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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 292: 115191, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292374

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The use of mushrooms in medicine is quite old and the first report about the use of genus Agaricus in treatment of ulcers occurred in Byzantine period. This mushroom is widely consumed as food, tea, food supplements, as well as nutraceutical and cosmeceutical applications, being cultivated and appreciated in several countries such as Brazil, Korea, Japan and China. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to characterize the chemical profile and the potential gastroprotective effect of hydroalcoholic extract from Agaricus blazei Murill (HEAb). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The extract was chemically characterized by elemental analysis, UPLC-QTOF-MSE, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques to elucidate the metabolites present in the extract. The quantification of phenolic compounds and the in vitro antioxidant activities were performed and the gastroprotective effect of this extract was evaluated against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. HEAb was administered by gavage at 5, 25 and 50 mg kg-1 and N-acetylcysteine at 300 mg kg-1 (positive control). Furthermore, the pathways of nitric oxide (NO), Cyclic Guanylate Monophosphate (cGMP), prostaglandins (PGs) and the involvement of ATP-sensitive K+ Channels were modulated. RESULTS: Mannitol, malic acid, pyroglutamic acid, L-agaritine and L-valine were putatively identified by UPLC-QTOF-MSE in HEAb. In addition, it was possible to identify mannitol by the intense signals in the NMR spectra, being still quantified as the main compound in the extract by HPLC. The contents of total phenols and flavonoids corroborated with the good antioxidant activity of HEAb. This study observed that HEAb at 25 and 50 mg kg-1 had gastroprotection effect demonstrated by the reduction of histopathological parameters and the reduction of mastocytosis in the stomach of mice. CONCLUSIONS: In this study was possible to conclude that HEAb has gastroprotective effect related to the involvement of NO and PG pathways in the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in mice.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Antiulcerosos , Úlcera Gástrica , Agaricus/metabolismo , Animais , Antiulcerosos/química , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Etanol/química , Mucosa Gástrica , Manitol/metabolismo , Manitol/farmacologia , Manitol/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Gástrica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle
2.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500599

RESUMO

Agaricus bisporus (J.E. Lange) Imbach is one the most popular species of edible mushrooms in the world because of its taste and nutritional properties. In the research, repeatability of accumulation of bioelements and biomass yield in experimentally chosen in vitro culture medium, was confirmed. The in vitro cultures were conducted on the modified Oddoux medium enriched with bioelements (Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe). The aim of the study was to create an effective method of sampling, which enabled non-invasive monitoring of metals concentrations changes in the medium, during increase of biomass in in vitro cultures. The first, indirect method of sampling was applied. The non-invasive probe (a dipper) for in vitro culture was used; hence, the highest biomass increase and metals accumulation were gained. The method also guaranteed culture sterility. The second method, a direct one, interfered the in vitro culture conditions and growth of mycelium, and as a consequence the lower biomass increase and metals' accumulation were observed. Few cases of contaminations of mycelium in in vitro cultures were observed. The proposed method of non-invasive sampling of the medium can be used to monitor changes in the concentrations of metals in the medium and their accumulation in the mycelium in natural environment. Changes in concentrations of the selected metals over time, determined by the method of atomic absorption spectrometry, made it possible to correlate the obtained results with the specific stages of A. bisporus mycelium development and to attempt to explain the mechanism of sampling metals from the liquid substrate.


Assuntos
Agaricus/metabolismo , Biotecnologia/métodos , Meios de Cultura/metabolismo , Biomassa , Metais/metabolismo , Micélio/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria Atômica/métodos
3.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(7)2021 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34356095

RESUMO

In heterothallic basidiomycete fungi, sexual compatibility is restricted by mating types, typically controlled by two loci: PR, encoding pheromone precursors and pheromone receptors, and HD, encoding two types of homeodomain transcription factors. We analysed the single mating-type locus of the commercial button mushroom variety, Agaricus bisporus var. bisporus, and of the related variety burnettii. We identified the location of the mating-type locus using genetic map and genome information, corresponding to the HD locus, the PR locus having lost its mating-type role. We found the mip1 and ß-fg genes flanking the HD genes as in several Agaricomycetes, two copies of the ß-fg gene, an additional HD2 copy in the reference genome of A. bisporus var. bisporus and an additional HD1 copy in the reference genome of A. bisporus var. burnettii. We detected a 140 kb-long inversion between mating types in an A. bisporus var. burnettii heterokaryon, trapping the HD genes, the mip1 gene and fragments of additional genes. The two varieties had islands of transposable elements at the mating-type locus, spanning 35 kb in the A. bisporus var. burnettii reference genome. Linkage analyses showed a region with low recombination in the mating-type locus region in the A. bisporus var. burnettii variety. We found high differentiation between ß-fg alleles in both varieties, indicating an ancient event of recombination suppression, followed more recently by a suppression of recombination at the mip1 gene through the inversion in A. bisporus var. burnettii and a suppression of recombination across whole chromosomes in A. bisporus var. bisporus, constituting stepwise recombination suppression as in many other mating-type chromosomes and sex chromosomes.


