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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252575, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355869

RESUMO

Abstract Increased anxiety and depressive symptoms have reported to be its association with long term illness. Because of having unwanted effects of newly available drugs, patients administering anxiolytic drugs usually discontinue the treatment before they are completely recovered. Therefore, there is a serious need to develop new anxiolytic drugs. The anxiolytic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei in animal models was assessed. 24 male mice (Mus musculus genus) were included in the study. Four groups were prepared and each group contained six animals. The groups were vehicle control, positive control (diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as two treatment groups receiving Agaricus blazei hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.50 mg/kg and 273.0 mg/kg orally. The Marble burying test, Nestlet shredding test and Light and Dark box test used to assess anxiolytic activity. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. while hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) was administered via oral route which exhibited marked reduction in number of marbles-burying as compared to vehicle control group. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. and Oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) exhibited significant decrease in nestlet shredding in comparison to vehicle control group. The oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.5mg/kg and 273mg/kg showed elevation in time spent in light box and was comparable to standard treated group while time spent by mice following oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei at a dose of 273.0 mg/kg also showed elevation and was found to be more near to standard treated group (diazepam 1 mg/kg, i.p.).


Resumo O aumento da ansiedade e dos sintomas depressivos têm relatado sua associação com doenças de longa duração. Por causa dos efeitos indesejáveis dos novos medicamentos disponíveis, os pacientes que administram medicamentos ansiolíticos geralmente interrompem o tratamento antes de estarem completamente recuperados. Portanto, há uma necessidade séria de desenvolver novos medicamentos ansiolíticos. Foi avaliado o efeito ansiolítico do extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei em modelos animais. Vinte e quatro camundongos machos (gênero Mus musculus) foram incluídos no estudo. Quatro grupos foram preparados, e cada grupo continha seis animais. Os grupos foram controle de veículo, controle positivo (diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p.), bem como dois grupos de tratamento recebendo extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 136,50 mg/kg e 273,0 mg/kg por via oral. O teste de enterrar Marble, o teste de retalhamento Nestlet e o teste de caixa clara e escura são usados ​​para avaliar a atividade ansiolítica. Camundongos foram administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p., enquanto o extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) foi administrado por via oral, que exibiu redução acentuada no número de mármores enterrados em comparação com o grupo de controle de veículo. Camundongos administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p. e a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) exibiu diminuição significativa na trituração de ninhos em comparação ao grupo de controle de veículo. A administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico na dose de 136,5mg/kg e 273mg/kg mostrou elevação no tempo gasto na caixa de luz e foi comparável ao grupo tratado padrão, enquanto o tempo gasto por camundongos após a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 273,0 mg/kg também mostrou elevação e foi mais próximo do grupo tratado padrão (diazepam 1 mg/kg, ip).


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Coelhos , Agaricus , Comportamento Exploratório , Modelos Animais de Doenças
2.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270633, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881577

RESUMO

A number of experiments were done to further our understanding of the substrate utilization in button mushroom crops (Agaricus bisporus). An analysis of the degradation of dry matter of the substrate during a crop cycle revealed that for pin formation the upper 1/3rd layer is used, for the production of flush one all layers are involved and for flush two mainly the lower 1/3 layer is used. A reduction in substrate depth leads to a decrease in yield/m2 but an apparent increase in yield per tonne of substrate with a lower mushroom quality. A short daily interruption of the connection between the casing soil with the substrate results in a delay of the first flush. Interruptions with only part of the substrate did not lead to delay in production. Daily interruption of the connection with all or only part of the substrate leads to a shift in yield from flush one to flush two but the total yield remains unchanged. The mycelial biomass in the substrate increases from filling up to pinning, has a steeper increase during flush one, and is levelling off during flush two, indicating that in the period of venting and up to/including flush one, enzymes are secreted by growing hyphae generating nutrients to feed a fixed amount of mushroom biomass for two flushes. A sidewise extension of the substrate (without casing soil, thus not producing mushrooms) showed that the substrate at a distance more than somewhere between 20-50 cm away from the casing soil does not contribute to feeding mushrooms in the first two flushes. The observations are discussed with respect to relevant previous research.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Agaricus/metabolismo , Biomassa , Micélio , Solo
3.
Food Res Int ; 158: 111557, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35840249

