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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253497, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355892

RESUMO

Abstract This research aimed to estimate the length-weight ratio (LWR) of the stingray Potamotrygon wallacei, known locally as the cururu, which was caught in streams and lakes in the middle Negro River region, Amazonas, Brazil. The stingrays were captured during the night (from 11 pm to 1 am) near the shores of streams and lakes, through active search using wooden canoes, head lanterns and scoop nets. The samplings were carried out in November 2017 (5 days), February (8 days), March (3 days) and April (2 days) of 2018, totaling 18 days of sampling. The total fresh weight was measured to 0.1 g of accuracy and the disc width to 0.1 cm accuracy. The parameters a and b of the equation W=a.DWb were estimated. This study provides new maximum length data for the cururu stingray.


Resumo Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo estimar a relação peso-comprimento (LWR) da arraia Potamotrygon wallacei, conhecida localmente como cururu, que foi capturada em igarapés e lagos na região do médio Rio Negro, Amazonas, Brasil. As arraias foram capturadas durante a noite (das 23h-1h) nas margens dos igarapés e lagos, por meio de busca ativa utilizando canoas de madeira, lanternas de cabeça e puçás. As coletas foram realizadas nos meses de novembro de 2017 (5 dias), fevereiro (8 dias), março (3 dias) e abril (2 dias) de 2018, totalizando 18 dias de amostragem. Foram medidos o peso fresco total com precisão de 0,01 g e a largura do disco com precisão de 0,1 cm. Os parâmetros a e b da equação W= a.DWb foram estimados. Este estudo prover novos dados de comprimento máximo para a arraia cururu.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Rajidae , Rosa , Afro-Americanos , Brasil , Rios
2.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2107470, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912473

RESUMO

The increased utilization of telehealth has provided patients with the opportunity to interact with racially diverse healthcare providers (HCPs). While evidence of racial stereotypes in healthcare is well documented, less is known about whether linguistic cues increase or decrease racial bias in healthcare interactions. The purpose of this pilot study was to use virtual clinicians (VCs) to examine how varying linguistic features affect patient perceptions of Black-identifying HCPs. Participants (N = 282) were recruited to participate in an online pilot study using a two-arm posttest-only experimental design. Participants were randomly assigned to interact with a Black VC that used vocal cues associated with either Standard American English (SAE) or African American English (AAE) on the topic of colorectal cancer. After the interaction, participants completed a posttest questionnaire. Resulting data were analyzed using mediation.


Assuntos
Racismo , Afro-Americanos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Linguística , Projetos Piloto , Estados Unidos
4.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 42: 100508, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35934322

RESUMO

We examined whether race/ethnic-specific social cohesion is associated with race/ethnic-specific HIV diagnosis rates using Bayesian space-time zero-inflated Poisson multivariable models, across 376 Census tracts. Social cohesion data were from the Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Health Survey, 2008-2015 and late HIV diagnosis data from eHARS system, 2009-2016. Areas where trust in neighbors reported by Black/African Americans was medium (compared to low) had lower rates of late HIV diagnosis among Black/African Americans (Relative Risk (RR)=0.52, 95% credible interval (CrI)= 0.34, 0.80). In contrast, areas where trust in neighbors reported by Black/African Americans were highest had lower late HIV diagnosis rates among Whites (RR=0.35, 95% CrI= 0.16, 0.76). Race/ethnic-specific differences in social cohesion may have implications for designing interventions aimed at modifying area-level social factors to reduce racial disparities in late HIV diagnosis.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Infecções por HIV , Características de Residência , Coesão Social , Teorema de Bayes , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Brancos
5.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271661, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35947543

