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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 457-462, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237500

RESUMO

Gastrodia elata is a kind of precious traditional Chinese medicine. In the process of cultivation of G. elata, due to the influence of continuous cropping obstacles and other factors, the fungus materials and land that have been planted with G. elata are often abandoned, resulting in a great waste of resources. Based on the planting characteristics of G. elata and Phallus impudicus and the previous research experience in ecological agriculture, this paper analyzed the ecological adaptability characteristics of G. elata and P. impudicus, and summarized the key techniques of the G. elata-P. impudicus sequential planting pattern. Keeping track of the planting area, fungus-growing materials consumption and market sales of G. elata-P. impudicus sequential planting pattern, the ecological benefits of G. elata-P. impudicus sequential planting pattern from the aspects of utilization rate of fungus-growing materials were analyzed, the value of land resources per unit area, ecological environmental protection, labor cost and economic benefits were consi-dered. The technical principle of G. elata-P. impudicus sequential planting pattern was expounded according to their ecological habit, the season of harvest and planting, the difference of composition of fungus-growing materials, and the microbial ecology. The sequential planting pattern of G. elata-P. impudicus not only realized the double production of medicinal materials and edible fungi, reduced the waste of old fungus-growing materials, but also transformed the energy from nutrition-supplied fungi to edible and medicinal fungi, which guaranteed the ecological recycling and utilization of G. elata in the process of cultivation.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Gastrodia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 463-471, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237501

RESUMO

Gastrodia elata is a heterotrophic plant that needed to be symbiotic with Armillaria. The obstacle of continuous cropping in G. elata is serious during the G. elata cultivation, and the mechanism of obstacle in G. elata continuous cropping had not been solved. The planting of G. elata-Phallus impudicus is a new sequential planting pattern adopted in Guizhou province, but the effect of the cultivation on soil microbial community structure is still unclear. In this study, we collected four soil samples for the research including the soil without planted G. elata as control(CK), rhizosphere soil samples tightly adhering to the G. elata surface(GE), rhizosphere soil samples tightly adhering to Armillaria which was symbiotic with G. elata(AGE), the rhizosphere soil of P. impudicus planting after G. elata cultivation(PI). In order to explore the mechanism, the research study on the soil of G. elata-P. impudicus by using ITS and 16 S rDNA high-throughput sequencing technologies to detect soil microbial community structure including fungi and bacteria in the soil of CK, AGE, GE and PI. OTU clustering and PCA analysis of soil samples showed that the soil microbial diversity was relatively similar in AGE and GE. And the soil microbial in PI and CK clustered together. The results showed that AGE and GE had similar soil microbial diversity, as well as PI and CK. Compared with CK, the soil microbial diversity and abundance in AGE and GE were significantly increased. But the microbial diversity and abundance decreased in PI compared with AGE and GE. The annotation indicated that the abundance of Basidiomycota, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi decreased, and that of Ascomycota, Zygomycota and Proteobacteria increased in AGE and GE compared with CK. In contrast to AGE and GE, PI was the opposite. The abundance of Basidiomycota, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi increased in PI compared with AGE and GE. The abundance of microorganisms in the soil of PI and CK was similar. In addition, the co-culture of Armillaria and P. impudicus indicated that P. impudicus had obvious antagonistic effects on the growth of Armillaria. Therefore, it is speculated that the mechanism of G. elata-P. impudicus planting pattern related to the change of soil microbial. And we supposed that P. impudicus might inhibit the growth of Armillaria and change the soil microbial community structure and the abundance of soil microbial. And the soil microbial community structure was restored to a state close to that of uncultivated G. elata. Thus, the structure of soil microbial community planting G. elata could be restored by P. impudicus planting.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gastrodia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiota , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Fungos/classificação , Gastrodia/microbiologia , Rizosfera
3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 472-477, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237502

