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1.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 68: 101869, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557628

RESUMO

The cadaveric alterations that derive from the decomposition of the human body are often investigated and examined in medical autopsies together with any other evidence of thanatological interest. This study aimed to systematically review case-specific characteristics of dental autopsies that reported the pink tooth phenomenon (PTP). The review was performed in October/2018 and followed PRISMA and Cochrane guidelines. Seven databases were searched as primary study sources (PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, SciELO, Web of Science, Science Direct and Embase) and three (OATD, Open Grey and Open Thesis) were searched for "grey literature". Only descriptive studies were collected, namely case reports and case series. The risk of bias among the studies was assessed with The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tool. From each case, the sex and age of the victims were registered, together with the place of body recovery, time of death, cadaveric status, cause of death, and number and position of pink teeth. Additionally, a supplemental quantitative analysis was conducted within a sampled subgroup. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to analyze relative risks of presenting pink teeth according to age and tooth position. Eleven studies out of 1004 were eligible. In total 71 cases of cadavers with pink teeth were reported. Two (2.81%) victims had unknown sex, while 17 (23.95%) were females and 52 (73.24%) were males. The victims were aged between 4 and 85 years (mean age 31.13 ±â€¯13.32). Dental autopsies registered 331 pink teeth (163 anterior, 87 premolars and 81 molars). The age did not influence on presenting an additional pink tooth, regardless of tooth position (p > 0.05). Forensic dentists must be aware of pink teeth in dental autopsies. This is an unspecific phenomenon and must not be misinterpreted in medico-legal investigations.


Assuntos
Mudanças Depois da Morte , Descoloração de Dente/patologia , Afogamento/patologia , Humanos
2.
J Forensic Odontostomatol ; 37(1): 51-62, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187743

RESUMO

Dental forensics for the resolution of unnatural death remains an underdeveloped field. Accordingly, an experimental study was conducted with six to seven months old Wistar rats that were drowned in order to identify key postmortem features and pattern of dental decomposition. The visual, structural and elemental changes were assessed periodically. Based on mode of death, they were designated as SB (euthanized and soil buried), FWD (fresh water drowned) and SWD (sea water drowned). Postmortem features as well as the structural and elemental patterns of decomposition of teeth were analyzed with Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDAX) periodically for two months. The periodic observation of elemental changes in the teeth of SB, FWD and SWD rats allowed us to derive an equation using linear regression analysis to relate the degree of dental decomposition with the time since death. The difference in pattern of surface deterioration was also observed. The present findings could provide a better knowledge in resolving unnatural deaths and supporting evidence for legal prosecution.


Assuntos
Afogamento/patologia , Incisivo/patologia , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Animais , Sepultamento , Odontologia Legal/métodos , Água Doce , Modelos Lineares , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Modelos Animais , Projetos Piloto , Ratos Wistar , Água do Mar , Espectrometria por Raios X
3.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 66: 79-85, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229802

RESUMO

Although the diagnosis of drowning may appear straightforward the reality is that it is sometimes one of the most difficult in forensic pathology. To begin with, there is no universal agreement on what constitutes drowning with some definitions using the term in the absence of a lethal outcome. Next are the significant problems that arise in finding immersed bodies and in assessing the death scene. Prolonged post mortem intervals are associated with artefactual modifications of the body from putrefaction and post mortem animal predation. Both of these may create and disguise injuries. The absence of pathognomonic pathological features at autopsy and the presence of potentially life threatening underlying organic illnesses complicate determination of both the cause and manner of death. There may even be no autopsy findings to indicate that immersion had occurred. Finally, the unreliability of laboratory tests with significant overlap with control cases where death had no association with immersion presents further problems. Thus lethal drowning remains a complex event that requires the use of a wide variety of information sources, not just data gleaned from the dissection table.


