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1.
J Environ Manage ; 260: 110161, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090848

RESUMO

This paper reports the mobility and total balance of chlorotoluron (CTL), flufenacet (FNC) and bromide ion (Br-) throughout a sandy soil profile after the application of spent mushroom substrate (SMS) and green compost (GC). Obtaining mobility dataset is crucial to simulate the herbicides' fate under amended soil scenarios by application pesticide leaching models with regulatory application (FOCUS models). The application of organic residues is nowadays increased to improve the crop yields and there is a gap in the simulations of this kind of amended scenarios. A two-year field experiment involving unamended soil (S) and SMS- or GC-amended soil plots was conducted. CTL, FNC, and Br- were annually applied and their residual concentrations were determined in soil profiles (0-100 cm) regularly sampled. In all the treatments the order of mobility is followed as FNC < CTL < Br-. SMS and GC increased herbicide retention in the top 10 cm by the higher organic carbon (OC) content than the unamended soil, and their ability to increase the soil's water-holding capacity and to decrease water percolation. Simultaneously dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content facilitated herbicide transport being it favoured by the initial soil moisture content and the rainfall shortly after the chemicals' initial application. Over the first year, residual amounts (<2.6%) of Br-, CTL and FNC were leached down to 90-100 cm depth in the three treatments. However, over the second year low CTL and FNC amounts (<1.0%) reached the bottom layer only in S + SMS although high Br- concentrations did so in the three treatments (<20%). According to the total balance of Br-, CTL, and FNC in the soil profiles other processes (degradation, mineralisation, bound residues formation, and/or crop uptake) different from leaching below 1 m depth might play a key role in their dissipation especially in the amended soil profiles. SMS and GC are likely to be used as organic amendments to preserve the soil and water quality but in the case of SMS, its higher DOC content could imply a higher potential risk for groundwater contamination than GC.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Compostagem , Herbicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Solo
2.
Plant Dis ; 104(3): 702-707, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31958250

RESUMO

Silverleaf caused by the basidiomycete Chondrostereum purpureum affects numerous woody species, including fruit tree crops like apple, resulting in wood necrosis and foliar silvering. There are no curative alternatives for this disease, and its management is by prevention methods. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a rapid diagnostic tool for the detection and identification of C. purpureum directly from woody tissues to help distinguish the pathogen from other basidiomycetes that are commonly found on apple. The silverleaf pathogen was isolated from different hosts and locations, and Koch's postulates were performed by inoculating the isolates on apple cuttings and measuring internal necrosis. A previously described APN 1 pair of primers specificity was also tested against 25 C. purpureum isolates in this study, using other wood rotting species as negative controls. Seven virulent isolates were inoculated on apple cuttings, and DNA was extracted from the cuttings' sawdust and amplified using APN 1, after 22 days of incubation. To prove the efficiency of the method in the field, DNA from healthy nursery plants inoculated with two virulent isolates, and naturally infected plants showing different levels of foliar symptoms, were tested. Presence of the fungus was verified by reisolation on APDA in all assays. Koch's postulates indicated that all C. purpureum isolates were pathogenic, showing different virulence levels, and APN 1 primers were able to discriminate them from other basidiomycetes. The method was also able to detect C. purpureum from artificially inoculated plants as well as naturally infected ones, demonstrating that the protocol may become a rapid minimally destructive diagnostic tool to detect the pathogen without the need to isolate it from tissues, and thus taking measures to prevent its dissemination.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Malus , Frutas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Madeira
3.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 111012, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794802

RESUMO

In order to improve the bioavailability of Oryza sativa L. anthocyanins, we fabricated Oryza sativa L. anthocyanins-Hohenbuehelia serotina polysaccharides (OSA-HSP) complex and investigated its anti-proliferation activities taking into account its changes along simulated gastrointestinal digestion in vitro. Results showed that OSA mainly composed by delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, malvidin and their derivatives was combined with HSP through electrostatic interaction. OSA-HSP complex belonged to non-crystalline substance, and had compact and laminar structural characteristics. Under simulated gastrointestinal digestion, OSA-HSP complex significantly prevented the degradation of anthocyanins, and presented sustain release effect. However, the anti-proliferation activities of OSA-HSP complex digested by different gastrointestinal process were remarkably changed, especially after small intestinal digestion. HeLa cells treated with OSA-HSP complex exhibited pro-apoptosis characteristics by triggering endogenous mitochondrial apoptosis pathway through activating the expressions of Bax, cytochrome c and Caspase-3 as well as inhibiting the expression of Bcl-2. These findings provided new insight to improve the bioavailability of anthocyanins in functional foods and tumor therapy.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Digestão , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cristalografia por Raios X , Células HeLa , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
4.
Chemistry ; 26(3): 729-734, 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729089

