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1.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 34(9): 1066-1074, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944227

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) causes significant morbidity and mortality. Compared with non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans are more likely to suffer and die from T2DM. PURPOSE: This study examines the associations between health literacy, illness perception, depression, working memory, executive function, and self-management among African Americans (18-65 years) with T2DM. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data were collected through Research Electronic Data Capture and transferred to the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 26 for statistical analysis. Fifty-three participants met study eligibility criteria. RESULTS: Health literacy was associated with depression ( r = -0.433, p = .003), more concerns about illness ( r = -0.357, p = .02), and better medication adherence ( r = 0.487, p = .001). Higher levels of depression were inversely associated with medication adherence ( r = -0.449, p = .002; r = 0.449, p = .003). Higher concern about illness was associated with lower medication adherence ( r = -0.414, p = .005). CONCLUSIONS: Lower health literacy coupled with illness perception and depression is associated with lower self-management behaviors among African Americans which can lead to complications of T2DM. More studies are needed to examine the association of cognitive factors with self-management activities among African Americans with T2DM. IMPLICATIONS: Limited health literacy is associated with lower medication adherence among African Americans with T2DM. Illness perception is a significant factor that influences self-management of T2DM among African Americans. Using screening tools that assess health literacy and illness perception may address underlying concerns regarding adherence to T2DM treatment regimens in African Americans.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Letramento em Saúde , Autogestão , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Percepção , Autogestão/psicologia
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(36): e2119587119, 2022 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037339

RESUMO

Although valuable strides have been made in linking racial and ethnic discrimination to health outcomes, scholars have primarily used between-person methodological approaches, which assess the implications of reporting high or low mean levels of discrimination. Alternatively, within-person approaches assess the implications of intraindividual variation, or acute changes, in an individual's exposure to discrimination. These approaches pose two fundamentally different questions about the association between discrimination and health, and empirical work that disaggregates these effects remains scarce. Scholars have also called for research exploring whether sociocultural factors-such as race-related coping and skin tone-contour these associations. To address gaps in extant literature, the current study examined 1) how an individual's average level of exposure to discrimination (between-person) and weekly fluctuations in these encounters (within-person) relate to psychosocial health and 2) whether race-related coping (confrontational and passive coping) and skin tone moderate these associations. Analyses were conducted using weekly diary data from African American and Latinx young adults (n = 140). Findings indicated that reporting higher mean levels of exposure to discrimination and encountering more discrimination than usual on a given week were both associated with poorer psychosocial health. Results also suggest that the efficacy of young adults' coping mechanisms may depend on their skin tone and the nature of the discriminatory events encountered.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Racismo , Pigmentação da Pele , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispânico ou Latino/psicologia , Hispânico ou Latino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Relações Raciais , Racismo/psicologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954520

RESUMO

After more than a century of research and debate, the scientific community has yet to reach agreement on the principal causes of racialized disparities in population health. This debate currently centers on the degree to which "race residuals" are a result of unobserved differences in the social context or unobserved differences in population characteristics. The comparative study of native and foreign-born Black populations represents a quasi-experimental design where race is "held constant". Such studies present a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the social determinants of population health disparities. Since native and foreign-born Black populations occupy different sociocultural locations, and since populations with greater African ancestry have greater genetic diversity, comparative studies of these populations will advance our understanding of the complex relationship between sociocultural context, population characteristics and health outcomes. Therefore, we offer a conceptual framing for the comparative study of native and foreign-born Blacks along with a review of 208 studies that compare the mental and physical health of these populations. Although there is some complexity, especially with respect to mental health, the overall pattern is that foreign-born Blacks have better health outcomes than native-born Blacks. After reviewing these studies, we conclude with suggestions for future studies in this promising area of social and medical research.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Negros , Humanos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Fatores Sociais , Estados Unidos
4.
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 36(9): 364-374, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040393

