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1.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 8(3): 396-412, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008854

RESUMO

This article assesses the CORE Group Polio Project (CGPP) experience over a 20-year period in 5 countries. It examines how a program designed to provide social mobilization to eradicate one disease, and which did so effectively, functioned within the general framework of community health workers (CHWs). Vertical health programs often have limited impact on broader community health. CGPP has a 20-year history of social mobilization and effective program interventions. This history provided an opportunity to assess how CGPP community mobilizers (CMs) functioned in polio and maternal and child health. The Updated Program Functionality Matrix for Optimizing Community Health Programs tool of the CHW Assessment and Improvement Matrix (AIM) was used to examine CGPP CM roles across different contexts. The analysis determined that CGPP CMs met the basic level of functioning (level 3) for 6 of the 10 components of the AIM tool. This cross-country descriptive analysis of the CGPP demonstrates the importance of embracing the full range of CHW AIM components, even in a vertical program. Use of data, community involvement, local adaptation, and linkage with the health system are especially critical for success. This general lesson could be applied to other community mobilization and disease/epidemic control initiatives, especially as we face the issues of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Poliomielite/prevenção & controle , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde Rural , África , Ásia , Humanos , População Rural
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4185-4195, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027355

RESUMO

This study discusses the reorganization of the Community Health Workers (CHWs) work process as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic, considering its importance as a link between the community and the health services in the field of basic care. The literature review comes from the following databases: Virtual Health Library, Scientific Electronic Library Online, and the Brazilian Scientific Publications Portal databases in open access and document review of technical and normative notes from the Municipal Health Secretariats in Brazil. The analysis was based on the premises of Primary Health Care and on the axes of the CHW work, especially cultural competence and community orientation, aiming to discuss the changes introduced in this work regarding the following aspects: 1) health teams support, 2) use of telehealth, and 3) health education. This study concluded that the Covid-19 pandemic demanded reorganization of the work process and assistance flows in the field of basic care. In order for the CHW to continue developing their activities it is necessary to guarantee decent working conditions, training and continuing education, including the concern about the possible discontinuity of other care needed to ensure the population health care in the territory.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Coleta de Dados , Educação em Saúde , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Telemedicina
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239400, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After a COVID-19 diagnosis, vulnerable populations face considerable logistical and financial challenges to isolate and quarantine. We developed and evaluated a novel, community-based approach ('Test-to-Care' Model) designed to address these barriers for socioeconomically vulnerable Latinx individuals with newly diagnosed COVID-19 and their households. METHODS: This three-week demonstration project was nested within an epidemiologic surveillance study in a primarily Latinx neighborhood in the Mission district of San Francisco, California. The Test-to-Care model was developed with input from community members and public health leaders. Key components included: (1) provision of COVID-19-related education and information about available community resources, (2) home deliveries of material goods to facilitate safe isolation and quarantine (groceries, personal protective equipment and cleaning supplies), and (3) longitudinal clinical and social support. Newly SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive participants were eligible to participate. Components of the model were delivered by the Test-to-Care team, which was comprised of healthcare providers and community health workers (CHWs) who provided longitudinal clinic- and community-based support for the duration of the isolation period to augment existing services from the Department of Public Health (DPH). We evaluated the Test-to-Care Model using the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) Framework and drew upon multiple data sources including: programmatic data, informal interviews with participants and providers/CHWs and structured surveys among providers/CHWs. RESULTS: Overall, 83 participants in the surveillance study were diagnosed with COVID-19, of whom 95% (79/83) were Latinx and 88% (65/74) had an annual household income <$50,000. Ninety-six percent (80/83) of participants were reached for results disclosure, needs assessment and DPH linkage for contact tracing. Among those who underwent an initial needs assessment, 45% (36/80) were uninsured and 55% (44/80) were not connected to primary care. Sixty-seven percent (56/83) of participants requested community-based CHW support to safely isolate at their current address and 65% (54/83) of all COVID-19 participants received ongoing community support via CHWs for the entire self-isolation period. Participants reported that the intervention was highly acceptable and that their trust increased over time-this resulted in 9 individuals who disclosed a larger number of household members than first reported, and 6 persons who requested temporary relocation to a hotel room for isolation despite initially declining this service; no unintended harms were identified. The Test-to-Care Model was found to be both acceptable and feasible to providers and CHWs. Challenges identified included a low proportion of participants linked to primary care despite support (approximately 10% after one month), and insufficient access to financial support for wage replacement. CONCLUSIONS: The Test-to-Care Model is a feasible and acceptable intervention for supporting self-isolation and quarantine among newly diagnosed COVID-19 patients and their households by directly addressing key barriers faced by socioeconomically vulnerable populations.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pobreza , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Quarentena , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236255, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881867