RESUMO

Racial/ethnic minorities have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19. The effects of COVID-19 on the long-term mental health of minorities remains unclear. To evaluate differences in odds of screening positive for depression and anxiety among various racial and ethnic groups during the latter phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of 691,473 participants nested within the prospective smartphone-based COVID Symptom Study in the United States (U.S.) and United Kingdom (U.K). from February 23, 2021 to June 9, 2021. In the U.S. (n=57,187), compared to White participants, the multivariable odds ratios (ORs) for screening positive for depression were 1·16 (95% CI: 1·02 to 1·31) for Black, 1·23 (1·11 to 1·36) for Hispanic, and 1·15 (1·02 to 1·30) for Asian participants, and 1·34 (1·13 to 1·59) for participants reporting more than one race/other even after accounting for personal factors such as prior history of a mental health disorder, COVID-19 infection status, and surrounding lockdown stringency. Rates of screening positive for anxiety were comparable. In the U.K. (n=643,286), racial/ethnic minorities had similarly elevated rates of positive screening for depression and anxiety. These disparities were not fully explained by changes in leisure time activities. Racial/ethnic minorities bore a disproportionate mental health burden during the COVID-19 pandemic. These differences will need to be considered as health care systems transition from prioritizing infection control to mitigating long-term consequences.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Afro-Americanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Estudos Transversais , Minorias Étnicas e Raciais , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 612, 2022 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35948907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical schools have increasingly integrated social justice, anti-racism, and health equity training into their curricula. Yet, no research examines whether medical students understand the complex history of racial injustice. We sought to investigate the relationship between medical students' historical knowledge and their perceptions regarding health equity. METHODS: Medical students at one large urban medical school self-rated their familiarity and importance of various racially-significant historical events and persons, as well as their agreement with statements regarding health equity, education, and preparedness to act. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted in R. RESULTS: Of 166 (RR=31.3%) participants, 96% agreed that understanding historical context is necessary in medicine; yet 65% of students could not describe the historical significance of racial events or persons. Only 57% felt that they understood this context, and the same percentage felt other medical students did not. A minority of students felt empowered (40%) or prepared (31%) to take action when they witness racial injustice in healthcare. Multiracial identity was significantly associated with increased knowledge of African American history (p<0.01), and a humanities background was significantly associated with increased knowledge of Latin American history (p=0.017). There was a positive, significant relationship between advocacy statements, such as "I have taken action" (p<0.001) and "I know the roots of racism" (p<0.001) with mean familiarity of historical events. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that while students agree that racism has no place in healthcare, there remains a paucity of knowledge regarding many events and figures in the history of American race relations and civil rights, with implications for future physicians' patient care and health equity efforts.


Assuntos
Equidade em Saúde , Racismo , Estudantes de Medicina , Afro-Americanos , Humanos , Faculdades de Medicina , Estados Unidos
7.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 5-12, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the accelerated spread of COVID-19 and current shelter-in-place orders from many local governments, African American (AA) communities see to be more vulnerable as emerging data show disproportionate rates of infection and mortality among AAs across the nation. OBJECTIVES: In a sample of AA church members, to conduct a rapid community assessment during the early phase of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: Our community-based participatory research team, partnering with the local AA church community and including trained lay health workers, conducted the assessment via telephone and online. RESULTS: Although most participants reported high confidence regarding recommendations for physical distancing, more than 60% reported elevated anxiety and stress, and 10% indicated that they needed more information about staying healthy and safe during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Community-based participatory research with lay health workers is an effective method to implement a community needs assessment, problem-solve with community members, and build community health infrastructure during a public health crisis.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Afro-Americanos , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias
8.
Prog Community Health Partnersh ; 16(2S): 83-90, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35912661

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-engaged research is a well-established approach to tackling health disparities in communities of color. However, the devastation caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) calls for a reexamination of the practice of community-engaged research. Syndemic framework characterizes the clustering and synergistic interactions between two or more diseases amid an underlay of social and environmental threats. This framework has been used to explain the disproportionately higher rates of COVID-19 in communities of color and may have utility in guiding future community-engaged research. OBJECTIVES: This article describes the process by which a syndemic framework was used to generate discussions on lessons learned from COVID-19 and describes the ensuing collaborative writing process that emerged from this discourse. METHODS: This article was developed by the Community Engagement Working Group (CEWG) of the Jackson Heart Study, a community-based epidemiologic study focused on cardiovascular disease among African Americans in the Jackson, Mississippi Metropolitan Area. By drawing upon a syndemic framework and lessons from COVID-19, the CEWG identified gaps and opportunities to enhance community-engaged research. CONCLUSIONS: Using syndemic framework as a starting point, the CEWG identified the following as aspects of community-engaged research that may warrant further consideration: 1) the need to examine multiple dimensions and assets of a community, 2) the need to view communities through an intersectionality lens, 3) the need to acknowledge the impact of historical and current trauma on the community, and 4) the need to provide support to community-engaged researchers who may be members of minoritized groups themselves and therefore, experience similar trauma.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Afro-Americanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Humanos , Sindemia
9.
Pediatr Radiol ; 52(9): 1765-1775, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35930081