Assuntos
Afogamento/diagnóstico , Patologia Legal/métodos , Animais , Aorta/patologia , Comorbidade , Consenso , Diatomáceas/isolamento & purificação , Afogamento/patologia , Eletrólitos/análise , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Seios Paranasais/patologia , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Sistema Respiratório/patologia , Pele/patologia , Baço/patologia , Terminologia como Assunto , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Túnica Íntima/patologia
4.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 24(1): 31, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084599

RESUMO

In Japan, because the most common site of drowning among patients with epilepsy is the bathtub, showering is generally recommended as an alternative to bathing. We herein report a case involving a female patient with epilepsy who drowned while showering. She had been diagnosed with epilepsy approximately 25 years previously, and her condition had progressed to refractory epilepsy. Carbamazepine, levetiracetam, lamotrigine, clobazam, and perampanel were prescribed daily. One day while showering, the patient was found lying with her face immersed in water that had accumulated on the floor of the bathtub. A forensic autopsy revealed water in the stomach, trachea, and proximal regions of both lung bronchi as well as white and red foam on the pharynx and larynx. A total of 1.9 µg/mL of lamotrigine, 0.14 µg/mL of carbamazepine, and 0.069 µg/mL of perampanel were detected in the patient's blood. The patient's cause of death was determined to be drowning due to an epileptic seizure. Although the patient was prescribed five types of antiepileptic medication, only three were detected in her blood. The current case demonstrates that drowning can occur while showering, suggesting that it is unsafe for patients with medication nonadherence. To prevent unintentional deaths in the bathroom, we recommend that patients with epilepsy maintain high adherence to all prescriptions and are supervised by a family member, even when showering. The current case is the first autopsy report of a patient with epilepsy who drowned while showering.


Assuntos
Afogamento/etiologia , Afogamento/patologia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/patologia , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/sangue , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Autopsia , Epilepsia Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Adesão à Medicação
5.
Forensic Sci Int ; 298: 157-160, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904787

RESUMO

Acute pulmonary emphysema (APE) is describedin cases of drowning and can be considered as a sign of vitality. In our experience, however, APE is not very evident in cases of saltwater drowning. The present study aims at investigating whether APE is present in both fresh and saltwater drowning by means of digital morphometric analysis of lung tissue. We investigated and compared a group of saltwater drowning and a group of freshwater drowning, while cases of acute external bleeding were investigated as negative control group. Tissue samples from each pulmonary lobe were collected during autopsy and examined by optical microscope. The area of alveolar spaces was calculated by means of image analysis software, recording the mean alveolar area (MAA) for each group. MAA was 24,852 µm2 in the saltwater drowning group, 34,133 µm2 in the freshwater drowning group and 21,871 µm2 in the negative control group. The MAA in freshwater drowning was significantly higher than in saltwater drowning and controls. No statistical differences were observed between saltwater drowning and controls. The results of this study suggest that APE is not a typical sign of death by saltwater drowning.


Assuntos
Afogamento/patologia , Água Doce , Pulmão/patologia , Água do Mar , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Itália , Masculino , Microscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miocárdio/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Fotografação , Derrame Pleural/patologia , Edema Pulmonar/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suíça , Adulto Jovem
6.
Med Leg J ; 87(1): 44-46, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992855

RESUMO

Dyadic suicides may be committed simultaneously or one after another by two or more people who may or may not have made a prior pact. The perpetrator is usually male and their victims female, and generally their intimate partners, with children less commonly involved. Another distinct type of homicide-suicide is the killing of children by a parent (filicide-suicide). The terms 'maternal filicide' or 'paternal filicide' are used respectively when the perpetrator is the mother or the father of the victim. We report a rare case of maternal filicide, where the mother drowned her three children and then herself in the same water tank. The case highlights the extreme stress put on a mother of girls in a patriarchal society where there is an overriding expectation and wish for sons. The resulting pressure on this mother for her 'failure' caused her to take her own and her children's lives.