RESUMO

The phenomenon that waste of fungus-growing materials in the planting process of Gastrodia elata is very common. It has been proved by practice that the used fungus-growing materials planted with G. elata can be used to plant Phallus impudicus. But the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we compared the different infested-capacity of Armillaria gallica and Phallus impudicus by morphological anatomy of the used fungus-growing materials. We also compared the differences on the two fungi consumed the main contents of fungus-growing materials, cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose, by using nitric acid-95% ethanol method, sulfuric acid method and tetrabromide method respectively, so that to explore the mechanism of A. gallica and P. impudicus recycle the fungus-growing materials, and to provide scientific basis for recycling the used fungus-growing materials of G. elata. The results showed that A. gallica had a strong ability to invade some parts outside the vascular cambium, but it had a weak ability to invade some parts inside the vascular cambium, while P. impudicus had a strong ability to invade the same parts. The contents of lignin and cellulose, which from inside and outside the vascular cambium of fungus-growing materials were significantly different. In the parts of outside the vascular cambium of fungus-growing materials, A. gallica degraded more lignin and cellulose, while P. impudicus degraded more hemicellulose. In the parts of inside the vascular cambium of fungus-growing materials, A. gallica degraded more cellulose, while P. impudicus degraded more hemicellulose. The present results suggested that A. gallica and P. impudicus made differential utilization of the carbon source in the fungus-growing materials to realize that P. impudicus recycle the used fungus-growing materials of G. elata. A. gallica used lignin and cellulose as the main carbon source, while P. impudicus used hemicellulose as the main carbon source.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Armillaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Celulose/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
4.
Microbiol Res ; 236: 126436, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179388

RESUMO

Trichoderma longibrachiatum EF5 is an endophytic fungal antagonist of rice. It is used for the control of soil-borne fungal pathogens-Sclerotium rolfsii and Macrophomina phaseolina. We demonstrate that T. longibrachiatum EF5 inhibits the growth of these pathogens on direct interaction as well as via the production of the microbial volatile organic compounds (mVOCs). The mVOCs reduced mycelial growth and inhibited the production of sclerotia by altering the mycelial structure. We profiled 138 mVOCs, when T. longibrachiatum EF5 interacted with the two pathogens. During these interactions, several compounds are up- or downregulated by T. longibrachiatum EF5, including longifolene, caryophyllene,1-Butanol 2-methyl, cedrene, and cuprenene. These compounds are involved in the biosynthetic pathways of the sesquiterpenoid and alkane, and the degradation pathway of trimethylamine. We provide an insight into the multiple modes by which T. longibrachiatum EF5 exerts antagonistic actions, such as hyperparasitism, competitions, and antibiosis via mVOCs. In contrast to their antimicrobial properties, these metabolites could also promote plant growth.


Assuntos
Agaricales/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibiose , Ascomicetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Trichoderma/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Interações Microbianas , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(23)2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795288

RESUMO

Beech mushrooms (Hypsizygus marmoreus) are largely relished for their characteristic earthy flavor, chewy-texture, and gustatory and nutritional properties in East Asian societies. Intriguingly, the aforementioned properties of beech mushroom can be subsumed under its elusive metabolome and subtle transcriptome regulating its various stages of growth and development. Herein, we carried out an integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic profiling for different sized beech mushrooms across spatial components (cap and stipe) to delineate their signature pathways. We observed that metabolite profiles and differentially expressed gene (DEGs) displayed marked synergy for specific signature pathways according to mushroom sizes. Notably, the amino acid, nucleotide, and terpenoid metabolism-related metabolites and genes were more abundant in small-sized mushrooms. On the other hand, the relative levels of carbohydrates and TCA intermediate metabolites as well as corresponding genes were linearly increased with mushroom size. However, the composition of flavor-related metabolites was varying in different sized beech mushrooms. Our study explores the signature pathways associated with growth, development, nutritional, functional and organoleptic properties of different sized beech mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Transcriptoma , Agaricales/genética , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Genes Fúngicos
6.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 15(1): 64, 2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831075