RESUMO

The psychotropic effects of Psilocybe "magic" mushrooms are caused by the l-tryptophan-derived alkaloid psilocybin. Despite their significance, the secondary metabolome of these fungi is poorly understood in general. Our analysis of four Psilocybe species identified harmane, harmine, and a range of other l-tryptophan-derived ß-carbolines as their natural products, which was confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Stable-isotope labeling with 13 C11 -l-tryptophan verified the ß-carbolines as biosynthetic products of these fungi. In addition, MALDI-MS imaging showed that ß-carbolines accumulate toward the hyphal apices. As potent inhibitors of monoamine oxidases, ß-carbolines are neuroactive compounds and interfere with psilocybin degradation. Therefore, our findings represent an unprecedented scenario of natural product pathways that diverge from the same building block and produce dissimilar compounds, yet contribute directly or indirectly to the same pharmacological effects.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Alcaloides/química , Carbolinas/química , Inibidores da Monoaminoxidase/química , Monoaminoxidase/metabolismo , Psilocibina/química , Triptofano/química , Agaricales/química , Monoaminoxidase/química
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 297: 122447, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784247

RESUMO

White rot fungi using P. sajor-caju and T. versicolor was examined to pretreat raw champost (lignin-rich) and oyster champost (cellulose-rich) for enhancement of fermentative volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. Results showed that the efficiency of pretreatment and VFA production was influenced by the fungal strains and substrates. P. sajor-caju pretreatment showed preferential lignin degradation on raw champost and obtained the maximum VFA yield (203 ± 9 mg COD/g VSadded), which increased by 60% and 74% compared to that of control and unpretreated champost, respectively. For cellulose-rich oyster champost, however, fungal pretreatment decreased VFA yield compared to unpretreated champost. Further mechanisms analysis demonstrated the two strains grow and secreted ligninolytic enzymes, which substantially influenced the characteristics of two champosts such as cellulose/lignin ratio and morphology in different extents. P. sajor-caju was highly efficient to lignin-rich champost on selectively degrading lignin and further enhancing digestibility such as VFA production.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Anaerobiose , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Fermentação , Fungos , Lignina
6.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113372, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672361

RESUMO

In this study, a weather-based multicomponent model was developed based on the unique biostructures and metabolic processes of mushrooms to evaluate their uptake of pesticides from soils, and the effects of temperature and relative humidity on the bioaccumulation of pesticides in mushrooms was comprehensively quantified. Additionally, a new pseudo-partition coefficient between mushrooms and soils was introduced to assess the impacts of different physiochemical properties on the pesticide uptake process. The results indicate that, in general, the pseudo-partition coefficient increases as the relative humidity increases for both the air and soil according to Fick's law of gas diffusion and the spatial competition of molecules, respectively. Meanwhile, the effect of temperature on the pesticide bioaccumulation process is more complex. For most pesticides (e.g., atrazine), the pseudo-partition coefficient that was computed from the transpiration component had a maximum value at a specific temperature due to the temperature dependency of the transpiration and biodegradation processes. For some pesticides (e.g., ethoprophos), the pseudo-partition coefficient of the air-deposition component had a maximum value at a certain temperature that was caused by the ratio of the soil-air internal transfer energy and degradation activation energy of the pesticide. It was also concluded that for relatively low-volatility pesticides, transpiration dominated the bioaccumulation process; this was mainly determined from the pesticide water solubility. For nonbiodegradable pesticides (e.g., lindane), the computed coefficient values were relatively low due to their insolubility in water, which inhibits bioaccumulation in mushrooms and is one of the main reasons for their long-term persistence in soils.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Modelos Biológicos , Praguicidas/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Agaricales/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Biodegradação Ambiental , Difusão , Praguicidas/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Solubilidade , Temperatura Ambiente , Volatilização
7.
Food Chem ; 303: 125310, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473456

RESUMO

Tyrosinase is a metalloenzyme involved in o-hydroxylation of monophenols and oxidation of o-diphenols to o-quinones, with formation of brown or black pigments (melanines). Tyrosinase inhibitors are of great interest in medicine and cosmetics (skin whitening compounds), but also in food and beverage industry (antibrowning agents). Here we report on the activity as mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors of a series of hydroxyphenyl thiosemicarbazones (1-5): one of them revealed an inhibitory activity stronger than kojic acid, used as reference. Enzymatic inhibition activity was confirmed by colorimetric measurements on small wheels of Fuji apples treated with the hydroxyphenyl thiosemicarbazones. The mechanism of action of compounds 1-5 was investigated by molecular modelling and by studying in solution their speciation with Cu(II) ions, the ions in the active site of the enzyme. Finally, compounds 1-5 were tested on human fibroblasts: they are not cytotoxic and they do not activate cells in a pro-inflammatory way.