Assuntos
Agaricus/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Genes Fúngicos Tipo Acasalamento/genética , Agaricus/metabolismo , Alelos , Basidiomycota/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , Ligação Genética/genética , Genoma Fúngico/genética , Recombinação Genética/genética
4.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng ; 44(11): 2303-2313, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34296328

RESUMO

Agaricus bitorquis (Quél.) Sacc. Chaidam (ABSC) is a wild edible fungus uniquely found in the Tibet Plateau. ABSC is rich in polysaccharides that are considered biologically active. This study aimed to determine the feasibility of enhancing exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by ABSC in shake flask culture by supplementing the fermentation medium with anthocyanin extract. Different concentrations of Lycium ruthenicum Murr. (LRM) anthocyanin crude extract were tested on ABSC fermentation. The activity of phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), phosphoglucose mutase (PGM), and phosphomannose isomerase (PMI), enzymes presumably involved in EPS synthesis by ABSC, was determined. ABSC transcriptomic profile in response to the presence of anthocyanins during fermentation was also investigated. LRM anthocyanin crude extract (0.06 mg/mL) was most effective in increasing EPS content and mycelial biomass (by 208.10% and 105.30%, respectively, P < 0.01). The activity of PGI, PGM, and PMI was increased in a medium where LRM anthocyanin extract and its main components (proanthocyanidins and petunia anthocyanin) were added. RNA-Seq analysis showed that 349 genes of ABSC were differentially expressed during fermentation in the medium containing anthocyanin extract of LRM; 93 genes were up-regulated and 256 genes down-regulated. From gene ontology enrichment analysis, differentially expressed genes were mostly assigned to carbohydrate metabolism and signal transduction categories. Collectively, LRM anthocyanins extract positively affected EPS production and mycelial biomass during ABSC fermentation. Our study provides a novel strategy for improving EPS production and mycelial growth during ABSC liquid submerged fermentation.


Assuntos
Agaricus/metabolismo , Fermentação , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/biossíntese , Lycium/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Agaricus/genética , Agaricus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Meios de Cultura , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , RNA Fúngico/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma
5.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(5)2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067973

RESUMO

Agaricus bisporus secretes siderophore to uptake environmental iron. Siderophore secretion in A. bisporus was enabled only in the iron-free minimal medium due to iron repression of hapX, a transcriptional activator of siderophore biosynthetic genes. Aiming to produce siderophore using conventional iron-containing complex media, we constructed a recombinant strain of A. bisporus that escapes hapX gene repression. For this, the A. bisporushapX gene was inserted next to the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter (pGPD) in a binary vector, pBGgHg, for the constitutive expression of hapX. Transformants of A. bisporus were generated using the binary vector through Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PCR and Northern blot analyses of the chromosomal DNA of the transformants confirmed the successful integration of pGPD-hapX at different locations with different copy numbers. The stable integration of pGPD-hapX was supported by PCR analysis of chromosomal DNA obtained from the 20 passages of the transformant. The transformants constitutively over-expressed hapX by 3- to 5-fold and sidD, a key gene in the siderophore biosynthetic pathway, by 1.5- to 4-fold in mRNA levels compared to the wild-type strain (without Fe3+), regardless of the presence of iron. Lastly, HPLC analysis of the culture supernatants grown in minimal medium with or without Fe3+ ions presented a peak corresponding to iron-chelating siderophore at a retention time of 5.12 min. The siderophore concentrations of the transformant T2 in the culture supernatant were 9.3-fold (-Fe3+) and 8-fold (+Fe3+) higher than that of the wild-type A. bisporus grown without Fe3+ ions, while no siderophore was detected in the wild-type supernatant grown with Fe3+. The results described here demonstrate the iron-independent production of siderophore by a recombinant strain of A. bisporus, suggesting a new application for mushrooms through molecular biological manipulation.


