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1.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(6): 755-761, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859829

RESUMO

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health not only as the absence of disease but as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. Gratitude is one of the concepts most commonly associated with well-being from the empirical point of view. Despite of this, we seldom use the concept, possibly due to the lack of dissemination of its scientific bases and possible clinical applications. At an anatomical level, it is related consistently with the medial prefrontal cortex and at molecular level, with the neuropeptide oxytocin. It has been associated with better physical and mental health parameters, both in healthy and sick populations. It is usually measured using scales, being the most used worldwide the Gratitude Questionnaire-6 item (GQ-6). There are exercises that can enhance gratitude and its benefits, such as the gratitude letter and the gratitude journal. Given the current state of knowledge about gratitude, and considering its potential benefits, low risks, ability to complement other treatments, the simple and cost-effectiveness of gratitude interventions, a continuing research on this topic and its practical implementation is warranted.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Atitude , Neurobiologia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicoterapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1554-1564, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551595

RESUMO

Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) create closed-loop control systems that interact with the brain by recording and modulating neural activity and aim to restore lost function, most commonly motor function in paralyzed patients. Moreover, by precisely manipulating the elements within the control loop, motor BMIs have emerged as new scientific tools for investigating the neural mechanisms underlying control and learning. Beyond motor BMIs, recent work highlights the opportunity to develop closed-loop mood BMIs for restoring lost emotional function in neuropsychiatric disorders and for probing the neural mechanisms of emotion regulation. Here we review significant advances toward functional restoration and scientific discovery in motor BMIs that have been guided by a closed-loop control view. By focusing on this unifying view of BMIs and reviewing recent work, we then provide a perspective on how BMIs could extend to the neuropsychiatric domain.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Movimento/fisiologia , Animais , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia
3.
J Sports Sci ; 37(23): 2691-2701, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526108

RESUMO

This study investigated effects of total sleep deprivation on self-paced endurance performance, and heart rate (HR) indices of athletes' "readiness to perform". Endurance athletes (n = 13) completed a crossover experiment comprising a normal sleep (NS) and sleep deprivation (SD) condition. Each required completion of an endurance time-trial (TT) on consecutive days (D1, D2) separated by normal sleep or total sleep deprivation. Finishing time, perceived exertion (RPE), mood, psychomotor vigilance (PVT), and HR responses were assessed. Time on D2 of SD was 10% slower than D2 of NS (64 ± 7 vs 59 ± 4 min, P < 0.01), and 11% slower than D1 of SD (58 ± 5 min, P < 0.01). Subjective to objective (RPE:mean HR) intensity ratio was higher on D2 of SD compared with D2 of NS and D1 of SD (P < 0.01). Mood disturbance and PVT mean response time increased on D2 of SD compared with D2 of NS and D1 of SD. Anaerobic threshold and change in TT time were correlated (R = -0.73, P < 0.01). Sleep helps to optimise endurance performance. Subjective to objective intensity ratios appear sensitive to effects of sleep on athletes' readiness. Research examining more subtle sleep manipulation is required.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Actigrafia/instrumentação , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Ciclismo/psicologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis
4.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(7): 678-688, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403805

