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1.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(7): 1691-1702, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843752

RESUMO

In this study, spent mushroom substrates (SMSs) were fermented anaerobically at room temperature to gain liquid SMSs (LSMSs) that were used to remove nitrogen from the piggery wastewater with a low C/N ratio in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and solid SMSs (SSMSs) that were utilized to adsorb Pb2+ from Pb2+-containing wastewater in a fixed-bed reactor (FBR). After LSMSs supplement, the removal efficiency of both total nitrogen (TN) and NH+4-N increased from around 50% to 60-80%. High-throughput sequencing results presented an obvious change in microbial diversity, and some functional microorganisms like Zoogloea and Hydrogenophaga predominated to promote nitrogen removal. Pb2+ did not emerge from the effluent until 240 min with the corresponding concentration being less than 3 mg/L when using 30-day SSMSs as adsorbents, and it was demonstrated to be appropriate to use the Thomas model to predict Pb2+ sorption on SSMSs. Although various functional groups played a role in binding ions, the carboxyl group was proved to contribute most to Pb2+ adsorption. These results certified that the anaerobically fermented SMSs are decidedly suitable for wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Nitrogênio , Adsorção , Reatores Biológicos , Desnitrificação , Chumbo , Nitrogênio/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias
2.
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi ; 29(2): 381-388, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of acidic RNA protein complex (FA-2-b-ß) extracted from the wild edible Qinba mushroom in inducing of apoptosis and immunoregulation of tumor cell. METHODS: Cell proliferation inducing rate of FA-2-b-ß to K562 cell was measured using CCK-8. Apoptosis rate was detected by using flow cytometry. Chronic myeloid leukemia model was developed by tail vein injection/subcutaneous inoculation of K562 cells in NCG mice. The tumor burden of mice was observed. The general condition of the mice was monitored twice daily. The peripherivcal full blood counts of mice was tested daily. RT-qPCR and Western blot was FA-2-b-ß performed to determine involvement of apoptotic-related gene and protenin, Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry was used to detected the expression of CD3, CD4 and CD8. RESULTS: The proliferation and apoptosis of K562 cell could be inhibitied and induced by FA-2-b-ß, there was 100% successful in the tumor formation in vivo, after treated by drug for 21 days there were significantly increased peripheral leucocytes, but decreased hemoglobin of mice treated by FA-2-b-ß as compared with those in control group. The CD3, CD4 and CD8 showed positive in mice, and the propotation was imbalance, but it showed reserved after treated by FA-2-b-ß. CONCLUSION: FA-2-b-ß is strong anti-leukemia effect in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the traditional Chinese medicine maybe contribute to the anti-cancer and immunoregulation research.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva , Animais , Apoptose , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Células K562 , Camundongos
3.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 302, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900454

RESUMO

Understanding the occurrence, behavior, and fate of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the substrate-mushroom-human nexus is critical for assessing and mitigating their human health risks. In this review, we (1) summarized the nature, sources, and biogeochemical behavior of PTEs in the substrate-mushroom systems; (2) discussed the occurrence, exposure, and human health risks of PTEs in mushrooms with emphasis on African geological hotspots such as metalliferous and highly mineralized substrates; (3) developed a 10-step conceptual framework for identifying, assessing, and mitigating the human health risks of PTEs in mushrooms, and highlight future directions. High human exposure risks potentially exist in Africa due to the following: (1) widespread consumption of mushrooms from various metalliferrous and highly mineralized substrates such as serpentines and mine waste dumps, (2) inadequate and poorly enforced environmental health and food safety regulations and policies, (3) limited environmental and human health monitoring data, and (4) potential synergistic interactions among PTEs in mushrooms and human health stressors such as a high burden of human diseases and infections. Although the human health effects of individual PTEs are well known, scientific evidence linking human health risk to PTEs in mushrooms remains weak. A framework for risk assessment and mitigation, and future research directions are recommended.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , África , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes do Solo/análise
4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 869-877, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754552