Assuntos
Agaricus/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Microbiologia Industrial/métodos , Ferro/metabolismo , Sideróforos/biossíntese , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Agaricus/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenases/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Sideróforos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 362: 130092, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087715

RESUMO

Button mushrooms are widely produced edible basidiomycetes. Commercially, they are cultivated on substrates containing fermented horse manure and chicken feces. Since pharmacologically active substances (PAS) might be introduced into the food chain via animal treatment, their residues may be present in manure used for mushroom growth. Previous studies in plants have demonstrated an uptake of PAS from the agricultural environment. The present study was performed to investigate the presence of PAS in button mushrooms. For analysis, a multi-analyte method for the detection of 21 selected PAS using liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry was developed, successfully validated and applied to commercially available button mushrooms. Traces of chloramphenicol were detected in two of 20 samples. Additionally, in a mushroom cultivation experiment an uptake of ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol and praziquantel was conducted. Throughout the whole experiment, praziquantel was present in quantifiable amounts in mushrooms and in high quantities in soil.


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Cloranfenicol/análise , Ciprofloxacina/análise , Praziquantel/análise , Agaricus/metabolismo , Agricultura , Animais , Galinhas , Cloranfenicol/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida , Ciprofloxacina/metabolismo , Análise de Alimentos , Cavalos , Praziquantel/metabolismo , Solo/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33989114

RESUMO

Attempts to bio-enrich fungal biomass with an essential trace elements to produce dietary supplements have some tradition and an example is selenium. Lithium salts have medical applications, but safer forms are sought after, and lithiated foods and food supplements may be an alternative. This study evaluated the lithiation of white Agaricus bisporus mushrooms using commercial compost fortified with LiNO3 and investigated the effects on co-accumulation of trace elements. The fortifications at levels of 1.0, 5.0, 10, 50 and 100 mg·kg-1 dw, resulted in corresponding median increases in mushroom Li concentrations of 0.74, 5.0, 7.4, 19 and 21 mg kg-1 dw, respectively, relative to 0.031 mg kg-1 dw in control mushrooms. The bio-concentration potential for Li uptake decreased at higher levels of fortification, with saturation occurring at 100 mg·kg-1, and the level of 500 mg kg-1 mycelium failed to produce mushrooms. The compost fortification resulted in up to several hundred-fold enrichment of mushrooms compared to those grown on control compost, underlining their potential therapeutic use. At higher fortification levels, some effects were seen on the co-accumulation of other elements, such as Ag (stems), As, Cd, Cr, Cs, Cu, Hg (stems), Mn, Rb, Sr, U (stems) and Zn; 0.05 < p < 0.10), but no effects were seen for Ag (caps), Al, Ba, Co, Hg (caps) Ni, Tl, U (caps), and V (p > 0.05).


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Compostos de Lítio/química , Lítio/análise , Nitratos/química , Oligoelementos/análise , Agaricus/metabolismo , Lítio/metabolismo , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 183: 1697-1714, 2021 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022313

RESUMO

Edible mushrooms have been increasingly introduced into the human diet, which has driven research into their functional properties. Thus, Agaricus brasiliensis Murill or Agaricus blazei Murill (ABM) is a species native to the Brazilian biome, whose fruiting body has been used not only for dietary purposes, but also in the development of functional foods or as source of molecules of pharmacological interest. The bioactivity of ABM has been related to the presence of polysaccharides, although the contribution of other metabolites cannot be discharged. This work describes the polysaccharides isolation methodology and preparation of the extracts of ABM and their biological activities. Furthermore, it presents a general outline of its characterizations regarding composition, chemical structure and properties in solution. The ABM and its chemical constituents exhibit several biological activities that support their potential use for prevention or treatment of diseases with inflammatory background, such as cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis. The mechanism of action of the extracts and polysaccharides from ABM is mainly related to a modulation of immune system response or reduction of inflammatory response. This review shows that the ABM has great potential in the pharmaceutical, biotechnological and food sectors that deserves additional research using standardized products.


