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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17574, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593144

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Approximately 5000 species of wild mushroom are reported worldwide, of which 100 are documented as poisonous and <10 are fatal. The clinical picture of patients with wild mushroom intoxication depends mostly on the type of ingested mushroom, ranging from mild gastrointestinal symptoms to organ failure and death. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report 2 children, sister and brother admitted in our clinic for gastrointestinal symptoms: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea after wild mushroom ingestion. DIAGNOSIS: The laboratory tests revealed hepatic cytolysis syndrome, hyperbilirubinemia, impaired coagulation status, hypoalbuminemia, hypoglycemia, and electrolytic unbalances in both cases. Abdominal ultrasound showed hepatomegaly and ascites. INTERVENTION: After admission, both cases received penicillin by vein, activated charcoal, liver protectors, glucose, and electrolytes perfusions. Nevertheless, their status worsened and required the transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit for appropriate supportive measure. Therefore, therapeutic plasma exchange was initiated along with N-acetyl cysteine and hemostatic drugs. OUTCOMES: Despite all these therapeutic interventions, both cases developed hepatorenal syndrome and died after a couple of days from ingestion. LESSONS: Mushroom poisoning remains a public health problem in developing countries. Preventable strategies and education regarding the consumption of wild type mushrooms are essential for decreasing the morbidity and mortality rates in these areas.


Assuntos
Síndrome Hepatorrenal/etiologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/complicações , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Agaricales/classificação , Ascite/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/diagnóstico , Diarreia/etiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Hepatomegalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/patologia , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/terapia , Troca Plasmática/métodos , Romênia/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia , Vômito/diagnóstico , Vômito/etiologia
2.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 765, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypsizygus marmoreus, a high value commercialized edible mushroom is widely cultivated in East Asia, and has become one of the most popular edible mushrooms because of its rich nutritional and medicinal value. Mitochondria are vital organelles, and play various essential roles in eukaryotic cells. RESULTS: In this study, we provide the Hypsizygus marmoreus mitochondrial (mt) genome assembly: the circular sequence is 102,752 bp in size and contains 15 putative protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs subunits and 28 tRNAs. We compared the mt genomes of the 27 fungal species in the Pezizomycotina and Basidiomycotina subphyla, with the results revealing that H. marmoreus is a sister to Tricholoma matsutake and the phylogenetic distribution of this fungus based on the mt genome. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Ascomycetes mitochondria started to diverge earlier than that of Basidiomycetes and supported the robustness of the hyper metric tree. The fungal sequences are highly polymorphic and gene order varies significantly in the dikarya data set, suggesting a correlation between the gene order and divergence time in the fungi mt genome. To detect the mt genome variations in H. marmoreus, we analyzed the mtDNA sequences of 48 strains. The phylogeny and variation sited type statistics of H. marmoreus provide clear-cut evidence for the existence of four well-defined cultivations isolated lineages, suggesting female ancestor origin of H. marmoreus. Furthermore, variations on two loci were further identified to be molecular markers for distinguishing the subgroup containing 32 strains of other strains. Fifteen conserved protein-coding genes of mtDNAs were analyzed, with fourteen revealed to be under purifying selection in the examined fungal species, suggesting the rapid evolution was caused by positive selection of this gene. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies have provided new reference mt genomes and comparisons between species and intraspecies with other strains, and provided future perspectives for assessing diversity and origin of H. marmoreus.