RESUMO

In this study, the film assembled by caffeic acid-grafted-chitosan/polylactic acid (CA-g-CS/PLA) was used for packaging postharvest Agaricus bisporus, and its effects on postharvest quality of Agaricus bisporus by regulating membrane lipid metabolism were investigated. The results showed that compared to traditional polyethylene packaging, the cell morphology of Agaricus bisporus packaged by CA-g-CS/PLA demonstrated a more complete structure due to its lower permeability, higher fluidity and stronger ability to maintain free water. Meanwhile, CA-g-CS/PLA packaging could effectively delay the decrease rate of unsaturation value and phospholipids of Agaricus bisporus during storage. In addition, the activities and expression levels of lipoxygenase (LOX), phospholipase C (PLC) and phospholipase D (PLD) in Agaricus bisporus packaged with CA-g-CS/PLA were inhibited, while those of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) and sphingomyelin synthase (SMS) were promoted. Therefore, CA-g-CS/PLA packaging could enhance the postharvest quality of Agaricus bisporus by regulating membrane lipid metabolism, which has great application potential in the field of new intelligent packaging.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Agaricus , Ácidos Cafeicos , Quitosana/química , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Poliésteres
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12423, 2022 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859110

RESUMO

Mushrooms are nutritious foods that are widely cultivated all over the world. They are rich in a range of compounds linked to improving functions of the immune system including carotenoids, alkaloids, lectins, enzymes, folates, fats, organic acids, minerals, polysaccharides, phenolics, proteins, tocopherols, terpenoids, and volatile compounds. In this study we investigated, the immunomodulatory activity in rats of the aqueous extracts of five of the most common edible mushrooms belonging to Family Basidiomycota-white-rot fungi including, Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus columbinus, and Pleurotus sajor-caju. Male Wistar albino rats were assigned to thirteen groups and Immunosuppression was induced by oral administration of dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg), followed by oral administration of the mushroom extracts at low (200 mg/kg) and high (400 mg/kg) doses. A positive control group received the immune stimulant Echinacea extract Immulant® at (30 mg/kg), while the negative control group received only saline. From each animal, in each group, blood samples were collected after 15 days for complete blood counts and for measurement of immunologic parameters, including lysozyme activity, nitric oxide (NO) production and serum cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) levels. Results have shown that white blood cells (WBCs) and lymphocytic counts were significantly boosted by high doses of each of the five mushroom extracts (207-289% increase for WBC and 153-175% for lymphocytes) with a significant increase in lysozyme activity (110-136% increase), NO concentration (159-232% increase) and cytokines as compared to the negative control group. Histopathological examination of the rats' spleen and thymus tissues has shown marked lymphocytic proliferation that was more obvious at the higher doses. In conclusion, our results showed that the five edible mushroom extracts revealed significant immunostimulatory effects preclinically particularly, at the higher doses (400 mg/kg) which can be considered the effective dose.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Muramidase , Animais , Citocinas , Echinacea , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
Life Sci ; 305: 120779, 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35798070

