , Afeto/fisiologia , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Feminino , Teoria do Jogo , Jogos Experimentais , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064102

RESUMO

Euhydration remains a challenge in children due to lack of access and unpalatability of water and to other reasons. The purpose of this study was to determine if the availability/access to a beverage (Creative Roots®) influences hydration in children and, therefore, sleep quality and mood. Using a crossover investigation, 46 participants were randomly assigned to a control group (CON) or an intervention group and received Creative Roots® (INT) for two-week periods. We recorded daily first morning and afternoon urine color (Ucol), thirst perception, and bodyweight of the two groups. Participants reported to the lab once per week and provided first morning urine samples to assess Ucol, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine osmolality (Uosmo). Participants also completed the questionnaires Profile of Mood States-Adolescents (POMS-a) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Dependent t-tests were used to assess the effects of the intervention on hydration, mood, and sleep quality. Uosmo was greater and Ucol was darker in the control group (mean ± SD) [Uosmo: INT = 828 ± 177 mOsm·kg-1, CON = 879 ± 184 mOsm·kg-1, (p = 0.037], [Ucol:INT = 5 ± 1, CON = 5 ± 1, p = 0.024]. USG, POMS-a, and PSQI were not significant between the groups. At-home daily afternoon Ucol was darker in the control group [INT = 3 ± 1, CON = 3 ± 1, p = 0.022]. Access to Creative Roots® provides a small, potentially meaningful hydration benefit in children. However, children still demonstrated consistent mild dehydration based on Uosmo, despite consuming the beverage.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Bebidas/provisão & distribuição , Desidratação/urina , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido/fisiologia , Aromatizantes/administração & dosagem , Sono/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos Cross-Over , Desidratação/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Concentração Osmolar , Gravidade Específica , Sede/fisiologia
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