Assuntos
Afogamento/patologia , Família/psicologia , Homicídio , Suicídio , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Afogamento/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos
7.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 59: 50-55, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142489

RESUMO

Intramuscular bleeding of the tongue (ImBT) is occasionally found during post mortem examination. Despite its frequent reports, its cause has not yet been clarified. In this study, forensic autopsy data of 799 cadavers were examined and the relationship between ImBT and cause of death was investigated. A total of 74 cases showed ImBT (16 of 66 cases of fire fatality, 17 of 108 cases of drowning, 23 of 74 cases of asphyxiation, and 18 of 551 cases of other causes of death). The frequency of bleeding was significantly greater in cases with causes of death including fire fatality, drowning, and asphyxiation compared to those with other causes of death (p < 0.01). Among asphyxiation cases, ImBT was confirmed in two of five cases of typical hanging, three of 16 cases of atypical hanging, six of six cases of ligature strangulation, two of two cases of manual strangulation, eight of 38 cases of airway obstruction, and two of seven cases of oxygen deficiency. Among fire fatalities, the carboxyhemoglobin (CO-Hb) concentration of cases with ImBT was significantly lower than that in cases without ImBT (p < 0.01). In addition, the frequency of bleeding was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in cases where the blood cyanide concentration was 0.05 ppm or less. These observations suggested that ImBT during fire fatality occurs in a manner similar to that of ligature or manual strangulation, in which the flames cause the contraction and decrease in elasticity of the skin. Past reports indicated that bleeding frequency in cases of drowning did not significantly differ from that in cases with other causes of death. However, our cases showed a statistically higher incidence of bleeding compared to that in the other causes of death (p < 0.01). These results suggested that ImBT is a characteristic finding in cases of asphyxia and is an important evaluation for the diagnosis of death. When the relationship between ImBT and petechial hemorrhage was examined in three of the causes of death, no significant difference was observed between fire fatality and asphyxiation, but drowning was significantly different (p < 0.05). In cases without ImBT, the secretion of noradrenaline and adrenaline was significantly higher (p < 0.01). This finding suggests that it is unlikely that excessive secretion of catecholamine causes ImBT.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/patologia , Língua/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asfixia/patologia , Queimaduras/patologia , Carboxihemoglobina/análise , Catecolaminas/sangue , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cianetos/sangue , Afogamento/patologia , Feminino , Fogo , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Púrpura/patologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Korean Med Sci ; 33(14): e108, 2018 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29607634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The diagnostic criteria for bathtub drownings are not standardized, and the risk factors associated with bath-related deaths are unclear. METHODS: We analyzed a Korean nationwide database of bath-related deaths that occurred between January 2008 and December 2015. Eighty-four cases were enrolled after reviewing 31,123 autopsy records. RESULTS: The subjects' ages ranged from 18 to 91 years, with a mean age ± standard deviation of 61.3 ± 16.0 years. Bath-related deaths in the winter were approximately 4.6-fold greater than those in the summer. Of the 84 subjects, the primary cause of death in 57 (67.9%) was drowning in the bath; 24 (28.6%) drowned of other causes such as natural diseases, and 3 (3.6%) died of acute alcohol intoxication. We analyzed water-inhalation signs to establish criteria for bathtub drowning diagnosis. There were significantly higher incidences of hyperinflated lungs, water in the sphenoid sinus and stomach/duodenal contents, and Paltauf's spots (subpleural hemorrhage) in bathtub-drowned subjects compared to non-drowned individuals (P < 0.01). Multiple signs of water inhalation were significantly associated with bathtub drowning (P < 0.01). The two leading contributory causes of bath-related death were cardiovascular diseases and alcohol intoxication (binge drinking before bathing). CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of bath-related deaths could present considerable medico-legal problems; therefore, a comprehensive autopsy with a thorough scene investigation can clarify the cause of death in these situations. Preventive strategies for reducing such deaths should target alcohol drinking before bathing and long soaking times in bathtubs, especially among elderly individuals with preexisting cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Afogamento/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intoxicação Alcoólica/patologia , Autopsia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Causas de Morte , Afogamento/epidemiologia , Afogamento/patologia , Feminino , Patologia Legal , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 34(1): 55-59, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29577706

RESUMO

The bodies found in water are one of the most common types in forensic practice. The discovery site of the body is often not the drowning site. However, the determination of drowning site is vital for the identification of victim. Inorganic particles and planktons, such as granular impurities, diatoms and bacteria, are valuable markers for the diagnosis of drowning. By comparing the granular impurities and planktons in tissues and suspicious drowning mediums, the drowning site can be concluded based on their similarity of types and distribution, which has practical applied value. In this paper, the research progress on determination of drowning site is summarized to provide reference for the peers.


