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1.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854262

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, producing the disease COVID-19 is a pathogenic virus that targets mostly the human respiratory system and also other organs. SARS-CoV-2 is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans, however there have been previous outbreaks of different versions of the beta coronavirus including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV1) from 2002 to 2003 and the most recent Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) which was first identified in 2012. All of the above have been recognised as major pathogens that are a great threat to public health and global economies. Currently, no specific treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection has been identified; however, certain drugs have shown apparent efficacy in viral inhibition of the disease. Natural substances such as herbs and mushrooms have previously demonstrated both great antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity. Thus, the possibilities of natural substances as effective treatments against COVID-19 may seem promising. One of the potential candidates against the SARS-CoV-2 virus may be Inonotus obliquus (IO), also known as chaga mushroom. IO commonly grows in Asia, Europe and North America and is widely used as a raw material in various medical conditions. In this review, we have evaluated the most effective herbs and mushrooms, in terms of the antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects which have been assessed in laboratory conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fungos/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Agaricales/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Basidiomycota/química , Betacoronavirus , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Chlorella/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
2.
J Environ Radioact ; 222: 106364, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791375

RESUMO

The activity concentrations of radiocesium (137Cs) in wild mushrooms are reported to vary according to species, genus or ecological types. In addition, the concentration fluctuates among the same species collected within the same area. Therefore, we investigated whether the 137Cs concentration of wild mushrooms would be (1) spatially biased, or (2) influenced by the 137Cs or exchangeable potassium concentrations in the soils below. We set two survey plots 300 m apart in a Himalayan cedar forest in Tsukuba, Japan, where ca. 30 kBq/m2 of 137Cs was deposited after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident. From these plots, we collected fruit-bodies (fungal structures for spore production) of co-occurring Boletus hiratsukae, a mycorrhizal species, as well as from the soil below. The mean 137Cs concentrations in the fruit-bodies were significantly different between the two plots, but no difference was observed in the soil 137Cs concentration between the plots. Significant spatial autocorrelation was observed in the 137Cs concentration in the organic layer for both sites, but no significant spatial autocorrelation was observed in the 137Cs of fruit-bodies. Therefore, the variation in the 137Cs concentrations of co-occurred B. hiratsukae was not explained by spatial bias or radioactivity in the below soil. In contrast, the exchangeable potassium concentration in the soil was negatively correlated with the 137Cs in the fruit-bodies. Our results suggest that the 137Cs absorption of wild mushrooms would be suppressed by the competitive effect of exchangeable potassium in the surrounding soils.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Radioisótopos de Césio , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo , Agaricales/química , Cátions , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Japão , Solo
3.
Food Chem ; 332: 127390, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603922

RESUMO

Revalorization of mushroom by-product (stalks of A. bisporus) by extracting its components is proposed. The extraction kinetics at 25 °C of ergosterol, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity by mechanical agitation (at 130 rpm) and ultrasound assistance (at 182 and 321 W/L) in 70 and 96% v/v ethanol/water solutions during 30 min were evaluated and satisfactorily modelled, using the Weibull model (mean relative error ≤ 7.8%). The effect of the ethanol concentration was high in the ergosterol extraction yield (2 times higher yields in 96% than in 70%) but slight in those of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Ultrasound assistance promoted considerable yield increases (up to 2 times higher in ergosterol, 46% in phenolic compounds and 25% in antioxidant activity) depending on the ethanol concentration and ultrasound power density. The residues after extraction were characterized and constituted a potential source of high value polysaccharides as ß-glucans (average 12.2 ± 1.7g/100 g dm).


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antioxidantes/química , Ergosterol/química , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , beta-Glucanas/química , Agaricales/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Ergosterol/isolamento & purificação , Etanol/química , Modelos Teóricos , Fenóis/química , Sonicação
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110833, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535368

