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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247840, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278531

RESUMO

Abstract Calvatia is a genus of gasteroid fungi, comprising about 47 species worldwide. In this paper we report the second worldwide occurrence of two poorly known species of Calvatia, recorded in the Cerrado biome of Brazil: C. oblongispora and C. nodulata. Detailed morphological descriptions and illustrations, including scanning electron micrographs of hyphae and basidiospores are provided, as well a discussion on their taxonomy and geographic distribution.


Resumo Calvatia é um gênero de fungos gasteroides que compreende cerca de 47 espécies em todo o mundo. Neste artigo relatamos a segunda ocorrência de duas espécies pouco conhecidas de Calvatia, registradas no bioma Cerrado do Brasil: C. oblongispora e C. nodulata. Descrições morfológicas detalhadas e ilustrações são fornecidas, incluindo micrografias eletrônicas de varredura de hifas e basidiósporos, bem como uma discussão sobre sua taxonomia e distribuição geográfica.


Assuntos
Basidiomycota , Agaricales , Esporos Fúngicos , Brasil , Ecossistema
2.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 33: 1-6, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491024

RESUMO

To calculate the equivalent system mass of mushrooms, a conceptual configuration of a mushroom farm as part of a bioregenerative life support system on an inhabited lunar base was designed. The mushroom farm consists of two connected modules. Each module is a double-shell rigid pipe-in-pipe aluminum structure. The first module is used to prepare and sterilize the substrate, while the mushrooms are sown and grown in the second module. Planned productivity of the mushroom farm is 28 kg of fresh mushrooms per one process cycle lasting 66 days for 14 consumers. Mushroom production can be increased using additional modules. The calculated equivalent system masses of the mushroom farm and the mushrooms produced therein is 88,432 kg and 31,550 kg per 1 kg of dry mushrooms in one process cycle, respectively. At that, the biggest contributor to the equivalent system mass of mushrooms is the total pressurized volume of the farm - 68%. The results obtained may be a prerequisite for performing trade-off studies between different configurations of mushroom farm and calculating a space diet using the equivalent system mass of mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Agaricales/química , Dieta , Fazendas , Sistemas de Manutenção da Vida , Lua
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2304-2308, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531676

RESUMO

Mycena, a symbiont of Gastrodia elata, promotes seed germination of G. elata and plays a crucial role in the sexual reproduction of G. elata. However, the lack of genetic transformation system of Mycena blocks the research on the interaction mechanism of the two. In order to establish the protoplast transformation system of Mycena, this study analyzed the protoplast enzymatic hydrolysis system, screened the resistance markers and regeneration medium, and explored the transient transformation. After hydrolysis of Mycena hyphae with complexes enzymes for 8 h and centrifugation at 4 000 r·min~(-1), high-concentration and quality protoplast was obtained. The optimum regeneration medium for Mycena was RMV, and the optimum resistance marker was 50 mg·mL~(-1) hygromycin. The pLH-HygB-HuSHXG-GFP-HdSHXG was transformed into the protoplast of Mycena which then expressed GFP. The established protoplast transformation system of Mycena laid a foundation for analyzing the functional genes of Mycena and the molecular mechanism of the symbiosis of Mycena and G. elata.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Gastrodia , Gastrodia/genética , Protoplastos , Simbiose/genética , Transformação Genética
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(9): 2309-2314, 2022 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531677