Assuntos
Agaricales/genética , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Agaricales/classificação , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , Basidiomycota/classificação , Basidiomycota/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Ordem dos Genes , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 42, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pre-industrial diet of the Swedish peasantry did not include mushrooms. In the 1830s, some academic mycologists started information campaigns to teach people about edible mushrooms. This propaganda met with sturdy resistance from rural people. Even at the beginning of the last century, mushrooms were still only being occasionally eaten, and mostly by the gentry. During the twentieth century, the Swedish urban middle class accepted mushrooms as food and were closely followed by the working-class people. A few individuals became connoisseurs, but most people limited themselves to one or two taxa. The chanterelle, Cantharellus cibarius Fr., was (and still is) the most popular species. It was easy to recognize, and if it was a good mushroom season and the mushroomer was industrious, considerable amounts could be harvested and preserved or, from the late 1950s, put in the freezer. The aim of this study is to review the historical background of the changes in attitude towards edible mushrooms and to record today's thriving interest in mushrooming in Sweden. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent in October and November 2017 to record contemporary interest in and consumption of mushrooms in Sweden. In total, 100 questionnaires were returned. The qualitative analysis includes data extracted from participant and non-participant observations, including observations on activities related to mushroom foraging posted on social media platforms, revealed through open-ended interviews and in written sources. With the help of historical sources, including earlier studies and ethnographical data collections, a diachronic analysis is given to describe the changes over time. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: During the last 100 to 140 years, Sweden has changed from a mycophobic to a mycophilic society with a passionate interest in the utilization of wild mushrooms. In the late twentieth century, various social institutions connected with mushroom hunting evolved. Evening classes, study circles, clubs, exhibitions, consultants, and a wide array of handbooks promoted this interest. In the early twenty-first century, mushrooming has become widely accepted, especially among the middle class, but also among Swedes in general. The so-called hipster-generation, born in the 1990s, harvests mushrooms due to their interest in producing their own food. This group often uses social media to identify edible species. Most people who go mushrooming gather only a few species. There are, however, some dedicated individuals who have become hobby specialists and who know a wide diversity of taxa. A few study participants reported that they were afraid of not being able to distinguish between poisonous fungi species and edible ones and therefore refrain from picking any wild mushrooms at all. However, they still consume cultivated mushrooms, such as Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach, bought in grocery stores or served in cafes and restaurants. CONCLUSION: Swedish society has changed rapidly during the last decades and so has the interest in mushrooming among its members. Throughout the second part of the twentieth century, the flow of information about mushrooms has continued through lecturers, courses, media, exhibitions, and even associations. Walking in forestland is also an important leisure activity for many urban Swedes, and in the early twenty-first century, mushrooming has also become a thriving pastime among people with an urban lifestyle.


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiologia , Recreação/história , Criança , Feminino , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Relação entre Gerações , Masculino , Suécia
4.
J Food Sci ; 84(8): 2112-2120, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31313310

RESUMO

Misrecognition and toxic elements are two of several reasons responsible for food poisoning even death in the summer, a time when a great deal of edible mushrooms is celebrated in Southwestern China featured as complex environment conditions. It is highly important to identify the difference of chemical constituents in edible mushrooms at the regional-scale. In this study, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were applied to investigate organic matters and 18 mineral elements in porcini mushrooms of six species collected from 17 sampling sites in nine Yunnan cities. Classification models on the species, regions, and part levels were established using sparse partial least square-discriminant analysis and principal component analysis. At the species level and region level accuracies of greater than 92.1% and 92.8% was achieved, respectively, whereas on the part level caps and stipes were classified with 96.7% accuracy. One of the most popular mushrooms is Boletus edulis characterized by polysaccharide, lipid, and ribonucleic acid as well as several phenolic compounds. Temperature and precipitation show possible influences on accumulations of polysaccharides and ribonucleic acid. Furthermore, the most important elements of caps contributed the difference between two parts are copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and phosphorus (P), whereas stipes instead by manganese (Mn) and cobalt (Co). These results demonstrated that FT-IR spectroscopy and elements contents provide information sufficient for classifying different porcini mushroom samples, which might be helpful for controlling food security and quality assessment of edible mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Minerais/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Agaricales/classificação , China , Análise Discriminante , Geografia , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise de Componente Principal
5.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 36, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31315635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Guatemalan Highlands is a region of great but so far poorly known mycological diversity. People living in this area have long used wild fungi as a source of food and income. However, our knowledge of the ethnomycological practices of the Mayan peoples of Guatemala is still rudimental, especially if compared with information reported for the neighboring region of Mexico. Among the main indigenous groups of the Maya people inhabiting the highlands of Central Guatemala, stand the Kaqchikel, accounting for nearly 8% of the entire Guatemalan population. The main aim of this study was to record the traditional knowledge and use of edible wild mushrooms by inhabitants of the municipality of San Juan Sacatepéquez that lies at the heart of the Kaqchikel area in the central highlands of Guatemala, also describing the relevant selling practices and dynamics. A secondary aim was to compare the diversity and composition of the mushroom assemblage offered at the market with the macrofungal diversity of woods in the area. METHODOLOGY: This study is the result of 4 years of ethnomycological research, conducted through continuous visits to the municipal market and focused interviews with collectors and vendors. Field sampling in pine-oak forested areas surrounding San Juan Sacatepéquez, from where the mushrooms sold at the market are foraged, were also conducted, in the presence of local collectors. RESULTS: The results show a significant richness of species sold in the market, a network of commerce of purchase, sale, and resale of several species, with relatively stable prices, and knowledge about edible and inedible species that is transmitted mainly within the family nucleus. The business of selling mushrooms in the market is an exclusive activity of women, who are supplied by collectors or by other vendors. Fungi are sold and bought only as food, while no consumption of hallucinogenic mushrooms or medicinal mushrooms was recorded. Several species of Amanita, Cantharellus, Boletus, Lactarius, and Russula were those most commercialized in the 4 years of the study, but we also spotted fungi never reported before as consumed in the country, including Gastropila aff. fumosa (= Calvatia fumosa) and several species of Cortinarius. Field sampling in nearby pine-oak forests confirmed an elevated local macrofungal diversity. CONCLUSION: Our study unveiled the contemporary wealth of Kaqchikel culture for what concerns mushrooms, demonstrating that mushrooms continue to be culturally and economically important for these communities despite the erosion of traditional knowledge. Our results also confirmed the need to investigate in greater detail the Guatemalan mycodiversity that is vast and poorly known.