RESUMO

The largest mercury (Hg) mining district in the world is located in Almadén (Spain), with well-known environmental impacts in the surrounding ecosystem. However, the impact of mercury on the health of the inhabitants of this area has not been documented accordingly. This study aims to carry out a probabilistic human health risk assessment using Bayesian modeling to estimate the non-carcinogenic risk related to Hg through multiple exposure pathways. Samples of vegetables, wild mushrooms, fish, soil, water, and air were analyzed, and adult residents were randomly surveyed to adjust the risk models to the specific population data. On the one hand, the results for the non-carcinogenic risk based on Hazard Quotient (HQ) showed unacceptable risk levels through ingestion of Hg-contaminated vegetables and fish, with HQ values 20 and 3 times higher, respectively, than the safe exposure threshold of 1 for the 97.5th percentile. On the other hand, ingestion of mushrooms, dermal contact with soil, ingestion of water, dermal contact with water and inhalation of air, were below the safety limit for the 97.5th percentile, and did not represent a risk to the health of residents. In addition, the probabilistic approach was compared with the conservative deterministic approach, and similar results were obtained. This is the first study conducted in Almadén, which clearly reveals the high levels of human health risk to which the population is exposed due to the legacy of two millennia of Hg mining.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Mineração , Adulto , Agaricales/química , Ar/análise , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Peixes/metabolismo , Humanos , Distribuição Aleatória , Medição de Risco , Solo/química , Espanha , Verduras/química
5.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127173, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497838

RESUMO

There is a growing demand for rare earth elements (REEs) due to their use in modern technologies, and this may result in their emission to the environment. This is the first long-term study to monitor the content of REEs in four edible mushroom species. Over 21,900 samples of fruit bodies (sporocarps) of Boletus edulis, Imleria badia, Leccinum scabrum and Macrolepiota procera and their underlying soils, collected between 1974 and 2019 from 42 forest sites in Poland were examined in an attempt to understand the time evolution of the presence of REEs in the environment. In general, I. badia and B. edulis displayed a greater total content of REEs on mg per kg basis than L. scabrum and M. procera. A gradual increase in REEs in the studied mushrooms as well as associated forest soil samples was observed over the monitored period. Both levels were also highly correlated. Regardless of the considered period, human consumption of these mushrooms would not contribute significantly to dietary exposure to REEs. Wild growing mushroom species studied over a long time period may be a good bioindicator of REE migration to the environment.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Florestas , Humanos , Polônia , Solo
6.
Food Chem ; 329: 127158, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512394

RESUMO

In order to improve the bioavailability of Juglans regia L. polyphenols (JRP) in human body, the novel Juglans regia L. polyphenols-Hohenbuehelia serotina polysaccharides (HSP) nanoparticles (JRP-HSP NPs) were synthesized based on electrostatic interaction. Moreover, the physicochemical properties, morphologies and gastrointestinal digestive characteristics of JRP-HSP NPs were respectively measured and analyzed. Among four kinds of JRP-HSP NPs prepared by different condition of mass ratio, JRP-HSP NPs (1:16) with encapsulation efficiency of 51.62%, average particle size of 341.0 nm, and zeta potential of -29.3 mv, presented better physicochemical properties, such as thermal stability, photostability and crystalline properties. Morphological analysis revealed JRP-HSP NPs (1:16) appeared spherical and almost uniform. Through evaluation of simulated gastrointestinal digestion, JRP-HSP NPs prevented the variation of phenolic composition induced by gastrointestinal digestion, which was similar as the one of undigested JRP, while un-encapsulated JRP exhibited totally different state due to degradation and biotransformation, suggesting that JRP-HSP NPs possessed the sustained release characteristics in gastrointestinal system. This study provided a non-toxic strategy to encapsulate polyphenols for improving their bioavailability.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Juglans/química , Nanopartículas/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Digestão , Suco Gástrico/metabolismo , Humanos , Tamanho da Partícula , Polifenóis/síntese química , Saliva , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Difração de Raios X
7.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127462, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590177

RESUMO

Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) is an agricultural waste with a high potential for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) removal in aged contaminated soils. In this study, fresh and air-dried Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, and Auricularia auricular SMSs were used to remove PAHs in agricultural soil under 60-day incubation. The potential of SMS in PAH dissipation was studied by detecting the dissipation rate and the soil physicochemical index, enzyme activity, PAH-degradation bacterial biomass, and microbial diversity. Results showed that SMS significantly enhanced the dissipation of PAHs and fresh SMS had a better effect than air-dried SMS. The highest dissipation rate of 16 PAHs was 34.5%, which was observed in soil amended with fresh P. eryngii SMS, and the PAH dissipation rates with low and high molecular weights were 41.3% and 19.4%, respectively. By comparison, fresh P. eryngii SMS presented high nutrient contents, which promoted the development of PAH-degrading bacteria and changed the soil bacterial community involved in degradation, thereby promoting the PAH dissipation. The lignin-degrading enzymes in fresh SMS were abundant, and the laccase and manganese peroxidase activities in the treatment of fresh P. eryngii SMS was higher than those in other treatments. Fresh P. eryngii SMS improved the relative abundance of Microbacterium, Rhizobium, and Pseudomonas in soil, which were all related to PAH degradation. Consequently, adding fresh P. eryngii SMS was an effective method for remediating aged PAH-contaminated agricultural soils.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Biodegradação Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Lacase/metabolismo , Pleurotus/metabolismo , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361630