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to increasing pressure on natural resources, subsistence agriculture communities in Uganda and Sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing increasingly restricted access to diminishing natural resources that are a critical requirement of their livelihoods. Previously, common-pool resources like forests and grasslands have been either gazetted for conservation or leased for agriculture, the latter in particular for large-scale sugarcane production. Satisfying the increasing consumer demand for grassland or forestry products like wild mushrooms as food or medicine, requires innovative ethno-biological and industry development strategies to improve production capacity, while easing the pressure on diminishing natural resources and averting ecosystems degradation. METHODS: This case study addresses traditional knowledge systems for artisanal mycoculture to identify cultivation practices that enhance sustainable utilization of natural resources. Multi-scalar stakeholder engagement across government and community sectors identified artisanal mushroom producers across five districts in Uganda. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews characterized artisanal production methods and identified locally used substrates for cultivation of different mushroom species. RESULTS: Artisanal practices were characterized for the cultivation of six wild saprophytic mushroom species including Volvariella speciosa (akasukusuku), two Termitomyces sp. (obunegyere and another locally unnamed species), Agaricus sp. (ensyabire) and Agrocybe sp. (emponzira), and one exotic Pleurotus sp. (oyster) that are used as food or medicine. The substrates used for each species differed according to the mushroom's mode of decomposition, those being the following: tertiary decomposers such as those growing under rotting tree stumps or logs from forestry activity like the Agrocybe sp. known as emponzira which grows in forests, thickets, or near homesteads where big logs of hardwood have been left to rot. Also pieces of firewood are chipped off whenever need arises thus providing fuel; secondary decomposers growing on naturally composted grass associated with termites like the Termitomyces sp. known as obunegyere growing in protected sites in gardens, composted cattle manure for Agaricus sp. known as ensyabire in the kraal area where cattle manure is plenty, composted maize cobs for a locally unnamed Agaricus sp. on heaped cobs placed near homesteads; and primary decomposers growing on waste sorghum from brewing the traditional alcoholic drink, muramba for Pleurotus sp. (oyster), and banana and spear grass residue from banana juice processing like the Volvariella speciosa known as akasukusuku because it is associated with the banana plantation locally known in the Luganda language as olusuku and is usually heaped under ficus trees. Management practices also varied based on mode of decomposition and other ecological requirements such as the following: zero tillage and minimal disturbance in areas where obunegyere grow, heaping banana and spear grass residues under the cool ficus trees which also keep them away from banana stump that may cause infestation with nematodes and insects. Even within the generic practices accessibility by the users is critical for example placing logs near homes where children can use them to play, they can be used as fire wood and to even get off-season mushroom as household waste water can make the mushrooms grow. CONCLUSIONS: Our description of artisanal mycoculture methods that respond to conservation and utilization pressures, demonstrates the value of addressing traditional knowledge to improve ethno-biology and mycoculture industry practice. Traditional communities engage in multiple technological and organizational innovations and practices for sustainability and in the case of mushroom production to conserve the environment and culture, ensure variety, food and nutrition security, and income. The results of this study present opportunities to preserve ecosystem quality while developing an artisanal mycoculture system. They have also identified aspects of artisanal mycoculture that most urgently require further ethno-biological study and industry development. Future research and industry development can utilize the result of this study to boost artisanal production of wild saprophytic mushrooms in Sub-Saharan countries, for food or medicinal consumption, and environment conservation. Further development of production efficiencies in context with sustainable natural resource management is recommended.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Feminino , Humanos , Conhecimento , Masculino , Recursos Naturais , Uganda
7.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226849, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869389

RESUMO

Wild edible mycorrhizal mushrooms are among the most appreciated and prized mushrooms in the world. Despite the cultivation of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) mushrooms has been a growing subject of study worldwide, it has been hampered by the mutualistic lifestyle of the fungi. Although not being obligate symbionts, most of the species of ECM mushrooms only produce fruit bodies in association with trees or shrubs. In the present study, we aimed at understanding certain aspects of the ecology of four different edible ECM fungi: Lactarius deliciosus, Tricholoma equestre, T. portentosum and Boletus fragrans. Despite having a broad distribution worldwide, these fungi inhabit also Mediterranean habitats with understories typically dominated by rockroses (Cistaceae). Studying the ecology of these mutualistic fungi as well as the interaction with these species of shrubs is not only scientifically relevant but also pivotal for the discovery of profitable cultivation protocols. We evaluated the compatibility of these ECM species with five species within Cistaceae family - Cistus ladanifer, C. psilosepalus, C. salviifolius, Halimium halimifolium and Tuberaria lignosa. Each species of fungi proved to be able to establish mycorrhizas with at least 2 different plants species but varied in their host range of the tested Cistaceae. The dissimilarity in terms of host specificity between some fungal species seemed to be connected with the phylogenetic distances of the fungi. A correlation between the colonization percentage of the root systems and the mycelial growth rates in pure culture was found. The connection of these traits might be an important key to understanding the ecological competitor-colonizer tradeoffs of these ECM fungal species. Altogether, our study reports unknown plant-fungi combinations with economical relevance and also adds new insights about the ecology of these species of ECM fungi.