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Biodiversidade , Comércio/economia , Micologia/métodos , Adulto , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Guatemala , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Micologia/economia
6.
Fungal Biol ; 123(6): 431-447, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126420

RESUMO

The taxonomy and phylogeny of the hydropoid clade (genera Clitocybula s.l., Megacollybia, Leucoinocybe gen. nov., Hydropus, Trogia, Gerronema, Porotheleum and Lignomphalia gen. nov.) in Europe is studied using morphological and molecular approaches; the first three genera in detail including all known European species. Only two European species remain in Clitocybula s.str., Clitocybula lacerata and Clitocybula familia. The European C. lacerata is a species complex which should be treated as C. lacerata agg. at the current state of knowledge. A neotype originating from type area was designated to fix the application of the name. The presence of American species Clitocybula abundans in Europe is insufficiently proved. "Clitocybula dryadicola Ë® belongs to the genus Hydropus, and Clitocybula tilieti has an unclear systematic position. The results showed that Megacollybia and Leucoinocybe represent independent genera separated from Clitocybula. The genus Leucoinocybe is validly published with two European species, Leucoinocybe lenta and Leucoinocybe taniae. "Clitocybula flavoaurantia" proved to be conspecific with the latter species. The genus Lignomphalia is published for "Pseudoomphalina lignicola", a lignicolous omphalinoid species. The Indian "Clitocybula sulcata" is transferred to Leucoinocybe and "Clitocybula atrialba" to Gerronema. The first European records of Megacollybia marginata are published.


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Agaricales/ultraestrutura , Europa (Continente) , Tipagem Molecular , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
7.
Lab Med ; 50(4): 426-431, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065690

RESUMO

Hormographiella is a rare fungal pathogen in humans; however, case reports have described disseminated infection in immunocompromised hosts. This pathogen has been described to yield poor prognosis in patients who harbor it. Herein, we present a case report of autopsy-proven disseminated Hormographiella aspergillata infection, confirmed by DNA sequencing, in a patient experiencing a relapse of leukemia. This 54-year-old Caucasian man with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) that had been diagnosed in 1989, after having received a hematopoietic cell allotransplant from a compatible sibling donor, had B-cell lymphoid-blast phase of CML in April of 2013, with multiple relapses. His most recent relapse was in September of 2016, when bone marrow biopsy showed 90% blasts. The results of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cultures were positive for filamentous fungus infection. The patient developed encephalopathy and worsening respiratory statusand tachycardia with flutter and hypotension, which resulted in his death. At autopsy, bilateral pleural effusions, multiple right pleural nodules, and subarachnoid hemorrhage were noted. Angioinvasive hyphal fungi were found in the right frontal lobe of the brain and the right upper lobe of the lung. Morphologically, the fungi had multiseptate, branching hyphae. The bronchoalveolar lavage specimen grew a fungus for which the colony morphologic characteristics and microscopic features were compatible with a Hormographiella species. H. aspergillata from the bronchoalveolar lavage was further identified by sequencing the D2 hypervariable region of the large-subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA gene and the full internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions.