RESUMO

Ibotenic acid (IBA) is an amino acid and muscimol (MUS) is the decarboxyl derivative of IBA. They are mushroom neurotoxins with high polarity and low molecular weight. Only one transition (159->113 for IBA and 115->98 for MUS) can be found when directly measured by high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Therefore, the identification and quantification of trace amount of the toxins in biomaterial are difficult. A highly sensitive and accurate analytical method for IBA and MUS in plasma was developed by LC-MS/MS with the application of bimolecular dansylation and internal standard calibration. Acetonitrile was used for protein precipitation and for toxin extraction from plasma. The toxins and internal standards (L-tyrosine-13C9,15N for IBA and tyramine-d4 for MUS) were derivatized with dansyl chloride (DNSCl). The reaction conditions of the bimolecular dansylation were optimized and the fragmentation pathways of the derivatives in MS/MS were studied. Method validation was carried out according to the Bioanalytical Method Validation Guidance for Industry (FDA, USA, 2018). The limits of detection for IBA and MUS in plasma were 0.3 ng mL-1 and 0.1 ng mL-1, respectively. The linear ranges in plasma were 1-500 ng mL-1 and 1-200 ng mL-1 with the correlation coefficients of 0.998 and 0.999 for IBA and MUS, respectively. The recoveries at three spiked levels were 90.7-111.4% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 6.4-10.3% for IBA and the results were 85.1-94.2% with RSDs of 5.0-8.9% for MUS. The toxin levels in patients' plasma samples under different poisoning degree were presented.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Ácido Ibotênico/sangue , Muscimol/sangue , Neurotoxinas/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Acetonitrilos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Compostos de Dansil/química , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229925, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251434

RESUMO

Basidiomycete fungi are a rich source of natural products with a diverse array of potentially exploitable bioactivities. Two dimeric sesquiterpenes, bovistol B (1) and D (2), and one monomeric sesquiterpene, strossmayerin (7), were isolated from the culture filtrate of the basidiomycete fungus Coprinopsis strossmayeri. The structures were determined through a combination of MS and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. Likely monomeric precursors, identified on the basis of HRMS analysis, allow a plausible biosynthetic pathway to be proposed for the biosynthesis of 1 and 2, involving the dimerisation of the monomer through a hetero-Diels-Alder mechanism. A gene cluster, including a putative sesquiterpene 1-11 cyclase, was identified through phylogenetic and RNA-seq analysis, and is proposed to be responsible for the biosynthesis of 1 and 2.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Basidiomycota/química , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Sesquiterpenos/química , Agaricales/ultraestrutura , Basidiomycota/ultraestrutura , Produtos Biológicos/química , Filtração , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
10.
Toxicon ; 179: 72-75, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345453

RESUMO

Mushroom poisoning is a serious food safety issue in China. However, there is insufficient information on many poisoning incidents, including mushroom species and their clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatments and toxins. Detailed epidemiological investigation was conducted after the occurrence of a mushroom poisoning incident resulting in typical muscarinic syndrome in Ningxia, China. The suspected mushroom species was identified based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses. Muscarine was detected using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). On September 2, 2019, two patients exhibited typical muscarinic syndrome after consuming wild mushrooms. The clinical manifestations included chills, sweating, salivation and diarrhoea; the incubation period was approximately 2 h. Treatments, including anti-inflammatory, detoxification and nutritional support, were remedial. Full recovery ensued within 24 h. The specimen was identified as Inocybe serotina, and its muscarine content was 324.0 ± 62.4 mg/kg (k = 2, p = 95%). Two patients were poisoned via stimulation of their parasympathetic nervous system due to mistaken consumption of muscarine-containing I. serotina. They fully recovered with supportive treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of I. serotina poisoning worldwide and is the first record of this species in China. Further, a method for muscarine detection was established using UPLC-MS/MS.