RESUMO

Negative expectations have been highlighted as a key mechanism in the maintenance and recurrence of depression. Nonetheless, no study has investigated currently depressed individuals' expectations about their future mood so far. This is surprising given that experiences of sustained negative mood and lack of positive mood are the hallmark symptoms of depression. The present study thus assessed depressed individuals' expectations about their future mood and examined whether these expectations are accurate or negatively biased. The study used experience sampling methodology (ESM) to contrast participants' expectations with their actually experienced sad and happy mood within a 4-day period. At the end of this period, participants recalled their past mood. All variables were assessed in 30 clinically depressed individuals and 37 matched healthy controls, as well as in 56 undergraduate students with a wide range in depressive symptoms. Results revealed that clinically depressed individuals held negatively biased expectations about their future mood: they expected more sad and less happy mood than they actually experienced. In contrast, healthy individuals showed realistic expectations about their future mood. Depressed individuals also demonstrated a negative mood recall bias. Finally, individuals' expectations and memories were more closely linked to depression status than their actually experienced mood. Although negative mood is the hallmark symptom of depression, the expectations and memories of negative mood may be even more central for the understanding of depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
5.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 36: 12-17, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the dance therapy was more beneficial than non-dance therapy on cognitive and mood symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception to December 11, 2018. Risk of bias for the included trials was assessed using criteria in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. RESULTS: Seven randomized controlled trials were identified on cognitive and mood symptoms in patients with PD. There were significant differences in favor of dance in executive function (WMD = 1.17, 95% CI:0.39 to 1.95, P = 0.003; I2 = 0%, P = 0.45), but not in outcomes of global cognitive function, depression and apathy. CONCLUSIONS: Dance therapy is beneficial in improving executive function for adults with PD. However, there are no positive effects were founded on global cognitive function, depression and apathy for PD.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Terapia através da Dança , Doença de Parkinson/terapia , Humanos
6.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 473, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current literature suggests there may be a relationship between sex hormones, which dramatically increase during pregnancy, and nicotine use behaviors. We hypothesized that higher progesterone and progesterone:estradiol ratio (P/E2) would be associated with less smoking-related symptomatology (SRS), better mood and fewer cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) during ad libitum smoking and following overnight abstinence in pregnant women. Associations between SRS, mood, smoking behavior and sex hormones were estimated using multiple linear regression with adjustment for CPD and pregnancy trimester. RESULTS: There were 35 second trimester and 42 third trimester participants. Participants mean age was 26.2 (SD: 4.1), they smoked 11.3 CPD (SD: 4.4) and the mean nicotine dependence score was 4.94 (SD: 1.98). There were no statistically significant associations between progesterone levels, estradiol levels, or the P/E2 ratio and SRS or mood measures during ad libitum smoking or following overnight abstinence in this sample of pregnant women. Similarly, there were no associations between sex hormone levels and number of CPD smoked during the ad libitum period. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found no significant associations between sex hormones and SRS, mood or smoking behavior in this sample of pregnant women. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01811225), December 6, 2012.


Assuntos
Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Tabagismo/sangue
7.
Health Psychol ; 38(11): 984-996, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380684

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Positive mood on the day of vaccination has been associated with subsequent antibody responses to the influenza vaccine in older adults. The primary aim of this trial was to examine whether a brief intervention was able to enhance positive mood at the time of vaccination in a clinical context. Secondary aims included exploratory analyses of the effects of the intervention on nonspecific and influenza-specific immunity. METHOD: One hundred three older adults (65-85 years) participated in a 2-arm, parallel, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Participants viewed either a 15-min video package designed to induce positive mood or a matched neutral control video, immediately prior to receiving a standard dose quadrivalent influenza vaccination. State affect and secretory immunoglobulin A levels were assessed immediately prior to, and following, the interventions. Antigen-specific immunoglobulin G responses to the vaccination were assessed at 4 and 16 weeks postvaccination. RESULTS: The positive mood intervention resulted in significant improvements in state positive affect, compared with the neutral control. Secretory immunoglobulin A levels significantly increased across both groups. Antigen-specific immunoglobulin G responses to influenza vaccination were not statistically significantly different between groups, although point estimates of effect size favored participants who viewed the positive mood intervention for most strains at both 4 and 16 weeks postvaccination. CONCLUSIONS: A 15-min intervention can improve positive mood in older adults prior to vaccination. Future trials should examine whether enhancing mood at the time of vaccination could enhance the effectiveness of influenza vaccination on patients and benefit health services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/uso terapêutico , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Vacinas contra Influenza/farmacologia , Influenza Humana/psicologia , Masculino
8.
Exp Brain Res ; 237(9): 2397-2409, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292697