RESUMO

Black women living with HIV (BWLWH) face adversities, including discrimination (race, HIV, and gender related) and trauma. This study examines which latent profiles of resilience (R) and adversity (A) are most prevalent and their relationships to mental health among 119 BWLWH [age = 44.1 (standard deviation = 10.9)]. Questionnaires measured resilience (post-traumatic growth, trait/coping resilience, religious coping, social support), adversity (discrimination, trauma, microaggressions), and mental health [post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, post-traumatic cognitions (PTC), and depressive symptoms]. Four salient profiles emerged through latent profile analysis and mental health differences were evaluated. Profile 1 (19.8%) reported lowest scores on 4 resilience measures, lowest traumas, and second lowest on discrimination (low resilience/low adversity-LR/LA). Profile 2 (13.8%) had second lowest on 3 resilience measures but second highest social support, highest/second highest on traumas and discrimination and microaggressions (low resilience/high adversity-LR/HA). Profile 3 (59.5%) exhibited higher scores on resilience and lowest scores on 3 of 4 adversity measures (high resilience/low adversity-HR/LA). Profile 4 (6.9%) reported high on 3 resilience measures, but third lowest on social support, and second highest/highest traumas, discrimination, and microaggressions (high resilience/high adversity-HR/HA). For PTC, the HR/LA group had significantly lower scores compared with the LR/LA and LR/HA groups; and LR/HA had higher PTC scores than the HR/HA group. PTSD scores were significantly lower for HR/LA than all profiles. Depression scores were significantly higher for LR/LA and LR/HA groups than HR/LA. Findings indicate that lower adversity alongside higher resilience leads to better mental health. Policies must address intersectional discrimination and prevent trauma impacting BWLWH; interventions are needed to improve social support and healing. Clinical Trial Registration number NCT02764853.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV , Resiliência Psicológica , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Apoio Social
5.
Psychol Sci ; 33(9): 1509-1521, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35981330

RESUMO

Research has consistently shown that positive psychological constructs are linked to better physical health, but few studies have examined the role that race plays in this connection. We explored whether positive self-evaluations were equally protective against upper respiratory infection for 271 African American adults and 700 European American adults in a series of virus-exposure studies. Participants were assessed at baseline for psychological functioning and physical health, quarantined and exposed experimentally to a respiratory virus, and then monitored for infection and symptoms. Regression analyses revealed significant interactions between race and multiple positive psychological factors; several factors that were helpful to European Americans were unhelpful or even harmful to African Americans. Building on past work showing cross-cultural variation in the health correlates of affect, this study provides evidence that the health benefits of positive psychological constructs may not be universal and points to the need to explore factors that underpin these observed differential patterns.


Assuntos
Infecções Respiratórias , Brancos , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Autoavaliação (Psicologia)
6.
Womens Health (Lond) ; 18: 17455057221104657, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35900027

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pregnant Black women are at disproportionate risk for adverse birth outcomes, in part associated with higher prevalence of stress. Stress increases risk of depression, a known risk factor for preterm birth. In addition, multiple dimensions of stress, including perceived stress and stressful life events, are associated with adverse birth outcomes, independent of their association with prenatal depression. We use an intersectional and contextualized measure of gendered racial stress to assess whether gendered racial stress constitutes an additional dimension to prenatal depression, independent of stressful life events and perceived stress. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 428 Black women, we assessed gendered racial stress (using the 39-item Jackson Hogue Phillips Reduced Common Contextualized Stress Measure), perceived stress (using the Perceived Stress Scale), and stressful life events (using a Stressful Life Event Index) as psychosocial predictors of depressive symptoms (measured by the Edinburgh Depression Scale). We used bivariate analyses and multivariable regression to assess the association between the measures of stress and prenatal depression. RESULTS: Results revealed significant bivariate associations between participant scores on the full Jackson Hogue Phillips Reduced Common Contextualized Stress Measure and its 5 subscales, and the Edinburgh Depression Scale. In multivariable models that included participant Perceived Stress Scale and/or Stressful Life Event Index scores, the Jackson Hogue Phillips Reduced Common Contextualized Stress Measure contributed uniquely and significantly to Edinburgh Depression Scale score, with the burden subscale being the strongest contributor among all variables. No sociodemographic characteristics were found to be significant in multivariable models. CONCLUSION: For Black women in early pregnancy, gendered racial stress is a distinct dimension of stress associated with increased depressive symptoms. Intersectional stress measures may best uncover nuances within Black women's complex social environment.