Assuntos
Muscarina/análise , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/diagnóstico , Agaricales/química , China , Humanos , Intoxicação Alimentar por Cogumelos/metabolismo , Toxinas Biológicas
11.
Food Chem ; 319: 126596, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199145

RESUMO

The collection of wild edible mushrooms for use is an ancient practice. In this study, the elemental concentrations in five mushrooms were compared as a function of species and geographical location. The accumulation of metals from the substrate was found to be species dependent. Mushrooms excluded As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Si, and accumulated elements in the following order: Amanita pantherina (K > Na > Zn > Cu > Mg); Boletus edulis (edible) (K > Cu > Zn > Se > Na > Mg); Boletus mirabilis (edible) (K > Cu > Zn > Na > Mg); Lactarius deliciosus (edible) (K > Zn > Mg); and Russula sardonia (K > Na > Zn > Cu > Mg). Statistical analysis showed soil parameters to affect elemental accumulation by edible mushrooms more than inedible ones, especially for uptake of Se by B. edulis, which was antagonistic with As and Pb in the soil. The results also showed the edible mushrooms to contain proteins (25 - 55%), carbohydrates (34 - 69%), ash (3-6.5%) and lipids (0.8-5.3%).


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Metais/análise , Minerais/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Solo/química , Basidiomycota/química , Bioacumulação , Análise de Alimentos , África do Sul
12.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 1060-1069, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147838

RESUMO

Inonotus obliquus is a traditional mushroom well known for its therapeutic value. In this study, various solvent fractions of I. obliquus were preliminarily screened for their antioxidant, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition properties. To improve the drug delivery, the active fraction (ethyl acetate fraction) of I. obliquus was synthesized into fungisome (ethyl acetate phophotidyl choline complex, EAPC) and its physical parameters were assessed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), and ς potential analysis. Then normal human hepatic L02 cells was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of EAPC. The results showed that EA fraction possesses significant free radical scavenging, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition properties. FTIR, SEM, and HPLC analysis confirmed the fungisome formation. The particle size of EAPC was 102.80 ± 0.42 nm and the ς potential was -54.30 ± 0.61 mV. The percentage of drug entrapment efficiency was 97.13% and the drug release rates of EAPC in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid were 75.04 ± 0.29% and 93.03 ± 0.36%, respectively. EAPC was nontoxic to L02 cells, however it could selectively fight against the H2 O2 induced oxidative damage in L02 cells. This is the first study to provide scientific information to utilize the active fraction of I. obliquus as fungisome. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Inonotus obliquus (IO) is a traditional medicinal fungus. The extracts of IO have obvious antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of IO was encapsulated in liposomes to form EAPC. EAPC has a sustained-release effect. It has nontoxic to L02 cells and could protect L02 cells from oxidative damage caused by hydrogen peroxide. This study could provide new ideas for the treatment of diabetes.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Basidiomycota/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Amilases/química , alfa-Glucosidases/química
13.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 56(3): 324-333, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192356

RESUMO

Evaluated has been radioactive contamination with 137Cs in parallel to occurrence of 40K and total K in 31 species of medicinal mushrooms from Yunnan, China. We chose species that were not previously studied. The activity concentrations of 137Cs in the medicinal fungi in this study were low. The maximum values were 54 ± 4 Bq kg-1 dry biomass (db) in caps and 48 ± 5 Bq kg-1 db in stipes of saprotrophic fungus Gerronema xanthophyllum from the family of Tricholomataceae. Mushrooms with relatively higher activity concentrations of 40K were among the non-polypore species but certain species from the genus Ganoderma such as G. applanatum, G. capense, G. philippii and G. sinense showed 40K in the higher range of 900 ± 240 to 1400 ± 340 Bq kg-1 db. The concentrations of total K in the fungal materials in this study were in the range from 2.9 ± 6.5 g kg-1 db in Fomes rufolaccatus to 110 ± 6 g kg-1 db in G. xanthophyllum. The species studied, which represented both some popular wood-decaying polypore fungi but also terrestrial forms from the herbal medicine of China, can be considered as little contaminated with 137Cs and potentially good source of leachable K in extract and decoction or as a powdered form in capsules.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Carpóforos/química , Radioisótopos de Potássio/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Radioatividade
14.
J Food Sci ; 85(4): 903-909, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147837