RESUMO

In the present study event-related potentials were used to shed further light on the neural signatures of active inhibition of the (affective) content of written words. Intentional inhibition was implemented by simply asking participants (N = 32) to ignore single words that served as primes in an affective priming (AP) task. In AP, evaluations about a priori neutral targets typically tend to shift towards the valence of preceding primes, denoting an AP effect (APE). To create a plausible cover-context emphasizing the usefulness of word inhibition, participants were asked to avoid this shift, that is, to make unbiased target evaluations. Ignoring the prime words was suggested as the most efficient strategy to achieve this aim. Effective inhibition of the words' (affective) content, as suggested by a significant APE present for words processed without any further instruction, but not for ignored ones, affected multiple stages of processing. On the neuronal level, word inhibition was characterized by reduced early perceptual (left-lateralized word-specific N170), later attentional (parietal P300), and affective-semantic processing (reduced posterior semantic asymmetry). Furthermore, an additional recruitment of top-down inhibitory control processes, which was mirrored in increased amplitudes of medial-frontal negativity, showed to be critically involved in intentional word inhibition.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Adulto , Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicolinguística , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
9.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 198: 102876, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280037

RESUMO

In a series of decisions, people tend to show choice perseveration, that is, they repeat their choices. This choice perseveration is assumed to emerge due to residual activity from the previous decision. Here, we use a computational model with attractor dynamics to describe this process and to predict how choice perseveration can be modulated. We derive two qualitative predictions: Choice perseveration should decrease under longer (vs. shorter) inter-trial intervals and positive (vs. negative) mood. We test these predictions in a dynamic decision task where we modulate decisions across trials via sequentially manipulated reward options. Our findings replicate our previous study in showing choice perseveration in value-based decision making. Furthermore, choice perseveration decreased with increasing inter-trial interval as predicted by the model. However, we did not find clear evidence supporting mood effects on choice perseveration. We discuss how integrating decision process dynamics by the means of applying the neural attractor model can increase our understanding of the evolution of decision outcomes and therefore complement the psychophysical perspective on decision making.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Recompensa , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(9): 1389-1393, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31358990

RESUMO

Psychiatric morbidity is high in cities, so identifying potential modifiable urban protective factors is important. We show that exposure to urban green space improves well-being in naturally behaving male and female city dwellers, particularly in districts with higher psychiatric incidence and fewer green resources. Higher green-related affective benefit was related to lower prefrontal activity during negative-emotion processing, which suggests that urban green space exposure may compensate for reduced neural regulatory capacity.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Individualidade , Parques Recreativos , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Cidades/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 36(1): 573-581, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159624

RESUMO

Objective: To systematically summarize the findings from research studies examining the effects of whole-body hyperthermia (WBH) interventions on mood and symptoms of depression. Methods: Systematic literature search of online and offline databases (e.g., Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, academic libraries). Risk of bias assessment and secondary analysis of effect sizes. Study selection: Clinical studies with a pre/post-intervention design and outcome measures for mood and depression as accepted in the S-3 guidelines (Association of Scientific Medical Societies in Germany). Data extraction: Study characteristics and outcomes (means and standard deviations) from participants receiving at least one WBH intervention. Results: A total of 7 studies and 148 subjects with a mean age of 46 years (36-56 years) were identified. Three out of seven studies utilized hot baths and 4/7 infrared heating. Study duration ranged from 1 to 6 weeks with one or multiple interventions and an average treatment time of 66.37 min (42.55-140). Risk of bias analysis revealed small sample biases and lack of control groups in 3/7 studies. About 21 study end-points were extracted with 19 resulting in effects sizes (Cohen's d) of 0.8 or greater. Target temperatures between 38 °C and 39 °C and slower increase in core body temperature during the intervention resulted in larger treatment effects. Conclusion: WBH is a promising alternative treatment for depression with low risk for adverse reactions and side effects but still lacking sufficient evidence for general recommendations for clinical practice. However, as all other interventions have failed, the studies to date can provide a framework for clinical application.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Depressão/terapia , Hipertermia Induzida/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 31(4): 193-201, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159897