Assuntos
Agaricales/enzimologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Reação de Maillard/efeitos dos fármacos , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Tiossemicarbazonas/química , Tiossemicarbazonas/farmacologia , Domínio Catalítico , Humanos , Cinética , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/química , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Food Chem ; 304: 125403, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479993

RESUMO

Current information on the links between the chemistry and hedonic liking of edible mushrooms is scarce. In this study, 84 consumers evaluated the appearance, odor, taste, texture and overall liking of samples of Nordic edible wild mushroom species. Subsequently, multivariate models on the effects of non-volatile compounds, odor-contributing volatile compounds, sensory attributes and hedonic likings were created. The non-volatile compounds were measured with quantitative NMR. The five studied mushroom species were different in their sugar and acid contents. Three consumer clusters were found with species*cluster interactions. Correlations with sensory attributes and chemical components were found, and the multivariate models indicated predictor attributes for each consumer cluster. The results indicate that the sensory properties could be correlated to both volatile and non-volatile compounds, there are consumer clusters with differing likings as regards mushrooms, and these clusters are heterogenic groups with no simple factors such as age explaining their liking scores.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Comportamento do Consumidor , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética
9.
Food Chem ; 309: 125738, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706679

RESUMO

In the present study, the impact of ultraviolet (UV)-C treatment and ultrafine grinding on the conversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2, physiochemical properties, and antioxidant properties of shiitake and Jew's ear was assessed. After exposure to UV-C, vitamin D2 contents of both the mushroom samples has increased significantly (p < 0.05). Whereas, ultrafine grinding along with UV-C treatment has a synergistic effect on bioconversion of ergosterol to vitamin D2 and this effect is more prominent in low dose UV-C irradiation groups (2 kJ/m2). Ultrafine grinding significantly (p < 0.05) improved the water holding capacity (WHC), water solubility index (WSI) and polysaccharide dissolution rate (PDR). However, UV-C treatment led to insignificant changes in the physiochemical properties of mushroom samples. A significant improvement was also observed in the antioxidant profiles especially tannin contents of mushrooms followed by the ultrafine grinding and UV-C treatment.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Agaricales/efeitos da radiação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ergocalciferóis/metabolismo , Ergosterol/metabolismo , Cogumelos Shiitake/metabolismo , Cogumelos Shiitake/efeitos da radiação , Agaricales/química , Antioxidantes/química , Biotransformação , Ergocalciferóis/química , Ergosterol/química , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Raios Ultravioleta
10.
Food Chem ; 306: 125478, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610326

RESUMO

Mushrooms can accumulate toxic trace elements. The objectives of the present study are to evaluate levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, and arsenic in dried mushrooms, to determine the effect of cooking on the contents of these elements, and to evaluate their bioaccessibility in the mushrooms ready for consumption. The results showed that Hg levels in Amanita ponderosa, Boletus edulis, Marasmius oreades, and Tricholoma georgii, as well as Cd levels in some samples of Amanita caesarea and T. georgii, exceeded the legislated limits. Cooking significantly reduced the levels of As (26-72%), whereas the reduction in levels of Hg, Cd, and Pb was much lower. However, the bioaccessibility of As (63-81%) was higher than the values obtained for the metals (<40%). Taking the effects of cooking and gastrointestinal digestion into account gives a more realistic estimate of the risk associated with the consumption of mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Mercúrio/análise , Culinária , Digestão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 311: 125939, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31855774

RESUMO

The effects of nanocomposite-based packaging material (Nano-PM) on the taste components and mitochondrial energy metabolism of postharvest white Hypsizygus marmoreus (WHM), as well as the underlying influence mechanism were investigated. The results showed that the major taste components, including succinic acid and mannitol, remained at higher level in Nano-PM. The flavor 5'-nucleotides (5'-GMP and 5'-IMP) of WHM in Nano-PM were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with that in the normal packaging material (Normal-PM). Principal component analysis indicated that there was a distinction of flavor compounds (6 organic acids, 3 soluble sugars and 5 5'-nucleotides) of WHM between Nano-PM and Normal PM treatments during storage. Moreover, Nano-PM delayed the mitochondrial microstructure breakdown and the reduction of ATPase activity, and it maintained a higher ATP content and higher level of energy charge. Our results demonstrated that Nano-PM could affect the taste components of postharvest WHM partially by regulating the energy metabolism.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Aromatizantes/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Nanocompostos/química , Agaricales/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Verduras/química
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 190: 110058, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864118

