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2.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the survival and neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants at 18 to 26 months with early hypoxemic respiratory failure (HRF). We also assessed whether African American infants with early HRF had improved outcomes after exposure to inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). METHODS: ELBW infants ≤1000 g and gestational age ≤26 weeks with maximal oxygen ≥60% on either day 1 or day 3 were labeled as "early HRF" and born between 2007 and 2015 in the Neonatal Research Network were included. Using a propensity score regression model, we analyzed outcomes and effects of exposure to iNO overall and separately by race. RESULTS: Among 7639 ELBW infants born ≤26 weeks, 22.7% had early HRF. Early HRF was associated with a mortality of 51.3%. The incidence of moderate-severe NDI among survivors was 41.2% at 18 to 26 months. Mortality among infants treated with iNO was 59.4%. Female sex (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.8-3.3), birth weight ≥720 g (aOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.1) and complete course of antenatal steroids (aOR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1-2.2) were associated with intact survival. African American infants had a similar incidence of early HRF (21.7% vs 23.3%) but lower exposure to iNO (16.4% vs 21.6%). Among infants with HRF exposed to iNO, intact survival (no death or NDI) was not significantly different between African American and other races (aOR: 1.5, 95% CI: 0.6-3.6). CONCLUSIONS: Early HRF in infants ≤26 weeks' gestation is associated with high mortality and NDI at 18 to 26 months. Use of iNO did not decrease mortality or NDI. Outcomes following iNO exposure were not different in African American infants.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Hipóxia/complicações , Lactente Extremamente Prematuro , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/epidemiologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/uso terapêutico , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Administração por Inalação , Afro-Americanos , Índice de Apgar , Peso ao Nascer , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido de Peso Extremamente Baixo ao Nascer , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/etnologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/administração & dosagem , Alta do Paciente , Gravidez , Pontuação de Propensão , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/etnologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Esteroides/uso terapêutico
3.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883808

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children with isolated neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count [ANC] <1500/µL) are frequently referred to pediatric hematology and oncology clinics for further diagnostic evaluation. Scant literature exists on interventions and outcomes for isolated neutropenia. We hypothesized that children will have resolution of their neutropenia without the need for intervention(s) by a pediatric hematologist and oncologist. METHODS: We performed a 5.5-year institutional review board-approved retrospective chart review of children referred to our pediatric hematology and oncology clinics for isolated neutropenia. Neutropenia was categorized as mild (ANC of 1001-1500/µL), moderate (ANC of 500-1000 µL), severe (ANC of 201-500/µL), or very severe (ANC of ≤200/µL). RESULTS: Among 155 children referred with isolated neutropenia, 45 (29%) had mild neutropenia, 65 (42%) had moderate neutropenia, 30 (19%) had severe neutropenia, and 15 (10%) had very severe neutropenia. Only 29 (19%) children changed to an ANC category lower than their initial referral category. At a median follow-up of 12 months, 101 children had resolution of neutropenia, 40 children had mild neutropenia, 10 children had moderate neutropenia, 3 children had severe neutropenia, and 1 patient had very severe neutropenia. A specific diagnosis was not identified in most (54%) children. The most common etiologies were viral suppression (16%), autoimmune neutropenia (14%), and drug-induced neutropenia (8%). Black children had a 3.5 higher odds of having persistent mild neutropenia. Six (4%) children received granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Most children referred for isolated neutropenia do not progress in severity and do not require subspecialty interventions or hospitalizations.


Assuntos
Neutropenia/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Anticorpos Antinucleares/análise , Americanos Asiáticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Neutropenia Febril Induzida por Quimioterapia/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/uso terapêutico , Hematologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Oncologia , Neutropenia/diagnóstico , Neutropenia/tratamento farmacológico , Neutropenia/etiologia , Remissão Espontânea , Estudos Retrospectivos , Viroses/complicações
8.
Soc Work Public Health ; 35(7): 523-532, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970547

RESUMO

The authors assert that art-based inquiry can serve as a powerful medium for understanding the connection between faith and resilience as perceived and understood by older African-Americans adults disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Utilizing the CRT method of counterstorytelling as our conduit to elucidate our culturally situated responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. We seek to explore the connections between faith and resilience in social work practice during this public health crisis. Drawing from our shared experiences as two Black social workers we discuss the role spirituality plays in mitigating loneliness and stress among socially isolated older African-American adults (i.e., social distancing). Finally, with physical contact limited (i.e., social distancing) because of COVID-19, implications and recommendations for using spiritual-based practices with older African-American adults and families are discussed.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Espiritualidade , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Solidão , Narração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Distância Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1327, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907569