Assuntos
Complicações na Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2222085, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35816311

RESUMO

Importance: African American and Black scientists are awarded disproportionately fewer National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants than White scientists. Increasing Black representation on NIH scientific review groups (SRGs) likely will contribute to increased equity in funding rates because research topics of Black and African American scientists' submitted applications will be more highly valued; however, Black and African American scientists often perceive barriers that prevent them from serving on NIH SRGs. Objective: To examine perceived barriers that prevent Black and African American scientists from serving on NIH SRGs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This qualitative study used a mixed methods online approach with a convenience sample of Black and African American scientists to identify barriers to NIH grant review participation. Eligible participants were recruited online from professional organizations with primarily Black and African American membership. From February through April 2021, participants were asked to identify barriers to serving on NIH SRGs using concept mapping. Participants brainstormed statements describing barriers to serving on NIH SRGs, sorted statements into content themes, and rated statements on how true they were. Multidimensional scaling and a hierarchical cluster analysis identified content themes. Data analysis was conducted in May and June of 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-reported barriers to serving on an NIH SRG among Black and African American scientists. Results: A total of 52 scientists participated in both phases of the study (mean [SD] age, 42.3 [8.2] years; 46 women [88.5%]). Participants provided 68 unique statements that were organized into 9 thematic clusters describing barriers to serving on NIH SRGs. Themes included structural racism, diversity not valued, toxic environment, review workload demand, lack of reward, negative affect about the review process, competing demands at home institution, lack of opportunity, and perceptions of being unqualified. Conclusions and Relevance: Black and African American scientists reported many barriers to serving on NIH SRGs that are unique to Black and African American scientists, as well as barriers that transcend race but are exacerbated by structural racism. This study provides NIH with concrete opportunities to address realized barriers to increase inclusion of Black and African American scientists on NIH SRGs, fund more Black and African American scientists, and ultimately reduce health inequities in the US.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , Pesquisadores , Apoio à Pesquisa como Assunto , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisadores/psicologia , Pesquisadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
8.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 295: 324-327, 2022 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35773874

RESUMO

We applied mixed-methods to refine our first version of the Twitter message library (English 400, translated into Spanish 400) for African Americans and Hispanic family caregivers for a person with dementia. We conducted a series of expert panels to collect quantitative and qualitative data using surveys and in-depth interviews. Using mixed methods to ensure unbiased results, the panelists first independently scored them (1 message/5 panelist) on a scale of 1 to 4 (1: lowest, 4: highest), followed by in-depth interviews and group discussions. Survey results showed that the average score was 3.47, indicating good to excellent (SD 0.35, ranges from 1.8 to 4). Quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews showed different results in emotional support messages.


