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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD012882, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The leading causes of mortality globally in children younger than five years of age (under-fives), and particularly in the regions of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and Southern Asia, in 2018 were infectious diseases, including pneumonia (15%), diarrhoea (8%), malaria (5%) and newborn sepsis (7%) (UNICEF 2019). Nutrition-related factors contributed to 45% of under-five deaths (UNICEF 2019). World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), in collaboration with other development partners, have developed an approach - now known as integrated community case management (iCCM) - to bring treatment services for children 'closer to home'. The iCCM approach provides integrated case management services for two or more illnesses - including diarrhoea, pneumonia, malaria, severe acute malnutrition or neonatal sepsis - among under-fives at community level (i.e. outside of healthcare facilities) by lay health workers where there is limited access to health facility-based case management services (WHO/UNICEF 2012). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of the integrated community case management (iCCM) strategy on coverage of appropriate treatment for childhood illness by an appropriate provider, quality of care, case load or severity of illness at health facilities, mortality, adverse events and coverage of careseeking for children younger than five years of age in low- and middle-income countries. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL on 7 November 2019, Virtual Health Library on 8 November 2019, and Popline on 5 December 2018, three other databases on 22 March 2019 and two trial registers on 8 November 2019. We performed reference checking, and citation searching, and contacted study authors to identify additional studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, controlled before-after studies (CBAs), interrupted time series (ITS) studies and repeated measures studies comparing generic WHO/UNICEF iCCM (or local adaptation thereof) for at least two iCCM diseases with usual facility services (facility treatment services) with or without single disease community case management (CCM). We included studies reporting on coverage of appropriate treatment for childhood illness by an appropriate provider, quality of care, case load or severity of illness at health facilities, mortality, adverse events and coverage of careseeking for under-fives in low- and middle-income countries. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: At least two review authors independently screened abstracts, screened full texts and extracted data using a standardised data collection form adapted from the EPOC Good Practice Data Collection Form. We resolved any disagreements through discussion or, if required, we consulted a third review author not involved in the original screening. We contacted study authors for clarification or additional details when necessary. We reported risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and hazard ratios (HR) for time to event outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for clustering, where possible. We used estimates of effect from the primary analysis reported by the investigators, where possible. We analysed the effects of randomized trials and other study types separately. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included seven studies, of which three were cluster RCTs and four were CBAs. Six of the seven studies were in SSA and one study was in Southern Asia. The iCCM components and inputs were fairly consistent across the seven studies with notable variation for the training and deployment component (e.g. on payment of iCCM providers) and the system component (e.g. on improving information systems). When compared to usual facility services, we are uncertain of the effect of iCCM on coverage of appropriate treatment from an appropriate provider for any iCCM illness (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.19; 2 CBA studies, 5898 children; very low-certainty evidence). iCCM may have little to no effect on neonatal mortality (HR 1.01, 95% 0.73 to 1.28; 2 trials, 65,209 children; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain of the effect of iCCM on infant mortality (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.26; 2 trials, 60,480 children; very low-certainty evidence) and under-five mortality (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.37; 1 trial, 4729 children; very low-certainty evidence). iCCM probably increases coverage of careseeking to an appropriate provider for any iCCM illness by 68% (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.27; 2 trials, 9853 children; moderate-certainty evidence). None of the studies reported quality of care, severity of illness or adverse events for this comparison. When compared to usual facility services plus CCM for malaria, we are uncertain of the effect of iCCM on coverage of appropriate treatment from an appropriate provider for any iCCM illness (very low-certainty evidence) and iCCM may have little or no effect on careseeking to an appropriate provider for any iCCM illness (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.17; 1 trial, 811 children; low-certainty evidence). None of the studies reported quality of care, case load or severity of illness at health facilities, mortality or adverse events for this comparison. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: iCCM probably increases coverage of careseeking to an appropriate provider for any iCCM illness. However, the evidence presented here underscores the importance of moving beyond training and deployment to valuing iCCM providers, strengthening health systems and engaging community systems.