RESUMO

Community Health Workers (CHWs) play a vital role delivering health services to vulnerable populations in low resource settings. In Rwanda, CHWs provide village-level care focused on maternal/child health, control of infectious diseases, and health education, but do not receive salaries for these services. CHWs make up the largest single group involved in health delivery in the country; however, limited information is available regarding the socio-economic circumstances and satisfaction levels of this workforce. Such information can support governments aiming to control infectious diseases and alleviate poverty through enhanced healthcare delivery. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate CHW opportunity costs, (2) identify drivers for CHW motivation, job satisfaction and care provision, and (3) report CHW ideas for improving retention and service delivery. In this mixed-methods study, our team conducted in-depth interviews with 145 CHWs from three districts (Kirehe, Kayonza, Burera) to collect information on household economics and experiences in delivering healthcare. Across the three districts, CHWs contributed approximately four hours of volunteer work per day (range: 0-12 hrs/day), which translated to 127 684 RWF per year (range: 2 359-2 247 807 RWF/yr) in lost personal income. CHW out-of-pocket expenditures (e.g. patient transportation) were estimated at 36 228 RWF per year (range: 3 600-364 800 RWF/yr). Participants identified many benefits to being CHWs, including free healthcare training, improved social status, and the satisfaction of helping others. They also identified challenges, such as aging equipment, discrepancies in financial reimbursements, poverty, and lack of formal workspaces or working hours. Lastly, CHWs provided perspectives on reasonable and feasible improvements to village-level health programming that could improve conditions and equity for those providing and using the CHW system.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/economia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Satisfação no Emprego , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Ruanda , Adulto Jovem
6.
Sante Publique ; 32(1): 103-111, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outreach HIV testing strategies have significantly contributed to the increase in the number of people knowing their HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa. This article analyzes the articulation of donor and field constraints on the implementation of outreach HIV testing strategies in Côte d’Ivoire. METHODS: Qualitative research was conducted in three health districts (Man, Cocody-Bingerville and Aboisso) in Côte d’Ivoire in 2015-2016, through in-depth interviews with community providers, local leaders and people tested and through observation of outreach HIV testing activities. RESULTS: Implementing organizations feel “under pressure” to meet donors’ objectives that are deemed unattainable, as well as the lack of training and funding. As a result, providers do not observe systematically the rules of the “three Cs” (counselling, informed consent, confidentiality), and propose testing to individuals who are “off-target” (in terms of locations and populations). DISCUSSION: Implementing NGOs experience two types of constraints those resulting from the functioning of international aid (inadequate funding compared to actual costs, objectives too high, the important chain of intermediaries) and those related to the local context (spaces not adapted to guarantee confidentiality and the professional activity of target populations). CONCLUSION: The pressure that is exerted at different levels on implementing NGOs is detrimental to the quality of HIV testing. It is now essential to develop a more qualitative approach in defining strategies and evaluation criteria.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Aconselhamento , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/organização & administração , Fortalecimento Institucional , Costa do Marfim , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pesquisa Qualitativa
7.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 1 ed; 20200900. 64 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1121804

RESUMO

El documento contiene cuatro partes: en el primero se trata de la comprensión en la adolescencia, en el segundo de pensar en la salud adolescente, en el tercero de promover el desarrollo de la población adolescente y en el cuarto de las habilidades sociales para la interacción efectiva.