Assuntos
Agaricus/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Brasil , Alimento Funcional , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(13): 5574-5582, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The optimal use of feed resources must be considered by most livestock farmers. The use of low-cost agricultural by-products and the processing of these materials is one possible solution in this respect. One such compound is edible button mushroom waste (EM), a large amount of which is produced annually in the mushroom production cycle worldwide. RESULTS: Bulk density 100 of EM was smaller than the other groups. These changes also applied to alfalfa for bulk density, which was higher than the replaced waste. The dry matter solubility of EM was higher than that of alfalfa hay, whereas the ash solubility rate for EM was greater compared to alfalfa. Replacing up to 210 g kg-1 alfalfa with EM did not affect the production of purine derivatives, microbial protein, nitrogen excreted in urine and feces, and retained nitrogen, although the organic matter digestibility (OMD) increased, whereas the crude protein digestibility and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) decreased (P < 0.05). Fermentation potential, gas production rate, metabolizable energy and short-chain fatty acids were increased. On replacing up to 210 g kg-1 alfalfa with EM, the diet OMD increased, whereas the crude protein and NDF digestibility decreased (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: EM usage in the experimental diets did not affect the production of purine derivatives, microbial protein, nitrogen excreted in urine and feces, and retained nitrogen. The physical properties, chemical composition and nutritional value of EM, as well as its low cost, show that it can be used as an alternative part of the diet forage in the ruminant's diet. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Ovinos/metabolismo , Resíduos/análise , Agaricales/química , Agaricales/metabolismo , Agaricus/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Medicago sativa/química , Medicago sativa/metabolismo , Nutrientes/química , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Ovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovinos/microbiologia
10.
Food Chem ; 348: 129074, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515940

RESUMO

Exogenous melatonin application at 0, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µM retarded cap browning of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) by 78.35, 31.40, 30.91, 27.17, and 32.50 %, respectively.Mushrooms treated with 100 µM melatonin also had lower weight loss and higher firmness. During the first 5 days of storage at 4 °C, higher H2O2 accumulation may serve as a signal for promoting endogenous melatonin accumulation by triggering the expression of TDC, T5H, SNAT, and ASMT genes, beneficial for preserving membrane integrity. Besides, the higher accumulation of phenols in mushrooms treated with 100 µM melatonin may be ascribed to higher PAL and lower PPO gene expression and enzyme activity. Moreover, higher DPPH scavenging capacity in mushrooms treated with 100 µM melatonin may be ascribed to the higher accumulation of phenols and ascorbic acid.


Assuntos
Agaricus/efeitos dos fármacos , Agaricus/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo
11.
J Food Sci ; 86(2): 420-425, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438265

RESUMO

The edible coating has been used for covering fruits and vegetables, bringing surface protection, and extending product shelf-life. Due to the outstanding properties, nanomaterials have become a part of the packaging/coating new generation, demonstrating improvements in the barrier capacity of materials starting from construction products to the food industry. In the food industry, on the other hand, Agaricus bisporus mushrooms have a limited shelf-life from 1 to 3 days because of their high respiration rate and enzymatic browning. With the aim to reduce these two parameters and prevent rapid senescence, the objective of this study was to incorporate a natural source of nanomaterials (cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) into a gellan gum-based coating and sprayed the surface of the mushrooms with the coating material. To evaluate the effect of CNCs, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production rate, and color change were recorded during the mushroom storage at 4 ± 1 °C. Results showed that all coatings were able to decrease total color change (ΔE) of mushrooms from 12 to 8 at day 10 when the coating was applied in all samples compared to control. In addition, significant differences were observed in the respiration rate when CNCs were added to the mushrooms. Oxygen consumption results exhibited a 44 mL O2 /kg · day production at day 5 with 20% CNCs compared to 269 mL O2 /kg · day observed in noncoated samples. This trend was similarly observed in the carbon dioxide production rate. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: With this research, it was remarkable to see the presence of CNCs in the coating solution reduced the respiration rate and increased the shelf-life of mushrooms. Similar applications can be industrially scaled-up to protect fruits and vegetables by CNCs-based coating or packaging materials. A variety of sustainable materials are available nowadays that serve as packaging matrix, and scientists are working on expanding the compatibility of these nanomaterials. In addition, it has been studied that CNCs enhance the degradation of polymers, an effort that many companies are making to reduce the environmental impact in their products.