Assuntos
Administração de Caso/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Países em Desenvolvimento , África ao Sul do Saara , Ásia , Viés , Pré-Escolar , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/economia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Diarreia/terapia , Febre/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Mortalidade Infantil , Transtornos da Nutrição do Lactente/terapia , Recém-Nascido , Malária/terapia , Sepse Neonatal/terapia , Pneumonia/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Salários e Benefícios , Nações Unidas
2.
Prev Med ; 146: 106464, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636194

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in substantial morbidity and mortality and challenged public health agencies and healthcare systems worldwide. In the U.S., physical distancing orders and other restrictions have had severe economic and societal consequences. Populations already vulnerable in the United States have experienced worse COVID-19 health outcomes. The World Health Organization has made recommendations to engage at risk populations and communicate accurate information about risk and prevention; to conduct contract tracing; and to support those affected by COVID-19. This Commentary highlights the ways in which an existing and cost-effective, but underutilized workforce, community health workers and non-clinical patient navigators, should be deployed to address the COVID-19 pandemic. Community health workers and non-clinical patient navigators have skills in community engagement and health communication and are able to gain the trust of vulnerable communities. Furthermore, many community health workers and non-clinical patient navigators have skills in assisting community members with meeting basic needs and with navigating public health and healthcare systems. Members of this workforce are more than prepared to conduct contact tracing. State, local, tribal, and territorial public health agencies and healthcare systems should be collaborating with national, state, and local organizations that represent and employ CHWs/non-clinical patient navigators to determine how to better mobilize this workforce to address the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, Congress, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), and individual states need to adopt policies to sustainably fund their critically needed services in the long term.


Assuntos
/terapia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Mão de Obra em Saúde/organização & administração , Navegação de Pacientes/organização & administração , /diagnóstico , Humanos
3.
Trials ; 22(1): 94, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that health intervention designed to increase cervical cancer screening has been effective to reduce cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of a home-based health education intervention for increasing cervical cancer screening uptake delivered by trained female community health volunteers (FCHVs), a category of community health worker in Nepal. METHODS: A community-based, open-label, two-armed, cluster-randomized trial [seven clusters (geographical wards) randomized for the intervention, and seven for the control arm]. The participants are recruited from a population-based survey with a sample size of 884. Based on population proportion size, 277 women will be recruited for the intervention group and 413 women recruited for the control group. A 12-month community-based health education intervention will be administered mobilizing the FCHVs, based on the Health Belief Model. The primary outcome measure of the study will be the difference in percentage of cervical cancer screening uptake between the two study arms. The primary outcomes will be modeled by using mixed-effect logistic regression analysis. DISCUSSION: COBIN-C is the first study investigating the effect of a community-based health education intervention by FCHVs on increasing cervical cancer screening uptake among women in Nepal. The purpose of this study is to develop and implement a home-based, culturally sensitive program to increase cervical cancer screening coverage at the community level. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03808064 . Registered on January 14, 2019.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Programas de Rastreamento/organização & administração , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , População Urbana , Voluntários
4.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(3): e309-e319, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early childhood development (ECD) programmes can help address early disadvantages for the 43% of children younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries who have compromised development. We aimed to test the effectiveness of two group-based delivery models for an integrated ECD responsive stimulation and nutrition education intervention using Kenya's network of community health volunteers. METHODS: We implemented a multi-arm, cluster-randomised community effectiveness trial in three rural subcounties across 60 villages (clusters) in western Kenya. Eligible participants were mothers or female primary caregivers aged 15 years or older with children aged 6-24 months at enrolment. If married or in established relationships, fathers or male caregivers aged 18 years or older were also eligible. Villages were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to one of three groups: group-only delivery with 16 fortnightly sessions; mixed delivery combining 12 group sessions with four home visits; and a comparison group. Villages in the intervention groups were randomly assigned (1:1) to invite or not invite fathers and male caregivers to participate. Households were surveyed at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Assessors were masked. Primary outcomes were child cognitive and language development (score on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development third edition), socioemotional development (score on the Wolke scale), and parental stimulation (Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment inventory). Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03548558. FINDINGS: Between Oct 1 and Nov 12, 2018, 1152 mother-child dyads were enrolled and randomly assigned (n=376 group-only intervention, n=400 mixed-delivery intervention, n=376 comparison group). At the 11-month endline survey (Aug 5-Oct 31, 2019), 1070 households were assessed for the primary outcomes (n=346 group only, n=373 mixed delivery, n=351 comparison). Children in group-only villages had higher cognitive (effect size 0·52 SD [95% CI 0·21-0·83]), receptive language (0·42 SD [0·08-0·77]), and socioemotional scores (0·23 SD [0·03-0·44]) than children in comparison villages at endline. Children in mixed-delivery villages had higher cognitive (0·34 SD [0·05-0·62]) and socioemotional scores (0·22 SD [0·05-0·38]) than children in comparison villages; there was no difference in language scores. Parental stimulation also improved for group-only (0·80 SD [0·49-1·11]) and mixed-delivery villages (0·77 SD [0·49-1·05]) compared with the villages in the comparison group. Including fathers in the intervention had no measurable effect on any of the primary outcomes. INTERPRETATION: Parenting interventions delivered by trained community health volunteers in mother-child groups can effectively promote child development in low-resource settings and have great potential for scalability. FUNDING: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Mães/educação , Poder Familiar , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Países em Desenvolvimento , Emoções , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia , Masculino , Método Simples-Cego , Habilidades Sociais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
5.
NASN Sch Nurse ; 36(2): 99-103, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307960