RESUMO

In-depth understanding of the shifting of water status during dehydration is crucial for obtaining better quality of dried food. In this work, we report a nondestructive method to measure the water status in hot-air dried mushroom via multispectral imaging (MSI) technology combined with chemometric methods. The low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) measurements were performed as reference. During drying process, the moisture content changed dramatically with notable migration and conversion of different water phases. Partial least squares (PLS), back propagation neural network (BPNN), and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) models were applied to develop quantitative models. Among all, BPNN model showed considerably better performance of prediction with coefficient of determination R2 c = 0.9829, R2 p = 0.9639. The results demonstrated that MSI technology combined with chemometric methods is an impressive approach for determination of the water status in hot-air dried mushrooms, which would facilitate infield of food processing by providing applicable and appropriate platform. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Experimental investigation of different water status during food processing. Assessment of the potential of multispectral imaging to predict water status. Usage of novel measurement method for food processors.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Água/análise , Dessecação/métodos , Conservação de Alimentos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Redes Neurais de Computação , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
15.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 5620484, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148651

RESUMO

Infundibulicybe geotropa (Bull.) Harmaja is an edible mushroom found in Bolu province in northwestern Turkey. The chemical composition and bioactivity of these mushrooms has not been previously investigated. We examined the phenolic composition, elemental content, and antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of methanol extracts of fruiting bodies. The phenolic compounds in the fungal samples were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and element content was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) were determined using the commercially available Rel assay kit. The antigenotoxic effects of the extract were determined using the MTT assay to assess cell viability and the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay). The total phenolic content (ppm) of I. geotropa was found to be catechin (361 ± 2.31), clorogenic acid (553.54 ± 5.06), and coumaric acid (9.93 ± 0.25). The TAS, TOS, and OSI of the extract were 1.854 ± 0.051 mmol/L, 30.385 ± 0.399 µmol/L, and 1.639 ± 0.067, respectively. The elemental levels were within "normal" range. In HT22 mouse hippocampal neuronal cells, the extract (100 and 200 µg/ml) showed no genotoxic potential and ameliorated hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced oxidative DNA damage. I. geotropa may be considered a good nutrient due to its phenolic constituents and antioxidant potential.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Turquia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229067, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084160

RESUMO

Psilocybin, a substance mainly found in mushrooms of the genus psilocybe, has been historically used for ritualistic, recreational and, more recently, medicinal purposes. The scientific literature suggests low toxicity, low risk of addiction, overdose, or other causes of injury commonly caused by substances of abuse, with growing interest in the use of this substance for conditions such as treatment-resistant depression. However, the presence of negative outcomes linked to psilocybin use is not clear yet. The objective of this study is to investigate the negative effects of psilocybin consumption, according to the users' own perception through self-reports extracted from an online platform. 346 reports were analyzed with the assistance of the IRAMUTEQ textual analysis software, adopting the procedures of Descending Hierarchical Classification, Correspondence Factor Analysis and Specificities Analysis. The text segments were grouped in 4 main clusters, describing thinking distortions, emergencies, perceptual alterations and the administration of the substance. Bad trips were more frequent in female users, being associated with thinking distortions. The use of multiple doses of psilocybin in the same session or its combination with other substances was linked to the occurrence of long-term negative outcomes, while the use of mushrooms in single high doses was linked to medical emergencies. These results can be useful for a better understanding of the effects of psilocybin use, guiding harm-reduction initiatives.


Assuntos
Psilocibina/química , Agaricales/química , Feminino , Alucinógenos/química , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Software
17.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126242, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088620

RESUMO

Evaluated has been bioconcentration potential by fungi and risk to human consumers from exposure to natural long-lived radioactive uranium (234U, 238U) and thorium (230Th, 232Th) sequestered in stems, caps and the whole fruiting bodies by mushrooms of the genus Leccinum and Leccinellum. Edible species in the study were collected from boreal forests in the northern regions of Poland and investigated: red-capped scaber (Leccinum aurantiacum), orange oak bolete (Leccinum aurantiacum var. quercinum), foxy bolete (Leccinum vulpinum), slate bolete (Leccinum aurantiacum var. duriusculum) and hazel bolete (Leccinellum pseudoscabrum). The study showed the species accumulated uranium (234U, 238U) and thorium (230Th, 232Th) form soil to some degree but the calculated values of the bioconcentration factor were below 1. The evaluation showed that Leccinum and Leccinellum mushrooms can contribute to annual effective radiation dose maximally at about 0.9 µSv. Hence, consumption of these mushrooms might increase the annual effective ionizing radiation dose received by a human, while the exposure is considered low from the toxicological point of view even if eaten at elevated amounts.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Tório/análise , Urânio/análise , Basidiomycota , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mercúrio/análise , Polônia , Doses de Radiação , Radiação Ionizante , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Chemistry ; 26(37): 8281-8285, 2020 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101345