Assuntos
Agaricales/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Fúngicas do Sistema Nervoso Central/diagnóstico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Transplante Homólogo/efeitos adversos , Agaricales/classificação , Agaricales/genética , Autopsia , Encéfalo/microbiologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/microbiologia , Infecções Fúngicas do Sistema Nervoso Central/microbiologia , Infecções Fúngicas do Sistema Nervoso Central/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Histocitoquímica , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/microbiologia , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/patologia , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/complicações , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/terapia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/microbiologia , Pneumopatias Fúngicas/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Food Chem ; 289: 545-557, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955647

RESUMO

Chemical compositions of mushrooms are greatly dependent on the geographical region, and also the different parts of the same mushroom have different chemical constitutions. Several chemical methods are employed for quality control of mushrooms. However, these methods are destructive, require skilled personnel and are time consuming. To overcome these limitations researchers are aiming for vibrational spectroscopic techniques. This review is focused on various studies related to the application of vibrational spectroscopy for classification, authentication and quality analysis of mushrooms. It was concluded that vibrational spectroscopy could be efficiently employed for assessing the quality, authenticity and geographical origin of the mushrooms. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy were the most explored, whereas, Raman spectroscopy is the least explored technique in this field. Compact and cost-effective spectrometers based on the selective wavelengths have to be designed and installed at commercial and industrial level for rapid quality control of mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Agaricales/classificação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise Espectral/métodos , Geografia , Controle de Qualidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos , Análise Espectral Raman , Vibração
9.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(3): 291-300, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002612

RESUMO

Intraspecies genetic variability of the medicinal dikaryotic polypore mushroom Fomitopsis pinicola was analyzed by using variable internal transcribed space (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA gene cluster and the somatic compatibility test. The results revealed very low ITS sequence polymorphism among strains of F. pinicola from geographically distant origins (Russia, Finland, and France). Because of its conserved structure, the ITS region of the ribosomal DNA cluster can be proposed as a reliable molecular code for identifying and taxonomically verifying F. pinicola sensu stricto species. Four types of somatic incompatibility interactions were found in the Moscow population; 29 dikaryotic isolates revealed 27 somatically incompatible groups with an overall diversity index (HVC) of 0.782. Moderate antagonistic (somatically incompatible) interactions were predominant, with a frequency (p) of 0.56; strong antagonism with the heavily pigmented interaction zone was estimated as p = 0.35. These findings regarding the genetic diversity of natural F. pinicola isolates will assist further research and development of novel strains useful in food, medicine, and industrial applications.


Assuntos
Agaricales/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Variação Genética , Agaricales/classificação , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , França , Filogenia , Federação Russa , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 128: 267-279, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30995515

RESUMO

Worldwide, special attention has been paid to wild mushrooms-induced poisoning. This review article provides a report on the global pattern and characteristics of mushroom poisoning and identifies the magnitude of mortality induced by mushroom poisoning. In this work, reasons underlying mushrooms-induced poisoning, and contamination of edible mushrooms by heavy metals and radionuclides, are provided. Moreover, a perspective of factors affecting the clinical signs of such toxicities (e.g. consumed species, the amount of eaten mushroom, season, geographical location, method of preparation, and individual response to toxins) as well as mushroom toxins and approaches suggested to protect humans against mushroom poisoning, are presented.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos , Agaricales/classificação , Ingestão de Alimentos , Alimentos , Humanos , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/classificação , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/epidemiologia , Toxinas Biológicas
11.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(3)2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832255