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adversity experienced during childhood manifests deleteriously across the lifespan. This study provides updated frequency estimates of ACEs using the most comprehensive and geographically diverse sample to date. METHODS: ACEs data were collected via BRFSS (Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System). Data from a total of 211,376 adults across 34 states were analyzed. The ACEs survey is comprised of 8 domains: physical/emotional/sexual abuse, household mental illness, household substance use, household domestic violence, incarcerated household member, and parental separation/divorce. Frequencies were calculated for each domain and summed to derive mean ACE scores. Findings were weighted and stratified by demographic variables. Group differences were assessed by post-estimation F-tests. RESULTS: Most individuals experienced at least one ACE (57.8%) with 21.5% experiencing 3+ ACEs. F-tests showed females had significantly higher ACEs than males (1.64 to 1.46). Multiracial individuals had a significantly higher ACEs (2.39) than all other races/ethnicities, while White individuals had significantly lower mean ACE scores (1.53) than Black (1.66) or Hispanic (1.63) individuals. The 25-to-34 age group had a significantly higher mean ACE score than any other group (1.98). Generally, those with higher income/educational attainment had lower mean ACE scores than those with lower income/educational attainment. Sexual minority individuals had higher ACEs than straight individuals, with significantly higher ACEs in bisexual individuals (3.01). CONCLUSION: Findings highlight that childhood adversity is common across sociodemographic, yet higher in certain categories. Identifying at-risk populations for higher ACEs is essential to improving the health outcomes and attainment across the lifespan.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Divórcio , Características da Família , Transtornos Mentais , Prisões , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Violência , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
10.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2019795, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975574

RESUMO

Importance: As of May 11, 2020, there have been more than 290 000 deaths worldwide from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Risk-adjusted differences in outcomes among patients of differing ethnicity and race categories are not well characterized. Objectives: To investigate whether presenting comorbidities in patients with COVID-19 in New York City differed by race/ethnicity and whether case fatality rates varied among different ethnic and racial groups, controlling for presenting comorbidities and other risk factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 5902 patients who presented for care to the Montefiore Medical Center, a large urban academic medical center in the Bronx, New York, between March 14 and April 15, 2020, and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. Final data collection was April 27, 2020. Exposures: Patient characteristics, including self-identified ethnicity/race, age, sex, socioeconomic status, and medical comorbidities, were tabulated. Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival. Associations between patient demographic characteristics, comorbidities, and race/ethnicity were examined using χ2 tests, and the association with survival was assessed using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, based on time from positive COVID-19 test. Results: Of 9268 patients who were tested, 5902 ethnically diverse patients (63.7%) had SARS-CoV-2. Of these, 3129 patients (53.0%) were women, and the median (interquartile range) age was 58 (44-71) years. A total of 918 patients (15.5%) died within the study time frame. Overall, 1905 patients (32.3%) identified as Hispanic; 1935 (32.8%), non-Hispanic Black; 509 (8.6%), non-Hispanic White; and 171 (2.9%), Asian; the death rates were 16.2% (309), 17.2% (333), 20.0% (102), and 17.0% (29), respectively (P = .25). Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black patients had a higher proportion of more than 2 medical comorbidities with 654 (34.3%) and 764 (39.5%), respectively, compared with 147 (28.9%) among non-Hispanic White patients (P < .001). Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black patients were also more likely to test positive for COVID-19 than White patients, with 1905 of 2919 Hispanic patients (65.3%), 1935 of 2823 non-Hispanic Black patients (68.5%), and 509 of 960 non-Hispanic White patients (53.0%) having positive test results for SARS-CoV-2 (P < .001). While controlling for age, sex, socioeconomic status and comorbidities, patients identifying as Hispanic (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.98; P = .03) or non-Hispanic Black (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.55-0.87; P = .002) had slightly improved survival compared with non-Hispanic White patients. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients with COVID-19 who presented for care at the same urban medical center, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic patients did not experience worse risk-adjusted outcomes compared with their White counterparts. This finding is important for understanding the observed population differences in mortality by race/ethnicity reported elsewhere.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Causas de Morte , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Hispano-Americanos , Hospitalização , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Coronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , População Urbana
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2021892, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975575