RESUMO

AIM: The present study aimed to prepare a novel lipophilic fraction rich in fat soluble bioactive from Agaricus bisporus and investigated its impact through in vitro and in vivo assessments since the prospective biological activities of fat soluble components from mushrooms are limited. METHODS: Ergosterol concentrate fraction (ECF) preparation followed by subsequent characterization of the extract using various analytical techniques (HPLC-UV, Mass spectroscopy, NMR). Furthermore, the fraction has been evaluated for antioxidant activity, DNA protection ability, hypolipidemic properties by in vitro specific enzyme inhibition and in vivo animal model (C57BL/6). KEY FINDINGS: The fraction majorly contains ergosterol (504 mg/100 g dw) and linoleic acid (71.92 %). In vitro studies showed that the fraction limited free radicals induced DNA damage, exhibited significant free radical scavenging activities (IC50 of DPPH 15.64; ABTS 8.28 mg/ml), and inhibited HMG-CoA reductase activity (IC50 5.03 mg/ml). Further, in vivo study showed that ECF treatment significantly (p < 0.05) improved insulin sensitivity (reduced plasma glucose & insulin, increased adiponectin) and reduced inflammatory markers (CRP & TNF-α) in comparison to high fat fed mice. Furthermore, ECF has significantly reduced plasma lipid profile and accumulation of lipids in liver. This could be due to down regulation of mRNA expression of lipogenic transcription factors such as SREBP-1c and SREBP-2, and key lipogenic enzyme ACC. Moreover, ECF treatment has suppressed protein expression of FAS, induced cholesterol clearance by enhancing LDL-R protein expression. SIGNIFICANCE: The present work for the first time evaluated the synergistic potential of ergosterol and linoleic acid to improve antioxidant defense system and ameliorate obesity associated metabolic dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ácido Linoleico , Obesidade , Agaricus , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ergosterol/química , Ergosterol/metabolismo , Ergosterol/farmacologia , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos
6.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 442, 2022 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701764

RESUMO

The cultivation of edible mushroom is an emerging sector with a potential yet to be discovered. Unlike plants, it is a less developed agriculture where many studies are lacking to optimize the cultivation. In this work we have employed high-throughput techniques by next generation sequencing to screen the microbial structure of casing soil employed in mushroom cultivation (Agaricus bisporus) while sequencing V3-V4 of the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the ITS2 region of rRNA for. In addition, the microbiota dynamics and evolution (bacterial and fungal communities) in peat-based casing along the process of incubation of A. bisporus have been studied, while comparing the effect of fungicide treatment (chlorothalonil and metrafenone). Statistically significant changes in populations of bacteria and fungi were observed. Microbial composition differed significantly based on incubation day, changing radically from the original communities in the raw material to a specific microbial composition driven by the A. bisporus mycelium growth. Chlorothalonil treatment seems to delay casing colonization by A. bisporus. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidota appeared as the most dominant bacterial phyla. We observed a great change in the structure of the bacteria populations between day 0 and the following days. Fungi populations changed more gradually, with A. bisporus displacing the rest of the species as the cultivation cycle progresses. A better understanding of the microbial communities in the casing will hopefully allow us to increase the biological efficiency of the crop.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Fungicidas Industriais , Agaricus/genética , Bactérias/genética , Fungos/genética , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Solo
7.
Mycologia ; 114(4): 645-660, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679162

RESUMO

The greatest diversity of culturally relevant fungi in Mexico has been recorded in temperate forests. Likewise, it has been proven that people who live in such environments possess greater ethnomycological knowledge, compared with people in the lowlands. In this study, we investigated whether the uses and perceptions of fungi were different between people living near forests in highlands and those living in lowlands near grasslands and subtropical scrublands. We selected seven communities from the municipality of Tlaltenango, Zacatecas, Mexico, where we conducted guided tours, 35 semistructured interviews, and free lists to 420 people. Since highlands surrounded by temperate forests give rise to high species diversity, we expected that the inhabitants, in comparison with those of the lowlands where there is less diversity, would recognize a larger number of fungi. To test this hypothesis, we employed discriminant function analysis, principal coordinate analysis, Mann-Whitney U test, and linear regression. The cultural importance of each species was calculated based on the frequency with which it was mentioned and the first principal coordinate. Although the highlanders have a deeper knowledge of mushrooms, lowlanders and highlanders had similar fungal backgrounds and preferred the same species, regardless of the fungi surrounding their territory. The lack of differences among communities was due in part to the fact that the most culturally important species were those that grew in grasslands and subtropical scrub areas. Agaricus campestris was the most culturally prevalent and only commercialized species both in the highlands and lowlands, followed by Pleurotus djamor and Volvariella bombycina. None of the mushrooms growing in the pine-oak forest had a high cultural importance value, even for the communities living in the vicinity of this forest, forcing them to travel long distances to collect Agaricus campestris. Further investigations are needed in order to assess the relevance of sociocultural factors, and their potential influence in the preference for particular mushrooms in this region.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Agaricus , Florestas , Humanos , Conhecimento , México
8.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(4): 63-73, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35695597