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the resource utilization of used fungus-growing materials produced in the cultivation of Gastrodia elata. To be specific, based on the production practice, this study investigated the recycling mechanism of used fungus-growing materials of G. elata by Phallus inpudicus. To screen edible fungi with wide adaptability, this study examined the allelopathic effects of Armillaria mellea secretions on P. impudicus and 6 kinds of large edible fungi and the activities of enzymes related to degradation of the used fungus-growing materials of G. elata. The results showed that P. impudicus can effectively degrade cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in used fungus-growing materials of G. elata. The cellulase activity of A. mellea was significantly higher than that of P. impudicus, and the activities of lignin peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and xylanase of P. impudicus were significantly higher than those of A. mellea, which was the important reason why A. mellea and P. impudicus used different parts and components of the used fungus-growing materials to absorb carbon sources and develop ecological niche differences. The growth of P. impudicus was significantly inhibited on the used fungus-growing materials of G. elata. The secretions of A. mellea had allelopathic effects on P. impudicus and other edible fungi, and the allelopathic effects were related to the concentration of allelopathy substances. The screening result showed that the growth and development of L. edodes and A. auricular were not significantly affected by 30% of A. mellea liquid, indicating that they had high resistance to the allelopathy of A. mellea. The results showed that the activities of extracellular lignin peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and xylanase of the two edible fungi were similar to those of P. impudicus, and the cellulase activity was higher than that of P. impudicus. This experiment can be further verified by small-scale production tests.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Ascomicetos , Basidiomycota , Celulases , Gastrodia , Catecol Oxidase
5.
Integr Cancer Ther ; 21: 15347354221090221, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35426328

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the mechanisms employed by PS-T (polysaccharides of Trametes, PS-T), the main active ingredient of Huaier granules, to improve the susceptibility of hepatoma cells to oxaliplatin (OXA). METHODS: Cell proliferation in response to PS-T was determined both in vitro and in vivo. The effects of PS-T on miRNAs were analyzed with the use of a microarray. MiRNAs were screened under specific conditions (P < .05, logFoldChange > ABS [1.5]) and further silenced or overexpressed by liposome transfection. Levels of ABCB1 mRNA and P-gp were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. A dual fluorescence assay was performed to determine whether miRNA directly targets ABCB1. RESULTS: PS-T enhanced the inhibitory effect of OXA in human hepatoma cells and xenografts. Among 5 up-regulated miRNAs, overexpression of only miR-224-5p inhibited the expression of ABCB1 mRNA and P-gp, while silencing of miR-224-5p had an opposite effect. Moreover, miR-224-5p can directly target the 3'-UTR of ABCB1. CONCLUSION: PS-T increases the sensitivity of human hepatoma cells to OXA via the miR-224-5p/ABCB1/P-gp axis.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , MicroRNAs , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Oxaliplatina/farmacologia , Polyporaceae , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Trametes/genética , Trametes/metabolismo
6.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(1): 1-11, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442591

RESUMO

Psilocybin is a psychoactive alkaloid that is produced naturally by approximately 200 species of mushrooms. The potential medical use of this molecule for the treatment of mental illness is gaining renewed momentum. As demand grows and clinical trials progress, appropriate methods for producing a quality pharmaceutical product are needed. This review highlights the methods currently available, such as the prominent synthetic method and its biosynthetic alternatives, as well as others on the near horizon. This article further seeks to discuss the rapid and evolving nature of the psilocybin industry in the 21st century.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Alucinógenos , Alucinógenos/história , Psilocibina/uso terapêutico
7.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(1): 13-26, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442592

RESUMO

This article is dedicated to the 75th anniversary of Solomon P. Wasser and discusses the challenges within the research direction he founded with Professors T. Mizuno, S.T. Chang, and other colleagues, known as medicinal mushroom science. This research organically grows out of taxonomic studies, since understanding of the classification system leads to greater ability to make forecasts and predictions in the practical field as well as to increase knowledge of close relationships between organisms, allowing greater eeconomic organization within the search and screening for new practically significant organisms. Through the efforts of Professors Wasser, Mizuno, and Chang, the International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms (IJMM) was created, combining the efforts of physicians using mushroom raw materials as an auxiliary tool and specialists in fungal biotechnology. In this work, the basic prerequisites for cancer mycotherapy are described, based on data on the mechanism of action of fungal metabolites on cancer targets. A large section of this report is devoted to a review of evidence-based medicine tools and an overview of their use among teams of Chinese researchers. It has been shown that the main recipients of mycotherapy, as well as other types of immunotherapies, are patients with stage 3 cancer who have undergone surgery to remove the primary tumor node and are undergoing chemotherapy; for these patients, their immune status must be increased, and the immune system requires a periodic rebooting. In this respect, Dectin stimulation using fungal glucans is comparable to cytokine therapy and can be characterized as an "endogenous cytokine therapy." The results of the combined treatment at this stage are to be quantified using evidence-based medicine tools, for which we recommend including the consumption of mushroom extracts in the patient questionnaire. This article also discusses challenges in the pharmacokinetics of ß-glucans and triterpenoids.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Neoplasias , beta-Glucanas , Citocinas , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(1): 67-82, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442596