RESUMO

Importance: Initial public health data show that Black race may be a risk factor for worse outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective: To characterize the association of race with incidence and outcomes of COVID-19, while controlling for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and comorbidities. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 2595 consecutive adults tested for COVID-19 from March 12 to March 31, 2020, at Froedtert Health and Medical College of Wisconsin (Milwaukee), the largest academic system in Wisconsin, with 879 inpatient beds (of which 128 are intensive care unit beds). Exposures: Race (Black vs White, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, Native American or Alaska Native, Asian, or unknown). Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes included COVID-19 positivity, hospitalization, intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and death. Additional independent variables measured and tested included socioeconomic status, sex, and comorbidities. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was used to test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Results: A total of 2595 patients were included. The mean (SD) age was 53.8 (17.5) years, 978 (37.7%) were men, and 785 (30.2%) were African American patients. Of the 369 patients (14.2%) who tested positive for COVID-19, 170 (46.1%) were men, 148 (40.1%) were aged 60 years or older, and 218 (59.1%) were African American individuals. Positive tests were associated with Black race (odds ratio [OR], 5.37; 95% CI, 3.94-7.29; P = .001), male sex (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.21-2.00; P = .001), and age 60 years or older (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.53-2.73; P = .001). Zip code of residence explained 79% of the overall variance in COVID-19 positivity in the cohort (ρ = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.58-0.91). Adjusting for zip code of residence, Black race (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.00-3.65; P = .04) and poverty (OR, 3.84; 95% CI, 1.20-12.30; P = .02) were associated with hospitalization. Poverty (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.08-11.80; P = .04) but not Black race (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.75-3.07; P = .24) was associated with intensive care unit admission. Overall, 20 (17.2%) deaths associated with COVID-19 were reported. Shortness of breath at presentation (OR, 10.67; 95% CI, 1.52-25.54; P = .02), higher body mass index (OR per unit of body mass index, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05-1.35; P = .006), and age 60 years or older (OR, 22.79; 95% CI, 3.38-53.81; P = .001) were associated with an increased likelihood of death. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study of adults tested for COVID-19 in a large midwestern academic health system, COVID-19 positivity was associated with Black race. Among patients with COVID-19, both race and poverty were associated with higher risk of hospitalization, but only poverty was associated with higher risk of intensive care unit admission. These findings can be helpful in targeting mitigation strategies for racial disparities in the incidence and outcomes of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hospitalização , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Dispneia/epidemiologia , Dispneia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Razão de Chances , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Pobreza , Respiração Artificial , Wisconsin/epidemiologia
12.
Lancet ; 396(10255): 881-882, 2020 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32979967
13.
J Rural Health ; 36(4): 602-608, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894612

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study compared the average daily increase in COVID-19 mortality rates by county racial/ethnic composition (percent non-Hispanic Black and percent Hispanic) among US rural counties. METHODS: COVID-19 daily death counts for 1,976 US nonmetropolitan counties for the period March 2-July 26, 2020, were extracted from USAFacts and merged with county-level American Community Survey and Area Health Resource File data. Covariates included county percent poverty, age composition, adjacency to a metropolitan county, health care supply, and state fixed effects. Mixed-effects negative binomial regression with random intercepts to account for repeated observations within counties were used to predict differences in the average daily increase in the COVID-19 mortality rate across quartiles of percent Black and percent Hispanic. FINDINGS: Since early March, the average daily increase in the COVID-19 mortality rate has been significantly higher in rural counties with the highest percent Black and percent Hispanic populations. Compared to counties in the bottom quartile, counties in the top quartile of percent Black have an average daily increase that is 70% higher (IRR = 1.70, CI: 1.48-1.95, P < .001), and counties in the top quartile of percent Hispanic have an average daily increase that is 50% higher (IRR = 1.50, CI: 1.33-1.69, P < .001), net of covariates. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 mortality risk is not distributed equally across the rural United States, and the COVID-19 race penalty is not restricted to cities. Among rural counties, the average daily increase in COVID-19 mortality rates has been significantly higher in counties with the largest shares of Black and Hispanic residents.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(38): 1337-1342, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970045