Assuntos
Diatomáceas , Afogamento/patologia , Patologia Legal/tendências , Plâncton , Água Doce , Humanos , Água
10.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 127(2): 83-95, 2018 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29384478

RESUMO

The challenge of identifying cause of death in discarded bycaught marine mammals stems from a combination of the non-specific nature of the lesions of drowning, the complex physiologic adaptations unique to breath-holding marine mammals, lack of case histories, and the diverse nature of fishing gear. While no pathognomonic lesions are recognized, signs of acute external entanglement, bulging or reddened eyes, recently ingested gastric contents, pulmonary changes, and decompression-associated gas bubbles have been identified in the condition of peracute underwater entrapment (PUE) syndrome in previous studies of marine mammals. We reviewed the gross necropsy and histopathology reports of 36 cetaceans and pinnipeds including 20 directly observed bycaught and 16 live stranded animals that were euthanized between 2005 and 2011 for lesions consistent with PUE. We identified 5 criteria which present at significantly higher rates in bycaught marine mammals: external signs of acute entanglement, red or bulging eyes, recently ingested gastric contents, multi-organ congestion, and disseminated gas bubbles detected grossly during the necropsy and histologically. In contrast, froth in the trachea or primary bronchi, and lung changes (i.e. wet, heavy, froth, edema, congestion, and hemorrhage) were poor indicators of PUE. This is the first study that provides insight into the different published parameters for PUE in bycatch. For regions frequently confronted by stranded marine mammals with non-specific lesions, this could potentially aid in the investigation and quantification of marine fisheries interactions.


Assuntos
Caniformia , Cetáceos , Animais , Causas de Morte , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Afogamento/patologia , Afogamento/veterinária , Feminino , Pesqueiros , Masculino
11.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol ; 247: 12-19, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28870868

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) participated in the resolution of seawater drowning-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In this study, gross and microscopic morphology of pulmonary tissue, computed tomography images and biochemical indexes were continuously observed from 15min to 15day after seawater drowning. The content and activity of HO-1 were determined by western-blot and spectrophotometric method, respectively. The morphological and biochemical indexes indicated that the seawater drowning could lead to the serious pulmonary hemorrhage and edema. However, 6h after drowning, these morphological and biochemical indexes gradually returned to basal level. Meanwhile, seawater drowning increased the HO-1 expression and activity while Zinc protoporphyrin (a HO-1 specific activity inhibitor) decreased the content of transforming growth factor beta-1 in lung tissue and hampered the repair process of seawater drowning-induced ARDS. Thus, HO-1 participates in the resolution of seawater drowning-induced ARDS.


Assuntos
Afogamento/enzimologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/enzimologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Água do Mar , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Afogamento/diagnóstico por imagem , Afogamento/patologia , Edema/diagnóstico por imagem , Edema/enzimologia , Edema/etiologia , Edema/patologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Heme Oxigenase-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Hemorragia/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia/enzimologia , Hemorragia/etiologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/enzimologia , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Protoporfirinas/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/patologia
12.
BMC Vet Res ; 13(1): 302, 2017 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29025396

