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1.
Psychol Aging ; 36(5): 572-583, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351184

RESUMO

The longitudinal associations between subjective and objective memory functioning in later life remain unclear. This may be due, in part, to sociodemographic differences across studies, given the hypothesis that these associations differ across racial groups. Using data from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE; N = 2,694; 26% African American), multiple-group, parallel-process latent growth curve models were used to explore relationships between subjective and objective memory over 10 years and assess racial differences in these associations. Across African Americans and whites, we found bidirectional associations between subjective and objective memory such that greater self-reported forgetting at baseline predicted faster subsequent verbal episodic memory declines, and higher baseline objective memory scores predicted less increase in self-reported forgetting over time. However, rates of change in self-reported frequency of forgetting were correlated with rates of change in verbal episodic memory in whites, but not in African Americans. Subjective memory complaints may be a harbinger of future memory declines across African Americans and whites but may not track with objective memory in the same way across these racial groups. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Transtornos da Memória/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Memória , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(5): 523-535, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial discrimination is prevalent among Black Americans, and may increase risk for alcohol use and related problems. Understanding the mediating and moderating factors in the pathways linking racial discrimination to alcohol use outcomes is important for prevention and intervention efforts. We tested depressive symptoms as a mediator and ethnic-racial identity as a moderator in the relation between racial discrimination and alcohol use outcomes among Black American young adults. METHODS: We used data from 2 independent samples of Black American young adults recruited from different regions in the United States. The first sample included 383 Black American young adults (Mage = 20.65, SD = 2.28; 81% female), and the second sample included 165 Black American young adults (Mage = 21.56, SD = 4.92; 75% female). RESULTS: Racial discrimination was associated with alcohol consumption and problems indirectly via depressive symptoms across the 2 independent samples. Moderation was evident for one sample such that high private regard levels buffered the association between racial discrimination and alcohol consumption, whereas high public regard levels exacerbated the association between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Racial discrimination experiences put Black American young adults at risk for alcohol use and related problems through increased depressive symptoms. Ethnic-racial identity may buffer or exacerbate these associations depending on the specific dimension. The findings imply the need to target depressive symptoms and alcohol use simultaneously to promote health and well-being among Black Americans. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Depressão , Racismo , Identificação Social , Estudantes , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204927

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of parental feeding practices and adolescent emotional eating (EE) on dietary outcomes among overweight African American adolescents. Based on Family Systems Theory, it was hypothesized that parental feeding practices, such as parental monitoring and responsibility, would buffer the effects of EE on poor dietary quality, whereas practices such as concern about a child's weight, restriction, and pressure-to-eat would exacerbate this relationship. Adolescents (N = 127; Mage = 12.83 ± 1.74; MBMI% = 96.61 ± 4.14) provided baseline data from the Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss trial and an ancillary study. Dietary outcomes (fruit and vegetables (F&Vs), energy intake, sweetened beverage, total fat, and saturated fat) were assessed using random 24-h dietary recalls. Validated surveys were used to assess adolescent-reported EE and parental feeding practices. Results demonstrated a significant interaction between EE and parental monitoring (adjusted analyses; B = 0.524, SE = 0.176, p = 0.004), restriction (B = -0.331, SE = 0.162, p = 0.043), and concern (B = -0.602, SE = 0.171, p = 0.001) on F&V intake; under high monitoring, low restriction, and low concern, EE was positively associated with F&V intake. There were no significant effects for the other dietary outcomes. These findings indicate that parental feeding practices and EE may be important factors to consider for dietary interventions, specifically for F&V intake, among overweight African American adolescents.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Pais/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Bebidas Gaseificadas , Criança , Ingestão de Alimentos/etnologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Emoções , Ingestão de Energia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
4.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210069