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a debilitating, lifelong neuropsychiatric illness characterised by unsteady mood states which vacillate from (hypo)mania to depression. Despite the availability of pharmaceutical agents which can be effective in ameliorating the acute affective symptoms and prevent episodic relapse, BD is inadequately treated in a subset of patients. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is known to exert neuromodulatory effects on other neurotransmitter systems critical in governing emotions. Several studies ranging from clinical to molecular, as well as anecdotal evidence, have placed a spotlight on the potential role of the ECS in the pathophysiology of BD. In this perspective, we present advantages and disadvantages of cannabis use in the management of illness course of BD and provide mechanistic insights into how this system might contribute to the pathophysiology of BD. RESULTS: We highlight the putative role of selective cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists in BD and briefly discuss findings which provide a rationale for targeting the ECS to assuage the symptoms of BD. Further, data encourage basic and clinical studies to determine how cannabis and cannabinoids (CBs) can affect mood and to investigate emerging CB-based options as probable treatment approaches. CONCLUSION: The probable role of the ECS has been almost neglected in BD; however, from data available which suggest a role of ECS in mood control, it is justified to support conducting comprehensive studies to determine whether ECS manipulation could positively affect BD. Based on the limited available data, we suggest that activation of CB2 may stabilise mood in this disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Cannabis , Endocanabinoides/fisiologia , Endocanabinoides/uso terapêutico , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Afeto/fisiologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/fisiologia , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/agonistas , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/fisiologia
13.
Cogn Behav Neurol ; 32(2): 69-75, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205120

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the antidepressant mechanism of action for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in healthy women. Our primary hypothesis was that a single session of left DLPFC rTMS, compared with a session of right DLPFC rTMS, would result in better (reduced) negative nonaffective switch costs in healthy women. BACKGROUND: The antidepressant mechanism of action for rTMS is not clear. It is possible that rTMS to the DLPFC improves emotion regulation, which could be a part of its antidepressant mechanism. METHODS: Twenty-five healthy women were randomized to receive left high-frequency (HF) rTMS versus right HF rTMS in one session and then contralateral stimulation during a second session. Emotion regulation was assessed via switch costs for reappraisal of negatively valenced information on an affective flexibility task. RESULTS: For negative nonaffective switch costs, the interaction effect in the two-way ANOVA was not significant (F1,19=3.053, P=0.097). Given that left HF rTMS is the approved treatment for depression, post hoc t tests were completed with particular interest in the left-side findings. These tests confirmed that negative nonaffective switch costs significantly improved immediately after left rTMS (t1,19=2.664, P=0.015) but not right rTMS. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that left DLPFC HF rTMS may lead to antidepressant effects by improving the regulation of emotion.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychol Aging ; 34(5): 625-639, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192626