RESUMO

During 2018, gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) accounted for 69.4% of all diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the United States (1). Moreover, in all 42 jurisdictions with complete laboratory reporting of CD4 and viral load results,* percentages of MSM linked to care within 1 month (80.8%) and virally suppressed (viral load <200 copies of HIV RNA/mL or interpreted as undetected) within 6 months (68.3%) of diagnosis were below target during 2018 (2). African American/Black (Black), Hispanic/Latino (Hispanic), and younger MSM disproportionately experience HIV diagnosis, not being linked to care, and not being virally suppressed. To characterize trends in these outcomes, CDC analyzed National HIV Surveillance System† data from 2014 to 2018. The number of diagnoses of HIV infection among all MSM decreased 2.3% per year (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.9-2.8). However, diagnoses did not significantly change among either Hispanic MSM or any MSM aged 13-19 years; increased 2.2% (95% CI = 1.0-3.4) and 2.0% (95% CI = 0.6-3.3) per year among Black and Hispanic MSM aged 25-34 years, respectively; and were highest in absolute count among Black MSM. Annual percentages of linkage to care within 1 month and viral suppression within 6 months of diagnosis among all MSM increased (2.9% [95% CI = 2.4-3.5] and 6.8% [95% CI = 6.2-7.4] per year, respectively). These findings, albeit promising, warrant intensified prevention efforts for Black, Hispanic, and younger MSM.


Assuntos
Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/etnologia , Homossexualidade Masculina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239443, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946512

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the setting of the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2, a potential association of this disease with stroke has been suggested. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients who were admitted with COVID-19 and had an acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: This is a case series of PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients with ischemic stroke admitted to an academic health system in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia (USA) between March 24th, 2020 and July 17th, 2020. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic characteristics were described. RESULTS: Of 396 ischemic stroke patients admitted during this study period, 13 (2.5%) were also diagnosed with COVID-19. The mean age of patients was 61.6 ± 10.8 years, 10 (76.9%) male, 8 (61.5%) were Black Americans, mean time from last normal was 4.97 ± 5.1 days, and only one received acute reperfusion therapy. All 13 patients had at least one stroke-associated co-morbidity. The predominant pattern of ischemic stroke was embolic with 4 explained by atrial fibrillation. COVID-19 patients had a significantly higher rate of cryptogenic stroke than non-COVID-19 patients during the study period (69% vs 17%, p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In our case series, ischemic stroke affected COVID-19 patients with traditional stroke risk factors at an age typically seen in non-COVID populations, and mainly affecting males and Black Americans. We observed a predominantly embolic pattern of stroke with a higher than expected rate of cryptogenic strokes, a prolonged median time to presentation and symptom recognition limiting the use of acute reperfusion treatments. These results highlight the need for increased community awareness, early identification, and management of AIS in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/etnologia , Isquemia Encefálica/virologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Diagnóstico Precoce , Embolia/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia
17.
PLoS Med ; 17(9): e1003379, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is growing concern that racial and ethnic minority communities around the world are experiencing a disproportionate burden of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We investigated racial and ethnic disparities in patterns of COVID-19 testing (i.e., who received testing and who tested positive) and subsequent mortality in the largest integrated healthcare system in the United States. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This retrospective cohort study included 5,834,543 individuals receiving care in the US Department of Veterans Affairs; most (91%) were men, 74% were non-Hispanic White (White), 19% were non-Hispanic Black (Black), and 7% were Hispanic. We evaluated associations between race/ethnicity and receipt of COVID-19 testing, a positive test result, and 30-day mortality, with multivariable adjustment for a wide range of demographic and clinical characteristics including comorbid conditions, health behaviors, medication history, site of care, and urban versus rural residence. Between February 8 and July 22, 2020, 254,595 individuals were tested for COVID-19, of whom 16,317 tested positive and 1,057 died. Black individuals were more likely to be tested (rate per 1,000 individuals: 60.0, 95% CI 59.6-60.5) than Hispanic (52.7, 95% CI 52.1-53.4) and White individuals (38.6, 95% CI 38.4-38.7). While individuals from minority backgrounds were more likely to test positive (Black versus White: odds ratio [OR] 1.93, 95% CI 1.85-2.01, p < 0.001; Hispanic versus White: OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.74-1.94, p < 0.001), 30-day mortality did not differ by race/ethnicity (Black versus White: OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.80-1.17, p = 0.74; Hispanic versus White: OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.73-1.34, p = 0.94). The disparity between Black and White individuals in testing positive for COVID-19 was stronger in the Midwest (OR 2.66, 95% CI 2.41-2.95, p < 0.001) than the West (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.11-1.39, p < 0.001). The disparity in testing positive for COVID-19 between Hispanic and White individuals was consistent across region, calendar time, and outbreak pattern. Study limitations include underrepresentation of women and a lack of detailed information on social determinants of health. CONCLUSIONS: In this nationwide study, we found that Black and Hispanic individuals are experiencing an excess burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection not entirely explained by underlying medical conditions or where they live or receive care. There is an urgent need to proactively tailor strategies to contain and prevent further outbreaks in racial and ethnic minority communities.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Pastoral Care Counsel ; 74(3): 196-202, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967549

RESUMO

Profanity, derived from the Latin for "not sacred," has long been seen as antithetical to spirituality. Social norms around organized religion, respectability, race, gender, etc. compound this perception. In this article, I examine how the use of profanity in Clinical Pastoral Education can help students experience personal, social, and physical freedom. Association of Clinical Pastoral Education outcomes, demographic data, and a student experience provide support for this assertion.


