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1.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 75(1): 54-82, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702006

RESUMO

In wartime Harlem, liberal mental health professionals, eager to serve the black freedom struggle, sought to depict the minds of troubled black children as human without reinforcing pernicious racial stereotypes. This paper examines how psychiatrist Viola W. Bernard and the Community Service Society struggled to portray the black community as both psychologically damaged and morally beyond reproach when publicly presenting the cases of her male and female clients. As a consequence, liberals helped champion the mental health needs of delinquent black males as a matter of racial justice while rendering young unmarried mothers effectively invisible.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/história , Política , Psiquiatria/história , Relações Raciais/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/história , New York , Respeito , II Guerra Mundial
3.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 74(3): 292-315, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215994

RESUMO

While the intersection between alternative medicine and the natural food movement in radical white communities of the 1960s and 1970s is well known, the connection between these traditions and the simultaneous revolution in the black foodscape has not received adequate attention. This paper addresses this gap by exploring how an alternative healer and minister from the rural South, Alvenia Fulton, rose to prominence in Chicago during the 1960s and 1970s as one of the major figures in the transformation of the black diet by harnessing the star power of her celebrity clients. Fulton hybridized her apprenticeship in slave herbalism with concepts from white Protestant health food lectures into a corrective nutrition program to bring health and renewal to black communities that were struggling under the burden of structural and medical racism. When, in the 1960s, coronary heart disease peaked for black Americans, soul food became the iconic diet of the civil rights movement. To help her community while respecting their culture, Fulton struck a careful bargain to encourage more black Americans to eat raw, natural, vegetarian food by subtly reimagining the historical contents of the slave diet.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/história , Dieta Vegetariana/história , Política , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Chicago , Dieta Vegetariana/psicologia , História do Século XX , Humanos , Racismo
4.
Adv Physiol Educ ; 43(2): 134-139, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933538

RESUMO

Dr. James McCune Smith, the first African-American to obtain a medical degree, has a remarkable legacy of historical proportions, yet his immense impact on society remains relatively unknown. He may be most celebrated for his effectiveness in abolitionist politics, however, his pioneering influence in medicine is equally remarkable. As examples, McCune Smith pioneered the use of medically based statistics to challenge the notion of African-American racial inferiority. He scientifically challenged the racial theories promoted in Thomas Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia (Jefferson T., 1832), and he was a harsh critic of phrenology (study of the shape and size of the cranium as a supposed indication of character and mental abilities). Furthermore, notwithstanding being denied entry to America's universities and medical societies because of his race, McCune Smith became a giving physician to orphans, an accomplished statistician, medical author, and social activist who worked to end slavery. His pioneering work debunked doubts about the ability of African-Americans to transition into free society. Specifically, he used his training in medicine and statistics to refute the arguments of slave owners and prominent thought leaders that African-Americans were inferior and that slaves were better off than free African-Americans or white urban laborers. Frederick Douglass, narrator of the Anti-Slavery Movement, cited Dr. James McCune Smith as the single most important influence on his life. Dr. McCune Smith, along with Frederick Douglass, Gerrit Smith, John Brown and other intellectual pioneers of the time, were instrumental in making the elimination of slavery possible.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/história , Docentes de Medicina/história , Médicos/história , Relações Raciais/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Am J Public Health ; 109(6): 877-884, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30998410

RESUMO

This article examines the role of Black American nurses during the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic and the aftermath of World War I. The pandemic caused at least 50 million deaths worldwide and 675 000 in the United States. It occurred during a period of pervasive segregation and racial violence, in which Black Americans were routinely denied access to health, educational, and political institutions. We discuss how an unsuccessful campaign by Black leaders for admission of Black nurses to the Red Cross, the Army Nurse Corps, and the Navy Nurse Corps during World War I eventually created opportunities for 18 Black nurses to serve in the army during the pandemic and the war's aftermath. Analyzing archival sources, news reports, and published materials, we examine these events in the context of nursing and early civil rights history. This analysis demonstrates that the pandemic incrementally advanced civil rights in the Army Nurse Corps and Red Cross, while providing ephemeral opportunities for Black nurses overall. This case study reframes the response to epidemics and other public health emergencies as potential opportunities to advance health equity.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/história , História da Enfermagem , Influenza Humana/história , Militares/história , Pandemias/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Saúde Pública/história , Segregação Social/história , I Guerra Mundial
7.
Econ Hum Biol ; 34: 26-38, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879983