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imaging missed care opportunities (MCOs), previously referred to as "no shows," impact timely patient diagnosis and treatment and can exacerbate health care disparities. Understanding factors associated with imaging MCOs could help advance pediatric health equity. OBJECTIVE: To assess racial/ethnic differences in pediatric MR imaging MCOs and whether health system and socioeconomic factors, represented by a geography-based Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), influence racial/ethnic differences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of MR imaging MCOs in patients younger than 21 years at a pediatric academic medical center (2015-2019). MR imaging MCOs were defined as: scheduled but appointment not attended, canceled within 24 h, and canceled but not rescheduled. Mixed effects multivariable logistic regression assessed the association between MCOs and race/ethnicity and community-level social factors, represented by the SVI. RESULTS: Of 68,809 scheduled MRIs, 6,159 (9.0%) were MCOs. A higher proportion of MCOs were among Black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino children. Multivariable analysis demonstrated increased odds of MCOs among Black/African-American (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7-2.3) and Hispanic/Latino (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.7) children compared to White children. The addition of SVI >90th percentile to the adjusted model had no effect on adjusted OR for Black/African-American (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.7-2.2) or Hispanic/Latino (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.6) children. Living in a community with SVI >90th percentile was independently associated with MCOs. CONCLUSION: Black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino children were almost twice as likely to experience MCOs, even when controlling for factors associated with MCOs. Independent of race/ethnicity, higher SVI was significantly associated with MCOs. Our study supports that pediatric health care providers must continue to identify systemic barriers to health care access for Black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino children and those from socially vulnerable areas.


Assuntos
Etnicidade , Hispânico ou Latino , Afro-Americanos , Criança , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 933190, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35942057

RESUMO

Background: Disparate COVID-19 outcomes have been observed between Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and White patients. The underlying causes for these disparities are not fully understood. Methods: This was a retrospective study utilizing electronic medical record data from five hospitals within a single academic health system based in New York City. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify demographic, clinical, and lab values associated with in-hospital mortality. Results: A total of 3,086 adult patients with self-reported race/ethnicity information presenting to the emergency department and hospitalized with COVID-19 up to April 13, 2020, were included in this study. While older age (multivariable odds ratio (OR) 1.06, 95% CI 1.05-1.07) and baseline hypoxia (multivariable OR 2.71, 95% CI 2.17-3.36) were associated with increased mortality overall and across all races/ethnicities, non-Hispanic Black (median age 67, interquartile range (IQR) 58-76) and Hispanic (median age 63, IQR 50-74) patients were younger and had different comorbidity profiles as compared to non-Hispanic White patients (median age 73, IQR 62-84; p < 0.05 for both comparisons). Among inflammatory markers associated with COVID-19 mortality, there was a significant interaction between the non-Hispanic Black population and interleukin-1-beta (interaction p-value 0.04). Conclusions: This analysis of a multiethnic cohort highlights the need for inclusion and consideration of diverse populations in ongoing COVID-19 trials targeting inflammatory cytokines.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Brancos
11.
Cells ; 11(15)2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954173

RESUMO

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most diagnosed cancer in the United States and is associated with metabolic reprogramming and significant disparities in clinical outcomes among African American (AA) men. While the cause is likely multi-factorial, the precise reasons for this are unknown. Here, we identified a higher expression of the metabolic enzyme UGT2B28 in localized PCa and metastatic disease compared to benign adjacent tissue, in AA PCa compared to benign adjacent tissue, and in AA PCa compared to European American (EA) PCa. UGT2B28 was found to be regulated by both full-length androgen receptor (AR) and its splice variant, AR-v7. Genetic knockdown of UGT2B28 across multiple PCa cell lines (LNCaP, LAPC-4, and VCaP), both in androgen-replete and androgen-depleted states resulted in impaired 3D organoid formation and a significant delay in tumor take and growth rate of xenograft tumors, all of which were rescued by re-expression of UGT2B28. Taken together, our findings demonstrate a key role for the UGT2B28 gene in promoting prostate tumor growth.


Assuntos
Androgênios , Neoplasias da Próstata , Afro-Americanos/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Processos Neoplásicos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Difosfato de Uridina
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954520

RESUMO

After more than a century of research and debate, the scientific community has yet to reach agreement on the principal causes of racialized disparities in population health. This debate currently centers on the degree to which "race residuals" are a result of unobserved differences in the social context or unobserved differences in population characteristics. The comparative study of native and foreign-born Black populations represents a quasi-experimental design where race is "held constant". Such studies present a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the social determinants of population health disparities. Since native and foreign-born Black populations occupy different sociocultural locations, and since populations with greater African ancestry have greater genetic diversity, comparative studies of these populations will advance our understanding of the complex relationship between sociocultural context, population characteristics and health outcomes. Therefore, we offer a conceptual framing for the comparative study of native and foreign-born Blacks along with a review of 208 studies that compare the mental and physical health of these populations. Although there is some complexity, especially with respect to mental health, the overall pattern is that foreign-born Blacks have better health outcomes than native-born Blacks. After reviewing these studies, we conclude with suggestions for future studies in this promising area of social and medical research.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Negros , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Sociais , Estados Unidos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954809