RESUMO

To clarify the variation of species composition, diversity, and functional structure of soil fungi community along alpine meadow degradation,we examined the characteristics and controlling factors of soil fungal communities in non-degraded, lightly degraded, moderately degraded, severely degraded and extremely degraded (black soil beach) alpine meadows at the Three Rivers Source Region, based on the high-throughput gene sequencing and FUNGuild functional prediction. The results showed that the dominant phyla in alpine meadow soil were Ascomycota, Basidiomycetes, and Mortierellomycota. Species composition of soil fungal community varied greatly in alpine meadow under different levels of degradation. The abundance of Cladosporium flabelliforme, Entoloma sodale, Hygrocybe conica, Inocybe sp. and Trichocladium opacum increased, while that of Gibberella tricincta and Dactylonectria macrodidyma decreased following grassland degradation. The meadow under severe degradation had higher soil fungal Chao1 index, while that under light degradation had lower Shannon index and Simpson index. The abundance of pathologic, symbiotic, and saprophytic types of fungi varied among different alpine meadows. Along with the grassland degradation, the abundance of soil symbiotic fungi decreased, while that of pathological fungi increased. The soil fungal community and functional compositions changed obviously with degradation in the alpine meadow. Plant aboveground biomass, soil water content, pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, available phosphate, total potassium and AN/AP (ratio of available nitrogen and available phosphorus) were the main driving factors for the variations in soil fungal community structure.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Solo , Agaricales , Ascomicetos , China , Cladosporium , Fusarium , Pradaria , Hypocreales , Nitrogênio/análise , Rios , Microbiologia do Solo
5.
Carbohydr Polym ; 259: 117743, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674003

RESUMO

The mature basal stipe of mushroom Coprinopsis cinerea loses wall extensibility. We found that an endo-ß-1,3-glucanase ENG from C. cinerea could restore mature basal stipe wall extensibility via pretreatment such that the ENG-pretreated basal stipe walls could be induced to extend by chitinase ChiIII. ENG pretreatment released glucose, laminaribiose, and 3-O-D-gentiobiose-D-glucose from the basal stipe walls, consistent with ENG-digested products of ß-1,6-branched ß-1,3-glucan. Different effects of endo-ß-1,3-glucanase ENG and exo-ß-1,3-glucanase EXG pretreatment on the structure, amount and ratio (ß-1,3-glucoside bonds to ß-1,6-glucoside bonds) of products from the basal stipe and the apical stipe cell walls, respectively, and on the cell wall extensibility and the cell wall ultra-architecture of the basal stipes were analyzed. All results demonstrate that the more accumulation and cross-linkage of ß-1,6-branched ß-1,3-glucan with wall maturation lead to loss of wall extensibility of the basal stipe regions compared to the apical stipe cell walls.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Parede Celular/química , Glucanos/análise , Agaricales/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Quitinases/química , Quitinases/genética , Quitinases/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Dextranase/química , Dextranase/genética , Dextranase/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Zootaxa ; 4941(3): zootaxa.4941.3.2, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756929