RESUMO

Domain-specific control beliefs typically buffer the influence stressors have on people's negative affect (affective stressor reactivity). However, little is known about the extent to which individuals' control beliefs vary across stressor types and whether such stressor-related control diversity is adaptive for affective well-being. We thus introduce a control diversity construct (a person-level summary of across-domain control beliefs) and examine how control diversity differs with age and relates to negative affect and affective stressor reactivity. We apply a multilevel model to daily diary data from the National Study of Daily Experiences (NSDE; N = 2,022; mean age = 56 years; 33-84; 57% women). Our findings indicate that above and beyond average control beliefs, people whose control is spread over fewer stressor domains (less control diversity) have lower negative affect and less affective stressor reactivity. Older adults are more likely than younger adults to have their control beliefs concentrated in one domain. Additionally, associations between control diversity and negative affect and affective stressor reactivity were age invariant. Moderation effects indicated that when people with low average control beliefs are faced with stressors, having control beliefs focused on fewer domains rather than spread broadly across many domains is associated with less negative affect. Our findings suggest that control diversity provides unique insights into how control beliefs differ across adulthood and contribute to affective well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cultura , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
15.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(8): 2437-2449, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aversive stimuli in the environment influence human actions. This includes valence-dependent influences on action selection, e.g., increased avoidance but decreased approach behavior. However, it is yet unclear how aversive stimuli interact with complex learning and decision-making in the reward and avoidance domain. Moreover, the underlying computational mechanisms of these decision-making biases are unknown. METHODS: To elucidate these mechanisms, 54 healthy young male subjects performed a two-step sequential decision-making task, which allows to computationally model different aspects of learning, e.g., model-free, habitual, and model-based, goal-directed learning. We used a within-subject design, crossing task valence (reward vs. punishment learning) with emotional context (aversive vs. neutral background stimuli). We analyzed choice data, applied a computational model, and performed simulations. RESULTS: Whereas model-based learning was not affected, aversive stimuli interacted with model-free learning in a way that depended on task valence. Thus, aversive stimuli increased model-free avoidance learning but decreased model-free reward learning. The computational model confirmed this effect: the parameter lambda that indicates the influence of reward prediction errors on decision values was increased in the punishment condition but decreased in the reward condition when aversive stimuli were present. Further, by using the inferred computational parameters to simulate choice data, our effects were captured. Exploratory analyses revealed that the observed biases were associated with subclinical depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our data show that aversive environmental stimuli affect complex learning and decision-making, which depends on task valence. Further, we provide a model of the underlying computations of this affective modulation. Finally, our finding of increased decision-making biases in subjects reporting subclinical depressive symptoms matches recent reports of amplified Pavlovian influences on action selection in depression and suggests a potential vulnerability factor for mood disorders. We discuss our findings in the light of the involvement of the neuromodulators serotonin and dopamine.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Recompensa , Afeto/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Punição/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(8): 2413-2423, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165207

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Methamphetamine (MA) use is steadily increasing and thus constitutes a major public health concern. Women seem to be particularly vulnerable to developing MA use disorder, as they initiate use at a younger age and transition more quickly to problematic use. Initial drug responses may predict subsequent use, but little information exists on potential gender differences in the acute effects of MA prior to dependence. OBJECTIVE: We examined gender differences in the acute effects of MA on subjective mood and reward-related behavior in healthy, non-dependent humans. METHODS: Men (n = 44) and women (n = 29) completed 4 sessions in which they received placebo or MA under double-blind conditions twice each. During peak drug effect, participants completed the monetary incentive delay task to assess reaction times to cues signaling potential monetary losses or gains, in an effort to determine if MA would potentiate reward-motivated behavior. Cardiovascular and subjective drug effects were assessed throughout sessions. RESULTS: Overall, participants responded more quickly to cues predicting incentivized trials, particularly large-magnitude incentives, than to cues predicting no incentive. MA produced faster reaction times in women, but not in men. MA produced typical stimulant-like subjective and cardiovascular effects in all participants, but subjective ratings of vigor and (reduced) sedation were greater in women than in men. CONCLUSIONS: Women appear to be more sensitive to the psychomotor-related behavioral and subjective effects of MA. These findings provide initial insight into gender differences in acute effects of MA that may contribute to gender differences in problematic MA use.


Assuntos
Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Metanfetamina/farmacologia , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Recompensa , Caracteres Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Anfetaminas/psicologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Motivação/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biol Psychol ; 146: 107713, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173808

RESUMO

How top-down and bottom-up factors combine to determine eye movements during affective picture viewing is far from being completely understood. We investigated how observers' fixation frequency and scanpath length - two indices of information seeking and intake - are related to self-reported valence (pleasantness) and arousal and depend on gender, age, and repeated exposure during affective picture viewing. We tracked the eye movements of 157 younger, middle-aged, and older adults when viewing 14 picture series each consisting of six thematically and affectively similar pictures. Participants' valence and arousal ratings were registered for each series. Fixation frequency and scanpath length increased with self-rated unpleasantness and arousal and decreased across the six pictures within series. This decrease was age- and arousal-dependent. Compared to men, women exhibited a more exploratory scanning behavior. These findings suggest that observers' affective appraisal, gender and age and repeated exposure to affective visual stimuli influence visual information seeking and intake.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Fixação Ocular/fisiologia , Motivação , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Nível de Alerta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
18.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217320, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150432