RESUMO

Worldwide, among the forest products, wild edible mushrooms constitute an important part because they represent food source as well as income source for many local communities. Thirteen essential elements (Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Zn) and non-essential elements (Al, Cd, Ni and Pb) in wild edible mushrooms from six families (Agaricaceae, Auriculariaceae, Hygrophoraceae, Russulaceae, Suillaceae, and Tricholomataceae) originated from the Mediterranean region of Turkey were determined. Major element was K, followed by Ca, Mg, Fe and Al. Concentrations of detected elements were in the range from 0.05 mg/kg (Co) to 141,400 mg/kg (K). Health Risk Index for elements that may pose health problems indicated that safe limits were exceeded for Cd (L. nuda, L. decastes, M. exscissa, R. albonigra, R. delica and T. terreum), Ni (A. auricula-judae and S. luteus) as well as for Fe (A. auricula-judae and M. paedida). In Arpacik village and Deliosman village areas the highest number of wild edible mushrooms with HRI>1 was collected. The differences and similarities between mushroom species were established by Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Component Analysis.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Metais/análise , Basidiomycota/química , Metais/toxicidade , Medição de Risco , Turquia
13.
Phytomedicine ; 66: 153131, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The application of mushrooms for health purposes has a long tradition and is very common in Asian countries. This trend is also becoming increasingly popular in the western hemisphere. However, mushrooms from European tradition are being treated in a restrained manner despite having significant potential as drugs or as sources of pure bioactive substances. AIM: The present review provides an overview of the most important mushrooms used in European ethnomedical traditions and explores their pharmacological potential and the challenges for the development of new drugs from these sources of natural products. METHOD: Mushroom species were selected based on information in old herbal books and dispensaries, uninterrupted use and scientific literature in the PubMed database up to June 2019. RESULTS: Traditional experiences and modern studies have demonstrated that medical mushrooms used in European traditions have promising distinct pharmacological potential mediated through defined mechanisms (anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-bacterial). However, the number of modern chemical, biological and pharmacological studies remains relatively small, and some mushroom species have not been studied at all. Unfortunately, no valid clinical studies can be found. Unlike the case with herbal and fungal drugs from traditional Chinese medicine, we are far from comprehensively exploring this potential. CONCLUSIONS: Mushrooms from traditional European medicine have the potential to be used in modern medicine. Considerable research, interdisciplinary collaboration, involvement of the pharmaceutical industry, time and money are necessary to explore this potential not only in the form of dietary supplements but also in the form of approved drugs.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Basidiomycota , Medicina Tradicional , Produtos Biológicos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Aprovação de Drogas , Indústria Farmacêutica , Europa (Continente) , Humanos
14.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124566, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446272

RESUMO

How far-reaching is the influence of the urban area over the mineral composition of the Russula cyanoxantha mushroom? We studied the metal uptake behavior of this fungus relying on the soil properties. We sampled mushroom and soil from six forests according to an urbanization gradient, and two city parks in Cluj-Napoca (Romania). The elements were quantified using inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The concentrations of some elements differed significantly (p < 0.05) in the samples from the city (0.39 ±â€¯0.35 mg kg-1 for cadmium (Cd), 0.40 ±â€¯0.19 mg kg-1 for chromium (Cr), 69.1 ±â€¯29.9 mg kg-1 for iron (Fe), 10.9 ±â€¯1.3 mg kg-1 for manganese (Mn), 0.76 ±â€¯0.45 mg kg-1 for titanium (Ti) compared with the samples from the forests (3.15-14.1 mg kg-1 Cd, < 0.18 mg kg-1 for Cr, 22.6-34.5 mg kg-1 for Fe, 15.9-19.1 mg kg-1 for Mn, 0.19-0.36 mg kg-1 for Ti). We observed a definite negative trend in the mineral accumulation potential of this fungus along the urbanization gradient. The fungus turned from a cadmium-accumulator to a cadmium-excluder. This highlights a positive environmental influence of the urbanization over the toxic metal uptake of R. cyanoxantha. The hypothesis, that the urban soil pollution would increase the metal content of the mushroom was disproved. The possible explanation might be the elevated carbonate content of the urban soil, which is known to immobilize the metals in the soil.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Cádmio/análise , Cromo/análise , Cidades , Ferro/análise , Manganês/análise , Romênia , Urbanização
15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 351, 2019 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805905