RESUMO

Our study aimed to investigate whether Agaricus brasiliensis water extract (AWE) possesses antidepressant activity. Depression as a result of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) was established in mice. The AWE group was administered 3.0 g/kg of AWE. The tail suspension test (TST) was conducted 1 h after the last administration. Then after fasting for 12 h, the mice were sacrificed by euthanasia and the brain and organs (liver, spleen, kidney, and thymus) were collected immediately. Biochemical indexes, including serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA), were analyzed with biochemical reagent kits. In addition, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, inhibition of hydroxyl radical activity, and total antioxidant capacity were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of AWE. The organ index analysis indicated that AWE had no adverse effect on mice at feeding time. The results suggested that AWE administration could significantly shorten the immobility time of mice in the TST. Particularly, the levels of 5-HT and NE appeared to increase significantly (P < 0.05) after AWE administration. At the same time, in vitro antioxidant experiments also revealed that AWE displayed better antioxidant activity. Collectively, these results suggest that AWE possesses good antidepressant activity, and these effects may be mediated by enhancing monoamine neurotransmitter content in the brain or antioxidant capacity to improve depression.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Serotonina , Animais , Antidepressivos/química , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal , Depressão/tratamento farmacológico , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Camundongos , Norepinefrina/farmacologia , Serotonina/farmacologia , Água
9.
Antiviral Res ; 203: 105330, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533778

RESUMO

Despite substantial morbidity and mortality, no therapeutic agents exist for treatment of dengue or Zika, and the currently available dengue vaccine is only recommended for dengue virus (DENV)-immune individuals. Thus, development of therapeutic and/or preventive drugs is urgently needed. DENV and Zika virus (ZIKV) nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) can directly trigger endothelial barrier dysfunction and induce inflammatory responses, contributing to vascular leak in vivo. Here we evaluated the efficacy of the (1-6,1-3)-ß-D-glucan isolated from Agaricus subrufescens fruiting bodies (FR) and its sulfated derivative (FR-S) against DENV-2 and ZIKV infection and NS1-mediated pathogenesis. FR-S, but not FR, significantly inhibited DENV-2 and ZIKV replication in human monocytic cells (EC50 = 36.5 and 188.7 µg/mL, respectively) when added simultaneously with viral infection. No inhibitory effect was observed when FR or FR-S were added post-infection, suggesting inhibition of viral entry as a mechanism of action. In an in vitro model of endothelial permeability using human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs), FR and FR-S (0.12 µg/mL) inhibited DENV-2 NS1- and ZIKV NS1-induced hyperpermeability by 50% and 100%, respectively, as measured by Trans-Endothelial Electrical Resistance. Treatment with 0.25 µg/mL of FR and FR-S inhibited DENV-2 NS1 binding to HPMECs. Further, FR-S significantly reduced intradermal hyperpermeability induced by DENV-2 NS1 in C57BL/6 mice and protected against DENV-induced morbidity and mortality in a murine model of dengue vascular leak syndrome. Thus, we demonstrate efficacy of FR-S against DENV and ZIKV infection and NS1-induced endothelial permeability in vitro and in vivo. These findings encourage further exploration of FR-S and other glycan candidates for flavivirus treatment alone or in combination with compounds with different mechanisms of action.