Assuntos
População , Adolescente , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Compreensão , Habilidades Sociais
8.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 1 ed; 20200900. 91 p. ilus.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1121892

RESUMO

El documento contiene cinco sesiones: en la primera se describe la promoción de la salud respiratoria, en la segunda tenemos conociendo sobre la tuberculosis, en la tercera el control de infecciones en el domicilio, en la cuarta la terapia preventiva para tuberculosis y en la quinta tenemos la pauta para el acompañamiento a la persona afectada por tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Terapêutica , Tuberculose , Controle de Infecções , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento , Promoção da Saúde
9.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 43(4): 268-277, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858726

RESUMO

Community health workers (CHWs) leverage their trusting relationships with underresourced populations to promote health equity and social justice in their communities. Little is known about CHWs roles in addressing COVID-19 or how the pandemic may have affected CHWs' ability to interact with and support communities experiencing disparities. A focus group with CHW leaders from 7 states revealed 8 major themes: CHW identity, CHW resiliency, self-care, unintended positives outcomes of COVID-19, technology, resources, stressors, and consequences of COVID-19. Understanding the pandemic's impact on CHWs has implications for workforce development, training, and health policies.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Pandemias , Resiliência Psicológica , Autocuidado , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 43(4): 301-305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858729

RESUMO

Over 100 Community Health Representatives (CHRs) as part of the oldest and largest Community Health Worker (CHW) program in the United States serve the Dine People on the Navajo Nation. The CHRs work under a tribally determined scope of practice that embraces the importance of self-determination of tribal nations, a philosophy central to the CHW field nationally. Navajo CHRs are the epitome of frontline workers, as they extend their traditional role to encompass long-term emergency response during coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). This article describes the Navajo CHR role in the pandemic through the lens of an interview with the program's director, Mae-Gilene Begay.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Índios Norte-Americanos , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Papel Profissional , United States Indian Health Service/organização & administração , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012927, 2020 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813281