RESUMO

Little work exists that compares the BMIs of 19th century foreign-born and US-born natives. Russian, Italian, German, and French BMIs were 5.1, 3.9, 2.9, and 1.8 percent higher than that of North Americans; Asians were nearly 4.2 percent lower. African-Americans and multiracial/multiethnic individual BMIs were 4.9 and 3.8 percent greater than fairer complexioned whites, indicating there was no multiracial/multiethnic BMI advantage. Farm laborers and ranchers had BMIs that were 2.9 percent and 2.2 percent greater, respectively, than that of workers with no occupations.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Grupos de Populações Continentais/história , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/história , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/história , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
J Lesbian Stud ; 23(2): 279-293, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698080

RESUMO

This article pays homage to the antique term "B.D. (bulldyke) Woman" of the 1920s and 1930s, at a moment when the rise of a universal queer subject threatens to erase specific lesbian histories. Characterized by an aggressive stance and an enormousness that confronts rather than merely protests, Black B.D. artists "stole" both masculinity and White privilege to accumulate power and cultural capital. B.D. is therefore a multilayered response to sexism, racism, and homophobia. This performance style is a product of outrage at the oppressive conditions that marked the legacy of slavery, to which B.D. blues must be viewed as a response rather than a more static sexual aesthetic style belonging to lesbian women. Such masculine bravado in Black women disrupted gender/sex alignments and notions of cisnormativity embedded in African American communities. In order to think through this historical legacy, I perform close readings of song lyrics performed by Gertrude "Ma" Rainey and Bessie Smith. The rejection of oppressive conditions occurs most acutely through the theme of travelling in songs that decenter racialized and heteronormative conceptions of home. Through this theme, Rainey and Smith expanded the phallic possibilities of their time period, and for the 2010s, these artists tamper with our staid notions of what gender, sex, and sexuality have meant in the past.


Assuntos
Identidade de Gênero , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/história , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , Homossexualidade Feminina/história , Humanos , Masculinidade , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/história
9.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 74(1): 57-84, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576559

RESUMO

The community mental health movement has been generally regarded as a benevolent movement that replaced old notions of psychiatric racism with new ideas about the normality of race. Few studies, however, have explored the movement for its active support for new surveillance and policing strategies, particularly broken windows theory, a policing approach partly responsible for the expansion of prisons in the United States after the 1970s. Looking to racially liberal approaches to psychiatry in the 1960s and 1970s crafted by integrationist psychiatrist Louis Jolyon West and black nationalist psychiatrist J. Alfred Cannon at the University of California, Los Angeles, this essay demonstrates that cultural and biological explanations for racial violence in civil rights and black nationalist discourses renewed surveillance on poor people of color that resulted in increased forms of incarceration, segregation, and discrimination for them by the 1980s. Rather than forward racial justice, I argue that psychiatric discourses arguing for the racial sameness of white and black minds in the 1960s and 1970s relied on scientific and cultural narratives centered on child development, gender, and sexuality that obscured the processes of racial capitalism that continued to produce poverty and sickness in black communities.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/história , Direitos Civis/história , Política de Saúde/história , Serviços de Saúde Mental/história , Psiquiatria/história , Racismo/história , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Política , Estados Unidos
11.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 74(1): 85-106, 2019 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476136

RESUMO

The Crownsville State Hospital, located in Maryland just outside of Annapolis, provides a thought-provoking example of the impact of desegregation in the space of the mental hospital. Using institutional reports, patient records, and oral histories, this article reconstructs the three phases of desegregation at Crownsville. First, as a result of its poor conditions, lack of qualified staff, and its egregious mistreatment of patients, African American community leaders and organizations such as the NAACP called for the desegregation of the care staff of Crownsville in the late 1940s. Second, the introduction of a skilled African American staff created unprecedented and morally complex issues about access to psychiatric therapeutics. Last, in 1963, Health Commissioner Dr. Isadore Tuerk officially desegregated patients in all Maryland state hospitals. Though desegregation brought much needed improvements to Crownsville, these gains were ultimately swamped by deinstitutionalization and the shift towards outpatient psychiatric care. By the 1970s, Crownsville had returned to the poor conditions that existed during segregation.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/história , Dessegregação/história , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/história , Hospitais Estaduais/história , Serviços de Saúde Mental/história , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , História do Século XX , Humanos , Masculino , Maryland , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Am J Public Health ; 108(11): 1494-1502, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303734