RESUMO

More than 800 specimens collected during 2015-2018 are studied from northwestern Iran. Thirty four species belonging to five subfamilies and 21 genera are listed. Reitterelater prosternalis sp. n., Melanotus borumandi sp. n. and M. kurdestanicus sp. n. are described. The genus Reitterelater and the species Pristilophus melancholicus (Fabricius) are recorded for the first time from Iran. Distributional map and climate data are presented for each species.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Besouros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Clima , Irã (Geográfico)
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD007961, 2021 03 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is a updated version of our Cochrane Review published in Issue 6, 2012. Sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) continue to rise worldwide, imposing an enormous morbidity and mortality burden. Effective prevention strategies, including microbicides, are needed to achieve the goals of the World Heath Organization (WHO) global strategy for the prevention and control of these infections. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and safety of topical microbicides for preventing acquisition of STIs, including HIV. SEARCH METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, CLIB, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and reference lists of relevant articles up to August 2020. In addition, we contacted relevant organisations and experts. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials of vaginal microbicides compared to placebo (except for nonoxynol-9 because it is covered in related Cochrane Reviews). Eligible participants were sexually-active non-pregnant, WSM and MSM, who had no laboratory confirmed STIs. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risks of bias in duplicate, resolving differences by consensus. We conducted a fixed-effect meta-analysis, stratified by type of microbicide, and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included eight trials from the earlier version of the review and four new trials, i.e. a total of 12 trials with 32,464 participants (all WSM). We did not find any eligible study that enrolled MSM or reported fungal STI as an outcome. We have no study awaiting assessment. All 12 trials were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, with one having a study site in the USA, and another having a site in India. Vaginal microbicides tested were BufferGel and PRO 2000 (1 trial, 3101 women), Carraguard (1 trial, 6202 women), cellulose sulphate (2 trials, 3069 women), dapivirine (2 trials, 4588 women), PRO 2000 (1 trial, 9385 women), C31G (SAVVY) (2 trials, 4295 women), and tenofovir (3 trials, 4958 women). All microbicides were compared to placebo and all trials had low risk of bias. Dapivirine probably reduces the risk of acquiring HIV infection: risk ratio (RR) 0.71, (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 0.89, I2 = 0%, 2 trials, 4588 women; moderate-certainty evidence). The other microbicides may result in little to no difference in the risk of acquiring HIV (low-certainty evidence); including tenofovir (RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.02, cellulose sulphate (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.95, BufferGel (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.52), Carraguard (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.11), PRO 2000 (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.14), and SAVVY (RR 1.38, 95% CI 0.79 to 2.41). Existing evidence suggests that cellulose sulphate (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.37 to 2.62, 1 trial, 1425 women), and PRO 2000 (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.23) may result in little to no difference in the risk of getting herpes simplex virus type 2 infection (low-certainty evidence). Two studies reported data on tenofovir's effect on this virus. One suggested that tenofovir may reduce the risk (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.82; 224 participants) while the other did not find evidence of an effect (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.03; 1003 participants). We have not reported the pooled result because of substantial heterogeneity of effect between the two studies (l2 = 85%). The evidence also suggests that dapivirine (RR 1.70, 95% CI 0.63 to 4.59), tenofovir (RR 1.27, 95% CI 0.58 to 2.78), cellulose sulphate (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.26 to 1.81), and (Carraguard (RR 1.07, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.52) may have little or no effect on the risk of acquiring syphilis (low-certainty evidence). In addition, dapivirine (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.07), tenofovir (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.13), cellulose sulphate (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.99), BufferGel (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.45), Carraguard (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.12), and PRO 2000 (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.22) may result in little to no difference in the risk of acquiring chlamydia infection (low-certainty evidence). The evidence also suggests that current topical microbicides may not have an effect on the risk of acquiring gonorrhoea, condyloma acuminatum, trichomoniasis, or human papillomavirus infection (low-certainty evidence). Microbicide use in the 12 trials, compared to placebo, did not lead to any difference in adverse event rates. No study reported on acceptability of the intervention.  AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence shows that vaginal dapivirine microbicide probably reduces HIV acquisition in women who have sex with men. Other types of vaginal microbicides have not shown evidence of an effect on acquisition of STIs, including HIV. Further research should continue on the development and testing of new microbicides.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Resinas Acrílicas/administração & dosagem , Adenina/administração & dosagem , Adenina/análogos & derivados , Administração Intravaginal , Agaricales/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Viés , Celulose/administração & dosagem , Celulose/efeitos adversos , Celulose/análogos & derivados , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Naftalenossulfonatos/administração & dosagem , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Polímeros/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/efeitos adversos , Alga Marinha/química , Tenofovir/administração & dosagem , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos
8.
Food Chem ; 352: 129357, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714165