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The widespread use of mobile technologies can potentially expand the use of telemedicine approaches to facilitate communication between healthcare providers, this might increase access to specialist advice and improve patient health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of mobile technologies versus usual care for supporting communication and consultations between healthcare providers on healthcare providers' performance, acceptability and satisfaction, healthcare use, patient health outcomes, acceptability and satisfaction, costs, and technical difficulties. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and three other databases from 1 January 2000 to 22 July 2019. We searched clinical trials registries, checked references of relevant systematic reviews and included studies, and contacted topic experts. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials comparing mobile technologies to support healthcare provider to healthcare provider communication and consultations compared with usual care. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane and EPOC. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included 19 trials (5766 participants when reported), most were conducted in high-income countries. The most frequently used mobile technology was a mobile phone, often accompanied by training if it was used to transfer digital images. Trials recruited participants with different conditions, and interventions varied in delivery, components, and frequency of contact. We judged most trials to have high risk of performance bias, and approximately half had a high risk of detection, attrition, and reporting biases. Two studies reported data on technical problems, reporting few difficulties. Mobile technologies used by primary care providers to consult with hospital specialists We assessed the certainty of evidence for this group of trials as moderate to low. Mobile technologies: - probably make little or no difference to primary care providers following guidelines for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD; 1 trial, 47 general practices, 3004 participants); - probably reduce the time between presentation and management of individuals with skin conditions, people with symptoms requiring an ultrasound, or being referred for an appointment with a specialist after attending primary care (4 trials, 656 participants); - may reduce referrals and clinic visits among people with some skin conditions, and increase the likelihood of receiving retinopathy screening among people with diabetes, or an ultrasound in those referred with symptoms (9 trials, 4810 participants when reported); - probably make little or no difference to patient-reported quality of life and health-related quality of life (2 trials, 622 participants) or to clinician-assessed clinical recovery (2 trials, 769 participants) among individuals with skin conditions; - may make little or no difference to healthcare provider (2 trials, 378 participants) or participant acceptability and satisfaction (4 trials, 972 participants) when primary care providers consult with dermatologists; - may make little or no difference for total or expected costs per participant for adults with some skin conditions or CKD (6 trials, 5423 participants). Mobile technologies used by emergency physicians to consult with hospital specialists about people attending the emergency department We assessed the certainty of evidence for this group of trials as moderate. Mobile technologies: - probably slightly reduce the consultation time between emergency physicians and hospital specialists (median difference -12 minutes, 95% CI -19 to -7; 1 trial, 345 participants); - probably reduce participants' length of stay in the emergency department by a few minutes (median difference -30 minutes, 95% CI -37 to -25; 1 trial, 345 participants). We did not identify trials that reported on providers' adherence, participants' health status and well-being, healthcare provider and participant acceptability and satisfaction, or costs. Mobile technologies used by community health workers or home-care workers to consult with clinic staff We assessed the certainty of evidence for this group of trials as moderate to low. Mobile technologies: - probably make little or no difference in the number of outpatient clinic and community nurse consultations for participants with diabetes or older individuals treated with home enteral nutrition (2 trials, 370 participants) or hospitalisation of older individuals treated with home enteral nutrition (1 trial, 188 participants); - may lead to little or no difference in mortality among people living with HIV (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.55 to 1.22) or diabetes (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.28 to 3.12) (2 trials, 1152 participants); - may make little or no difference to participants' disease activity or health-related quality of life in participants with rheumatoid arthritis (1 trial, 85 participants); - probably make little or no difference for participant acceptability and satisfaction for participants with diabetes and participants with rheumatoid arthritis (2 trials, 178 participants). We did not identify any trials that reported on providers' adherence, time between presentation and management, healthcare provider acceptability and satisfaction, or costs. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Our confidence in the effect estimates is limited. Interventions including a mobile technology component to support healthcare provider to healthcare provider communication and management of care may reduce the time between presentation and management of the health condition when primary care providers or emergency physicians use them to consult with specialists, and may increase the likelihood of receiving a clinical examination among participants with diabetes and those who required an ultrasound. They may decrease the number of people attending primary care who are referred to secondary or tertiary care in some conditions, such as some skin conditions and CKD. There was little evidence of effects on participants' health status and well-being, satisfaction, or costs.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Adulto , Viés , Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Segurança Computacional , Dermatologistas , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Satisfação Pessoal , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Dermatopatias/terapia , Telemedicina/economia , Fatores de Tempo , Ultrassonografia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In November 2016, the Kenya National Vaccines and Immunization Programme conducted an assessment of missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) using the World Health Organization (WHO) MOV methodology. A MOV includes any contact with health services during which an eligible individual does not receive all the vaccine doses for which he or she is eligible. METHODS: The MOV assessment in Kenya was conducted in 10 geographically diverse counties, comprising exit interviews with caregivers and knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) surveys with health workers. On the survey dates, which covered a 4-day period in November 2016, all health workers and caregivers visiting the selected health facilities with children <24 months of age were eligible to participate. Health facilities (n = 4 per county) were purposively selected by size, location, ownership, and performance. We calculated the proportion of MOV among children eligible for vaccination and with documented vaccination histories (i.e., from a home-based record or health facility register), and stratified MOV by age and reason for visit. Timeliness of vaccine doses was also calculated. RESULTS: We conducted 677 age-eligible children exit interviews and 376 health worker KAP surveys. Of the 558 children with documented vaccination histories, 33% were visiting the health facility for a vaccination visit and 67% were for other reasons. A MOV was seen in 75% (244/324) of children eligible for vaccination with documented vaccination histories, with 57% (186/324) receiving no vaccinations. This included 55% of children visiting for a vaccination visit and 93% visiting for non-vaccination visits. Timeliness for multi-dose vaccine series doses decreased with subsequent doses. Among health workers, 25% (74/291) were unable to correctly identify the national vaccination schedule for vaccines administered during the first year of life. Among health workers who reported administering vaccines as part of their daily work, 39% (55/142) reported that they did not always have the materials they needed for patients seeking immunization services, such as vaccines, syringes, and vaccination recording documents. CONCLUSIONS: The MOV assessment in Kenya highlighted areas of improvement that could reduce MOV. The results suggest several interventions including standardizing health worker practices, implementing an orientation package for all health workers, and developing a stock management module to reduce stock-outs of vaccines and vaccination-related supplies. To improve vaccination coverage and equity in all counties in Kenya, interventions to reduce MOV should be considered as part of an overall immunization service improvement plan.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Vacinação/normas , Vacinas/uso terapêutico , Cuidadores/psicologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Programas de Imunização/normas , Esquemas de Imunização , Lactente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Cobertura Vacinal/normas , Organização Mundial da Saúde
14.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 11(1,n.esp): 252-256, ago. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1116880