Assuntos
Agaricales/fisiologia , Cistaceae/fisiologia , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Simbiose , Agaricales/genética , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biodiversidade , Cistaceae/microbiologia , Ecossistema , Micorrizas/genética , Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Filogenia , Tricholoma/genética , Tricholoma/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tricholoma/fisiologia
8.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(6): 537-548, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679226

RESUMO

Ganoderma lucidum, a mushroom with medicinal properties, can grow on diverse lignocellulosic substrates. Substrate enrichment with additives has been used as a strategy to increase mushroom productivity. In this study, we evaluated the impact of substrate formulation on the bioactive chemical profile of the basidiome. The bioactive chemical profile of basidiomes cultivated on rice agro-residues (RA) or sunflower seed hulls (SSH) enriched with olive oil and/or copper was evaluated using conventional colorimetric methods and FT-MIR spectrometry coupled with chemometrics. The contents of total triterpenoids, ganoderic acids, high-molecular-weight carbohydrates, and phenolic compounds were sensitive to substrate formulation and harvest time. Moreover, cluster analysis and principal component analysis of the mid-IR spectra were able to discriminate between basidiomes cultivated on either RA or SSH substrates, and for SSH substrates between enriched and nonenriched formulas. These results indicate that the bioactive composition of G. lucidum can be influenced by the formulation of the cultivation substrate.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Reishi/química , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura , Fenóis/análise , Reishi/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Triterpenos/análise
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 689: 602-615, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279206

RESUMO

Although it is logical to think that mycorrhizal mushroom production should be somehow related to the growth of the trees from which the fungi obtain carbohydrates, little is known about how mushroom yield patterns are related to tree performance. In this study, we delved into the understanding of the relationships between aboveground fungal productivity, tree radial growth patterns and climatic conditions across three latitudinally different bioclimatic regions encompassing Mediterranean, temperate and boreal forest ecosystems in Europe. For this purpose, we used a large assemblage of long-term data of weekly or biweekly mushroom yield monitoring in Spain, Switzerland and Finland. We analysed the relationships between annual mushroom yield (considering both biomass and number of sporocarps per unit area), tree ring features (tree ring, earlywood and latewood widths), and meteorological conditions (i.e. precipitation and temperature of summer and autumn) from different study sites and forest ecosystems, using both standard and partial correlations. Moreover, we fitted predictive models to estimate mushroom yield from mycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungal guilds based on climatic and dendrochronological variables. Significant synchronies between mushroom yield and climatic and dendrochronological variables were mostly found in drier Mediterranean sites, while few or no significant correlations were found in the boreal and temperate regions. We observed positive correlations between latewood growth and mycorrhizal mushroom biomass only in some Mediterranean sites, this relationship being mainly mediated by summer and autumn precipitation. Under more water-limited conditions, both the seasonal wood production and the mushroom yield are more sensitive to precipitation events, resulting in higher synchrony between both variables. This comparative study across diverse European forest biomes and types provides new insights into the relationship between mushroom productivity, tree growth and weather conditions.