Assuntos
Demência , Mídias Sociais , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Cuidadores/psicologia , Demência/psicologia , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Apoio Social
9.
Ann Clin Psychiatry ; 34(3): 176-182, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A systematic diagnostic mental health assessment was conducted with first-year students at Paul Quinn College, a small historically Black college/university (HBCU) in Dallas, Texas. METHODS: A sample of 128 students was assessed with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for DSM-5 and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. RESULTS: Nearly one-third of students were diagnosed with a current psychiatric disorder, most commonly substance use disorders (17%) and major depressive disorder (9%). Despite these findings, few students had ever received psychiatric treatment, and considering their substantial trauma histories, few developed posttraumatic stress disorder, reflecting protective factors in the HBCU. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in this HBCU study is consistent with findings of studies conducted at predominately White institutions. However, the relatively low access to treatment of these HBCU students suggests relevant mental health care disparities in this population. Further research is needed to develop interventions designed to help connect HBCU students to mental health care.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Estudantes/psicologia , Universidades
10.
WMJ ; 121(2): 132-144, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This scoping review focuses on the intersections of racism, health, and health care, as well as interventions for the African American population in Milwaukee, Wisconsin-one of the most hypersegregated regions in the country. We investigate what existing research provides about the impact of segregation and racism on health and consider how community setting informs health interventions, practice, and policy. METHODS: We analyzed studies that address racism and health in Milwaukee to assess the state of the science in this area. We searched databases using the terms "African American," "racism," "segregation," and "health." A total of 296 studies resulted, and 54 met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Racism is a known determinant of health. However, a lack of research investigating the impact of racism on health in Milwaukee County leaves a knowledge gap necessary for improving health among African American residents. The adverse effects of racism on health are compounded by the social, economic, and policy context of geographic and social segregation that limit access to care and resilience. Themes identified in the review include measures of physical and mental health, community factors related to health (eg, housing, environmental contamination, economic and social exclusion), intervention strategies, and theoretical gaps. DISCUSSION: Professionals must work across disciplines and social sectors to address the effects of racism on the physical and mental health of African American individuals in urban metropolitan environments. Health research and medical interventions in hypersegregated communities must center structural racism in their analysis.


Assuntos
Racismo , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Wisconsin
11.
Body Image ; 42: 75-83, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35660946

RESUMO

Negative hair experiences can impact psychological well-being and are an integral part of development through childhood, adolescence, and beyond. The current study utilized a mixed-methods approach to capture the lived experiences of girls relating to their hair. Participants were 105 girls between the ages of 10-15 years old recruited via social media, email, and social organizations with Black/African American, or biracial communities. Satisfaction with natural hair, perceived bullying and teasing relating to hair, social comparisons, and pressure from family and friends were assessed. Approximately, 22% of 10-year olds, 14% of 11-year olds, 54% of 12-year olds, 35% of 13-year olds, and 32% of 14-year olds reported experiencing hair related teasing. Engaging in hair comparison with models/celebrities in the media and peers was significantly associated with less hair satisfaction. Similarly, girls that reported greater frequency of hair-related teasing also had significantly lower scores on hair satisfaction. Finally, having friends who like one's natural hair was significantly associated with higher hair satisfaction scores. Black/African American girls and their experiences around hair have been largely neglected in psychology and body image research, and more research on this topic is required to gain a better understanding of the role it plays in developing young girls.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Imagem Corporal , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Criança , Feminino , Cabelo , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Satisfação Pessoal
12.
Psychol Sci ; 33(8): 1187-1198, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35772020

RESUMO

The wear and tear of adapting to chronic stressors such as racism and discrimination can have detrimental effects on mental and physical health. Here, we investigated the wider implications of everyday racism for relationship quality in an adult sample of 98 heterosexual African American couples. Participants reported on their experiences of racial discrimination and positive and negative affect for 21 consecutive evenings. Using dyadic analyses, we found that independently of age, gender, marital status, income, racial-discrimination frequency, neuroticism, and mean levels of affect, participants' relationship quality was inversely associated with their partner's negative affective reactivity to racial discrimination. Associations did not vary by gender, suggesting that the effects of affective reactivity were similar for men and women. These findings highlight the importance of a dyadic approach and call for further research examining the role of everyday racism as a key source of stress in the lives of African American couples.