RESUMO

Psilocybin, the principal indole alkaloid of Psilocybe mushrooms, is currently undergoing clinical trials as a medication against treatment-resistant depression and major depressive disorder. The psilocybin supply for pharmaceutical purposes is met by synthetic chemistry. We replaced the problematic phosphorylation step during synthesis with the mushroom kinase PsiK. This enzyme was biochemically characterized and used to produce one gram of psilocybin from psilocin within 20 minutes. We also describe a pilot-scale protocol for recombinant PsiK that yielded 150 mg enzyme in active and soluble form. Our work consolidates the simplicity of tryptamine chemistry with the specificity and selectivity of enzymatic catalysis and helps provide access to an important drug at potentially reasonable cost.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Psilocybe/química , Psilocibina/análogos & derivados , Psilocibina/química , Triptaminas/química , Biocatálise , Humanos , Psilocibina/biossíntese , Triptaminas/metabolismo
19.
J Basic Microbiol ; 60(4): 331-340, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003038

RESUMO

The ability of Coriolus versicolor medicinal mushroom to grow and accumulate selenium during submerged cultivation in a selenium-fortified medium is examined in this paper. For selenium supplementation, commercial selenium yeast was used. Control, nonenriched sample and reference cultures cultivated in the medium enriched with commercial yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were also prepared. The mushroom demonstrated a high ability to accumulate selenium from the added source (around 970 and 1,300 µg/g of dry mycelium weight for samples enriched with selenium in a concentration of 10 and 20 mg Se/L, respectively). The addition of selenium significantly (p ≤ .05) increased the biomass yield, whereas the addition of nonenriched yeast had no significant (p ≤ .05) impact. Furthermore, regression analysis showed statistically significant (p ≤ .05) and positive correlations between the content of Se and Fe (r = .92), Se and Cu (r = .92), Se and Mn (r = .98), and Se and Sr (r = .96), suggesting that selenium incorporation was followed by incorporation of these elements, and led to mineral enrichment of the obtained mycelium. Methanol extracts prepared from mycelium biomass demonstrated a better inhibitory effect on Gram-positive bacterial strains with minimal inhibitory concentrations between <0.3125 and 40 mg/ml. The obtained results showed that selenium yeast could be used for obtaining a potential novel food supplement: mushroom biomass with high selenium content and enhanced mineral composition.


Assuntos
Agaricales/efeitos dos fármacos , Agaricales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomassa , Selênio/farmacologia , Agaricales/química , Meios de Cultura , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Metanol/química , Micélio/química , Micélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Selênio/metabolismo
20.
Isotopes Environ Health Stud ; 56(1): 83-92, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973593

RESUMO

137Cs concentrations were measured in mushrooms in an area affected by radioactive discharges of the Mining-and-Chemical Combine (MCC) (Rosatom, Russia) in 2002-2017. The sources of radionuclides in the study sites were global fallouts and waterborne and airborne radioactive discharges of the MCC. The mushroom species Suillus granulatus and S. luteus showed the highest 137Cs concentrations (140-7100 Bq kg-1) for this area. Over the entire monitoring period, no significant change in 137Cs concentration was observed in the Suillus spp. samples collected from the sites with the aerial deposition of radionuclides. In the floodplain site with the radionuclide deposition from water and air, a significant decrease in the average 137Cs concentration was observed in the period between 2004 and 2017: a three-fold decrease in Suillus spp. and a nine-fold decrease in Lactarius deliciosus. The effective half-lives of 137Cs in fruiting bodies of the mushrooms L. deliciosus and Suillus spp. in this site were 3.6 ± 0.6 and 9.2 ± 2.7 years, respectively.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Poluentes Radioativos da Água/análise , Federação Russa
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