Assuntos
Agaricales/fisiologia , Clima , Florestas , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Europa (Continente) , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Densidade Demográfica
10.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(3): 215-223, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31002606

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to prepare a softwood substrate on which to grow edible and medicinal mushrooms. Liquid digestate from a biogas station was successfully used in spruce sawdust fermentation. Pleurotus ostreatus, P. eryngii, and Ganoderma lucidum were grown on the obtained substrates and their mycelia grew at rates similar to rates of growth on control beech sawdust; values ranged from 4.1 to 5.54 mm/day. A 6-week fermentation period was determined to be sufficient for removing volatile extractives from sawdust (76% removal efficiency), which elevated content was shown to be most critical for fungal growth. Removal of 47% of resinous compounds and a decrease in the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio in the growth substrate were found during sawdust fermentation in the presence of the liquid digestate. Among ligninolytic enzymes, the growth substrates produced here favored laccase produced by tested fungi. It follows that utilizing wastes from biogas production to reuse softwood wastes could make an environmentally friendly and economically viable biotechnology for producing mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fermentação , Resíduos Industriais , Madeira/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , Carbono/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
11.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(11): 5122-5130, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30993725

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ability of Coriolus versicolor medicinal mushroom to accumulate and transform selenium from selenourea and sodium selenite into an organic form - l-selenomethionine - during growth in liquid medium is examined in this paper. Additionally, the impact of supplementation on biological activity of the selenated mushroom methanol extracts, as well as their chemical composition, is studied. RESULTS: Selenium accumulation was more efficient with sodium selenite application, but biomass yield was significantly lower (1.89 g DW L-1 ) compared to samples enriched with selenourea (4.48 g DW L-1 ). Mushroom sample obtained after growing in liquid medium with selenourea had significantly higher l-selenomethionine content compared to the sample grown in medium with sodium selenite. Selenium-enriched methanol extracts of C. versicolor mushroom showed improved antimicrobial and antioxidant activities compared to non-enriched extract. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that C. versicolor mushroom cultivated in liquid culture enriched with selenourea can be used for the production of novel food supplements with improved selenium bioavailability. More than 30% of total accumulated selenium from selenourea is transformed into l-selenomethionine. Differences in biological activity of methanol extracts can be explained not only by different selenium content but also by the differences in chemical composition of extracts. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agaricales/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Agaricales/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Meios de Cultura/química , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Compostos Organosselênicos/análise , Compostos Organosselênicos/metabolismo , Selênio/análise , Selenometionina/análise , Selenometionina/metabolismo , Ureia/análogos & derivados , Ureia/análise , Ureia/metabolismo
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(15): 7409-7418, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30902897

RESUMO

The evolution of complex multicellularity has been one of the major transitions in the history of life. In contrast to simple multicellular aggregates of cells, it has evolved only in a handful of lineages, including animals, embryophytes, red and brown algae, and fungi. Despite being a key step toward the evolution of complex organisms, the evolutionary origins and the genetic underpinnings of complex multicellularity are incompletely known. The development of fungal fruiting bodies from a hyphal thallus represents a transition from simple to complex multicellularity that is inducible under laboratory conditions. We constructed a reference atlas of mushroom formation based on developmental transcriptome data of six species and comparisons of >200 whole genomes, to elucidate the core genetic program of complex multicellularity and fruiting body development in mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes). Nearly 300 conserved gene families and >70 functional groups contained developmentally regulated genes from five to six species, covering functions related to fungal cell wall remodeling, targeted protein degradation, signal transduction, adhesion, and small secreted proteins (including effector-like orphan genes). Several of these families, including F-box proteins, expansin-like proteins, protein kinases, and transcription factors, showed expansions in Agaricomycetes, many of which convergently expanded in multicellular plants and/or animals too, reflecting convergent solutions to genetic hurdles imposed by complex multicellularity among independently evolved lineages. This study provides an entry point to studying mushroom development and complex multicellularity in one of the largest clades of complex eukaryotic organisms.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Carpóforos , Proteínas Fúngicas , Genes Fúngicos , Transcriptoma/fisiologia , Agaricales/genética , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carpóforos/genética , Carpóforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Fúngicas/biossíntese , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia
13.
Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol ; 169: 3-25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30828755