RESUMO

In this study, melanin from wild Auricularia auricula (WAA) was isolated using an ultra-high pressure (UHP)-assisted extraction method, and the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of WAA melanin were investigated. Under the optimized extraction conditions of a solid/liquid ratio of 1:30, a UHP of 450 MPa, a 22-min pressure holding time, a 1-mol/L NaOH concentration, and acid precipitation for 8 h, the WAA melanin extraction yield was 7.9 ± 0.16%. Moreover, the results showed that the surface of WAA melanin lacked structural order. Most melanin showed an average diameter of 1000 nm. WAA melanin had strong absorption at a wavelength of 210 nm and displayed typical characteristic absorption peaks. Moreover, WAA melanin contained 48.51% C, 6.88% H, 5.26% N, 0.45% S, and 38.90% O and may be a 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine melanin. An analysis of physicochemical properties showed that WAA melanin had good stability toward heat, light, and low concentrations of reducing agents and oxidizing agents. Furthermore, WAA melanin presented certain free radical scavenging activity. This study demonstrates that wild A. auricula melanin may have potential applications in the cosmetic or food industries as a natural antioxidant.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Basidiomycota , Agaricales/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Auricularia , Basidiomycota/química , Melaninas/química
9.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408555

RESUMO

Hericium erinaceus, a culinary and medicinal mushroom, is widely consumed in Asian countries. Chemical investigation on the fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceus led to the isolation of one new ergostane-type sterol fatty acid ester, erinarol K (1); and eleven known compounds: 5α,8α -epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3ß-yl linoleate (2); ethyl linoleate (3); linoleic acid (4); hericene A (5); hericene D (6); hericene E (7); ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (8); hericenone F (9); ergosterol (10); ergosterol peroxide (11); 3ß,5α,6α,22E-ergosta-7,22-diene-3,5,6-triol 6-oleate (12). The chemical structures of the compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy, mass spectra, etc. Anti-inflammatory effects of the isolated aromatic compounds (5-7, 9) were evaluated in terms of inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediator (TNF-α, IL-6 and NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The results showed that compounds 5 and 9 exhibited moderate activity against TNF-α (IC50: 78.50 µM and 62.46 µM), IL-6 (IC50: 56.33 µM and 48.50 µM) and NO (IC50: 87.31 µM and 76.16 µM) secretion. These results supply new information about the secondary metabolites of Hericium erinaceus and their anti-inflammatory effects.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Agaricales/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Hericium , Interleucina-6 , Camundongos
10.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408701

RESUMO

Many mushroom species are consumed as food, while significant numbers are also utilised medicinally. Mushrooms are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. A growing body of in vitro, in vivo, and human research has revealed their therapeutic potentials, which include such properties as anti-pathogenic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, gut microbiota enhancement, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 specificity. The uses of medicinal mushrooms (MMs) as extracts in nutraceuticals and other functional food and health products are burgeoning. COVID-19 presents an opportunity to consider how, and if, specific MM compounds might be utilised therapeutically to mitigate associated risk factors, reduce disease severity, and support recovery. As vaccines become a mainstay, MMs may have the potential as an adjunct therapy to enhance immunity. In the context of COVID-19, this review explores current research about MMs to identify the key properties claimed to confer health benefits. Considered also are barriers or limitations that may impact general recommendations on MMs as therapy. It is contended that the extraction method used to isolate bioactive compounds must be a primary consideration for efficacious targeting of physiological endpoints. Mushrooms commonly available for culinary use and obtainable as a dietary supplement for medicinal purposes are included in this review. Specific properties related to these mushrooms have been considered due to their potential protective and mediating effects on human exposure to the SARS CoV-2 virus and the ensuing COVID-19 disease processes.