RESUMO

In this work, we investigated whether coating fresh shiitake mushrooms with a polysaccharide isolated from Oudemansiella radicata (ORWP) would impact key quality characteristics after 18 d of storage at 4 °C. We found that ORWP-coated mushrooms had significant improvements in many qualities during storage, including reduced weight loss, improved firmness, reduced browning, decreased malondialdehyde content, and an improved physical microstructure. Further, ORWP-coated mushrooms had higher contents of nutritional and cell wall compounds compared to control samples. ORWP-coated mushrooms had reduced activities of the following enzymes: protease, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cellulase, and chitinase, relative to control samples. However, mushrooms coated with ORWP had higher concentrations of superoxide dismutase and catalase, as well as higher contents of certain key monosodium glutamate-resembling amino acids, umami 5'-nucleotides and 1-octen-3-ol. These findings suggest that ORWP coatings have potential value as a method to improve the postharvest quality of shiitake mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Paladar
9.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(3): 335-347, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761015

RESUMO

In vitro ectomycorrhizal synthesis of Tricholoma matsutake with host plants has been widely conducted to elucidate fungal symbiotic properties for future cultivation practices. Here, we report on the importance of basidiospore inocula for this fungus to provide ectomycorrhizal seedlings in vitro. Ectomycorrhizal pine seedlings synthesized in vitro with cultured mycelium of T. matsutake (isolate #45 or #84) in a 250-mL culture vessel (soil volume) were transplanted to a large 1-L culture vessel. Fresh basidiospores of this fungus were aseptically inoculated on the ectomycorrhizal root system. The ectomycorrhizal seedlings in the 1-L vessel were grown for 9 months, and some plants were further grown for 6 more months under non-aseptic conditions in 4.1-L jars. The ectomycorrhizal seedlings previously inoculated with isolate #84 in the 1-L vessel showed significant ectomycorrhizal biomass (mycorrhizal root length) after spore inoculation. The ectomycorrhizal seedlings in the 4.1-L vessel showed large shiro structures (> 10 cm in diameter). PCR amplification of intergenic spacer 1 of the rRNA gene and long terminal repeat retroelement of T. matsutake in ectomycorrhizal root tips in both the 1-L vessels and 4.1-L jars revealed the presence of amplicons of the previously inoculated culture isolate of T. matsutake and the new genet(s) that established via germination of the inoculated basidiospores. This is the first report that inoculated basidiospores of T. matsutake germinated and colonized the host root to generate ectomycorrhizae in vitro.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Pinus , Tricholoma , Agaricales , Germinação
10.
Molecules ; 26(4)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670416

RESUMO

Growing scientific evidence indicates that Achillea biebersteinii is a valuable source of active ingredients with potential cosmetic applications. However, the data on its composition and pharmacological properties are still insufficient. This study aims to optimize the extraction procedure of the plant material, evaluate its phytochemical composition, and compare anti-tyrosinase potential of A. biebersteinii extracts obtained by various methods. In order to identify compounds responsible for the tyrosinase inhibitory activity of A. biebersteinii, the most active anti-tyrosinase extract was fractionated by column chromatography. The fractions were examined for their skin lightening potential by mushroom and murine tyrosinase inhibitory assays and melanin release assay. HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS analysis of the total extract revealed the presence of several phenolic acids, flavonoids, flavonoid glucosides, and carboxylic acid. Among them, fraxetin-8-O-glucoside, quercetin-O-glucopyranose, schaftoside/isoschaftoside, gmelinin B, 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid (1,3-DCQA), and ferulic acid were found in the fractions with the highest skin lightening potential. Based on obtained qualitative and quantitative analysis of the fractions, it was assumed that the caffeoylquinic acid derivatives and dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives are more likely responsible for mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity of A. biebersteinii extracts and fractions. Ferulic acid was proposed as the most active murine tyrosinase inhibitor, responsible also for the reduced melanin release from B16F10 murine melanoma cells.