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to conduct in-depth individual interviews with 30 African American adolescents with overweight and obesity and their families (caregiver/adolescent dyads) to gain a better understanding of how to integrate stress and coping essential elements into an existing family-based health promotion program for weight loss. Interview data from 30 African American adolescents with overweight and obesity (Mage = 15.30 ± 2.18; MBMI%-ile = 96.7 ± 3.90) were transcribed and coded for themes using inductive and deductive approaches by two independent coders. Inter-rater reliability was acceptable (r = 0.70-0.80) and discrepancies were resolved to 100% agreement. The themes were guided by the Relapse Prevention Model, which focuses on assessing barriers of overall coping capacity in high stress situations that may undermine health behavior change (physical activity, diet, weight loss). Prominent themes included feeling stressed primarily in response to relationship conflicts within the family and among peers, school responsibilities, and negative emotions (anxiety, depression, anger). A mix of themes emerged related to coping strategies ranging from cognitive reframing and distraction to avoidant coping. Recommendations for future programs include addressing sources of stress and providing supportive resources, as well as embracing broader systems such as neighborhoods and communities. Implications for future intervention studies are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Terapia Comportamental , Criança , Dieta/psicologia , Família/psicologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Programas de Redução de Peso
5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254127, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242275

RESUMO

Pundits and academics across disciplines note that the human toll brought forth by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States (U.S.) is fundamentally unequal for communities of color. Standing literature on public health posits that one of the chief predictors of racial disparity in health outcomes is a lack of institutional trust among minority communities. Furthermore, in our own county-level analysis from the U.S., we find that counties with higher percentages of Black and Hispanic residents have had vastly higher cumulative deaths from COVID-19. In light of this standing literature and our own analysis, it is critical to better understand how to mitigate or prevent these unequal outcomes for any future pandemic or public health emergency. Therefore, we assess the claim that raising institutional trust, primarily scientific trust, is key to mitigating these racial inequities. Leveraging a new, pre-pandemic measure of scientific trust, we find that trust in science, unlike trust in politicians or the media, significantly raises support for COVID-19 social distancing policies across racial lines. Our findings suggest that increasing scientific trust is essential to garnering support for public health policies that lessen the severity of the current, and potentially a future, pandemic.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , COVID-19 , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Pandemias , Distanciamento Físico , SARS-CoV-2 , Confiança , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253654, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34170956

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During public health crises like the COVID-19 pandemic, populations can experience worsening mental health. Prior reports have suggested that Black Americans experienced lower rates of anxiety and depression than White Americans before the pandemic; however, during the pandemic, outcomes may be different as Black Americans have been disproportionately affected in terms of mortality, hospitalization, COVID-19 infection, and job loss. We documented the differential mental health impact of COVID-19 on Black and Non-Black Americans. METHODS: We analyzed nationally representative longitudinal data from the Understanding America Study COVID-19 Tracking Survey spanning March through November of 2020 to assess differences over time in prevalence of anxiety and depression between Black and non-Black Americans. RESULTS: We found that Black Americans were significantly less likely to report symptoms for anxiety, depression, or both during the pandemic. In a given month between March through November of 2020, the odds of Black Americans reporting such symptoms was on average about half that of Non-Black Americans. We also found that in September 2020, the gap in reporting symptoms for depression began to widen gradually. Specifically, since that time, prevalence of depression remained stable among non-Black Americans while it declined gradually among Black Americans. Our main results were robust to adjusting for demographics, risk perceptions, and baseline pre-pandemic mental health status. CONCLUSIONS: Black Americans maintained significantly better mental health than Non-Black Americans despite their struggle against economic, health, and racial inequalities during the pandemic. We discuss the significance and implications of our results and identify opportunities for future research.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , COVID-19 , Depressão , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etnologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
Health Psychol ; 40(5): 305-315, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152784