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by the Human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) is an essential enzyme for the HIV replication, and therefore, it is an important target for antiretroviral drugs development, particularly from natural products. Auricularia polytricha (AP) is an edible mushroom with several important therapeutic properties. These properties will be investigated as HIV-1 PR inhibitors. METHODS: The sequential hexane (APH), ethanol (APE) and water (APW) extracts from AP were screened for inhibitory activity against HIV-1 PR. The extract that consistently showed the strong HIV-1 PR inhibition was further investigated for its phytochemical constituents. The compounds were purified by column chromatography. The isolated compounds were structurally elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR, HRMS, FTIR, and GC/MS techniques. Each compound was screened against HIV-1 PR to determine its inhibitory activity and to provide an explanation for the activity found in the extract. RESULTS: Hexane crude extract of AP (APH) exhibited significant inhibition on HIV-1 PR activity. Four major compounds isolated from APH fraction were identified to be two triacylglycerols, linoleic acid and ergosterol. Moreover, all four compounds showed significant inhibition of HIV-1 PR activity. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study suggest that AP is a good source of fatty esters, fatty acids and ergosterol. These natural products exhibit anti-HIV-1 properties by blocking HIV-1 PR. These important biological results warrant further development of AP as an alternative antiretroviral drug.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/farmacologia , Protease de HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , Células 3T3-L1 , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ergosterol , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/química , Inibidores da Protease de HIV/toxicidade , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Linoleico , Camundongos , Triglicerídeos
16.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(10): 4708-4717, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854842

RESUMO

Based on the pattern of citrus tree/stropharia mushrooms intercropping, returning-straw was used as the raw material for the stropharia mushrooms, and an in-situ experiment was conducted to monitor soil CO2 emissions under different dosage of straw application during the stropharia growth period. Soil CO2 emissions and the influencing factors were analyzed under different treatments of cultivated (HSM, ASM, and DSM) and uncultivated stropharia mushrooms (HS, AS, and DS). The mushroom yield and soil carbon emission efficiency (CEE) were used to provide a theoretical basis for improving the use of land under citrus orchards. The results showed that:① Straw return increased the cumulative CO2 emissions compared with the control system (conventional planting, CK) and cumulative CO2 emissions increased with the dosage of straw application. Cumulative CO2 emissions from soil treated with cultivated stropharia mushrooms were higher than those from soil treated with uncultivated stropharia mushrooms, in the order of DSM (52.09 t·hm-2) > ASM (41.10 t·hm-2) > HSM (33.20 t·hm-2) > DS (27.15 t·hm-2) > AS (25.34 t·hm-2) > HS (18.94 t·hm-2) > CK (12.16 t·hm-2). Cumulative CO2 emissions under the DSM treatment significantly increased by 328.37% compared with CK. ② For the treatment of cultivated stropharia mushrooms, peak soil CO2 emissions occurred during the period of mycelium growth. The highest cumulative CO2 emissions during this period were obtained under the DSM treatment and accounted for 43.27% of the total cumulative emissions. This was followed by ASM and HSM which accounted for 42.63% and 40.57% of emissions, respectively. ③ Cultivated stropharia mushrooms reduced the temperature sensitivity coefficient (Q10). The soil temperature (5 cm depth) had a significant effect on the soil CO2 emission rate (P<0.01) but soil moisture did not (P>0.05). Soil temperature explained 27% to 71% of the variation in soil CO2 emissions rates, and the two-factor fitting of soil temperature and soil moisture explained 36% to 82% of the variation. ④ For the treatment of cultivated stropharia mushrooms, the ranked yield of each treatment was DSM (49.7 t·hm-2) > ASM (47.0 t·hm-2) > HSM (23.3 t·hm-2), and ASM had the highest soil CEE (1.14). Therefore, under the system of citrus tree/stropharia mushroom intercropping, straw return can increase soil CO2 emissions, with the highest emissions being obtained when a double dosage of straw was applied. However, the optimal amount of straw still needs to be determined in combination with changes in soil nutrients and crop yields.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Dióxido de Carbono , Citrus , Solo , Agricultura , China , Fertilizantes
17.
J Insect Sci ; 19(6)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854452