Assuntos
Agaricus/metabolismo , Celulose , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Nanopartículas , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Agaricus/química , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica , Cor , Excipientes , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas , Oxigênio/metabolismo
12.
Environ Microbiol ; 23(1): 224-238, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33140552

RESUMO

Wood and litter degrading fungi are the main decomposers of lignocellulose and thus play a key role in carbon cycling in nature. Here, we provide evidence for a novel lignocellulose degradation strategy employed by the litter degrading fungus Agaricus bisporus (known as the white button mushroom). Fusion of hyphae allows this fungus to synchronize the activity of its mycelium over large distances (50 cm). The synchronized activity has a 13-h interval that increases to 20 h before becoming irregular and it is associated with a 3.5-fold increase in respiration, while compost temperature increases up to 2°C. Transcriptomic analysis of this burst-like phenomenon supports a cyclic degradation of lignin, deconstruction of (hemi-) cellulose and microbial cell wall polymers, and uptake of degradation products during vegetative growth of A. bisporus. Cycling in expression of the ligninolytic system, of enzymes involved in saccharification, and of proteins involved in nutrient uptake is proposed to provide an efficient way for degradation of substrates such as litter.


Assuntos
Agaricus/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Lignina/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos/metabolismo , Polímeros/metabolismo , Agaricus/enzimologia , Ciclo do Carbono , Celulose/metabolismo , Micélio/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Madeira/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem ; 340: 127833, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919356

RESUMO

Currently, melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytrytamine) is recognized as a potential scavenger of free radicals. In this study, the effect of exogenous melatonin at various concentrations (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mM) on the texture, sensory qualities, and electron leakage in white mushrooms was evaluated at 3 ± 1 °C. It was observed that mushrooms treated with 0.1 mM melatonin were of good quality and their electron leakage was dramatically dampened. The results showed that 0.1 mM melatonin retained a higher adenosine triphosphate level and also prevented the release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. More significantly, it prominently inhibited electron leakage by increasing the activities of complexes I and III by the upregulation of AbNdufB9 and AbRIP1. It also regulated respiratory states in mushrooms; delayed the decline of respiratory state 3; enhanced respiratory state 4; boosted the oxidative phosphorylation and efficiency of mitochondria; and ultimately retarded the senescence of the white mushrooms.


Assuntos
Agaricus/efeitos dos fármacos , Agaricus/metabolismo , Melatonina/farmacologia , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Agaricus/genética , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Complexo III da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Elétrons , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/metabolismo
14.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(8): 3481-3488, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The release of bioelements from edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus, Cantharellus cibarius, and Imleria badia) was examined using in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion to assess their health-promoting potential. The following samples were tested: fresh, frozen, dried in a food dryer, dried in the sun, and lyophilized. The samples were incubated in gastric juice (pepsin, NaCl, HCl) and in intestinal juice (NaHCO3 , pancreatin, bile salts) with the aim of verifying the bioaccessibility of the bioelements and the digestibility of mushrooms. Four bioelements that are essential for the human body were studied: Mg, Zn, Cu, and Fe. RESULTS: It was found that Mg was extracted in the highest amounts from the sun-dried A. bisporus (1.620 g kg-1 d.w.). In the case of microelements, the lyophilized fruiting bodies of I. badia released Zn in the highest quantities (0.180 g kg-1 d.w.). Lyophilization and sun-drying methods were more advantageous than other methods. Fresh material was a more valuable source of bioelements than frozen material. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that edible mushrooms have a high content of bioelements that are easily bioaccessible, which indicates their health-promoting properties. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Agaricus/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Agaricales/química , Agaricales/metabolismo , Agaricus/química , Basidiomycota/química , Digestão , Suco Gástrico/química , Suco Gástrico/metabolismo , Humanos , Oligoelementos/análise
15.
Food Funct ; 12(1): 133-143, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33283804

RESUMO

Obesity has a serious effect on human health. It relates to metabolic syndrome, including the associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, stroke and hyperemia. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are important receptors to control fat metabolism in the human body. Because of the safety concerns of synthetic drugs targeting PPARs, ligands from natural sources have drawn interest. Earlier, we have found high PPAR activities in extracts from Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom, WBM). WBM contains a wide range of candidate compounds which could be agonists of PPARs. To identify which compounds are responsible for PPAR activation by WBM extracts, we used fractionation coupled to effect-directed analysis with reporter gene assays specific for all three PPARs for purification and LC/MS-TOF and NMR for compound identification in purified active fractions. Surprisingly, we identified the relatively common dietary fatty acid, linoleic acid, as the main ligand of PPARs in WBM. Possibly, the relatively low levels of linoleic acid in WBM are sufficient and instrumental in inducing its anti-obesogenic effects, avoiding high energy intake and negative health effects associated with high levels of linoleic acid consumption. However, it could not be excluded that a minor relatively potent compound contributes towards PPAR activation, while the anti-obesity effects of WBM may be further enhanced by receptor expression modulating compounds or compounds with completely PPAR unrelated modes of action.