RESUMO

The present study proposes and examines the pathways from exposure to community violence to bullying victimization through the influences of depression, exposure to peer delinquency, and drug use among 638 African American adolescents (aged 12-22) from low-resourced neighborhoods in Chicago's Southside. The study found that African American adolescents who were exposed to community violence were likely at risk of bullying victimization, depression, exposure to peer delinquency, and drug use. Depression can heighten the risk of bullying victimization. These findings have implications for future research.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos , Chicago/epidemiologia , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Violência
14.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(8): 1202-1207, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35914210

RESUMO

We investigated racial and ethnic disparities in COVID-19 vaccine uptake, using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. As of March 29, 2022, uptake of the first dose was higher among Hispanic and Asian people than among White and Black people. In contrast, uptake rates of the booster were higher among Asian and White people than among Black and Hispanic people.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Brancos , Afro-Americanos , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Etnicidade , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
Kidney360 ; 3(7): 1183-1190, 2022 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35919537

RESUMO

Background: Sulfur is an important mineral element whose principal source is animal protein. Animal protein contributes to the daily acid load, which is associated with poor outcomes in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that higher urinary sulfate, as a reflection of the daily acid load, is associated with a greater risk of death and CKD progression. Methods: Urinary sulfate was measured in 1057 African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) participants at baseline. Participants were categorized by tertiles of daily sulfate excretion. The longitudinal outcome of interest was the composite of death, dialysis, or 50% reduction in measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models were fit to relate the composite outcome to daily sulfate excretion using the lowest tertile as the reference. Results: Participants in the highest urinary sulfate tertile were more likely to be men and have a higher body mass index, protein intake, measured GFR, and urinary ammonium and phosphate excretion, and lower urinary protein/creatinine. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of sulfate, those in the highest tertile had a 44% lower hazard (95% CI, 0.37 to 0.84), and those in the middle tertile had a 27% lower hazard (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.96) of death, dialysis, or 50% reduction in measured GFR during follow-up after adjusting for demographics, GFR, protein intake, and other potential confounders. Protein intake was not associated with risk of these events. Conclusions: Higher urinary sulfate excretion is associated with more favorable outcomes in Blacks who have CKD attributed to hypertension.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Afro-Americanos , Humanos , Diálise Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Sulfatos
17.
Ethn Dis ; 32(3): 223-230, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909641

RESUMO

Objective: To examine if reduced financial strain and higher educational attainment would confer less advantage for successful cessation among African Americans than for White individuals. Design: A secondary data analysis of the Quit2Live study, a smoking cessation intervention for individuals who smoke. Setting: Recruited participants from a metropolitan city in the Midwest. Participants: The sample included 224 African American and 225 White individuals who smoke. Main Outcome Measures: Our outcome variable was cotinine-verified smoking abstinence at the end-of-treatment (week 12). Our explanatory variables were a combination of financial strain (high, low) and educational attainment (high, low). Methods: We implemented a logistic regression analysis and a two-way interaction of the combined financial strain and educational attainment variable and race on smoking abstinence. Results: About 25% of the study participants were low financial strain and high education, 41% high financial strain and high education, 23% high financial strain and low education, and 11% low financial strain and low education. A greater proportion of African Americans vs Whites were in the high financial strain/low educational attainment category (28% vs 18%, P = .01). Participants with high financial strain and low educational attainment had substantially lower odds of abstinence (OR = .29 [95% CI: .12, .68]) compared to participants with low financial strain and high educational attainment. Contrary to our hypothesis, race did not moderate this association. Conclusion: Findings highlight the constraining role of high financial strain and low educational attainment, irrespective of race, on smoking abstinence among smokers actively engaged in a quit attempt.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Escolaridade , Humanos , Fumar , Brancos
18.
Ethn Dis ; 32(3): 203-212, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909644