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mortality of seabirds due to anthropogenic causes, especially entrapment in fishing gear, is a matter of increasing international concern. This study aimed at characterising the gross pathology of seabirds that drowned in fishing nets and comparing it with that in other common causes of mortality. RESULTS: Post-mortem examinations were performed on 103 common guillemots, 32 razorbills, 37 shags and 5 great northern divers found stranded in Cornwall during 1981-2016. Pathology in birds that died in confirmed incidents of drowning in fishing nets (n = 95) was compared with that in cases of suspected drowning (n = 6), oil (n = 53) and polyisobutylene (PIB) (n = 3) pollution, adverse weather (n = 6) and stranding of unknown cause (14). The majority of drowned birds were in good nutritional state, freshly dead and approximately 50% had freshly ingested fish in their proximal gut. Principle lesions were: gross distention of the heart and major veins with dark blood, intensely congested, swollen and oedematous lungs which released white frothy fluid when excised, watery fluid in the air sacs that ranged from clear to deep red depending on state of carcase preservation. PIB-affected birds were in good nutritional state; their pathology was largely consistent with that in confirmed drowning cases; it is likely that drowning was the ultimate cause of death. Birds affected by oil, adverse weather or that stranded due to unknown cause were all in poor or emaciated condition, the mean body mass of the guillemots and razorbills being, respectively, 53 and 57% of those that drowned. They had little or no food in their alimentary tracts and many showed evidence of enteric inflammation, haemorrhage and ulceration. None had fluid in their air sacs and none showed significant cardio-respiratory system lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Drowned birds consistently showed a distinctive set of gross pathological lesions. When combined with contemporaneous observations, the pathology may be sufficient to permit a diagnosis of drowning, especially where a batch of freshly dead birds are examined. The observations in this study are likely to be of value when investigating stranding incidents, particularly where it is suspected that legislation aimed at protecting seabirds is not being complied with.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/patologia , Aves , Afogamento/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/etiologia , Peso Corporal , Afogamento/patologia , Inglaterra , Pesqueiros , Estado Nutricional , Polienos/envenenamento , Polímeros/envenenamento , Poluição da Água/efeitos adversos , Tempo (Meteorologia)
13.
Int J Legal Med ; 131(1): 199-210, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27766411

RESUMO

Segmentation of the lungs using post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) data was so far not feasible due to post-mortem changes such as internal livores. Recently, an Osirix plug-in has been developed allowing automatically segmenting lungs also in PMCT data. The aim of this study was to investigate if the Hounsfield unit (HU) profiles obtained in PMCT data of the segmented lung tissue present with specific behaviour in relation to the cause of death. In 105 PMCT data sets of forensic cases, the entire lung volumes were segmented using the Mia Lite plug-in on Osirix. HU profiles of the lungs were generated and correlated to cause of death groups as assessed after forensic autopsy (cardiac death, fatal haemorrhage, craniocerebral injury, intoxication, drowning, hypothermia, hanging and suffocation). Especially cardiac death cases, intoxication cases, fatal haemorrhage cases and hypothermia cases showed very specific HU profiles. In drowning, the profiles showed two different behaviours representing wet and dry drowning. HU profiles rather varied in craniocerebral injury cases, hanging cases as well as in suffocation cases. HU profiles of the lungs segmented from PMCT data may support the cause of death diagnosis as they represent specific morphological changes in the lungs such as oedema, congestion or blood loss. Especially in cardiac death, intoxication, fatal haemorrhage, hypothermia and drowning cases, HU profiles may be very supportive for the forensic pathologist.


Assuntos
Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asfixia/patologia , Lesões Encefálicas/patologia , Causas de Morte , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Afogamento/patologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias/patologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Hipotermia/patologia , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Envenenamento/patologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 23: 30-33, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27890099

RESUMO

The investigation of drowning constitutes one of the biggest problems in forensic practice. Elevated cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels in biological fluids have been associated with myocardial damage, whereas increased Mg2+ and Ca2+ levels were found in cases of seawater drowning. The aim of this study was to examine the diagnostic utility of postmortem determination of cTnI, Mg2+ and Ca2+ in the pericardial fluid, in differentiating between cases of seawater drowning related to myocardial injury and those brought about by other causes. This study included 76 cases selected during a 2-year period from medicolegal autopsies. The cases were divided into three groups, according to the cause of death established based on macroscopic and microscopic evidence. The groups were: 1) seawater drowning (n=23), 2) seawater drowning with histological evidence of myocardial infarction (n=28), and 3) myocardial infarction unrelated to drowning (n=25). cTnI was determined with an enzyme immunoassay; Mg2+ and Ca2+ with standard colorimetric assays. Pericardial cTnI levels were significantly lower in group 1 compared to groups 2 and 3. In contrast, pericardial Mg2+ and Ca2+ levels were both significantly higher in groups 1 and 2 compared to group 3. Our results suggest that the postmortem determination of pericardial cTnI levels may be useful in detecting previous myocardial damage as a contributory factor in death from seawater drowning and provide independent confirmation of the usefulness of pericardial Mg2+ and Ca2+ levels for differentiating between seawater drowning and fatal acute myocardial injury unrelated to the former.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Afogamento/patologia , Patologia Legal , Magnésio/sangue , Pericárdio/metabolismo , Água do Mar , Troponina I/sangue , Idoso , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mudanças Depois da Morte
15.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 121(3): 241-248, 2016 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27786162