Assuntos
Vírus da Dengue , Dengue , Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , beta-Glucanas , Agaricus , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Infecção por Zika virus/tratamento farmacológico , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(10)2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35632359

RESUMO

The accurate identification of overlapping Agaricus bisporus in a factory environment is one of the challenges faced by automated picking. In order to better segment the complex adhesion between Agaricus bisporus, this paper proposes a segmentation recognition algorithm for overlapping Agaricus bisporus. This algorithm calculates the global gradient threshold and divides the image according to the image edge gradient feature to obtain the binary image. Then, the binary image is filtered and morphologically processed, and the contour of the overlapping Agaricus bisporus area is obtained by edge detection in the Canny operator, the convex hull and concave area are extracted for polygon simplification, and the vertices are extracted using Harris corner detection to determine the segmentation point. After dividing the contour fragments by the dividing point, the branch definition algorithm is used to merge and group all the contours of the same Agaricus bisporus. Finally, the least squares ellipse fitting algorithm and the minimum distance circle fitting algorithm are used to reconstruct the outline of Agaricus bisporus, and the demand information of Agaricus bisporus picking is obtained. The experimental results show that this method can effectively overcome the influence of uneven illumination during image acquisition and be more adaptive to complex planting environments. The recognition rate of Agaricus bisporus in overlapping situations is more than 96%, and the average coordinate deviation rate of the algorithm is less than 1.59%.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Algoritmos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(9)2022 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35563314

RESUMO

Although genomes from many edible mushrooms are sequenced, studies on fungal micro RNAs (miRNAs) are scarce. Most of the bioinformatic tools are designed for plants or animals, but the processing and expression of fungal miRNAs share similarities and differences with both kingdoms. Moreover, since mushroom species such as Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus, white button mushroom) are frequently consumed as food, controversial discussions are still evaluating whether their miRNAs might or might not be assimilated, perhaps within extracellular vesicles (i.e., exosomes). Therefore, the A. bisporus RNA-seq was studied in order to identify potential de novo miRNA-like small RNAs (milRNAs) that might allow their later detection in diet. Results pointed to 1 already known and 37 de novo milRNAs. Three milRNAs were selected for RT-qPCR experiments. Precursors and mature milRNAs were found in the edible parts (caps and stipes), validating the predictions carried out in silico. When their potential gene targets were investigated, results pointed that most were involved in primary and secondary metabolic regulation. However, when the human transcriptome is used as the target, the results suggest that they might interfere with important biological processes related with cancer, infection and neurodegenerative diseases.


Assuntos
Agaricus , MicroRNAs , Agaricus/genética , Biologia Computacional/métodos , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA Fúngico , RNA-Seq
12.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(11): 3949-3955, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35622125

RESUMO

China is one of the largest producers and exporters of wild edible fungi in the world. Cultivation mushroom production value ranks within the top five after grain, vegetable, fruit, and edible oil plantation, greater than sugar, cotton, and tobacco business. More than 40 new varieties of high market value mushrooms from our group were highlighted in this article. Mushroom cultivations have a high impact on China's poverty alleviation program, with earnings at least ten times higher than rice and corn. The products were exported to 137 countries and regions, mainly to Japan, South Korea, ASEAN, the USA, and the European Union, among these, Japan is the biggest import market for cultivated mushrooms from China. Rapid development in the market and an increased demand for edible fungi generally enhance the economy of domestic edible fungi. We are the leading research group in logical farm design that is HACCP-certified to reduce the cost of investment for agriculture, thus broadening the consumption market of edible mushrooms and forming a demand-oriented leading industry for the promotion of human health. The enterprise needs to re-examine the operation plan and the strategic thinking to improve the fundamental drivers based on the available resources of the locality. Mushrooms growing intergrate with upgraded technologies and equipment to become smart agriculture which have smart production and intelligent factories. The purpose of suitable products will not change: delicious, nutritious, healthy, and modern. KEY POINTS: • Cultivation mushroom production value ranks within the top five after grain, vegetable, fruit, and edible oil plantation, greater than sugar, cotton, and tobacco business. • Mushroom cultivations have a high impact on China's poverty alleviation program, with earnings at least ten times higher than rice and corn. • The development of transportation and industrialization of mushrooms facilitate the modernization of mushroom industry in China.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Agaricus , Oryza , Agricultura , China , Humanos , Indústrias , Açúcares
13.
Protein Pept Lett ; 29(5): 460-472, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382712