Assuntos
Achillea/química , Agaricales/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Flavonoides/química , Camundongos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
11.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 258(5): 502-509, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620242

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report history, physical examination findings, clinicopathologic abnormalities, treatments, and outcomes of dogs with confirmed α-amanitin toxicosis resulting from ingestion of α-amanitin-containing mushrooms, and to report whether any differences were significant between survivors and nonsurvivors. ANIMALS: 59 dogs. PROCEDURES: Medical records of all dogs with confirmed α-amanitin toxicosis presented to a northern California emergency and specialty veterinary hospital between January 2006 and July 2019 were reviewed for signalment; body weight; history; physical examination findings including rectal temperature at presentation; results of serum biochemical analyses, coagulation tests, and a test for the detection of α-amanitin in urine; treatments; and outcomes. Differences for each were compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. RESULTS: Among the 59 dogs, 36 were < 1 year of age; 56 had variable clinical signs that included vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and weakness or lethargy; and 22 had rectal temperatures > 39.2°C (102.5°F) at presentation. Cases were seen throughout the calendar year. At presentation, alanine aminotransferase activity was mildly to markedly increased in 97% of dogs, hypoglycemia was noted in 78%, and coagulation times were prolonged in 91%. Most dogs that rapidly decompensated died; however, 13 dogs survived to hospital discharge and completely recovered. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Ability to recognize dogs with α-amanitin toxicosis on the basis of clinical signs, physical examination findings, and clinicopathologic test results is essential because mushroom ingestion is rarely observed and immediate treatment is necessary. Dogs that have marked hypoglycemia or coagulopathy may have a poor prognosis.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Doenças do Cão , Alfa-Amanitina , Animais , Doenças do Cão/induzido quimicamente , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/terapia , Cães , Exame Físico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Vômito/veterinária
12.
Ecol Lett ; 24(4): 658-667, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565191

RESUMO

Although macroecology is a well-established field, much remains to be learned about the large-scale variation of fungal traits. We conducted a global analysis of mean fruit body size of 59 geographical regions worldwide, comprising 5340 fungal species exploring the response of fruit body size to latitude, resource availability and temperature. The results showed a hump-shaped relationship between mean fruit body size and distance to the equator. Areas with large fruit bodies were characterised by a high seasonality and an intermediate mean temperature. The responses of mutualistic species and saprotrophs were similar. These findings support the resource availability hypothesis, predicting large fruit bodies due to a seasonal resource surplus, and the thermoregulation hypothesis, according to which small fruit bodies offer a strategy to avoid heat and cold stress and therefore occur at temperature extremes. Fruit body size may thus be an adaptive trait driving the large-scale distribution of fungal species.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Tamanho Corporal , Temperatura
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112054, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601170

RESUMO

Spent mushroom compost (SMC) is a lignocellulose-rich waste material commonly used in the passive treatment of heavy metal-contaminated environments. In this study, we investigated the bioremediation potential of SMC against an inorganic form of arsenic, examining the individual abiotic and biotic transformations carried out by SMC. We demonstrated, that key SMC physiological groups of bacteria (denitrifying, cellulolytic, sulfate-reducing, and heterotrophic) are resistant to arsenites and arsenates, while the microbial community in SMC is also able to oxidize As(III) and reduce As(V) in respiratory metabolisms, although the SMC did not contain any As. We showed, that cooperation between arsenate and sulfate-reducing bacteria led to the precipitation of AsxSy. We also found evidence of the significant role organic acids may play in arsenic complexation, and we demonstrated the occurrence of As-binding proteins in the SMC. Furthermore, we confirmed, that biofilm produced by the microbial community in SMC was able to trap As(V) ions. We postulated, that the above-mentioned transformations are responsible for the sorption efficiency of As(V) (up to 25%) and As(III) (up to 16%), as well as the excellent buffering properties of SMC observed in the sorption experiments.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Arsênico/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Compostagem , Arseniatos , Arsênico/análise , Arsenitos/metabolismo , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biotransformação , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Oxirredução
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 213: 112042, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607336