RESUMO

Gloeostereum incarnatum is a precious edible mushroom that is widely grown in Asia and known for its useful medicinal properties. Here, we present a high-quality genome of G. incarnatum using the single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing platform. The G. incarnatum genome, which is the first complete genome to be sequenced in the family Cyphellaceae, was 38.67 Mbp, with an N50 of 3.5 Mbp, encoding 15,251 proteins. Based on our phylogenetic analysis, the Cyphellaceae diverged ~174 million years ago. Several genes and gene clusters associated with lignocellulose degradation, secondary metabolites, and polysaccharide biosynthesis were identified in G. incarnatum, and compared with other medicinal mushrooms. In particular, we identified two terpenoid-associated gene clusters, each containing a gene encoding a sesterterpenoid synthase adjacent to a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme. These clusters might participate in the biosynthesis of incarnal, a known bioactive sesterterpenoid produced by G. incarnatum. Through a transcriptomic analysis comparing the G. incarnatum mycelium and fruiting body, we also demonstrated that the genes associated with terpenoid biosynthesis were generally upregulated in the mycelium, while those associated with polysaccharide biosynthesis were generally upregulated in the fruiting body. This study provides insights into the genetic basis of the medicinal properties of G. incarnatum, laying a framework for future characterization of bioactive proteins and pharmaceutical uses of this fungus.


Assuntos
Agaricales/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Agaricales/classificação , Carpóforos/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Tamanho do Genoma , Genoma Fúngico , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Família Multigênica , Micélio/genética , Filogenia , Imagem Individual de Molécula
12.
Mycologia ; 111(2): 319-338, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30908110

RESUMO

Seven species of bioluminescent fungi are recorded from the cloud forests in Mexico. Six represent new species belonging to the genus Mycena, whereas Mycena globulispora is a new distribution record for the country. Descriptions, illustrations, photographs, and an identification key to bioluminescent fungi species from Mexico are provided. Sequences of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) region were generated for barcoding purposes and comparisons with similar species.


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Agaricales/isolamento & purificação , Luminescência , Filogenia , Agaricales/genética , Agaricales/fisiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Fúngico/química , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/química , DNA Ribossômico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , México , RNA Ribossômico 5,8S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
13.
Int J Mycobacteriol ; 8(1): 93-97, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860186

RESUMO

Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has now emerged as a global public health crisis. Of particular concern is AMR associated with the genus Mycobacterium, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). Emergence of the NTM, in particular Mycobacterium abscessus, in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) represents both a diagnostic and a treatment dilemma. Such resistance drives the need to investigate novel sources of antimicrobials. Medicinal fungi have a well-documented history of use in traditional oriental therapies. Not only is this an ancient practice, but also still today, medical practice in Japan, China, Korea, and other Asian countries continue to rely on fungal-derived antibiotics. A study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the antimicrobial activity of 23 native macrofungal (mushrooms/toadstools) taxa, collected from woodlands in Northern Ireland against six clinical (CF) isolates of M. abscessus, as well as M. abscessus National Collection of Type Cultures (NCTC) Reference strain (NCTC 13031). Methods: Free-growing saprophytic and mycorrhizal macrofungi (n = 23) belonging to the phylum Basidiomycota were collected and were definitively identified employing Polymerase Chain reaction/ITS DNA sequencing. Macrofungal tissues were freeze-dried and reconstituted before employment in antibiotic susceptibility studies. Results: All macrofungi examined showed varying inhibition of the M. abscessus isolates examined with the exception Russula nigricans. The macrofungi displaying maximum antimycobacterial activity against the clinical isolates were (in descending order) M. giganteus (33.6 mg/ml), Hygrocybe nigrescens (38.5 mg/ml) and Hypholoma fasciculare (25.3 mg/ml). Conclusion: Macrofungi may represent a source of novel antimicrobials against M. abscessus, which have not yet been fully explored nor exploited clinically. This is the first report describing the antimycobacterial properties of extracts of M. giganteus against M. abscessus. Further work is now required to identify the constituents and mode of the inhibitory action of these macrofungi against the M. abscessus. Given the gravity of AMR in the NTMs, particularly M. abscessus and the clinical treatment dilemmas that such AMR present, antibiotic drug discovery efforts should now focus on investigating and developing antibacterial compounds from macrofungi, particularly M. giganteus, where there are no or limited current treatment options.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/microbiologia , Mycobacterium abscessus/efeitos dos fármacos , Agaricales/classificação , Agaricales/genética , Agaricales/isolamento & purificação , Antibiose , China , Microbiologia Ambiental , Humanos , Irlanda , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycobacterium abscessus/isolamento & purificação
14.
Fungal Biol ; 123(3): 183-187, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798873