Assuntos
Agaricales , COVID-19 , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Imunomodulação
11.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(3): 15-23, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467803

RESUMO

Lentinus arcularius (=Polyporus arcularius) is a medicinal polypore mushroom recorded in Vietnam based on morphological observation. In this study, three L. arcularius isolates were identified using molecular and morphological methods. Furthermore, the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of their intracellular and/or extracellular metabolites were investigated. The ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions were the most active extracts against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli VTCC 12014, Pseudomonas aeruginosa VTCC 12273, and Staphylococcus aureus VTCC 10658) and fungi (Candida albicans VTCC 20568, Saccharomyces cerevisiae VTCC 20146, and Aspergillus niger VTCC 30001). These fractions also showed the highest antioxidant activity by α,α-diphenyl-ß-picryl-hydrazyl as a free-radical agent or the highest percentage at 75-100% inhibition. These results suggest that L. arcularius might be a potential medicinal mushroom with antimicrobial and antioxidant effects.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Anti-Infecciosos , Basidiomycota , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Lentinula , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vietnã
12.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(3): 25-34, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467804

RESUMO

The increased prevalence and mortality of sickle cell disease necessitates more research on its management and treatment. This study investigated the antisickling potential of Auricularia auricula obtained from its natural environment within the University of Port Harcourt in Nigeria. Freshly harvested mushrooms were washed, air-dried, and ground and distilled water was added. The mixture was divided into two parts; one part was extracted by cold maceration and lyophilized to give cold maceration extract, while the filtrate obtained after boiling and cooling of the second part was dried in an autodesiccator to give decoction extract. Volumes of both extracts were obtained via serial dilution. Sickle cell hemoglobin S (HbS) erythrocytes were obtained by centrifuging HbS-blood in 0.9% physiological saline. The percentage of lysis decreased when 10 and 5 mg/mL of both extracts were added to erythrocytes suspended in hypotonic buffered saline, while the lowest median corpuscular fragility was observed for cold maceration extract at 5 mg/mL. The lowest negative percentage of stability and highest morphological stability were observed for decoction extract at 10 and 5 mg/mL after 5 min of culturing in decoction extract, respectively. The ability of A. auricula extracts (mainly the decoction extract) to reverse and stabilize erythrocyte membrane integrity and morphology is a clear indication that this mushroom may offer a valuable natural option for the treatment and management of sickle cell anemia.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Basidiomycota , Auricularia , Eritrócitos , Hemoglobina Falciforme , Humanos
13.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(3): 35-50, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467805

RESUMO

Neurological diseases are increasingly recognized as a health burden worldwide, mainly affecting the elderly population. Sanguinoderma rugosum (=Amauroderma rugosum) is a wild medicinal mushroom traditionally used to alleviate inflammation and prevent seizures. The present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective and neurorescue effects as well as the possible mechanisms of S. rugosum extracts on glutamate-induced HT-22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells. The mycelia of S. rugosum were subjected to submerged liquid fermentation followed by solvent extraction and fractionation. The neurotoxicity, neuroprotective, and neurorescue activities of S. rugosum extracts were assessed via the MTT viability assay at 24 and 48 h. The effects of S. rugosum extracts on glutamate-induced oxidative stress and cell death were investigated through flow cytometry. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis was conducted to identify the bioactive compounds in the S. rugosum hexane fraction (SR-HF). All extracts were noncytotoxic toward HT-22 cells. Pretreatment with S. rugosum ethanolic extract (SR-EE; 12.5 µg/mL) or SR-HF (100 µg/mL) markedly (P < 0.05) improved the loss of cell viability and attenuated the accumulation of reactive oxygen species production. Pretreatment with SR-HF was also demonstrated to inhibit glutamate-induced cell death. The MTT assay showed that all extracts generally rescued glutamate-induced HT-22 cells at 24 and 48 h. The GC/MS analysis revealed the existence of 11 bioactive components in SR-HF, with linoleic acid, ergosterol, and ethyl linoleate being the main chemical constituents. The current findings suggest that SR-HF could be used as a potential therapeutic intervention to ameliorate oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Agaricales/química , Idoso , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Ácido Glutâmico/toxicidade , Hipocampo , Humanos , Camundongos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
14.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(3): 51-64, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35467806