RESUMO

Aluminum (Al) toxicity severely decreases plant growth and productivity in acidic soil globally. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi can promote host plant's Al-tolerance by acting as a physical barrier or bio-filter. However, little information is available on the role of ECM fungus on Al immobilization with respect to Al-tolerance. This present study aimed to screen a promising indigenous ECM fungus with high Al-tolerance and to understand its role in Al immobilization related to Al-tolerance. Two ECM fungal strains (Lactarius deliciosus 2 and Pisolithus tinctorius 715) isolated from forest stands in Southwest China were cultured in vitro with 0.0, 1.0 or 2.0 mM Al addition for 21 days to compare their Al accumulation and Al-tolerance. Meanwhile, fungal mycelia were incubated in 0.037 mM Al3+ solutions, and then Al3+ concentrations in the solution were determined at time 2, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min, and the Al3+ immobilization characteristics were evaluated using the pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. Results showed that 1.0 or 2.0 mM Al3+ addition significantly increased fungal biomass production by 23% or 41% in L. deliciosus 2, not in P. tinctorius 715. Fungal Al3+ concentrations in L. deliciosus 2 and P. tinctorius 715 were significantly increased by 293% and 103% under 2.0 mM than under 1.0 mM Al3+ addition. The pH values in the culture solution were significantly decreased by 0.43 after 21 d fungus growth but no changes between these two fungi under the same Al3+ addition. Fungal Al3+ immobilization showed a three-stage trend with initially a rapid rate followed a relatively slower rate until reaching equilibrium. The pseudo-second order model was the best (R2 = 0.98 and 0.99 for L. deliciosus 2 and P. tinctorius 715) to fit the experimentally observed data among the three models. Compared to P. tinctorius 715, L. deliciosus 2 also had greater intercept value, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and extracellular Al3+ proportion in fungal mycelia. Additionally, bio-concentration on Al3+, active site numbers for Al3+, boundary layer thickness, CEC, and immobilization on the cell wall in fungal mycelia were involved in ECM fungal Al-tolerance. These results show that both ECM fungi are Al-tolerant while L. deliciosus 2 is a promising indigenous ECM isolate with higher Al-tolerance in Southwest China, and they can be hence applied to the afforestation and ecological restoration in acidic soil.


Assuntos
Alumínio/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/fisiologia , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Agaricales , Basidiomycota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biomassa , China , Florestas , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
15.
Mycorrhiza ; 31(3): 349-359, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616720

RESUMO

Despite the economic and ecological importance of Hydnum species, in vitro synthesis of ectomycorrhizae of this genus has not been reported due to difficulties in establishing pure cultures. We inoculated pure cultures of 12 monokaryotic and 3 dikaryotic mycelial strains of an undescribed Hydnum albidum-like species on roots of axenic Pinus densiflora seedlings to synthesize ectomycorrhizae and to evaluate their mycorrhiza-forming ability. Six months after inoculation, both monokaryotic and dikaryotic strains formed ectomycorrhizae with Hartig net hyphae at the root cortex. Monokaryotic and dikaryotic strains exhibited similar morpho-anatomical characteristics of ectomycorrhizae, with the exception for clamped septa of emanating and outer mantle hyphae in the latter. Between monokaryotic and descendant dikaryotic strains, there were no significant differences in number of mycorrhizae in pine seedlings, whereas monokaryotic strains showed a greater total number of root tips and lower colonization rates than the descendant dikaryotic strains. These results indicate that both monokaryotic and dikaryotic mycelia of the H. albidum-like species can form mycorrhizae under axenic condition, and that can be applied toward the cultivation of hedgehog mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Basidiomycota , Micorrizas , Pinus , Raízes de Plantas
16.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 23(2): 1-11, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639077

RESUMO

This review provides results obtained by scientists from different countries on the antiviral activity of medicinal mushrooms against influenza viruses that can cause pandemics. Currently, the search for antiviral compounds is relevant in connection with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Medicinal mushrooms contain biologically active compounds (polysaccharides, proteins, terpenes, melanins, etc.) that exhibit an antiviral effect. The authors present the work carried out at the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology Vector in Russia, whose mission is to protect the population from biological threats. The research center possesses a collection of numerous pathogenic viruses, which allowed screening of water extracts, polysaccharides, and melanins from fruit bodies and fungal cultures. The results of investigations on different subtypes of influenza virus are presented, and special attention is paid to Inonotus obliquus (chaga mushroom). Compounds produced from this mushroom are characterized by the widest range of antiviral activity. Comparative data are presented on the antiviral activity of melanin from natural I. obliquus and submerged biomass of an effective strain isolated in culture against the pandemic strain of influenza virus A/California/07/09 (H1N1 pdm09).