RESUMO

For over a century, community health workers (CHWs) have acted as agents of social justice, health care promotion, and change for the underresourced communities they serve and come from. Over 50,000 CHWs are employed in the United States, and this number is growing with the need for CHWs to help fight both the COVID-19 pandemic and social injustice plaguing our nation. Even with many students learning from home, it is crucial that healthcare be integrated into the school system since a child's health greatly affects their ability to learn. CHWs in schools can help overcome community and cultural barriers to connect families to various community resources and provide important health screenings and education. On return to the traditional classroom, the myriad of tasks such as infection prevention, contact tracing, and temperature screening are not feasible for a school nurse to do alone. CHWs may be just the leaders we need to help schools address the challenges faced in 2020.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Bem-Estar da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , /enfermagem , Criança , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Assistentes de Enfermagem/educação , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Enfermagem Escolar/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4185-4195, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027355

RESUMO

This study discusses the reorganization of the Community Health Workers (CHWs) work process as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic, considering its importance as a link between the community and the health services in the field of basic care. The literature review comes from the following databases: Virtual Health Library, Scientific Electronic Library Online, and the Brazilian Scientific Publications Portal databases in open access and document review of technical and normative notes from the Municipal Health Secretariats in Brazil. The analysis was based on the premises of Primary Health Care and on the axes of the CHW work, especially cultural competence and community orientation, aiming to discuss the changes introduced in this work regarding the following aspects: 1) health teams support, 2) use of telehealth, and 3) health education. This study concluded that the Covid-19 pandemic demanded reorganization of the work process and assistance flows in the field of basic care. In order for the CHW to continue developing their activities it is necessary to guarantee decent working conditions, training and continuing education, including the concern about the possible discontinuity of other care needed to ensure the population health care in the territory.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Coleta de Dados , Educação em Saúde , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Telemedicina
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239163, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trained community workers (CWs) successfully deliver health and social services, especially due to greater community acceptance. Orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) and their caregivers (CG) often need support from several sectors. We identified CW, program and referral characteristics that were associated with success of referrals provided to OVC and their CG in Tanzania in a cross-sectoral bi-directional referral system. METHODS: Data for this secondary analysis come from the first two years (2017-2018) of the USAID funded Kizazi Kipya project. Referral success was defined as feedback and service received within 90 days post-referral provision. We analyzed factors that are associated with the referral success of HIV related, education, nutrition, parenting, household economic strengthening, and child protection services among OVC and CG, using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: During the study period, 19,502 CWs in 68 councils provided 146,996 referrals to 132,640 beneficiaries. OVC had much lower referral success for HIV related services (48.1%) than CG (81.2%). Adjusted for other covariates, CW age (26-49 versus 18-25 years, for OVC aOR = 0.83, 95%CI (0.78, 0.87) and CW gender (males versus females, for OVC aOR = 1.12, 95%CI (1.08, 1.16); CG aOR = 0.84, 95%CI (0.78, 0.90)) were associated with referral success. CWs who had worked > 1 year in the project (aOR = 1.52, 95%CI 1.46, 1.58) and those with previous work experience as CW (aOR = 1.57, 95%CI (1.42, 1.74) more successfully referred OVC. Referrals provided to OVC for all other services were more successful compared to HIV referrals, with aORs ranging from 2.99 to 7.22. Longer project duration in the district council was associated with increased referral success for OVC (aOR = 1.16 per month 95%CI 1.15,1.17), but decreased for CG (aOR = 0.96, 95%CI 0.94, 0.97). Referral success was higher for OVC and CGs with multiple (versus single) referrals provided within the past 30 days (aOR = 1.28 95%CI 1.21, 1.36) and (aOR = 1.17, 95%CI (1.06, 1.30)) respectively. CONCLUSION: CW characteristics, referral type and project maturity had different and often contrasting associations with referral success for OVC versus for CG. These findings could help policymakers decide on the recruitment and allocation of CWs in community based multi-sectoral intervention programs to improve referral successes especially for OVC.