Assuntos
Idioma , Assistência Religiosa/educação , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Homicídio/psicologia , Homicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/psicologia , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2015470, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876682

RESUMO

Importance: Home health care is one of the fastest growing postacute services in the US and is increasingly important in the era of coronavirus disease 2019 and payment reform, yet it is unknown whether patients who need home health care are receiving it. Objective: To examine how often patients referred to home health care at hospital discharge receive it and whether there is evidence of disparities. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used Medicare data regarding the postacute home health care setting from October 1, 2015, through September 30, 2016. The participants were Medicare fee-for-service and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries who were discharged alive from a hospital with a referral to home health care (2 379 506 discharges). Statistical analysis was performed from July 2019 to June 2020. Exposures: Hospital referral to home health care. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes included whether discharges received their first home health care visit within 14 days of hospital discharge and the number of days between hospital discharge and the first home health visit. Differences in the likelihood of receiving home health care across patient, zip code, and hospital characteristics were also examined. Results: Among 2 379 506 discharges from the hospital with a home health care referral, 1 358 697 patients (57.1%) were female, 468 762 (19.7%) were non-White, and 466 383 (19.6%) were dually enrolled in Medicare and Medicaid; patients had a mean (SD) age of 73.9 (11.9) years and 4.1 (2.1) Elixhauser comorbidities. Only 1 284 300 patients (54.0%) discharged from the hospital with a home health referral received home health care services within 14 days of discharge. Of the remaining 1 095 206 patients (46.0%) discharged, 37.7% (896 660 discharges) never received any home health care, while 8.3% (198 546 discharges) were institutionalized or died within 14 days without a preceding home health care visit. Patients who were Black or Hispanic received home health at lower rates than did patients who were White (48.0% [95% CI, 47.8%-48.1%] of Black and 46.1% [95% CI, 45.7%-46.5%] of Hispanic discharges received home health within 14 days compared with 55.3% [95% CI, 55.2%-55.4%] of White discharges). In addition, disadvantaged patients waited longer for their first home health care visit. For example, patients living in high-unemployment zip codes waited a mean of 2.0 days (95% CI, 2.0-2.0 days), whereas those living in low-unemployment zip codes waited 1.8 days (95% CI, 1.8-1.8 days). Conclusions and Relevance: Disparities in the use of home health care remain an issue in the US. As home health care is increasingly presented as a safer alternative to institutional postacute care during coronavirus disease 2019, and payment reforms continue to pressure hospitals to discharge patients home, ensuring the availability of safe and equitable care will be crucial to maintaining high-quality care.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/etnologia , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare , Medicare Part C , Alta do Paciente , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Desemprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
20.
Health Lit Res Pract ; 4(3): e166-e170, 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926172

RESUMO

By mid-May 2020, most of the United States had been under shelter-in-place orders for several weeks to decrease the spread of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). As states begin to lift these orders to reopen the economy, the risk of a resurgence of COVID-19 may be related to the public's voluntary adherence to public health recommendations. We conducted a nationally representative survey of 604 African Americans to generate a risk assessment based on African Americans' compliance with public health recommendations to frequently wash hands, maintain social distancing, avoid touching face, and wear a mask in public. This is, to our knowledge, the most comprehensive study of African Americans and public health adherence specific to COVID-19. The percent of respondents reporting that they always comply with these recommendations was 72%, 67%, 55%, and 65%, respectively. Based on this threshold, African Americans' level of adherence with COVID-19 public health recommendations suggests they may be at high risk of a resurgence of COVID-19 during reopening, and there is an urgent need for targeted, culturally responsive public health messaging that is accessible to communities of color to help address racial disparities in COVID-19 risk. [HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice. 2020;4(3):e166-e170.].


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Face , Feminino , Guias como Assunto , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Medição de Risco , Isolamento Social , Estados Unidos
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