RESUMO

There are few environments more hostile and species-poor than deserts and the mounds of Nasutitermitinae termites. However, despite the very different adaptations required to survive in such extreme and different environments, the fungal genus Podaxis is capable of surviving in both: where few other fungi are reported to grow. Despite their prominence in the landscape and their frequent documentation by early explorers, there has been relatively little research into the genus. Originally described by Linnaeus in 1771, in the early 20th Century, the then ∼25 species of Podaxis were almost entirely reduced into one species: Podaxis pistillaris. Since this reduction, several new species of Podaxis have been described but without consideration of older descriptions. This has resulted in 44 recognised species names in Index Fungorum but the vast majority of studies and fungarium specimens still refer to P. pistillaris. Studies of Podaxis' extremely different lifestyles is hampered by its effective reduction to a single-species genus. Here we examine the history of the taxonomy of Podaxis before focusing on its extreme lifestyles. From this, we consider how the muddled taxonomy of Podaxis may be resolved; opening up further avenues for future research into this enigmatic fungal genus.


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Clima Desértico , Microbiologia Ambiental , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 12, 2019 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30755235

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The paper presents documentation of the traditional use of wild edible mushrooms in Mazovia (33,900 km2), a region of Poland. METHODS: A total of 695 semi-structured interviews were carried out among local informants in 38 localities proportionally distributed throughout the study area (one locality approximately every 30 km), asking which mushrooms they collected and how. The species utilized were identified using visual props, morphological identification of voucher specimens, and DNA barcoding. RESULTS: Altogether, 92 taxa identified to the species or genus level were recorded, among them 76 species used as food, 21 taxa known as toxic, and 11 taxa used for non-culinary purposes. Out of 76 identified edible fungi species, 47% (36 species) were identified using ITS DNA barcode method. Eleven of them were identified exclusively by molecular analysis. The mean number of edible taxa mentioned per interview was 9.5. Two species new to the mycobiota of Poland, Hydnum ellipsosporum and Paxillus cuprinus, were found. Frequent interaction with mushroom collectors enabled the transcription of local folk taxonomy into proper taxonomic classification and the definition of changes in local preferences concerning wild fungi collection. CONCLUSIONS: The list of species utilized is the longest regional list of edible mushrooms ever recorded during ethnomycological field research, putting the inhabitants of the studied region at the top of the mycophilia spectrum.


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Dieta , Alimentos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(7): 3410-3416, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609048

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heavy metal contamination in mushrooms and the associated health risk are unknown in Zambia. We studied seven heavy metals and 23 mushroom species and interviewed 400 people. RESULTS: Mushrooms were found to contain substantial concentrations of Cu (894.4 ± 267.9 µg g-1 ) and Fe (998.4 ± 454.0 µg g-1 ). Significant differences in transfer factors of metals occurred between mushroom species (F11,66  = 5.36, P < 0.001). The most efficient were L. kabansus (for Zn and Ni), A. miomboensis (for Cu and Fe) and T. clypeatus (for Mn, Pb and Co). These species were also among the most preferred mushrooms for consumption based on the interviews conducted. Although 60% of the mushrooms observed were edible, only 20% were frequently consumed during the mushroom season. High positive correlations observed between soils and mushrooms suggest that contamination in mushrooms increases with soil pollution. The estimated daily intake of metals and the target hazard quotient through mushroom consumption were found to be significantly influenced by mushroom species (F11,66  = 38.8, P < 0.001) suggesting that the level of exposure to heavy metals depends on the species of mushroom consumed. CONCLUSIONS: The study has revealed that heavy metal concentrations in mushrooms exceed permissible limits and vary between species. Transfer efficiency also varies between mushroom species and contamination in mushrooms increases with soil pollution. The fact that concentrations of metals in soil were significantly high, the risk of exposure through mushroom consumption and possibly soil ingestion is even higher. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Agaricales/classificação , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Humanos , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zâmbia
17.
Toxicon ; 157: 53-65, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30439442