RESUMO

Fisheries bycatch, the incidental mortality that occurs as a result of entanglement in fishing gear, is an important conservation threat to penguins and other seabirds. Identification of entanglement and drowning in beach-cast carcasses of seabirds remains a challenge, as it is still unclear what lesions are to be expected in a bycaught seabird. We necropsied 2 Magellanic penguins Spheniscus magellanicus that were entangled and drowned in gillnets. Marked distension of the lungs with foamy red fluid and marked oedema of the dorsal visceral pleura were prominent lesions consistent with those described in cases of 'wet drowning' in humans. On the other hand, the air sacs contained very small quantities of liquid, suggesting that absence of water in the air sacs might not be a reliable sign to exclude drowning. Other relevant findings included cutaneous lacerations and bruising in one bird and cervical and pectoral rhabdomyolysis in both birds. While cutaneous or subcutaneous hematomas may be an indication of bycatch, especially if linear or cross-linear patterns consistent with fishing nets are present, these lesions might not always be discernible and their absence does not suffice to exclude the possibility of entanglement in fishing nets. Additionally, our findings suggest that the histological examination of skeletal muscles, particularly of the neck, may provide additional clues to corroborate the diagnosis of drowning in penguins.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/patologia , Afogamento/veterinária , Pesqueiros , Spheniscidae , Animais , Doenças das Aves/etiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Afogamento/patologia , Feminino
16.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 37(3): 208-10, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27356012

RESUMO

Adipocere is an unusual product of fatty tissue decomposition that may occasionally be found in bodies. Two cases of diving fatalities in a limestone cave filled with fresh water are reported to demonstrate the features of adipocere, with a literature review. The bodies of a 20-year-old male and 22-year-old female diver were retrieved 11 and 10 months after their deaths, respectively. Both bodies were putrefied with extensive adipocere formation characterized by the absence of epidermis with loss of cellular detail, with residual collagen fibers, and occasional hair follicles in the dermis. The most likely cause of death was accidental drowning possibly contributed to by equipment malfunction at depth. Adipocere formation is an unusual finding in bodies, particularly in Australia, that is facilitated by cold, wet, and anaerobic environments. If found at autopsy, it may give some indication of the environmental conditions that a body has been exposed to.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Austrália , Cavernas , Mergulho/efeitos adversos , Afogamento/patologia , Feminino , Água Doce , Humanos , Imersão , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
17.
Forensic Sci Int ; 263: 152-157, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27115507

RESUMO

Previous studies demonstrated possible application of postmortem quantitative CT data analysis of the heart and lung in situ to investigate terminal cardiopulmonary pathophysiology. The present study analyzed virtual CT morphometric and autopsy data of the heart to investigate terminal central congestion in forensic autopsy cases (n=113, within 3 days postmortem); the virtual total heart weight in situ was estimated using CT morphometry, and the difference from and ratio to the measured weight at autopsy were calculated as indicators of heart blood pooling and the cardiac dilatation index (CDI) before dissection, respectively. There were substantial differences between the estimated heart blood pooling in situ and volume recovered at autopsy, including a characteristic decrease in drowning, alcohol/sedative-hypnotic intoxication and sudden cardiac death (SCD), possibly due to blood redistribution after thoracic dissection. The estimated in situ heart blood pool and CDI values were higher in SCD but lower in fatal hemorrhage and hemopericardium, as well as in acute mechanical asphyxiation and hyperthermia (heatstroke). In addition, there was a significant difference in heart blood pooling between mechanical asphyxiation or drowning and SCD. The CDI was significantly lower in fatal hyperthermia (heatstroke) than in drowning, fatal methamphetamine abuse, alcohol/sedative-hypnotic intoxication and SCD. These findings suggest the usefulness of applying the CDI and postmortem heart blood volume in situ as supplementary indicators of terminal central congestion, especially for investigating deaths from hemorrhage, hemopericardium, hyperthermia (heatstroke) and SCD.