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protease inhibitors inhibit the activity of protease enzymes; hence, they are essentially involved in the regulation of the metabolic processes involving protease enzymes and the protection of the host organism against external damage due to proteases. These inhibitors are abundantly present in all living organisms but have not been much reported in mushrooms. Mushrooms are one of the major food components of humans, with delicious taste and high nutritional value. Mushrooms also have therapeutic and economic significance. The edible mushrooms with medicinal properties are much in commercial demand. To date, the presence of protease inhibitors has not been reported much in edible mushrooms. The present study reports the characterization of a protease inhibitor isolated from the common white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study is to characterize the novel protease inhibitor from Agaricus bisporus in order to determine its nature and activity under varying environmental conditions. METHODS: The protease inhibitor was characterized through SDS PAGE, gel filtration chromatography, and de novo sequencing in order to determine its molecular mass and sequence, respectively. The optimum pH, temperature, and thermal stability were studied to determine the optimum working range of the protease inhibitor. The protease inhibitory activity (%) was determined in the presence of metal ions, surfactants, oxidizing agents, and reducing agents. The kinetic parameters and the type of inhibition exhibited by the protease inhibitor were determined using casein and trypsin protease enzyme. RESULTS: The protease inhibitor was found to be a low molecular mass compound of 25 kDa. The de novo sequencing matched the inhibitor against a 227 amino acid containing peptide molecular mass of 24.6 kDa molecular mass. The protease inhibitory activity (%) was found highest at pH 7.0 and temperature 50 °C, and the inhibitor was stable from pH 4.0-9.0 and temperature 30-80 °C. In the presence of metal ions, the residual protease inhibitory activity (%) enhanced in the presence of Na+, Mg2+, and Fe3+. The residual activity increased in the presence of the surfactant SDS slightly in comparison to control, while it decreased in the case of Triton-X and Tween 20. The presence of oxidizing agents, hydrogen peroxide and dimethyl sulfoxide decreased the residual inhibitory activity. The protease inhibitor's activity was unaffected by the reducing agents, dithiothreitol and ß-mercaptoethanol, at up to 2mM concentration, but it decreased at higher concentrations. The inhibitor exhibited uncompetitive inhibition against trypsin with an inhibitory constant of 166 nM, indicating a strong affinity towards the protease, with a half-life of 93.90 minutes at 37 °C. CONCLUSION: Protease inhibitors isolated from mushrooms are generally small in size, more stable, and tolerant towards varying external conditions. The protease inhibitor isolated from Agaricus bisporus also exhibited similar characteristics.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Inibidores de Proteases , Agaricus/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Oxidantes , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Substâncias Redutoras , Tripsina
14.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408727

RESUMO

Mushrooms fortified with iron (Fe) can offer a promising alternative to counter the worldwide deficiency problem. However, the factors that may influence the efficiency of fortification have not yet been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three Fe forms (FeCl3 6H2O, FeSO4 7H2O, or FeHBED) in three concentrations (5, 10, or 50 mM) for three mushroom species (Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, or Pholiota nameko) on their chemical composition, phenolic compounds, and organic acid production. The most effective metal accumulation of all the investigated species was for the 50 mM addition. FeCl3 6H2O was the most favorable additive for P. eryngii and P. nameko (up to 145 and 185% Fe more than in the control, respectively) and FeHBED for P. ostreatus (up to 108% Fe more than in control). Additionally, P. nameko showed the highest Fe accumulation among studied species (89.2 ± 7.51 mg kg-1 DW). The creation of phenolic acids was generally inhibited by Fe salt supplementation. However, an increasing effect on phenolic acid concentration was observed for P. ostreatus cultivated at 5 mM FeCl3 6H2O and for P. eryngii cultivated at 5 mM FeCl3 6H2O and 5 mM FeSO4 7H2O. In the case of organic acids, a similar situation was observed. For P. ostreatus, FeSO4 7H2O and FeHBED salts increased the formation of the determined organic acids in fruiting bodies. P. eryngii and P. nameko were characterized by a much lower content of organic acids in the systems supplemented with Fe. Based on the obtained results, we recommend starting fortification by preliminarily indicating which form of the element is preferred for the species of interest for supplementation. It also seems that using an additive concentration of 50 mM or higher is most effective.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Pleurotus , Biofortificação , Ferro , Pleurotus/química , Sais
15.
Food Chem ; 386: 132820, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367794