RESUMO

Macrocybe gigantea is an edible mushroom and has multiple pharmacological properties, including antibacterial, antioxidant, and antitumor activities. However, only a few reports are currently available on the bioactive compounds and bioactivity of this mushroom. Therefore, the present study aimed to explore the unique chemical diversity of the fruiting body of M. gigantea. Species identification was done accurately with morphological and molecular methods, followed by mycochemical extraction in different solvent systems. The ethanolic extract of the fruiting body gave maximum yield, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was performed along with an assessment of antibacterial activity and cell viability by the MTT assay. The GC-MS analysis revealed 50 metabolites, and further cheminformatics analysis of these metabolites revealed their possible biological activities. In addition, the physicochemical and mineral element analysis of M. gigantea revealed the quality and authenticity of the species. Altogether, the current investigation gives a comprehensive overview of the bioactive metabolites of M. gigantea.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Quimioinformática , Agaricales/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
15.
Food Chem ; 387: 132840, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405556

RESUMO

This study hoped to use microwave and ultrasound combined with 4D printing technology to promote the conversion of ergosterol into vitamin D2 in printing model with mushroom scraps. Under the UV irradiation, the conversion was different in the printed model with different irradiation areas and different physical field pretreatment. Compared with raw materials, vitamin D2 concentrations in the printed models was 4.6 time higher. Vitamin D2 in the product after physical field pretreatment was 2.2-3.8 times higher than that without pretreatment. From partial least square regression (PLS) analysis, irradiation area had the greatest impact while ultrasound treatment had the least. Pretreatment enhanced vitamin D2 content, possibly because pretreatment meant ergosterol was more susceptible to UV radiation, and expansion of the irradiated area increased the beneficial effect. This study established an artificial neural network model to predict ergosterol and vitamin D2 content.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Ergocalciferóis , Ergocalciferóis/análise , Ergosterol/análise , Micro-Ondas , Impressão Tridimensional , Raios Ultravioleta , Vitamina D
16.
Food Chem ; 387: 132938, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35429937

RESUMO

Tyrosinase plays determinant role in enzymatic browning of vegetables and fresh-cut fruits. Development of new tyrosinase inhibitors is of great concern in food and agriculture. To discover new inhibitors, novel phenolic derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory effects were investigated on activity of mushroom tyrosinase. All compounds showed potent inhibitory activities in their low concentrations and compound 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)butan-2-one (1b) was found to be the most potent inhibitor (73.75% inhibition, IC50 value 5.6 µmol L-1). This ligand inhibited enzyme activity in a mixed pattern and kinetic parameters were also determined. In vitro assays revealed that this compound has not cytotoxicity/hemolytic effects and can be considered as safe for further investigations. Analysis of fluorescence spectra showed that all ligands quenched enzyme intrinsic fluorescence. The quenching mode and important binding parameters were also calculated. Enzyme-ligands interactions were also theoretically analyzed by molecular docking and results showed that the ligands interact with structurally/functionally critical residues.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase , Agaricales/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Cinética , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
17.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458578

RESUMO

The present work is conducted to investigate the optimal extraction technology of polysaccharide from chestnut mushroom (Agrocybe aegerita) using a new method based on accelerated solvent extraction combined with response surface methodology (ASE-RSM). The conventional reflux extraction (CRE) method and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) method were also carried out. Additionally, the in vitro antioxidant activities, including ABTS and DPPH assay, were evaluated. The RSM method, based on a three level and three variable Box-Behnken design (BBD), was developed to obtain the optimal combination of extraction conditions. In brief, the polysaccharide was optimally extracted with water as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 71 °C, extraction time of 6.5 min, number of cycles of 3, and extraction pressure of 10 MPa. The 3D response surface plot and the contour plot derived from the mathematical models were applied to determine the optimal conditions. Under the above conditions, the experimental value of polysaccharide yield was 19.77 ± 0.12%, which is in close agreement with the value (19.81%) predicted by the model. These findings demonstrate that ASE-RSM produce much higher polysaccharide and consumed environmentally friendly extraction and solvent systems, have less extraction discrimination and shorter time and provide scientific basis for industrialization of polysaccharide extraction. Moreover, it was proved that the polysaccharide had the potential ability to scavenge ABTS and DPPH.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Antioxidantes , Agrocybe , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Solventes
18.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458581