RESUMO

Mushroom poisoning is a significant and increasing form of toxin-induced-disease. Existing classifications of mushroom poisoning do not include more recently described new syndromes of mushroom poisoning and this can impede the diagnostic process. We reviewed the literature on mushroom poisoning, concentrating on the period since the current major classification published in 1994, to identify all new syndromes of poisoning and organise them into a new integrated classification, supported by a new diagnostic algorithm. New syndromes were eligible for inclusion if there was sufficient detail about both causation and clinical descriptions. Criteria included: identity of mushrooms, clinical profile, epidemiology, and the distinctive features of poisoning in comparison with previously documented syndromes. We propose 6 major groups based on key clinical features relevant in distinguishing between poisoning syndromes. Some clinical features, notably gastrointestinal symptoms, are common to many mushroom poisoning syndromes. Group 1 - Cytotoxic mushroom poisoning. Syndromes with specific major internal organ pathology: (Subgroup 1.1; Primary hepatotoxicity); 1A, primary hepatotoxicity (amatoxins); (Subgroup 1.2; Primary nephrotoxicity); 1B, early primary nephrotoxicity (amino hexadienoic acid; AHDA); 1C, delayed primary nephrotoxicity (orellanines). Group 2 - Neurotoxic mushroom poisoning. Syndromes with primary neurotoxicity: 2A, hallucinogenic mushrooms (psilocybins and related toxins); 2B, autonomic-toxicity mushrooms (muscarines); 2C, CNS-toxicity mushrooms (ibotenic acid/muscimol); 2D, morel neurologic syndrome (Morchella spp.). Group 3 - Myotoxic mushroom poisoning. Syndromes with rhabdomyolysis as the primary feature: 3A, rapid onset (Russula spp.); 3B, delayed onset (Tricholoma spp.). Group 4 - Metabolic, endocrine and related toxicity mushroom poisoning. Syndromes with a variety of clinical presentations affecting metabolic and/or endocrine processes: 4A, GABA-blocking mushroom poisoning (gyromitrins); 4B, disulfiram-like (coprines); 4C, polyporic mushroom poisoning (polyporic acid); 4D, trichothecene mushroom poisoning (Podostroma spp.); 4E, hypoglycaemic mushroom poisoning (Trogia venenata); 4F, hyperprocalcitoninemia mushroom poisoning (Boletus satanas); 4G, pancytopenic mushroom poisoning (Ganoderma neojaponicum). Group 5 - Gastrointestinal irritant mushroom poisoning. This group includes a wide variety of mushrooms that cause gastrointestinal effects without causing other clinically significant effects. Group 6 - Miscellaneous adverse reactions to mushrooms. Syndromes which do not fit within the previous 5 groups: 6A, Shiitake mushroom dermatitis; 6B, erythromelagic mushrooms (Clitocybe acromelagia); 6C, Paxillus syndrome (Paxillus involutus); 6D, encephalopathy syndrome (Pleurocybella porrigens).


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/classificação , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/diagnóstico , Agaricales/química , Algoritmos , Humanos , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/terapia
18.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(5): 144-150, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956240

RESUMO

Qualitative real-time PCR method for three poisonous Entoloma rhodopolium-related species in Japan was established using specific primers and FAM, VIC, Texas Red, Cy5-labeled probes. The use of multicolor probes can extend the method to simultaneous detection of different targets. Standard plasmids were constructed as reference materials. Designed primers and probes in the method detect only a target species, and the detection limit was 12.5 copies or below. This indicates it is highly specific and sensitive enough to detect the poisonous mushrooms in food residues. Next, we applied the method to four food residue samples obtained from food poisoning cases. The real-time PCR method did identify all of four samples as E. subrhodopolium and E. pseudorhodopolium, whereas PCR-RFLP did not. The method established here revealed Entoloma rhodopolium-related species in Hokkaido were different species such as E. eminens and unknown species.


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Primers do DNA , Japão , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30558129

RESUMO

The consequences of mushroom poisoning range from mild, mostly gastrointestinal, disturbances to organ failure or even death. This retrospective study describes presentations related to mushroom poisoning at an emergency department in Bern (Switzerland) from January 2001 to October 2017. Gastrointestinal disturbances were reported in 86% of the 51 cases. The National Poisons Information Centre and mycologists were involved in 69% and 61% of the cases, respectively. Identification of the mushroom type/family was possible in 43% of the cases. The most common mushroom family was Boletaceae (n = 21) and the most common mushrooms Xerocomus chrysenteron (n = 7; four being part of a cluster), Clitocybe nebularis, Lepista nuda and Lactarius semisanguifluus (n = 5 each, four being part of a cluster). Poisonous mushrooms included Amanita phalloides (n = 3, all analytically confirmed), Boletus satanas (n = 3), Amanita muscaria (n = 2) and Amanita pantherina (n = 2). There were no fatalities and 80% of the patients were discharged within 24 h. Mushroom poisoning does not appear to be a common reason for emergency consultation and most presentations were of minor severity and related to edible species (e.g., due to incorrect processing). Nevertheless, poisonous mushrooms and severe complications were also recorded. Collaboration with a poison centre and/or mycologists is of great importance, especially in high risk cases.


