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1.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 13(1): 62-78, 2012.
Artigo em Português | Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: psi-61788

RESUMO

Não é recente a preocupação com a elaboração de ações afirmativas para uma inserção do negro na sociedade, mas a criança negra na escola ainda cresce carente de identidade cultural e é marcada pelo recalque, pela descaracterização de seus valores e por um discurso de inferioridade. Em contraponto, este trabalho apresenta uma experiência de narração de mitologias de orixás na educação infantil. Os grupos realizados com crianças de até seis anos apresentam a alegria de um menino que descobriu os poderes do Rei Xangô, o brilho no olhar da menina que admirou os cabelos crespos da Rainha do Mar e as discussões sobre o que é “ser negro”. Esta experiência reflete como, por meio de elementos lúdicos, podemos trabalhar conteúdos necessários para uma política de inclusão desde o início da infância.(AU)


Concerns on elaborating affirmative actions aiming to insert black in society are not recent. However, black children at school are risen lacking cultural identity and are marked by repression, by lost of their own values, and by a sense of inferiority. As an opposition, this paper presents the experience of narrating Orixá’s mythology at a pre-primary school. The joy of the boy who discovered the powers of King Xangô, the shining look of the girl who admired the Queen of the Sea’s curly hair and discussions on what it means to “be black” were part of the experience with the up-to-six-year-old groups. It reflects how, with the use of playful elements, we can address necessary contents for a policy of inclusion since early childhood.(AU)


No es reciente la preocupación con la elaboración de acciones afirmativas para una inserción del negro en la sociedad, pero el niño negro en la escuela todavía sigue carente de identidad cultural, esta es marcada por el recalque, por quitar el carácter a sus valores y por un discurso de inferioridad. En contrapunto, este trabajo presenta una experiencia de narración de mitología de orishas en la educación infantil. Los grupos llevados a cabo con niños de hasta seis años muestran la alegría de un chico que descubrió los poderes del rey Xangô, el brillo en la mirada de la chica que admiró los cabellos crespos de la Reina del Mar y las discusiones sobre lo que es “ser negro”. Esta experiencia demuestra como, a través de elementos lúdicos, podemos trabajar contenidos necesarios para una política de inclusión desde el inicio de la infancia(AU)


Assuntos
Mitologia , Educação , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Etnopsicologia
2.
Gac. méd. Caracas ; 119(3): 213-218, jul.-sept. 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-701646

RESUMO

El cáncer de mama es una enfermedad problema en Venezuela por su incidencia, prevalencia y alta mortalidad. Representa la segunda causa de muerte por cáncer en la mujer venezolana, superado escasamente por el cáncer de cuello uterino. Los carcinomas de mama "triple negativo" se definen por falta de expresión de receptores de estrógenos, progesterona y Her2-Neu. Representan aproximadamente el 15% de todos los cáceres mamarios. Es más frecuente en mujeres pre-menopáusicas jóvenes, en latinoamericanas y en mujeres de raza negra. La mayoría de estos tumores son de tipo ductal, tienen alto grado nuclear e histológico, mayor tasa de recaídas y metástasis y peor pronóstico. La mayoría de los tumores triple negativos pertenecen al tipo molecular de los cánceres de mama tipo basal. El perfil inmunohistoquímico del cáncer de mama triple negativo ha sido investigado extensamente y es altamente heterogéneo. Estos tumores no son tratables con hormonoterapia ni con Trastuzumab y solamente se puede usar quimioterapia en el manejo sistémico. Algunos esquemas de quimioterapia son más efectivos que otros en cáncer de mama triple negativo y hay diversas terapias "emergentes" en investigación clínica.