Assuntos
Racismo , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Masculino , Neuroticismo , Racismo/psicologia
13.
Lupus Sci Med ; 9(1)2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35768168

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Despite the disproportional impact of SLE on historically marginalised communities, the individual and sociocultural factors underlying these health disparities remain elusive. We report the design and methods for a study aimed at identifying epigenetic biomarkers associated with racism and resiliency that affect gene function and thereby influence SLE in a health disparity population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The Social Factors, Epigenomics and Lupus in African American Women (SELA) Study is a cross-sectional, case-control study. A total of 600 self-reported African American women will be invited to participate. All participants will respond to questionnaires that capture detailed sociodemographic and medical history, validated measures of racial discrimination, social support, as well as disease activity and damage for cases. Participants who wish will receive their genetic ancestry estimates and be involved in research. Blood samples are required to provide peripheral blood mononuclear cell counts, DNA and RNA. The primary goals of SELA are to identify variation in DNA methylation (DNAm) associated with self-reported exposure to racial discrimination and social support, to evaluate whether social DNAm sites affect gene expression, to identify the synergistic effects of social factors on DNAm changes on SLE and to develop a social factors-DNAm predictive model for disease outcomes. This study is conducted in cooperation with the Sea Island Families Project Citizen Advisory Committee. DISCUSSION AND DISSEMINATION: SELA will respond to the pressing need to clarify the interplay and regulatory mechanism by which various positive and negative social exposures influence SLE. Results will be published and shared with patients and the community. Knowledge of the biological impact of social exposures on SLE, as informed by the results of this study, can be leveraged by advocacy efforts to develop psychosocial interventions that prevent or mitigate risk exposures, and services or interventions that promote positive exposures. Implementation of such interventions is paramount to the closure of the health disparities gap.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Epigenômica , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/epidemiologia , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Fatores Sociais
14.
Health Econ ; 31(9): 1844-1861, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751857

RESUMO

While psychological distress is a common sequelae of job loss, how that relationship continued during the COVID-19 pandemic is unclear, for example, given higher health risk to working due to disease exposure. This paper examines changes in psychological distress depending on job loss among a cohort of randomly selected residents living in nine predominantly African American low-income neighborhoods in Pittsburgh PA across four waves between 2013 and 2020. Between 2013 and 2016, we found an increase in psychological distress after job loss in line with the literature. In contrast, between 2018 and 2020 we found change in psychological distress did not differ by employment loss. However, residents who had financial concerns and lost their jobs had the largest increases in psychological distress, while residents who did not have serious financial concerns-potentially due to public assistance-but experienced job loss had no increase in distress, a better outcome even than those that retained their jobs. Using partial identification, we find job loss during the pandemic decreased psychological distress for those without serious financial concerns. This has important policy implications for how high-risk persons within low-income communities are identified and supported, as well as what type of public assistance may help.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Angústia Psicológica , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
15.
Am J Mens Health ; 16(3): 15579883221104272, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35758236

RESUMO

There is a well-established link between psychosocial risks and psychological health among African American (AA) men. Yet, the psychosocial sources and physical health consequences of resilience (i.e., the ability to maintain good health despite adversity) remain underexplored. Using data from 283 AA men in the Nashville Stress and Health Study, the present study investigated the links between psychosocial resilience and allostatic load (AL), a biological indicator of physiological dysregulation. Latent class analysis (LCA) identified distinct resilience profiles comprising eight psychosocial resources across four categories: coping strategies, sense of control, racial identity, and social support. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests determined significant class differences in men's AL scores. LCA results confirm a four-class model was the best fit: Class 1 (high resources, 32%), Class 2 (high coping but low control, 13%), Class 3 (low resources but high racial identity, 20%), and Class 4 (low resources but high mastery, 34%). Results reveal lower AL (better health) among Classes 1 (m = 0.35) and 4 (m = 0.31) and higher AL (worse health) among Classes 2 (m = 0.44) and 3 (m = 0.44). Findings indicate that the "quality" rather than the "quantity" of psychosocial resources matters for physical health among AA men, as positive health outcomes were observed among both low- and high-resource classes. Results suggest different resource combinations produce distinct patterns of resilience among AA men and underscore the need to further elucidate complex resilience processes among this population.