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Fatores Biológicos/farmacologia , Orthomyxoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antivirais/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Melaninas/isolamento & purificação , Melaninas/farmacologia , Orthomyxoviridae/classificação , Pandemias , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia
17.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 96, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415523

RESUMO

Three experiments were designed to evaluate the effects of different molting methods on the growth performance, detection of estrogen receptors (ERs), and immunohistochemical properties of some tissues in pre-, during, and post-molting of layers. In experiment 1, 302 Hy-line W-36 were reared from 75 to 76 weeks. In experiment 2, a total of 252 Hy-line W-36 were randomly allocated to 7 groups, with 6 replications and 6 birds in each. Hens fed in the E and D groups reached 30% of loss weight sooner (P < 0.05). Egg production was also sooner stopped in the FW group than in other ones (P < 0.05). In experiment 3, after inducing molting, each group in experiment 2 was divided into 2 groups with and without Humulus lupulus (Hop). The E group feed intake was increased, as compared to groups F and C (P < 0.05). A significant increase in egg weight was found by applying Hop and molting methods (P < 0.05). Days for return to the initial egg production and 10% egg laying were significantly decreased in the birds fed by Hop in the E and D groups (P < 0.05). The W-D, N-D, W-E, and N-E groups sooner returned to 50% egg laying, in comparison to other treatments (P < 0.05). Plasma estrogen and ERs were decreased by the molting programs, as compared with pre-molting; however, Hop increased their post-molting. After the molting period, egg production and ERs were increased significantly, as compared with the pre-molting period. To conclude, the white button mushroom residual, through decreasing ERs, could be used successfully for forced molting, and Hop could lead to a good performance by increasing ERs in the second laying cycle.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Galinhas/fisiologia , Humulus/química , Muda/efeitos dos fármacos , Portulaca/química , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Distribuição Aleatória
19.
Phytochemistry ; 184: 112647, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434790

RESUMO

Chaga mushroom, Inonotus obliquus, was used as food and nutrient food and traditional herbs in Russia, China and Japan, with anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. Chemical investigations of the fruiting bodies of Chaga were carried to uncover the bioactive metabolites. As a result, seven undescribed lanostane-type triterpenoids, namely inonotusols H-N, were isolated, and all lanostanoids remarkably inhibited NO production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Of these, inonotusols I and L presented the most potent inhibitory effects on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO production without any significant cytotoxicity. Molecular docking studies confirmed the capacity of inonotusols I and L to interact with iNOS protein. Structure-activity relationships were also discussed. These results indicated that the potential anti-inflammatory effects of inonotusols I and L in microglial BV-2 cells may be imparted through suppression of iNOS. These results may support the use of I. obliquus for food and medicinal application.


Assuntos
Agaricales , China , Japão , Lanosterol/análogos & derivados , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
20.
Food Chem ; 347: 128998, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453580

RESUMO

Eight carbon (C8) compounds are the key characteristic flavors of mushrooms. The quantitative analysis of the volatiles in mushrooms is challenging especially with the unattended HS-SPME-GC-MS. An unattended HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS in combination with novel sample preparation of the complete control of volatile emissions was developed for the quantitation of the C8 volatiles in mushrooms. The sample preparation strategy was composed of freeze-drying, rehydration, and the addition of a 15% citric acid solution. With this strategy, the volatile emission from mushroom was fully controlled at a certain time point. This method was found to be highly reliable, sensitive, precise, and accurate. This method was successfully applied to measure the contents of the C8 volatiles in the beech, button, and shiitake mushrooms. 1-Octene-3-ol was the most predominant compound in the mushrooms, representing 62.4, 69.0, and 89.2% of the total C8 volatiles in the beech, button, and shiitake mushrooms, respectively.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Agaricales/metabolismo , Aromatizantes/análise , Limite de Detecção , Análise de Componente Principal , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Cogumelos Shiitake/metabolismo , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
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