Assuntos
Volume Sanguíneo , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Miocárdio/patologia , Tamanho do Órgão , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asfixia/patologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/patologia , Afogamento/patologia , Feminino , Patologia Legal , Golpe de Calor/patologia , Hemorragia/patologia , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derrame Pericárdico/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Imagem Corporal Total , Adulto Jovem
18.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 37(2): 118-26, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27043461

RESUMO

A diagnosis of drowning is a challenge in legal medicine as there is generally a lack of pathognomonic findings indicative of drowning. This article investigates whether the skeletal muscle undergoes structural changes during death by drowning. Eighteen Wistar rats were divided into 3 equal groups according to the cause of death: drowning, exsanguination, and cervical dislocation. Immediately after death, samples of the masseter, sternohyoid, diaphragm, anterior tibial, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus muscles were obtained and examined by light and electron microscopy.In the drowning group, all muscles except the masseter displayed scattered evidence of fiber degeneration, and modified Gomori trichrome staining revealed structural changes in the form of abnormal clumps of red material and ragged red fibers. Under the electron microscope, there was myofibrillar disruption and large masses of abnormal mitochondria. In the exsanguination group, modified Gomori trichrome staining disclosed structural changes and mitochondrial abnormalities were apparent under light microscopy; however, there was no evidence of degeneration. No alterations were observed in the cervical dislocation group.As far as we know, this is the first time that these histological findings are described in death by drowning and are consistent with rhabdomyolysis and intense anoxia of skeletal muscle.


Assuntos
Afogamento/patologia , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Animais , Patologia Legal , Microscopia Eletrônica , Mitocôndrias Musculares/patologia , Modelos Animais , Miofibrilas/patologia , Ratos Wistar
19.
Vet Pathol ; 53(5): 1049-56, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26926081

RESUMO

Determining the cause of death in animals recovered from bodies of water, swimming pools, or other water-containing vessels is challenging. Animals recovered from water may or may not have drowned. The diagnosis of drowning is usually one of exclusion, requiring information from the crime scene, recovery scene, the medical history or reliable witness accounts. While there are characteristic macroscopic and microscopic lesions of drowning, none are specific and are dependent on the volume and tonicity of the drowning medium. Beyond interpreting the postmortem findings, the court may ask pathologists to comment on the behavioral and welfare implications of drowning. This requires an understanding of the drowning process, which is a complex series of sequential, concurrent, and overlapping cardiorespiratory reflexes, electrolyte and blood gas abnormalities, aspiration, physical exhaustion, and breathlessness eventually culminating in death. This review addresses the mechanisms, lesions, and diagnostic issues associated with drowning in nonaquatic companion animals.


Assuntos
Afogamento/veterinária , Patologia Legal , Patologia Veterinária , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Causas de Morte , Afogamento/diagnóstico , Afogamento/patologia , Patologia Legal/métodos , Imersão , Patologia Veterinária/métodos
20.
Med Leg J ; 84(3): 159-61, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26955826

RESUMO

One of the main problems in forensic medicine is the autopsy diagnosis of drowning, especially in the case of delay in the victim's recovery. The body of a 37-year-old woman was delivered to Kahrizak autopsy centre for post mortem. She was drowned in a public Jacuzzi because when she bent down to pick up her hairpin from the bottom of the Jacuzzi, her right arm became stuck in the drainage pipe and was sucked in. Unfortunately, she was not resuscitated after being pulled out of the Jacuzzi. The ambulance arrived too late, and she was already dead on arrival at the hospital. Her family pursued a claim against the managers and personnel of the pool for poor security management and failure to resuscitate. A forensic examination was needed to determine the manner of her death (natural, accidental, suicide and homicide).


Assuntos
Afogamento/diagnóstico , Afogamento/patologia , Banho a Vapor/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Medicina Legal/métodos , Humanos
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