Assuntos
Alostase , Adaptação Psicológica , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Alostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Homens
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742331

RESUMO

The present study proposes and tests pathways by which racial discrimination might be positively related to bullying victimization among Black and White adolescents. Data were derived from the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health, a national survey that provides data on children's physical and mental health and their families. Data were collected from households with one or more children between June 2016 to February 2017. A letter was sent to randomly selected households, who were invited to participate in the survey. The caregivers consisted of 66.9% females and 33.1% males for the White sample, whose mean age was 47.51 (SD = 7.26), and 76.8% females and 23.2% males for the Black sample, whose mean age was 47.61 (SD = 9.71). In terms of the adolescents, 49.0% were females among the White sample, whose mean age was 14.73 (SD = 1.69). For Black adolescents, 47.9% were females and the mean age was 14.67(SD = 1.66). Measures for the study included bullying perpetration, racial discrimination, academic disengagement, and socio-demographic variables of the parent and child. Analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate correlations, and structural path analyses. For adolescents in both racial groups, racial discrimination appears to be positively associated with depression, which was positively associated with bullying perpetration. For White adolescents, racial discrimination was positively associated with academic disengagement, which was also positively associated with bullying perpetration. For Black adolescents, although racial discrimination was not significantly associated with academic disengagement, academic disengagement was positively associated with bullying perpetration.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying , Racismo , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Negros , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pais/psicologia , Estados Unidos , Brancos/psicologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35742334

RESUMO

Introduction: Resilience-which we define as the "ability to bounce back from stress"-can foster successful aging among older, racially and ethnically diverse women. This study investigated the association between psychological resilience in the Women's Health Initiative Extension Study (WHI-ES) and three constructs defined by Staudinger's 2015 model of resilience and aging: (1) perceived stress, (2) non-psychological resources, and (3) psychological resources. We further examined whether the relationship between resilience and key resources differed by race/ethnicity. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis on 77,395 women aged 62+ (4475 Black or African American; 69,448 non-Hispanic White; 1891 Hispanic/Latina; and 1581 Asian or Pacific Islanders) who enrolled in the WHI-ES, which was conducted in the United States. Participants completed a short version of the Brief Resilience Scale one-time in 2011. Guided by Staudinger's model, we used linear regression analysis to examine the relationships between resilience and resources, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and stressful life events. To identify the most significant associations, we applied elastic net regularization to our linear regression models. Findings: On average, women who reported higher resilience were younger, had fewer stressful life events, and reported access to more resources. Black or African American women reported the highest resilience, followed by Hispanic/Latina, non-Hispanic White, and Asian or Pacific Islander women. The most important resilience-related resources were psychological, including control of beliefs, energy, personal growth, mild-to-no forgetfulness, and experiencing a sense of purpose. Race/ethnicity significantly modified the relationship between resilience and energy (overall interaction p = 0.0017). Conclusion: Increasing resilience among older women may require culturally informed stress reduction techniques and resource-building strategies, including empowerment to control the important things in life and exercises to boost energy levels.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Etnicidade , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Hispânico ou Latino , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estados Unidos , Saúde da Mulher
18.
Psychiatr Q ; 93(3): 775-782, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699905

RESUMO

Rates of suicide have increased among Black Americans. Suicide is now the 3rd leading cause of death for Black Americans between the ages of 1-19 and the 4th leading cause of death for Black Americans aged 20-44. Due to the increasing need in the community, a marked increase in literature focusing on suicide in the Black community has been published since 2018. To build a better understanding of the current state of the literature on suicidality among Black Americans and to offer suggestions for further areas of research, a systematic review was conducted. Spirituality and religious beliefs are often an important cultural focus in the Black community. Some religious beliefs pose potential unintended regarding the sanctity of life among Black Americans. The focus of this systematic review was religiosity's effect on suicidality among Black Americans. Religiosity was found to have a protective effect against suicidality among Black Americans while discouraging formal mental health services utilization. This systematic review also reveals a dearth of research on the relationship between religiosity and suicide related stigma. Areas for further research are mentioned, and religious institutions as mental health intervention centers are encouraged.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Suicídio , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente , Religião , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Psychiatr Q ; 93(3): 849-860, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35771407