RESUMO

The complete medium used for mushroom cultivation is important for reliable crop production. We aimed to identify how the origin of Agaricus bisporus grown in Korea was affected by complete media produced in different geographical regions using stable isotope ratios (SIRs). We found that the SIR features of A. bisporus significantly depended on the complete media origin used; in particular, it appeared the high δ34S in the Chinese complete medium, low δ34S in the Dutch complete medium, and high δ15N in the Korean complete medium (P < 0.05). The support vector machine method appeared better geo-origin classification of A. bisporus by the complete media compared to a linear discriminant analysis. A large-scale study should be conducted to establish a reliable origin identification model for A. bisporus grown in complete media to improve the global mushroom marketplace.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Meios de Cultura , Isótopos , Projetos Piloto
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394401

RESUMO

Wheat straw is commonly used as a cellulose source in mushroom compost and could be a secondary source of mycotoxin contamination in the food chain. We cultivated edible Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus on T-2/HT-2 artificially-contaminated mushroom compost and developed and in-house validated an UHPLC-MS/MS method for determination of T-2, HT-2, T2-triol and T2-tetraol in mushroom compost and mushroom basidiocarp. A rapid phase I metabolization of T-2 and HT-2 in mushroom compost was observed. In Agaricus bisporus, basidiocarps 8-15 µg kg-1 accumulation of HT-2 calculated on wet weight was measured. No detectable mycotoxins were found in Pleurotus ostreatus basidiocarp.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Compostagem , Micotoxinas , Toxina T-2/análogos & derivados , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 292: 115191, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292374

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The use of mushrooms in medicine is quite old and the first report about the use of genus Agaricus in treatment of ulcers occurred in Byzantine period. This mushroom is widely consumed as food, tea, food supplements, as well as nutraceutical and cosmeceutical applications, being cultivated and appreciated in several countries such as Brazil, Korea, Japan and China. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to characterize the chemical profile and the potential gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract from Agaricus blazei Murill (HEAb). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extract was chemically characterized by elemental analysis, UPLC-QTOF-MSE, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques to elucidate the metabolites present in the extract. The quantification of phenolic compounds and the in vitro antioxidant activities were performed and the gastroprotective effect of this extract was evaluated against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. HEAb was administered by gavage at 5, 25 and 50 mg kg-1 and N-acetylcysteine at 300 mg kg-1 (positive control). Furthermore, the pathways of nitric oxide (NO), Cyclic Guanylate Monophosphate (cGMP), prostaglandins (PGs) and the involvement of ATP-sensitive K+ Channels were modulated. RESULTS: Mannitol, malic acid, pyroglutamic acid, L-agaritine and L-valine were putatively identified by UPLC-QTOF-MSE in HEAb. In addition, it was possible to identify mannitol by the intense signals in the NMR spectra, being still quantified as the main compound in the extract by HPLC. The contents of total phenols and flavonoids corroborated with the good antioxidant activity of HEAb. This study observed that HEAb at 25 and 50 mg kg-1 had gastroprotection effect demonstrated by the reduction of histopathological parameters and the reduction of mastocytosis in the stomach of mice. CONCLUSIONS: In this study was possible to conclude that HEAb has gastroprotective effect related to the involvement of NO and PG pathways in the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in mice.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Antiulcerosos , Úlcera Gástrica , Agaricus/metabolismo , Animais , Antiulcerosos/química , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Etanol/química , Mucosa Gástrica , Manitol/metabolismo , Manitol/farmacologia , Manitol/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle
18.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0255765, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35294444