RESUMO

Basidiomycetes of various species and their wide range of pharmaceutically interesting products in the last decades represent one of the most attractive groups of natural products in Asia and North America. Production of fungal fruit bodies using farming technology is hardly covering the market. Comprehensive solid-state technologies and bioreactors are the most promising part for fast and large amount of cultivation of medicinal fungi biomass and its pharmaceutically active products. Wood, agriculture, and food industry wastes represent the main substrates that are in this process delignified and enriched in proteins and highly valuable pharmaceutically active compounds. Research in physiology, basic and applied studies in fungal metabolism, process engineering aspects, and clinical studies in the last two decades represent large contribution to the development of these potentials that initiate the development of new drugs and some of the most attractive over-the-counter human and veterinary remedies. Present article is an overview of the achievements in solid-state technology of the most relevant medicinal mushroom species production in bioreactors. Graphical Abstract.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Agaricales/química , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Biológicos/química , Descoberta de Drogas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Madeira
14.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212769, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822315

RESUMO

The basidiomycete Chondrostereum purpureum (Silverleaf fungus) is a saprotroph and plant pathogen commercially used for combatting forest "weed" trees in vegetation management. However, little is known about its lignocellulose-degrading capabilities and the enzymatic machinery that is responsible for the degradative potential, and it is not yet clear to which group of wood-rot fungi it actually belongs. Here, we sequenced and analyzed the draft genome of C. purpureum (41.2 Mbp) and performed a quantitative proteomic approach during growth in submerged and solid-state cultures based on soybean meal suspension or containing beech wood supplemented with phenol-rich olive mill residues, respectively. The fungus harbors characteristic lignocellulolytic hydrolases (GH6 and GH7) and oxidoreductases (e.g. laccase, heme peroxidases). High abundance of some of these genes (e.g. 45 laccases, nine GH7) can be explained by gene expansion, e.g. identified for the laccase orthogroup ORTHOMCL11 that exhibits a total of 18 lineage-specific duplications. Other expanded genes families encode for proteins more related to a pathogenic lifestyle (e.g. protease and cytochrome P450s). The fungus responds to the presence of complex growth substrates (lignocellulose, phenolic residues) by the secretion of most of these lignocellulolytic and lignin-modifying enzymes (e.g. alcohol and aryl alcohol oxidases, laccases, GH6, GH7). Based on the genetic and enzymatic constitution, we consider the 'marasmioid' fungus C. purpureum as a 'phytopathogenic' white-rot fungus (WRF) that possesses a complex extracellular enzyme machinery to accomplish efficient lignocellulose degradation during both saprotrophic and phytopathogenic life phases.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Proteínas Fúngicas , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Genoma Fúngico/fisiologia , Agaricales/genética , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Fúngicas/biossíntese
15.
Fungal Biol ; 123(3): 183-187, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798873

RESUMO

There are few environments more hostile and species-poor than deserts and the mounds of Nasutitermitinae termites. However, despite the very different adaptations required to survive in such extreme and different environments, the fungal genus Podaxis is capable of surviving in both: where few other fungi are reported to grow. Despite their prominence in the landscape and their frequent documentation by early explorers, there has been relatively little research into the genus. Originally described by Linnaeus in 1771, in the early 20th Century, the then ∼25 species of Podaxis were almost entirely reduced into one species: Podaxis pistillaris. Since this reduction, several new species of Podaxis have been described but without consideration of older descriptions. This has resulted in 44 recognised species names in Index Fungorum but the vast majority of studies and fungarium specimens still refer to P. pistillaris. Studies of Podaxis' extremely different lifestyles is hampered by its effective reduction to a single-species genus. Here we examine the history of the taxonomy of Podaxis before focusing on its extreme lifestyles. From this, we consider how the muddled taxonomy of Podaxis may be resolved; opening up further avenues for future research into this enigmatic fungal genus.


Assuntos
Agaricales/classificação , Clima Desértico , Microbiologia Ambiental , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 21(2): 121-129, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806219

RESUMO

This article presents the ecological distribution of the edible and medicinal mushroom Polyporus umbellatus in Central Europe. Our main motivation is to describe the potential for commercial cultivation of this species. All data considered in this study are based on records from 70 localities in Slovakia. Fruiting bodies and sclerotia have been recorded in forests in which beech, hornbeam, and oak dominate, at altitudes ranging from 150 to 935 m (mean altitude, 403 m). In Slovakia, these areas correspond to warm, hilly, and upland beech-oak and oak-beech forests. Mean annual air temperature between 6°C and 9°C characterizes about 94% of the areas. Continuous monitoring of fruiting body production at 13 plots showed peak growth in August. In total, 192 fruiting bodies were recorded over a 5-year period. P. umbellatus predominantly grows in acidic soils (pH 4.5-4.99), with no individuals found in soils with pH above 7.0. Our findings can be used for growing the fungus and expanding its growth to new regions, not only in Central Europe.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura , Carpóforos , Polyporus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Europa (Continente)
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(2)2019 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642073