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined how standard and culturally targeted versions of gain and loss-framed messaging affect African Americans' colorectal cancer (CRC) screening receptivity and behavior, as well as their anticipation of experiencing racism in undertaking CRC screening. METHOD: Screening-deficient African Americans (N = 457) viewed an informational video about CRC risks, prevention, and screening and were randomized to receive a gain or loss-framed message about screening. Half of participants viewed an additional culturally targeted message about overcoming racial disparities in CRC by obtaining screening. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior, we measured general receptivity to CRC screening. We also measured arousal of anticipatory racism in response to messaging. Finally, we offered participants a no-cost fecal immunochemical testing kit (FIT Kit) and measured uptake and use. RESULTS: Message framing interacted with culturally targeted messaging to affect CRC screening receptivity and behavior. Participants were no more receptive to CRC screening when standard loss-framing was used, but were more favorable if loss-framing was culturally targeted. Targeted loss-framing also reduced anticipatory racism, which partially mediated effects on screening receptivity. Finally, although participants least often accepted a FIT Kit with standard loss-framing, effects of messaging on FIT Kit uptake and use were not significant. CONCLUSION: This study adds to growing recognition of important cultural nuance in effective use of message framing. Current finding also suggest that targeted and framed messaging could synergistically impact the extent to which African Americans engage in CRC screening, although specific impacts on FIT Kit screening are less certain. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Competência Cultural , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sangue Oculto , Racismo/psicologia
8.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063799

RESUMO

Few studies have integrated positive parenting and motivational strategies to address dietary outcomes such as frequency of family mealtime. The Families Improving Together (FIT) for Weight Loss trial was a randomized group cohort trial (n = 241 dyads) testing the efficacy of integrating a motivational plus family weight loss (M + FWL) intervention for healthy eating and weight loss in overweight and obese African American adolescents. The current study tested the interaction of parenting styles (responsiveness, demandingness) and parental feeding practices (restriction, concern about child's weight, pressure to eat) and the FIT intervention on frequency of family mealtime over 16 weeks. Multilevel modeling demonstrated significant interactions between the group-based treatment and responsiveness (p = 0.018) and demandingness (p = 0.010) on family mealtime. For the group-based M + FWL intervention, increased responsiveness and reduced demandingness were associated with increased frequency of family mealtime from baseline to 16 weeks. There was also a negative association between parental restriction and frequency of family mealtime, but a positive association between parental concerns about their adolescent's weight and frequency of mealtime. These findings are the first to demonstrate that an authoritative or nurturing parenting style moderated intervention effects for improving the frequency of family mealtime in overweight and obese African American adolescents.


Assuntos
Terapia Familiar/métodos , Refeições/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Dieta Saudável/etnologia , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Refeições/etnologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Análise Multinível , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde
9.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(5): 501-513, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Family history of alcohol use disorder; AUD (FH +) and impulsivity-related traits are known risk factors for problem drinking that have been investigated in predominately White samples. This cross-sectional study examined whether these risk factors vary by sex in the overall, majority White sample and in a Black subsample. METHOD: A model building regression procedure was used to investigate the combined effect of FH + and impulsivity-related traits on alcohol quantity, frequency, and problems by sex (overall sample: N = 757, 50% female, 73% White, agemean = 33.74, SD = 11.60; Black subsample: n = 138, 47% female, agemean = 33.60, SD = 9.87). RESULTS: Overall Sample. No sex differences were found in the compounding effects of FH + and impulsivity-related traits on alcohol outcomes. Males reported more physical, social, and overall alcohol-related problems than females. FH + was positively associated with all alcohol-related consequences. Poor self-regulation was the only trait associated with all alcohol outcomes. Black Subsample: A three-way interaction suggested a negative association between inhibition and frequency of alcohol use among FH + males only. A two-way interaction also suggested impulse control was associated with more interpersonal alcohol-related problems among males only. Main effects were also found in the expected direction such that higher impulsivity and FH + were associated with poorer alcohol outcomes. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest no sex differences in the overall sample in the interactive effects of established risk factors for AUD on alcohol outcomes, and that poor self-regulation may be key for personality-targeted alcohol prevention and intervention programs. Preliminary findings of sex differences in the Black subsample should be replicated. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Individualidade , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/etnologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo , Masculino , Anamnese/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo
10.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 8(4): 809-820, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34143380