RESUMO

During the 1960s, cities across the United States erupted with rioting. Subsequent inquiries into its sources revealed long-simmering discontent with systemic deprivation and exploitation in the country's most racially segregated and resource-scarce neighborhoods. Urban medical centers were not exempt from this anger. They were standing symbols of maldistribution, cordoned off to those without sufficient economic means of access. In this article, I examine the travails of the world-famous and prestigious Cleveland Clinic after the 1966 riot in the Hough neighborhood on the East Side of Cleveland, Ohio. After years of unbridled expansion, fueled by federal urban renewal efforts, the riots caught the Clinic's leadership off guard, forcing it to rethink the long-standing insularity between itself and its neighbors. The riots were central to the Clinic's programmatic reorientation, but the concessions only went so far, especially as the political foment from the riots dissipated in the years afterward. The Cleveland experience is part of a larger-and still ongoing-debate on social obligations of medical centers, "town-gown" relations between research institutions and their neighbors, and the role of protest in catalyzing community health reform.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/história , Hospitais Urbanos/história , Tumultos/história , Cidades/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Ohio , Racismo/história , Estados Unidos , População Urbana
17.
Am Surg ; 84(6): 761-762, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981597

RESUMO

A historical vignette regarding Dr. Algernon Brashear Jackson, the first Black male graduate from Jefferson Medical College. It details his early life, medical school years, surgical training, and contributions to his local community and beyond as he paved the way for future doctors of color.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/história , Educação Médica/história , Cirurgia Geral/história , Cirurgia Geral/educação , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos
18.
J Natl Med Assoc ; 110(1): 29-36, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29510840

RESUMO

In WWI, the United States was segregated by custom and law, and the Army obeyed the laws, reducing opportunities for Black medical professionals to serve their country in uniform. This article surveys African-American medical personnel serving in the US Army in World War I. It includes physicians, dentists, veterinarians, and other commissioned officers, as well as medical enlisted men. Overall, despite segregation and associated professional limitations, determined individuals still served with distinction in a variety of roles, opening doors for future advances.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/história , Pessoal de Saúde/história , Medicina Militar/história , Militares/história , I Guerra Mundial , História do Século XX , Humanos , Estados Unidos
20.
Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg ; 24(2): 66-75, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review the historical background surrounding the early work of Dr. J. Marion Sims, who developed the first consistently successful surgical technique for the repair of obstetric vesicovaginal fistulas by operating on a group of young, enslaved, African American women who had this condition between 1846 and 1849. METHODS: Review of primary source documents on Sims and his operations, early 19th century clinical literature on the treatment of vesicovaginal fistula, the introduction of ether and chloroform anesthesia into surgical practice, and the literature on the early 19th century medical ethics pertaining to surgical innovation. The goals are to understand Sims's operations within the clinical context of the 1840s and to avoid the problems of "presentism," in which beliefs, attitudes, and practices of the 21st century are anachronistically projected backward into the early 19th century. The object is to judge Sims within the context of his time, not to hold him accountable to standards of practice which were not developed until a century after his death. RESULTS: A narrative of what Sims did is presented within the context of the therapeutic options available to those with fistula in the early 19th century. CONCLUSIONS: Review of the available material demonstrates that Sims' first fistula operations were legal, that they were carried out with express therapeutic intent for the purpose of repairing these women's injuries, that they conformed to the ethical requirements of his time, and that they were performed with the patients' knowledge, cooperation, assent, and assistance.


Assuntos
Fístula Vesicovaginal/cirurgia , Afro-Americanos/história , Escravização/história , Ética Médica , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/ética , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/história , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/história , Estados Unidos , Fístula Vesicovaginal/história
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