Breast cancer is a problematic disease in Venezuela bacause of its incidence, prevalence and high mortality rate. It represents the second cause of death by cancer in the venezuelan woman exceeded slighthly by the cervix uterine cancer. Triple negative breast cancers are defined by lack of expression of estrogen, progesterone, and Her2-Neu receptors. This subgroup accounts for 15% of all types of breast cancer and for a higher percentage of breast cancer arising in young pre-menopausal Latin-American women and those of African descent. Histologically, such cancer fall into the molecular type and the basal subgroup of the breast cancer. Most of them are ductal with a high nuclear and histological grade, a higher rate of replase and metastasis and a worse prognosis. The triple negative breast cancer immunohistochemical profile has been extensively investigated and is higly heterogeneous; it is not treated with hormone therapy or with Trastuzumab and only chemotherapy in the systemic way can be used. Some chemoterapy schemes are more effective for the treatment of triple negative breast cancer and there are also "emergent" therapies in clinical investigation.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Carboplatina/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Mastectomia Segmentar/métodos , Neoplasias Ductais, Lobulares e Medulares/ultraestrutura , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos , Carcinoma/terapia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Técnicas Histológicas/métodos
3.
Health educ. behav ; 34(6): 911-927, Dec. 2007. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | CidSaúde - Cidades saudáveis | ID: cid-59760

RESUMO

This study examines the efficacy of targeted versus standard care smoking cessation materials among urban African American smokers. Five hundred smokers (250 to each group) are randomized to receive a culturally targeted or standard care videotape and print guide. Both groups receive 8 weeks of nicotine patches and reminder telephone calls at Weeks 1 and 3. Process outcomes include material use and salience at 1 and 4 weeks postbaseline. Smoking outcomes include 7-day abstinence, smoking reduction, and readiness to quit at 4 weeks and 6 months postbaseline. Despite greater use of the targeted guide (68.8 per cent vs. 59.6 per cent, p < .05), intervention participants do not perceive the targeted materials as more salient, and no significant differences are found between groups on the smoking outcomes. Findings point to the importance of greater audience segmentation and individual tailoring to better match intervention materials to the needs of the priority population. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Promoção da Saúde , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Nicotina/uso terapêutico , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/etnologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Administração Cutânea , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , População Urbana , Método Simples-Cego , Sudeste dos Estados Unidos
4.
West Indian med. j ; 52(4): 300-303, Dec. 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-410692

RESUMO

It has been recognized that there are gender disparities in the admission rates to psychiatric units. While the community prevalence of the major non-organic psychotic mental disorders are thought to have no gender bias, non-psychotic disorders such as depression are more commonly diagnosed in women. Gender differences in admission may indicate differences in severity or in presentation to psychiatric services and would have important implications for the targeting of preventative strategies. The case notes of all admissions to the psychiatric unit at the San Fernando General Hospital were obtained for the calendar year 1999. The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnoses and gender were analysed to determine the distribution of diagnostic categories by gender. A total of 119 patients were admitted to the unit for the first time in the period under review, 72 were male (60.5) and 47 were female (39.5). There were no significant differences in age by gender. Substance use related admissions and psychotic illnesses (schizophrenia spectrum and affective psychoses) were significantly more common in men (p = 0.006; p = 0.03 respectively). These differences were especially marked for those of East Indian descent. Non-psychotic illnesses were more commonly diagnosed among women (p = 0.0008). These findings suggest that a larger proportion of males are admitted to the general hospital psychiatric unit among first time admissions. This is also true for re-admissions. Men are more likely to be diagnosed with substance use and psychotic disorders, while for women, major depression and non-psychotic illnesses are the main diagnoses. Community surveys are needed to determine whether this demographic pattern of admission reflects the population prevalence of these disorders. Reduction of admission rates will require interventions that are sensitive to gender differences in diagnosis among those admitted to psychiatric units


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Etnicidade/etnologia , Admissão do Paciente , Unidade Hospitalar de Psiquiatria , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Cooperação do Paciente/etnologia , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/etnologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/etnologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/classificação , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Psicóticos/etnologia , Trinidad e Tobago/etnologia
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