RESUMO

Established in 2019, the Roundtable on Black Men and Black Women in STEM convenes a broad array of stakeholders that focus on the barriers and opportunities encountered by Black men and Black women as they navigate the pathways from K-12 and postsecondary education to careers in science, engineering, and medicine. Through meetings, public workshops, and publications, the Roundtable advances discussions that raise awareness and/or highlight promising practices for increasing the representation, retention, and inclusiveness of Black men and Black women in STEM. In keeping with the charge of the Roundtable, Roundtable leadership and leaders of the COVID-19 action group conducted an informational video in January 2021 to provide an in-depth discussion around common, justified questions in the Black community pertaining to the COVID-19 vaccine. The manuscript addresses selected questions and answers relating to the different types of COVID-19 vaccines and their development, administration, and effectiveness. Discussion focuses on addressing vaccine misconceptions, misinformation, mistrust, and hesitancy; challenges in prioritizing vaccinations in diverse populations and communities; dealing with racism in medicine and public health; optimizing communication and health education; and offering practical strategies and recommendations for improving vaccine acceptance by clinicians, health care workers, and the Black community. This manuscript summarizes the content in the YouTube video ( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdEC9c48A_k ).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos
11.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; 41: e29-e46, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34161138

RESUMO

Persistent disparities in the burden of breast cancer between African Americans and White Americans have been documented over many decades. Features characterizing breast cancer in the African American community include a 40% higher mortality rate, younger age distribution, greater advanced-stage distribution, increased risk of biologically aggressive disease such as the triple-negative phenotype, and increased incidence of male breast cancer. Public health experts, genetics researchers, clinical trialists, multidisciplinary oncology teams, and advocates must collaborate to comprehensively address the multifactorial etiology of and remedies for breast cancer disparities. Efforts to achieve breast health equity through improved access to affordable, high-quality care are especially imperative in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and its disproportionately high economic toll on African Americans.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Pandemias , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , COVID-19/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Neuropsychology ; 35(3): 265-275, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970660

RESUMO

Objective: Racial/ethnic disparities in cognitive aging are only partly attributable to socioeconomic indicators. Psychosocial factors, such as discrimination and perceived control, also differ across racial/ethnic groups, and emerging literature highlights their potential role in contributing to cognitive disparities in addition to socioeconomic status. Method: 1,463 older adults (51% Hispanic, 27% non-Hispanic Black, and 22% non-Hispanic White) in the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project completed cognitive and psychosocial measures, including a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, Everyday and Major Experiences of Lifetime Discrimination scales, and the Perceived Control scale. Mediation models quantified separate indirect effects of Black race and Hispanic ethnicity on global cognitive composite scores through education, income, discrimination, and external perceived control. Results: Educational attainment, income, and perceived control each mediated racial/ethnic disparities in global cognition. Socioeconomic indicators (i.e., lower education and lower income) explained approximately 50% of the Black-White and Hispanic-White disparities in global cognition, and more external perceived control explained an additional 5%-8%. Hispanics reported the lowest levels of discrimination, while non-Hispanic Blacks reported the highest levels. However, neither everyday nor major lifetime discrimination was associated with global cognition. Significant racial/ethnic disparities in global cognition remained after accounting for the included socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. Conclusions: This study suggests that psychosocial factors may explain racial/ethnic disparities in cognitive aging above and beyond socioeconomic indicators. More external perceived control, which could reflect chronic exposure to interpersonal and institutional marginalization, may be a particularly salient psychosocial risk factor for poorer cognitive aging among non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic older adults. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Envelhecimento/etnologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Cognição , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Escolaridade , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social , Estados Unidos
13.
J Soc Psychol ; 161(4): 419-434, 2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960284

RESUMO

This research examined the effects of the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic on perceived Black-White intergroup competition and negative intergroup psychological outcomes. Two datasets (collected before [2018] and after the onset of [April, 2020] COVID-19) were combined (N = 2,131) for this research. The data provided support for the hypothesis that perceptions of Black-White intergroup competition, and subsequently perceptions of discrimination, behavioral avoidance, intergroup anxiety, and interracial mistrust would be higher after the onset of COVID-19. Three additional predictors, a perceived interracial competition manipulation, political orientation, and population density at the ZIP-code level were examined to test for main effects and moderation of COVID-19 effects. All three predictors exhibited main effects on focal outcomes, and political orientation moderated COVID-19 onset effects: effects were stronger for conservatives. Lastly, perceived intergroup competition mediated the effect of COVID-19 onset on the four focal outcomes.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Racismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Política , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
15.
Body Image ; 38: 181-190, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933996