RESUMO

Ants are among the most successful insects in Earth's evolutionary history. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding range-limiting factors that may influence their distribution. The goal of this study was to describe the environmental factors (climate and soil types) that likely impact the ranges of five out of the eight most abundant Trachymyrmex species and the most abundant Mycetomoellerius species in the United States. Important environmental factors may allow us to better understand each species' evolutionary history. We generated habitat suitability maps using MaxEnt for each species and identified associated most important environmental variables. We quantified niche overlap between species and evaluated possible congruence in species distribution. In all but one model, climate variables were more important than soil variables. The distribution of M. turrifex (Wheeler, W.M., 1903) was predicted by temperature, specifically annual mean temperature (BIO1), T. arizonensis (Wheeler, W.M., 1907), T. carinatus, and T. smithi Buren, 1944 were predicted by precipitation seasonality (BIO15), T. septentrionalis (McCook, 1881) were predicted by precipitation of coldest quarter (BIO19), and T. desertorum (Wheeler, W.M., 1911) was predicted by annual flood frequency. Out of 15 possible pair-wise comparisons between each species' distributions, only one was statistically indistinguishable (T. desertorum vs T. septentrionalis). All other species distribution comparisons show significant differences between species. These models support the hypothesis that climate is a limiting factor in each species distribution and that these species have adapted to temperatures and water availability differently.


Assuntos
Distribuição Animal , Formigas , Agaricales , Animais , Ecossistema , Modelos Biológicos , Estados Unidos
18.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(6): 523-536, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679225

RESUMO

The Astraeus genus (Diplocystaceae) of ectomycorrhizal edible mushrooms is represented by nine species: A. asiaticus, A. hygrometricus, A. koreanus, A. morganii, A. odoratus, A. pteridis, A. sirindhorniae, A. smithii, and A. telleriae. Astraeus mushrooms, because of their characteristic delicacy and aroma, are marketed in several countries. Chemical examinations of these mushrooms have revealed their nutritional properties and bioactive constituents. Here, the proximate nutritional composition of A. hygrometricus and A. odoratus, and chemistry and biological activity of A. asiaticus, A. hygrometricus, A. odoratus, and A. pteridis were reviewed. Several mycochemicals, including polysaccharides, terpenoids, steroids, phenolics and heterocyclic compounds, have been characterized in their fruiting body. Various biological activities of these compounds are also discussed.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Basidiomycota/química , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Esteroides/química , Terpenos/química
19.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(6): 537-548, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679226

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum, a mushroom with medicinal properties, can grow on diverse lignocellulosic substrates. Substrate enrichment with additives has been used as a strategy to increase mushroom productivity. In this study, we evaluated the impact of substrate formulation on the bioactive chemical profile of the basidiome. The bioactive chemical profile of basidiomes cultivated on rice agro-residues (RA) or sunflower seed hulls (SSH) enriched with olive oil and/or copper was evaluated using conventional colorimetric methods and FT-MIR spectrometry coupled with chemometrics. The contents of total triterpenoids, ganoderic acids, high-molecular-weight carbohydrates, and phenolic compounds were sensitive to substrate formulation and harvest time. Moreover, cluster analysis and principal component analysis of the mid-IR spectra were able to discriminate between basidiomes cultivated on either RA or SSH substrates, and for SSH substrates between enriched and nonenriched formulas. These results indicate that the bioactive composition of G. lucidum can be influenced by the formulation of the cultivation substrate.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Reishi/química , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura , Fenóis/análise , Reishi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Triterpenos/análise
20.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(6): 549-559, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679227

RESUMO

The present investigations were undertaken to evaluate the antioxidative potential of Porodaedalea pini (Brot.) Murrill. Different solvent extracts were prepared using powdered basidiocarps to determine the total phenolic content in terms of tannic acid equivalents (TAE), hydroxyl, superoxide, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Maximum TAE (12.42 mg/g) were found in hot water (HW) extract, which was obtained for 1 h as compared to ethanol (0.456 mg/g) and methanol (0.227 mg/g) extracts. This was further supported by high hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (90.0%), superoxide radical scavenging activity (88.9%), and DPPH radical scavenging activity (74.92%) in the the HW extract obtained for 1 h. Mass spectra analysis of HW extract revealed the presence of 14 polyphenolic compounds responsible for imparting antioxidative character. Among these hispidulin is one of the major polyphenolic compounds present in the poroid mushroom under investigation; this was further validated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Carpóforos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/análise , Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/análise , Solventes
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