RESUMO

Study objectives were to 1) assess the reliability and validity of the 10-item Mental Health Recovery Measure (MHRM-10) in sample of predominately African American participants with serious mental illness, and 2) evaluate differences in MHRM-10 scores between the present sample and two other samples of persons with serious mental illness with different racial compositions. Participants included 230 adults (85.7% African American) with chart diagnoses of schizophrenia-spectrum, bipolar-spectrum, and major depressive disorders receiving services from community mental health centers in Detroit, Michigan. In addition to the MHRM-10, participants completed measures of psychological symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)- General Severity Index (GSI) and depression subscale), well-being (12-Item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0; WHODAS 2.0), and stress-related growth (Stress-Related Growth Scale - Short Form; SRGS-SF). Internal consistency and convergent validity of the MHRM-10 were examined. Differences in MHRM-10 scores between the present sample and other samples were characterized by effect sizes. The MHRM-10 demonstrated excellent internal consistency. Evidence for convergent validity of the MHRM-10 included moderate correlations with the BSI-GSI, BSI-depression subscale, SRGS-SF, and WHODAS 2.0. The present sample of predominately African American participants showed higher MHRM-10 scores than two other samples with smaller proportions of African American participants. The MHRM-10 demonstrates excellent internal consistency and good convergent validity among African Americans with serious mental illness. Although findings are promising, studies should further assess the psychometric properties of the MHRM-10 in African American samples. Additional research that examines racial differences in mental health recovery is needed.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Recuperação da Saúde Mental , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1220, 2022 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35725400

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 self-testing (ST) is an innovative strategy with the potential to increase the access and uptake of testing and ultimately to limit the spread of the virus. To maximize the uptake and reach of this promising strategy and inform intervention development and scale up, research is needed to understand the acceptability of and willingness to use this tool. This is vital to ensure that Black/African Americans are reached by the Biden-Harris Administration's free national COVID-19 ST program. This study aimed to explore the acceptability and recommendations to promote and scale-up the uptake of COVID-19 ST among Black/African Americans. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess barriers and facilitators to the uptake of COVID-19 ST among a convenience sample of 28 self-identified Black/African Americans from schools, community centers, and faith-based institutions in Ohio and Maryland. Inductive content analysis was conducted to identify categories and subcategories related to acceptability and recommendations for implementing and scaling up COVID-19 ST in communities. RESULTS: Participants perceived COVID-19 self-testing as an acceptable tool that is beneficial to prevent transmission and address some of the barriers associated with health facility testing, such as transportation cost and human contact at the health facility. However, concerns were raised regarding the accurate use of the kits and costs. Recommendations for implementing and scaling up COVID-19 ST included engagement of community stakeholders to disseminate information about COVID-19 self-testing and creating culturally appropriate education tools to promote knowledge of and clear instructions about how to properly use COVID-19 ST kits. Based on these recommendations, the COVID-19 STEP (Self-Testing Education and Promotion) Project is being developed and will involve engaging community partners such as barbers, church leaders, and other community-based organizations to increase the uptake and use of free COVID-19 ST kits among Black/African Americans. CONCLUSION: Findings showed that most participants considered COVID-19 ST valuable for encouraging COVID-19 testing. However, cost and accuracy concerns may pose barriers. Future work should consider implementing interventions that leverage the benefits of COVID-19 ST and further assess the extent to which these identified facilitators and barriers may influence COVID-19 ST uptake.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Teste para COVID-19 , Autoteste , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/etnologia , Teste para COVID-19/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
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