RESUMO

Although women are expected to idealize and achieve hegemonic feminine beauty standards such as being slender and lighter skinned, few studies have examined how women's investment in achieving these restrictive feminine appearance ideals may influence their sexual attitudes and behaviors. Even less is known about Black women. We surveyed 640 Black college women to test hypotheses that endorsement of hegemonic beauty ideals would be positively associated with four dimensions of negative sexual affect (sexual guilt, shame, emotional distancing, and self-consciousness) and negatively associated with two dimensions of sexual agency (sexual assertiveness and satisfaction). Correlation and regression analyses showed that hegemonic beauty ideal acceptance was linked with greater sexual guilt, shame, emotional distancing, and sexual self-consciousness in addition to lower levels of sexual assertiveness and satisfaction. Findings highlight how endorsing restrictive, hegemonic standards of beauty is associated with Black women's reduced sexual affect and sexual agency.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Beleza , Imagem Corporal , Comportamento Sexual , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia
16.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(2)2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33988924

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy and safety of paliperidone palmitate once-monthly (PP1M) versus oral antipsychotics (OAPs) in Black/African American patients with schizophrenia and a history of criminal justice system involvement. METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of a 15-month prospective, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter US study conducted from May 2010 to December 2013 that examined a subpopulation of Black/African American patients with schizophrenia (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria). The primary objective was to compare time to first treatment failure in patients treated with PP1M versus OAPs. Secondary objectives were to compare time to first institutionalization (psychiatric hospitalization or arrest/incarceration) and mean number of treatment failure events and institutionalizations over 15 months in PP1M-treated and OAP-treated patients. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 275 Black/African American patients (PP1M, n = 145; OAPs, n = 130). Median time to first treatment failure was not reached for PP1M-treated patients and was 270 days for OAP-treated patients; hazard ratio (HR) was 1.39 (95% CI, 0.97-1.99; P = .075). Median time to first institutionalization was not reached for PP1M-treated patients and was 304 days for OAP-treated patients; HR was 1.49 (95% CI, 1.01-2.19; P = .043). Mean numbers of treatment failure events and institutionalizations were lower with PP1M than OAPs. The safety profile of PP1M was consistent with that of previous PP1M studies. CONCLUSIONS: In a Black/African American subpopulation of patients with schizophrenia and prior criminal justice system involvement, PP1M reduced the number of treatment failures, thereby reducing the number of psychiatric hospitalizations and/or arrests/incarcerations compared with daily OAPs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01157351.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Crime/psicologia , Palmitato de Paliperidona/uso terapêutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Palmitato de Paliperidona/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251960, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038459

RESUMO

Social distancing prescribed by policy makers in response to COVID-19 raises important questions as to how effectively people of color can distance. Due to inequalities from residential segregation, Hispanic and Black populations have challenges in meeting health expectations. However, segregated neighborhoods also support the formation of social bonds that relate to healthy behaviors. We evaluate the question of non-White distancing using social mobility data from Google on three sites: workplaces, grocery stores, and recreational locations. Employing hierarchical linear modeling and geographically weighted regression, we find the relation of race/ethnicity to COVID-19 distancing is varied across the United States. The HLM models show that compared to Black populations, Hispanic populations overall more effectively distance from recreation sites and grocery stores: each point increase in percent Hispanic was related to residents being 0.092 percent less likely (p< 0.05) to visit recreational sites and 0.127 percent less likely (p< 0.01) to visit grocery stores since the onset of COVID-19. However, the GWR models show there are places where the percent Black is locally related to recreation distancing while percent Hispanic is not. Further, these models show the association of percent Black to recreation and grocery distancing can be locally as strong as 1.057 percent (p< 0.05) and 0.989 percent (p< 0.05), respectively. Next, the HLM models identified that Black/White residential isolation was related to less distancing, with each point of isolation residents were 11.476 percent more likely (p< 0.01) to go to recreational sites and 7.493 percent more likely (p< 0.05) to visit grocery stores compared to before COVID-19. These models did not find a measurable advantage/disadvantage for Black populations in these places compared to White populations. COVID-19 policy should not assume disadvantage in achieving social distancing accrue equally to different racial/ethnic minorities.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Distanciamento Físico , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Recreação , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Supermercados , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho
18.
J Couns Psychol ; 68(3): 299-315, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043376