RESUMO

To elucidate the light-dependent gene expression in Cerrena unicolor FCL139, the transcriptomes of the fungus growing in white, blue, green, and red lighting conditions and darkness were analysed. Among 10,413 all-unigenes detected in C. unicolor, 7762 were found to be expressed in all tested conditions. Transcripts encoding putative fungal photoreceptors in the C. unicolor transcriptome were identified. The number of transcripts uniquely produced by fungus ranged from 20 during its growth in darkness to 112 in the green lighting conditions. We identified numerous genes whose expression differed substantially between the darkness (control) and each of the light variants tested, with the greatest number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (454 up- and 457 down-regulated) observed for the white lighting conditions. The DEGs comprised those involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, autophagy, nucleotide repair systems, signalling pathways, and carotenoid metabolism as defined using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. The analysis of the expression profile of genes coding for lignocellulose-degrading enzymes suggests that the wood-degradation properties of C. unicolor may be independent of the lighting conditions and may result from the overall stimulation of fungal metabolism by daylight.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Agaricales/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Luz , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Madeira/química
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(8): 7954-7959, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684180

RESUMO

Mushroom's biological content has a positive effect on human welfare which is called "nongreen revolution". It has an economic and social component that provides long-term food nutrition, environmental conservation, and regeneration of valuable resources. This article provides evidence that mushrooms can be a healthy food alternative to meat. In this study, analyzed data was collected from Marmara region of Turkey using a survey method. A survey questionnaire was prepared and distributed to a total sample size of 408 participants. Linear regression model y = α + ß1×1+ß2×2 was administered to determine the relationship of the variables. Secondary data were also used for the literature of the study. The study revealed that the consumption of mushroom accounts for 13.2% of the consumption of meat at the time of mushroom collection period. Consequently, it showed also that for every 1% increase in consumption of two species of mushrooms (Lactarius semisanguifluus and Macrolepiota procera var.) meat consumption decreases (-4.39, -2.97%).


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental , Turquia
19.
Recent Pat Food Nutr Agric ; 10(1): 3-19, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29866029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Edible mushrooms are an abundant source of carbohydrates, proteins, and multiple antioxidants and phytonutrients. This paper presents a general overview on the edible fungus describing the inventions made in the field of its cultivation, equipment and value-added products. OBJECTIVE: To understand and review the innovations and nutraceutical benefits of mushrooms as well as to develop interest regarding the edible mushrooms. METHODS: Information provided in this review is based on the available research investigations and patents. RESULT: Mushrooms are an edible source of a wide variety of antioxidants and phytonutrients with a number of nutraceutical properties including anti-tumor and anti-carcinogenic. Thus, several investigations are made for cultivation and improvement of the yield of mushrooms through improvisation of growth substrates and equipment used for mushroom processing. The mushroom has been processed into various products to increase its consumption, providing the health and nutritional benefit to mankind. CONCLUSION: This paper summarizes the cultivation practices of mushroom, its processing equipment, methods of preservation, value-added based products, and its nutraceutical properties. The review also highlights the various scientific feats achieved in terms of patents and research publications promoting mushroom as a wholesome food.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais
20.
Curr Microbiol ; 76(2): 168-172, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488165

RESUMO

It was well-known that Morchella esculenta has a life cycle including vegetative hyphae, sclerotia, primordia, and fruiting bodies, but there is no report yet about the influence of mycelial mass on fruiting process. Since 2014, we have developed an ELISA method to detect the content of Morchella esculenta. In this study, we utilized this method to measure the mycelia content, and find the correlation between mycelial content and fruiting in the wild. The study demonstrated the changes of mycelial concentration at different location around fruiting spot.


Assuntos
Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbiologia do Solo , China , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Carpóforos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
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