Assuntos
Bem-Estar da Criança , Crianças Órfãs/estatística & dados numéricos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Serviço Social/organização & administração , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/organização & administração , Implementação de Plano de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Tanzânia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Enferm. glob ; 19(59): 626-641, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198901

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Nuestro objetivo es identificar en la literatura el conocimiento y las prácticas de los Agentes de Salud de la Comunidad (ACS) sobre promoción de la salud. MÉTODO: Esta es una revisión integradora realizada en las bases de datos MEDLINE / PUBMED, LILACS y BDENF, de artículos completos en inglés, portugués o español. Utilizamos el método de análisis temático con el uso de Tablas para una mejor sistematización. RESULTADOS / DISCUSIÓN: Fue posible analizar que los procesos de trabajo de ACS están fuertemente asociados con la capacitación técnica. Se observan las brechas en la producción de conocimiento sobre promoción de la salud, como práctica diaria, acciones preventivas y distribución de insumos / medicamentos, recolección de información sociodemográfica y la situación de salud de la población, perdiendo así el espacio para la producción de atención basada en promoción de la salud. CONCLUSIÓN: La creación de lazos y la bienvenida como una herramienta inseparable para el trabajo de la ACS se vuelve pulsante en las discusiones


OBJECTIVE: We aim to identify in the literature the knowledge and practices of Community Health Workers (CHWs) on health promotion. METHOD: This is an integrative literature review carried out in the MEDLINE/PUBMED, LILACS and BDENF databases, with full text articles in English, Portuguese or Spanish. We used the Thematic Analysis method, using Tables for better systematization. RESULTS / DISCUSSION: It was possible to analyze that the CHW work processes are strongly associated with technical training. There are gaps in the production of knowledge about health promotion as a daily practice, with the presence of preventive actions and distribution of commodities/medications and collection of socio-demographic information and of the health situation of the population, leaving the production of care based on health promotion on the background. CONCLUSION: The discussions highlight the creation of bonds and empathy, as inseparable tools in the work of the CHW


OBJETIVO: Objetivamos identificar na literatura os saberes e práticas dos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde (ACS) sobre a promoção da saúde. MÉTODO: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa realizada nas bases de dados MEDLINE/PUBMED, LILACS e BDENF, de artigos na íntegra em inglês, português ou espanhol. Utilizamos o método Análise Temática com uso de quadros para melhor sistematização. RESULTADOS / DISCUSSÃO: Foi possível analisar que os processos de trabalhos dos ACS estão fortemente associados à formação técnica. As lacunas na produção do conhecimento sobre promoção da saúde, enquanto prática cotidiana, são observadas ações de prevenção e distribuição de insumos/medicamentos, coleta de informações sociodemográficas e situação de saúde da população, perdendo, dessa forma, espaço de produção de cuidado pautada na promoção da saúde. CONCLUSÃO: Torna-se pulsátil nas discussões a criação de vínculo e acolhimento como ferramenta indissociável para o trabalho do ACS


Assuntos
Humanos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Centros Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração
12.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(6)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522738

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), affects 213 countries or territories globally. We received a request from National Health Systems Resource Centre, a public agency in India, to conduct rapid evidence synthesis (RES) on community health workers (CHWs) for COVID-19 prevention and control in 3 days. METHODS: We searched PubMed, websites of ministries (n=3), public agencies (n=6), multilateral institutions (n=3), COVID-19 resource aggregators (n=5) and preprints (n=1) (without language restrictions) for articles on CHWs in pandemics. Two reviewers screened the records independently with a third reviewer resolving disagreements. One reviewer extracted data with another reviewer cross-checking it. A framework on CHW performance in primary healthcare not specific to pandemic was used to guide data extraction and narrative analysis. RESULTS: We retrieved 211 records and finally included 36 articles. Most of the evidence was from low-and middle-income countries with well-established CHW programmes. Evidence from CHW programmes initiated during pandemics and for CHW involvement in pandemic response in high-income countries was scant. CHW roles and tasks change substantially during pandemics. Clear guidance, training for changed roles and definition of what constitutes essential activities (ie, those that must to be sustained) is required. Most common additional activities during pandemics were community awareness, engagement and sensitisation (including for countering stigma) and contact tracing. CHWs were reported to be involved in all aspects of contact tracing - this was reported to affect routine service delivery. CHWs have often been stigmatised or been socially ostracised during pandemics. Providing PPE, housing allowance, equal training opportunities, transportation allowance, improving salaries (paid on time and for a broad range of services) and awards in high-profile public events contributed to better recruitment and retention. We also created inventories of resources with guiding notes on guidelines for health workers (n=24), self-isolation in the community (n=10) and information, education and counselling materials on COVID-19 (n=16). CONCLUSIONS: CHWs play a critical role in pandemics. It is important to ensure role clarity, training, supportive supervision, as well as their work satisfaction, health and well-being. More implementation research on CHWs in pandemics is required.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus , Saúde do Trabalhador , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Papel Profissional , Betacoronavirus , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/normas , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Índia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
13.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S102-S104, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496236