RESUMO

Objetivo: Descrever a experiência vivenciada por enfermeiras em conexão com Agentes comunitários de saúde para enfrentamento local da pandemia COVID-19. Método: Relato de experiência desenvolvido a partir de ações de enfermeiras que atuam na Estratégia Saúde da Família do município de Icó, Estado do Ceará, destacando o importante papel que os Agentes comunitários de saúde desenvolvem junto à população nesse cenário. Resultados: A partir da experiência vivenciada, pode-se observar o importante papel que os Agentes Comunitários de Saúde têm apresentando frente à pandemia da COVD-19, mesmo apresentando medo e insegurança. Evidenciou-se ainda durante esse período que seu papel de educador em saúde é imprescindível nas ações desenvolvidas dentro dos territórios. Além disso, esses profissionais têm sido protagonistas importantes nas atividades realizadas dentro das Estratégias de Saúde da Família, fortalecendo assim o trabalho da equipe bem como o controle e combate da infecção pelo novo Coronavírus. Conclusões: Contar com o trabalho desses profissionais nos territórios tem sido estratégico e representa um diferencial para o cuidado, por auxiliarem no controle da disseminação e no monitoramento de grupos de risco, bem como das pessoas infectadas pela doença. (AU)


Objective: To describe the experience lived by nurses in connection with community health workers to face the pandemic COVID-19 locally. Method: Experience report developed from the actions of nurses working in the Family Health Strategy in the municipality of Icó, State of Ceará, highlighting the important role that community health agents play with the population in this scenario. Results: Based on the experience, it is possible to observe the important role that Community Health Agents have playing in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, even with fear and insecurity. It was also evident during this period that his role as a health educator is essential in the actions developed within the territories. In addition, these professionals have been important protagonists in the activities carried out within the Family Health Strategies, thus strengthening the team's work as well as controlling and fighting infection by the new Coronavirus. Conclusions: Counting on the work of these professionals in the territories has been strategic and represents a differential for care, as they help in controlling the dissemination and monitoring at-risk groups, as well as people infected by the disease. (AU)


Objetivo: Describir la experiencia vivida por las enfermeras en relación con los trabajadores de salud de la comunidad para enfrentar la pandemia COVID-19. Método: Informe de experiencia desarrollado a partir de las acciones de enfermeras que trabajan en la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia en el municipio de Icó, Estado de Ceará, destacando el importante papel que los trabajadores de salud comunitarios juegan con la población en este escenario. Resultados: En base a la experiencia, es posible observar el importante papel que los agentes de salud comunitarios tienen ante la pandemia da COVID-19, incluso con miedo e inseguridad. También fue evidente durante este período que su papel como educador de salud es esencial en las acciones desarrolladas dentro de los territorios. Además, estos profesionales han sido protagonistas importantes en las actividades llevadas a cabo dentro de las Estrategias de salud familiar, fortaleciendo así el trabajo del equipo y controlando y luchando contra la infección por el nuevo Coronavirus. Conclusiones: contar con el trabajo de estos profesionales en los territorios ha sido estratégico y representa un diferencial para la atención, ya que ayudan a controlar la difusión y el monitoreo de los grupos en riesgo, así como a las personas infectadas por la enfermedad. (AU)


Assuntos
Enfermagem , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235340, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32639998