RESUMO

The occurrence of a stressful event is considered to increase the risk of developing depression. In the present study we explore whether the breakup of a romantic relationship can be used as an experimental model to study a depression-like state during a period of stress in individuals without a psychiatric disorder. The primary aim of our study was to investigate: 1) whether individuals with a recent romantic relationship breakup (''heartbreak") demonstrate symptoms of depression, 2) how to describe heartbreak characteristics based on data from a comprehensive questionnaire battery, and 3) whether this description can capture severity of depression symptoms. Secondary, we were interested in gender differences with regard to the above study objectives. Subjects who have experienced a relationship breakup in the preceding six months (N = 71) or are in a romantic relationship (N = 46) participated in our study. A questionnaire battery was administered to acquire information related to depression, mood, the breakup and (former) relationship. Principal Component Analysis with Procrustes bootstrapping was performed to extract components from the questionnaire data. Even though our sample of individuals who recently have experienced a relationship breakup can be on average considered non-depressed, group-level depression scores were elevated compared to individuals in a relationship (p = .001) and 26.8% reported symptoms corresponding to mild, moderate or severe depression. We described heartbreak by two principal components interpreted as ''sudden loss" and ''lack of positive affect", respectively. Highly significant correlations between the component scores and depression scores were found (p < .001 and p < .001, respectively), although these correlations differed between the genders. Based on these findings, we propose that the experience of a romantic relationship breakup is a viable experimental model to examine symptoms of depression in individuals without a psychiatric disorder. This way, stress-related coping and depression vulnerability can be studied in further research.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Amor , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Adulto Jovem
19.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(4): 309-322, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197848

RESUMO

Attachment theory assumes that trust in caregivers' support and exploration are closely related. Little research tried to investigate this link, nor focuses on mechanisms that might explain this association. The present studies examined whether trust is related to exploration through a serial indirect effect of openness to negative affect and self-regulation. In Study 1, 212 children, aged 8-13, completed questionnaires assessing trust, openness to negative affect, self-regulation and exploration. The results showed that trust predicted exploration, but only to the extent to which openness to negative affect and self-regulation were involved too. Study 2 refined these findings (n = 59, aged 9-12) using a behavioral measure of openness to negative affect and exploration, and with mother-reported self-regulation. Replicating this serial indirect effect of openness to negative affect and self-regulation with multiple informants and methods, the present studies advance our understanding of how trust might foster exploration in preadolescence.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Cuidadores , Comportamento Exploratório/fisiologia , Apego ao Objeto , Confiança/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Teoria Psicológica , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Value Health ; 22(6): 721-727, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198190

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Efforts to evaluate HRQoL and calculate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for infants less than 12 months of age are hampered by the lack of preference-based HRQoL instruments for this group. To fill this gap, we developed the Infant Quality of life Instrument (IQI), which is administered through a mobile application. This article explains how weights were derived for the 4 levels of each health item. METHODS: The IQI includes 7 health items: sleeping, feeding, breathing, stooling/poo, mood, skin, and interaction. In an online survey, respondents from the general population (n = 1409) and primary caregivers (n = 1229) from China, the United Kingdom, and the United States were presented with 10 discrete choice scenarios. Coefficients for the item levels were obtained with a conditional logit model. RESULTS: The highest coefficients were found for sleeping, feeding, and breathing. All coefficients for these items were negative and logically ordered, meaning that more extreme levels were less preferred. Stooling, mood, skin, and interaction showed some irregularities in the ordering of coefficients. Results for caregivers and the general population were about the same. CONCLUSIONS: The IQI is the first generic instrument to assess overall HRQoL in infants up to 1 year of age. It is short and easy to administer through a mobile application. We demonstrated how to derive values for infant health states with a discrete choice methodology. Our next step will be to normalize these values into utilities ranging from 0 (dead) to 1 (best health state) and to collect IQI values in a clinical population.


Assuntos
Nível de Saúde , Psicometria/normas , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Afeto/fisiologia , China , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Pele , Sono/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
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