RESUMO

Here, we propose Ageritin, the prototype of the ribotoxin-like protein family, as an adjuvant treatment to control the growth of NULU and ZAR, two primary human glioblastoma cell lines, which exhibit a pharmacoresistance phenotype. Ageritin is able to inhibit NULU and ZAR growth with an IC50 of 0.53 ± 0.29 µM and 0.42 ± 0.49 µM, respectively. In this study, Ageritin treatment highlighted a macroscopic genotoxic response through the formation of micronuclei, which represents the morphological manifestation of genomic chaos induced by this toxin. DNA damage was not associated with either the deregulation of DNA repair enzymes (i.e., ATM and DNA-PK), as demonstrated by quantitative PCR, or reactive oxygen species. Indeed, the pretreatment of the most responsive cell line ZAR with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) did not follow the reverse cytotoxic effect of Ageritin, suggesting that this protein is not involved in cellular oxidative stress. Vice versa, Ageritin pretreatment strongly enhanced the sensitivity to temozolomide (TMZ) and inhibited MGMT protein expression, restoring the sensitivity to temozolomide. Overall, Ageritin could be considered as a possible innovative glioblastoma treatment, directly damaging DNA and downregulating the MGMT DNA repair protein. Finally, we verified the proteolysis susceptibility of Ageritin using an in vitro digestion system, and considered the future perspective use of this toxin as a bioconjugate in biomedicine.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Glioblastoma , Toxinas Biológicas , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Metilases de Modificação do DNA , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Ribonucleases , Temozolomida/farmacologia
19.
Molecules ; 27(8)2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458700

RESUMO

Submerged fermentation of green tea with the basidiomycete Mycetinis scorodonius resulted in a pleasant chocolate-like and malty aroma, which could be a promising chocolate flavor alternative to current synthetic aroma mixtures in demand of consumer preferences towards healthy natural and 'clean label' ingredients. To understand the sensorial molecular base on the chocolate-like aroma formation, key aroma compounds of the fermented green tea were elucidated using a direct immersion stir bar sorptive extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (DI-SBSE-GC-MS-O) followed by semi-quantification with internal standard. Fifteen key aroma compounds were determined, the most important of which were dihydroactinidiolide (odor activity value OAV 345), isovaleraldehyde (OAV 79), and coumarin (OAV 24), which were also confirmed by a recombination study. Furthermore, effects of the fermentation parameters (medium volume, light protection, agitation rate, pH, temperature, and aeration) on the aroma profile were investigated in a lab-scale bioreactor at batch fermentation. Variation of the fermentation parameters resulted in similar sensory perception of the broth, where up-scaling in volume evoked longer growth cycles and aeration significantly boosted the concentrations yet added a green note to the overall flavor impression. All findings prove the robustness of the established fermentation process with M. scorodonius for natural chocolate-like flavor production.


Assuntos
Cacau , Chocolate , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Agaricales , Fermentação , Odorantes/análise , Olfatometria/métodos , Chá/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
20.
Mycologia ; 114(2): 270-302, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394897

RESUMO

The Roseinae clade is a lineage of the genus Russula primarily composed of species of Russula subsect. Roseinae. Species in this morphologically distinct clade possess a white to pale cream spore print, mild taste, positive reaction to sulfovanillin, and primordial hyphae with acid-resistant crystals in the pileipellis. Here, we present a morphological and phylogenetic assessment that distinguishes seven eastern North American species of the core Roseinae lineage and a new subsection, Russula subsection Albidinae, to accommodate members of the Albida clade. We assign the previously described species R. peckii, R. rubellipes, and R. pseudopeckii to three species-level clades, and three other species, R. cardinalis, R. cordata, and R. rheubarbarina, are described as new. Comparative morphological analyses reveal differences in the conformation of terminal elements in the pileipellis, spore size, hymenial cystidia contents, and pigmentation on the stipe surface as key features to recognize species in the group. Based on the analysis of publicly available data, we recognize a potential total of nine temperate North American species within R. subsect. Roseinae, in addition to four from Central America, two from Europe, and 14 from Asia.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Agaricales/genética , Ásia , América Central , América do Norte , Filogenia
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