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/mortalidade , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/patologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suíça/epidemiologia , Universidades
20.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 14(1): 68, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30454000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traditional markets outstandingly contribute to conservation of biocultural diversity, social relations, and cultural values. These markets reflect life strategies and forms people of a region interact with their biodiversity and territories, as well as traditional ecological knowledge and management practices. To understand the factors motivating plant and mushroom management, we analyzed the resources cultural and economic values, their role in people's subsistence, and the relation of these values with the resources spatial and temporal availability. Our study based on the supposition that traditional markets are settings of interchange of resources with the highest importance for people's life in a region. Also, that the cultural, economic, and ecological factors influence values of the resources, and the demand on them determine pressures on the most valuable resources which, when scarce, motivate management innovation, otherwise become extinct. METHODS: We documented cultural, economic, and ecological aspects, as well as management techniques of wild and weedy plants and mushrooms interchanged in three traditional markets of the Pátzcuaro Lake region, in central-western Mexico. For doing that, from February 2015 to March 2018, we conducted 175 visits to markets and 89 semi-structured interviews to producers, gatherers, and sellers of wild and weedy plants and mushrooms. Based on participant observation and interviews, we identified variables related to culture, economic, and ecological aspects, as well as management regimes of resources and management systems, which were documented and used as indicators for quantitative analyses. Through principal components analyses (PCA), we determined the indexes of cultural and economic importance (ICEI), management intensity (IMI), and ecological risk (IR) of the resources studied. For conducting that, we classified plant and mushroom species according to their cultural, economic, ecological, and technological indicators, respectively. The score of the first principal component was considered as the index for each group of variables, respectively. To identify relations between cultural importance and risk, we performed linear regression analyses between ICEI and IR indexes. RESULTS: We recorded 57 species of wild and weedy plants used as food, medicine, and ornamental, and 17 species of edible mushrooms. The variables with the highest weight in the ICEI are related to the need of a resource according to people, its recognizing, the number of communities and markets offering it in markets, its explicit preference expressed by people, the effort invested in obtaining it, and the form it is interchanged. Gathering is practiced in all mushrooms and wild and weedy plants from forests and agricultural areas; 11 species in addition receive 1 or more forms of management (enhancing, selective let standing, propagation through seeds or vegetative parts, transplantation, and/or protection). The management intensity and complexity are explained by variables related to management practices and systems. Plants receiving selective management have the higher management intensity. Silvicultural management (in situ management in forests) was recorded in all species of mushrooms, as well as in more than 80% of medicinal, ceremonial and ornamental plants, and in more than 50% of the edible plants. In agricultural systems, people manage more than 90% of the edible plants recorded to be under a management regime, 25% of the managed medicinal plants, and 30.7% of the managed ceremonial and ornamental plants. In homegardens, people manage 41.6% of the medicinal plants recorded and 26.6% of the edible plants, to have them available near home. Nearly 63% of the species interchanged in the markets studied are gathered in forests without any other management form. In this group are included all mushroom species, 61.5% of ceremonial/ornamental plants, 50% of medicinal, and 33.3% of edible plants. The linear regression between ICEI an IER is significantly negative for edible species with high management intensity R2 = 0.505 (p = 0.0316), because of their management. But in medicinal and ornamental plants, the risk is high if the cultural importance increases, even when management practices like transplanting and propagation in homegardens are carried out. CONCLUSIONS: Traditional markets are settings of interchange of products, knowledge, and experiences, where the ongoing factors and processes motivating management innovation can be identified and documented. This approach allows documenting processes occurring at regional level but would be benefited from deeper studies at local level in communities.


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Comércio/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Etnobotânica/métodos , Adulto , Biodiversidade , Ecologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plantas Comestíveis/classificação , Plantas Medicinais/classificação , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Socioeconômicos
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