RESUMO

Background: Diabetes and prediabetes are common among African Americans (AA), but the frequency and predictors of transition between normal, impaired glucose metabolism, and diabetes are not well-described. The aim of this study was to examine glucometabolic transitions and their association with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: AA participants of the Jackson Heart Study who attended baseline exam (2000-2004) and at least one of two subsequent exams (2005-2008 and 2009-2013, ~8 years) were classified according to glycemic status. Transitions were defined as progression (deterioration) or remission (improvement) of glycemic status. Multinomial logistic regression models with repeated measures were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) for remission and progression with adjustment for demographic, anthropometric, behavioral, and biochemical factors. Results: Among 3353 participants, (mean age 54.6±12.3 years), 43% were normoglycemic, 32% were prediabetes, and 25% had diabetes at baseline. For those with normal glucose at a visit, the probability at the next visit (~4years) of having prediabetes or diabetes was 38.5% and 1.8%, respectively. For those with prediabetes, the probability was 9.9% to improve to normal and 19.9% to progress to diabetes. Progression was associated with baseline BMI, diabetes status, triglycerides, family history of diabetes, and weight gain (OR 1.04 kg, 95% CI:1.03-1.06, P=<.0001). Remission was strongly associated with weight loss (OR .97 kg, 95%CI: .95-.98, P<.001). Conclusions: In AAs, glucometabolic transitions were frequent and most involved deterioration. From a public health perspective additional emphasis should be placed on weight control to preserve glucometabolic status and prevent progression to T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Idoso , Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia
19.
Ethn Dis ; 32(3): 169-184, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909645

RESUMO

Background: An understanding of the factors that influence cardiovascular (CVD) risk among young Black men is critically needed to promote cardiovascular health earlier in the life course and prevent poor outcomes later in life. Purpose: To explore how individual (eg, depression, racial discrimination) and environmental factors (eg, neighborhood resources) are associated with CVD risk factors among young Black men. Methods: We conducted a convergent mixed methods study (qualitative/quantitative, QUAL+quant) with Black men aged 18 to 30 years (N = 21; 3 focus groups). Participants completed a self-administered electronic survey immediately prior to the focus groups. Results: Participants (M age = 23) reported: two or more CVD risk factors (75%; eg, high blood pressure); racial discrimination (32%); and depressive symptoms in the past 2 weeks (50%). Five themes emerged: 1) emergence and navigation of Black manhood stressors; 2) high expectations despite limited available resources; 3) heart disease socialization: explicit and vicarious experiences; 4) managing health care needs against fear, avoidance and toughing it out; and 5) camaraderie and social support can motivate or deter. The integrated qualitative and quantitative analyses highlight race, gender, and class intersectionality factors that are relevant to what it means to be young, Black, male and of lower socioeconomic status in the United States. Conclusion: Our findings help to identify modifiable, culturally specific and contextually relevant factors that relate to CVD risk factors among young Black men. Such work is crucial to inform interventions, primary prevention efforts, policies, and social-structural changes to thwart the development of CVD and advanced disease stages.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Racismo , Afro-Americanos , Negros , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2222085, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816311

RESUMO

Importance: African American and Black scientists are awarded disproportionately fewer National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants than White scientists. Increasing Black representation on NIH scientific review groups (SRGs) likely will contribute to increased equity in funding rates because research topics of Black and African American scientists' submitted applications will be more highly valued; however, Black and African American scientists often perceive barriers that prevent them from serving on NIH SRGs. Objective: To examine perceived barriers that prevent Black and African American scientists from serving on NIH SRGs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study used a mixed methods online approach with a convenience sample of Black and African American scientists to identify barriers to NIH grant review participation. Eligible participants were recruited online from professional organizations with primarily Black and African American membership. From February through April 2021, participants were asked to identify barriers to serving on NIH SRGs using concept mapping. Participants brainstormed statements describing barriers to serving on NIH SRGs, sorted statements into content themes, and rated statements on how true they were. Multidimensional scaling and a hierarchical cluster analysis identified content themes. Data analysis was conducted in May and June of 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported barriers to serving on an NIH SRG among Black and African American scientists. Results: A total of 52 scientists participated in both phases of the study (mean [SD] age, 42.3 [8.2] years; 46 women [88.5%]). Participants provided 68 unique statements that were organized into 9 thematic clusters describing barriers to serving on NIH SRGs. Themes included structural racism, diversity not valued, toxic environment, review workload demand, lack of reward, negative affect about the review process, competing demands at home institution, lack of opportunity, and perceptions of being unqualified. Conclusions and Relevance: Black and African American scientists reported many barriers to serving on NIH SRGs that are unique to Black and African American scientists, as well as barriers that transcend race but are exacerbated by structural racism. This study provides NIH with concrete opportunities to address realized barriers to increase inclusion of Black and African American scientists on NIH SRGs, fund more Black and African American scientists, and ultimately reduce health inequities in the US.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pesquisadores , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
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