RESUMO

Social scientists are increasingly interested in methodological advances that can illuminate the distinct experiences and health outcomes produced by various systems of inequality (e.g., race, gender, religion, sexual orientation). However, innovative methodological strategies are needed to (a) capture the breadth, complexity, and dynamic nature of moments co-constructed by multiple axes of power and oppression (i.e., intersectional experiences) and (b) keep pace with the increasing interest in testing links between such events and health among underresearched groups. Mixed methods designs may be particularly well suited for these needs, but are seldom adopted. In light of this, we describe a new mixed methods experience sampling approach that can aid researchers in detecting and understanding intersectional experiences, as well as testing their day-to-day associations with aspects of health. Drawn from two separate experience sampling studies examining day-to-day links between intersectional experiences and psychological health-one focusing on Black American LGBQ individuals and another on Muslim American LGBQ individuals-we provide quantitative and qualitative data examples to illustrate how mixed methods investigations can advance the assessment, interpretation, and analysis of everyday experiences constructed by multiple systems of power. Limitations, possible future adaptations, implications for research, and relevance to the clinical context are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Islamismo/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(6): 310-317, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989239

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine if Black nurses are more likely to report job dissatisfaction and whether factors related to dissatisfaction influence differences in intent to leave. BACKGROUND: Minority nurses report higher job dissatisfaction and intent to leave, yet little is known about factors associated with these differences in community settings. METHOD: Cross-sectional analysis of 11 778 nurses working in community-based settings was conducted. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association among race, job satisfaction, and intent to leave. RESULTS: Black nurses were more likely to report job dissatisfaction and intent to leave. Black nurses' intent to leave decreased in adjusted models that accounted for dissatisfaction with aspects of their jobs including salary, advancement opportunities, autonomy, and tuition benefits. CONCLUSION: Nurse administrators may find opportunities to decrease intent to leave among Black nurses through focused efforts to target areas of dissatisfaction.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Intenção , Satisfação no Emprego , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , California/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Florida/etnologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , New Jersey/etnologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Pennsylvania/etnologia , Reorganização de Recursos Humanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/normas , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Public Health Rep ; 136(4): 508-517, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34034574

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Experiences of vicarious racism-hearing about racism directed toward one's racial group or racist acts committed against other racial group members-and vigilance about racial discrimination have been salient during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study examined vicarious racism and vigilance in relation to symptoms of depression and anxiety among Asian and Black Americans. METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional study of 604 Asian American and 844 Black American adults aged ≥18 in the United States recruited from 5 US cities from May 21 through July 15, 2020. Multivariable linear regression models examined levels of depression and anxiety by self-reported vicarious racism and vigilance. RESULTS: Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, among both Asian and Black Americans, greater self-reported vicarious racism was associated with more symptoms of depression (Asian: ß = 1.92 [95% CI, 0.97-2.87]; Black: ß = 1.72 [95% CI, 0.95-2.49]) and anxiety (Asian: ß = 2.40 [95% CI, 1.48-3.32]; Black: ß = 1.98 [95% CI, 1.17-2.78]). Vigilance was also positively related to symptoms of depression (Asian: ß = 1.54 [95% CI, 0.58-2.50]; Black: ß = 0.90 [95% CI, 0.12-1.67]) and anxiety (Asian: ß = 1.98 [95% CI, 1.05-2.91]; Black: ß = 1.64 [95% CI, 0.82-2.45]). CONCLUSIONS: Mental health problems are a pressing concern during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results from our study suggest that heightened racist sentiment, harassment, and violence against Asian and Black Americans contribute to increased risk of depression and anxiety via vicarious racism and vigilance. Public health efforts during this period should address endemic racism as well as COVID-19.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Ansiedade/etnologia , Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/etnologia , Racismo/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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