RESUMO

Agaricus bisporus is widely consumed on the world market. The easy browning of mushroom surface is one of the most intuitive factors affecting consumer purchase. A certain cognition on browning mechanism has been made after years of research. At present, people slow down the browning of mushrooms mainly by improving preservation methods. In addition, breeding is also a reliable way. In the production practice, we have identified some browning-resistant varieties, and we selected a browning-resistant variety to compare with an ordinary variety to reveal the resistance mechanism. Using transcriptomics and metabolomics, the differences in gene expression and metabolite levels were revealed, respectively. The results showed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) like AbPPO4, AbPPO3 and AbPPO2 were differently expressed and these DEGs were involved in many pathways related to browning. The expression of AbPPO expression play an important role in the browning of A. bisporus and multiple PPO family members are involved in the regulation of browning. However, the resistance to browning cannot be judged only by the expression level of AbPPOs. For metabolomics, most of the different metabolites were organic acids. These organic acids had a higher level in anti-browning (BT) than easy-browning varieties (BS), although the profile was very heterogeneous. On the contrary, the content of trehalose in BS was significantly higher than that in BT. Higher organic acids decreased pH and further inhibited PPO activity. In addition, the BS had a higher content of trehalose, which might play roles in maintaining PPO activity. The difference of browning resistance between BS and BT is mainly due to the differential regulation mechanism of PPO.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Transcriptoma , Agaricus/química , Agaricus/genética , Humanos , Metabolômica , Melhoramento Vegetal , Trealose
19.
Food Chem ; 386: 132707, 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339091

RESUMO

Atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) is a novel nonthermal technology with potential applications in maintaining and improving food quality. The effect of ACP on the activity and structure of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was evaluated. Results demonstrated that the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) based plasma technology could inactivate PPO (up to 69%) at 50 kV with the increased concentrations of H2O2 and NOx. An obvious enhancement of surface hydrophobicity was observed, whereas a gradual reduction of total sulfhydryl content was recorded with the increasing exposure time. Data from circular dichroism, atomic force microscopy, particle size distribution and fluorescence spectra displayed the rearrangement of secondary structure and disruption of the tertiary structure. Red shifts of fluorescence spectra showed positive correlations with the inactivation rate of PPO. Therefore, ACP treatment could be served as an alternative approach to inactivate undesirable enzymes to minimize the loss of food nutrition and quality.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Gases em Plasma , Agaricus/química , Catecol Oxidase/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 205: 385-395, 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35183600

RESUMO

The current study explores the effect of the extracted novel Mushroom polysaccharides and its formulation onto Alginate (Alg.)/kappa carrageenan microcapsules to exert immunotherapeutic effect upon activating gut resident natural killer cells (NK) against colon cancer. The extracted polysaccharides of Agaricus bisporus MH751906 was microcapsulated in Alg/κ-carrageenan microcapsules as an oral delivery system for colon cancer. The microcapsule is characterized by SEM, FTIR, Raman and TGA; and showed a superior acidic stability, controlled release, and thermal stability at high temperature with higher hydrogel swelling rate in colon-mimicking pH. Upon activation of human NK cells with microcapsules (ANK cells), a significant increase in CD16+CD56+ NK cell populations were recorded. These activated NK cells showed 74.09% cytotoxic effects against human colon cancer Caco-2 cells where majority of cancer cell populations arrested at G0/G1 phase leading to apoptosis. The apoptotic molecular mechanism induced by ANK cells on Caco-2 treated cells is through down regulations of both BCL2 and TGF surviving genes and up regulation in IkappaB-α gene expression. Therefore, this novel polysaccharides-alginate/κ-carrageenan microcapsules can be used as an oral targeted delivery system for colon cancer immunotherapy.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Neoplasias do Colo , Agaricus/química , Alginatos/química , Células CACO-2 , Cápsulas , Carragenina/química , Neoplasias do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Células Matadoras Naturais , Polissacarídeos/química
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