RESUMO

The transformation of the BRAC MANOSHI programme from humanitarian to a social enterprise model, has made it increasingly urgent to enumerate the minimum number of door-to-door antenatal care (ANC) visits by community health workers (CHWs), for the purpose of effectively improving facility delivery. Thus prevent social exclusion of poor slum communities in Bangladesh with regard to safe motherhood and essential newborn care (ENC). This cross-sectional study was conducted, during March-July, 2015 in slums of Chittagong, Dhaka and Sylhet city corporations of Bangladesh. A census was conducted among 25,700 households covering 10 branch offices of MANOSHI to identify women with a delivery outcome in the preceding three years of the survey. A total of 1100 respondents were interviewed randomly through a structured questionnaire. These women were stratified into three categories-1, 2 & 3, consisting of 497, 205 and 398 women respectively. Women in category-1 did not receive any ANC checkup from the BRAC CHWs, while women in category-2 and category-3 received one to three and ≥four ANC checkups from BRAC CHWs respectively. Data was analysed using STATA Version 13 (Chicago Inc.). Findings revealed that women, who received ≥four ANC checkups from BRAC CHWs, are 25% more likely to avail facility delivery [adjusted Prevalence Ratio (aPR) 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.01-1.54)] compared to the women who did not receive any ANC from BRAC CHWs. Women in category-2 [aPR3.64; 95% CI (1.76-7.54)] and in category-3 [aPR5.92; 95% CI (3.04-11.53)] respectively had four and six folds higher tendency to receive postnatal care (PNC) within 48 hours after delivery. Furthermore, facility delivery improved PNC assisted by medically trained providers (MTPs) within 48 hours after delivery and ENC in both categories 2 & 3. The evidence shows that at least four ANC visits of BRAC CHWs can increase institutional delivery, and which can further facilitate PNC and ENC visits. At present, the BRAC MANOSHI programme needs to implement feasible strategies to include pregnant women in the slums in receiving at least four ANC checkups by BRAC CHWs for ensuring safe motherhood and newborn care.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Materna/tendências , Gestantes , Cuidado Pré-Natal/tendências , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Áreas de Pobreza , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
20.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1185, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sierra Leone, a fragile country, is facing an increasingly significant burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Facilitated by an international partnership, a project was developed to adapt and pilot desktop guidelines and other clinical support tools to strengthen primary care-based hypertension and diabetes diagnosis and management in Bombali district, Sierra Leone between 2018 and 2019. This study assesses the feasibility of the project through analysis of the processes of intervention adaptation and development, delivery of training and implementation of a care improvement package and preliminary outcomes of the intervention. METHODS: A mixed-method approach was used for the assessment, including 51 semi-structured interviews, review of routine treatment cards (retrieved for newly registered hypertensive and diabetic patients from June 2018 to March 2019 followed up for three months) and mentoring data, and observation of training. Thematic analysis was used for qualitative data and descriptive trend analysis and t-test was used for quantitative data, wherever appropriate. RESULTS: A Technical Working Group, established at district and national level, helped to adapt and develop the context-specific desktop guidelines for clinical management and lifestyle interventions and associated training curriculum and modules for community health officers (CHOs). Following a four-day training of CHOs, focusing on communication skills, diagnosis and management of hypertension and diabetes, and thanks to a CHO-based mentorship strategy, there was observed improvement of NCD knowledge and care processes regarding diagnosis, treatment, lifestyle education and follow up. The intervention significantly improved the average diastolic blood pressure of hypertensive patients (n = 50) three months into treatment (98 mmHg at baseline vs. 86 mmHg in Month 3, P = 0.001). However, health systems barriers typical of fragile settings, such as cost of transport and medication for patients and lack of supply of medications and treatment equipment in facilities, hindered the optimal delivery of care for hypertensive and diabetic patients. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests the potential feasibility of this approach to strengthening primary care delivery of NCDs in fragile contexts. However, the approach needs to be built into routine supervision and pre-service training to be sustained. Key barriers in the health system and at community level also need to be addressed.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Assistência à Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Hipertensão/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pressão Sanguínea , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Assistência Médica , Mentores , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/terapia , Serra Leoa
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