Assuntos
Agaricus/metabolismo , Receptores Ativados por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/agonistas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos
16.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 368(1)2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338214

RESUMO

Solid-state fermentation with Agaricus brasiliensis and Agaricus bisporus on whole grain wheat was carried out. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of fermented wheat were determined. The results showed that the maximum values of polyphenols contents in wheat fermented with A. brasiliensis and A. bisporus reached, respectively (3.16 ± 0.21) and (3.93 ± 0.23) mg GAE/g, which were 2.90 and 3.61 times of unfermented control. By employing ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS), 18 kinds of phenolic compounds were identified from fermented wheat. Compared with control, only 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde was the same compound. It indicated that fermentation with the two fungi changed polyphenols contents and phenolic compounds composition in wheat to a great extent. Among these phenolic compounds, except for 4-hydroxy-benzaldehyde, 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid and ß-N-(γ-glutamyl)-4-formylphenylhydrazine, other 15 kinds of phenolic compounds were first identified from mushroom samples (including fruit bodies, mycelia and fermentation products). DPPH radical scavenging capacity, reducing power, ferrous ion chelating ability and inhibition of lipid peroxidation of fermented wheat were significantly stronger than control (P < 0.05).


Assuntos
Agaricus/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Triticum/microbiologia , Antioxidantes/química , Fermentação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Fenóis/química , Triticum/metabolismo
17.
Food Chem ; 344: 128691, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33248838

RESUMO

Selenoproteins in selenium (Se)-enriched vegetables play an important role in human health. In this study, three water-soluble selenoproteins PR-Se-1, PR-Se-2 and PR-Se-3 in Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) were isolated by anion exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE. Sequence analyses performed by HPLC-MS/MS showed that PR-Se-1, a 114024 Da selenoprotein with 1019 amino acids (AAs), is an isoenzyme of isocitrate dehydrogenase. PR-Se-2, a 53983 Da selenoprotein with 508 AAs, is a kind of dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase. PR-Se-3, a 47179 Da selenoprotein with 415 AAs, is a kind d-proline reductase. Se content is high at 26.1 µg/g, and selenocystine is the predominant Se unit in the three selenoproteins. Se content of ABM is 9.15 µg/g, and the organic form of Se accounts for ~81% of total Se content. ABM could be a promising source of Se in Se-poor regions.


Assuntos
Agaricus/química , Selênio/química , Selenoproteínas/análise , Agaricus/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Selênio/metabolismo , Selenoproteínas/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Água/química
18.
J Food Biochem ; 45(1): e13555, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33200472

RESUMO

This experiment mainly optimized the extraction technology of Agaricus blazei polypeptide (ABp) and evaluated its protective effect on aging mice. In this study, a novel single component, the M is 3 kD, was isolated and purified from Agaricus blazei. An aging mouse model was established using D-galactose. After the administration of ABp, the contents of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and reactive oxygen species were significantly changed. Through immunofluorescence staining, it was observed that ABp can reduce changes in brain tissue. The differential expression of genes was analyzed by RNA-seq. A total of 295 differentially expressed genes were screened out in the ABp group.RT-qPCR verified important genes and showed that the mRNA expression levels of Hsph1, Trim32, HK1, Hnrnpa1, and Grik5 were significantly increased, and those of ApoE, Atp1a3, Stxbp1, and Mapk8ip1 was significantly decreased. Western blotting showed that the protein expression levels of Keap1 and p53 were significantly lower, while the protein expression levels of Nrf2, HO-1, Hsph1, and Trim32 were significantly higher in the ABP group. ABp played an anti-aging role in an aging mouse model. The specific mechanism of action may be related to the regulation of the expression of the Keap1/Nrf2/P53 signaling pathway and related factors. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The research may contribute to the development of ABp as functional foods or dietary supplements for anti-aging in the future.


Assuntos
Agaricus , Envelhecimento , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Agaricus/metabolismo , Animais , Galactose , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Camundongos , Proteínas Munc18 , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , ATPase Trocadora de Sódio-Potássio , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases
19.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 11 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182769

RESUMO

Bacterial diseases of the edible white button mushroom Agaricus bisporus caused by Pseudomonas species cause a reduction in crop yield, resulting in considerable economic loss. We examined bacterial pathogens of mushrooms and bacteriophages that target them to understand the disease and opportunities for control. The Pseudomonastolaasii genome encoded a single type III protein secretion system (T3SS), but contained the largest number of non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) genes, multimodular enzymes that can play a role in pathogenicity, including a putative tolaasin-producing gene cluster, a toxin causing blotch disease symptom. However, Pseudomonasagarici encoded the lowest number of NRPS and three putative T3SS while non-pathogenic Pseudomonas sp. NS1 had intermediate numbers. Potential bacteriophage resistance mechanisms were identified in all three strains, but only P. agarici NCPPB 2472 was observed to have a single Type I-F CRISPR/Cas system predicted to be involved in phage resistance. Three novel bacteriophages, NV1, ϕNV3, and NV6, were isolated from environmental samples. Bacteriophage NV1 and ϕNV3 had a narrow host range for specific mushroom pathogens, whereas phage NV6 was able to infect both mushroom pathogens. ϕNV3 and NV6 genomes were almost identical and differentiated within their T7-like tail fiber protein, indicating this is likely the major host specificity determinant. Our findings provide the foundations for future comparative analyses to study mushroom disease and phage resistance.


Assuntos
Agaricales/metabolismo , Genoma Viral , Fagos de Pseudomonas/genética , Fagos de Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas/isolamento & purificação , Agaricales/virologia , Agaricus/metabolismo , Agaricus/virologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Meios de Cultura/química , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Bacteriano , Família Multigênica , Peptídeo Sintases/genética , Peptídeo Sintases/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/virologia , Fagos de Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo III/metabolismo
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239617, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991614

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal occurring in the environment naturally. Almond mushroom (Agaricus brasiliensis) is a well-known cultivated edible and medicinal mushroom. In the past few decades, Cd accumulation in A.brasiliensis has received increasing attention. However, the molecular mechanisms of Cd-accumulation in A. brasiliensis are still unclear. In this paper, a comparative transcriptome of two A.brasiliensis strains with contrasting Cd accumulation and tolerance was performed to identify Cd-responsive genes possibly responsible for low Cd-accumulation and high Cd-tolerance. Using low Cd-accumulating and Cd-tolerant (J77) and high Cd-accumulating and Cd-sensitive (J1) A.brasiliensis strains, we investigated 0, 2 and 5 mg L-1 Cd-effects on mycelium growth, Cd-accumulation and transcriptome revealed by RNA-Seq. A total of 57,884 unigenes were obtained. Far less Cd-responsive genes were identified in J77 mycelia than those in J1 mycelia (e.g., ABC transporters, ZIP Zn transporter, Glutathione S-transferase and Cation efflux (CE) family). The higher Cd-accumulation in J1 mycelia might be due to Cd-induced upregulation of ZIP Zn transporter. Cd impaired cell wall, cell cycle, DNA replication and repair, thus decreasing J1 mycelium growth. Cd-stimulated production of sulfur-containing compounds, polysaccharides, organic acids, trehalose, ATP and NADPH, and sequestration of Cd might be adaptive responses of J1 mycelia to the increased Cd-accumulation. DNA replication and repair had better stability under 2 mg L-1 Cd, but greater positive modifications under 5 mg L-1 Cd. Better stability of DNA replication and repair, better cell wall and cell cycle stability might account for the higher Cd-tolerance of J77 mycelia. Our findings provide a comprehensive set of DEGs influenced by Cd stress; and shed light on molecular mechanism of A.brasiliensis Cd accumulation and Cd tolerance.


Assuntos
Agaricus/metabolismo , Cádmio/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Agaricus/efeitos dos fármacos , Agaricus/genética , Cádmio/toxicidade , Reparo do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Tolerância a Medicamentos , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Micélio/química , Micélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Micélio/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo , RNA Fúngico/química , RNA Fúngico/metabolismo , RNA-Seq
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