RESUMO

At the end of April 2020, there had already been three million cases of COVID-19 in the world pandemic. Chhattisgarh might expect 90,000 diagnosed cases of COVID-19 in the end. The first step taken in March was to ensure a simple checklist of activities that needed to continue. Handbills were given with the basic information on the symptoms and what to do in the community. In urban areas, the lockdown affected the poorer section of the society, especially who are not having BPL card and no other means of availing necessary eatables. Issues that arose affecting regular activities such as tuberculosis and immunization. Residents of informal settlements are also vulnerable during any COVID-19 responses. Frontline workers such as Mitanins in the community are an important asset in the capacity building and preparedness strategies.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Planejamento em Desastres/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/normas , Desinfecção das Mãos , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Serviços de Saúde Rural/organização & administração , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde/organização & administração
14.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 51, 2020 04 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community engagement (CE) interventions include a range of approaches to involve communities in the improvement of their health and wellbeing. Working with communities defined by location or some other shared interest, these interventions may be important in assisting equity and reach of communicable disease control (CDC) in low and lower-middle income countries (LLMIC). We conducted an umbrella review to identify approaches to CE in communicable disease control, effectiveness of these approaches, mechanisms and factors influencing success. METHODS: We included systematic reviews that: i) focussed on CE interventions; ii) involved adult community members; iii) included outcomes relevant to communicable diseases in LLMIC; iv) were written in English. Quantitative results were extracted and synthesised narratively. A qualitative synthesis process enabled identification of mechanisms of effect and influencing factors. We followed guidance from the Joanna Briggs Institute, assessed quality with the DARE tool and reported according to standard systematic review methodology. RESULTS: Thirteen systematic reviews of medium-to-high quality were identified between June and July 2017. Reviews covered the following outcomes: HIV and STIs (6); malaria (2); TB (1); child and maternal health (3) and mixed (1). Approaches included: CE through peer education and community health workers, community empowerment interventions and more general community participation or mobilisation. Techniques included sensitisation with the community and involvement in the identification of resources, intervention development and delivery. Evidence of effectiveness of CE on health outcomes was mixed and quality of primary studies variable. We found: i) significantly reduced neonatal mortality following women's participatory learning and action groups; ii) significant reductions in HIV and other STIs with empowerment and mobilisation interventions with marginalised groups; iii) significant reductions in malaria incidence or prevalence in a small number of primary studies; iv) significant reductions in infant diarrhoea following community health worker interventions. Mechanisms of impact commonly occurred through social and behavioural processes, particularly: changing social norms, increasing social cohesion and social capacity. Factors influencing effectiveness of CE interventions included extent of population coverage, shared leadership and community control over outcomes. CONCLUSION: Community engagement interventions may be effective in supporting CDC in LLMIC. Careful design of CE interventions appropriate to context, disease and community is vital.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Países em Desenvolvimento , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Incidência , Malária/prevenção & controle , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , Pobreza , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
16.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 22, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a neglected tropical disease (NTD) and leading cause of global disability, is endemic in 32 countries in Africa with almost 350 million people requiring regular drug administration, and only 16 countries achieving target coverage. Community Drug Distributors (CDDs) are critical for the success of NTD programs, and the distribution of medicines during mass drug administration (MDA) in Africa; however they could also be a weak link. The primary aim of this study is to explore and describe perceptions of CDDs during MDA for LF in Mvita sub-county in Mombasa county and Kaloleni sub-county in Kilifi county, Kenya; and provide recommendations for the effective engagement of communities and CDDs in low-resource settings. METHODS: In September 2018, we conducted six focus group discussions with community members in each sub-county, three with men aged 18-30, 31-50, and 51 years and above and three with women stratified into the same age groups. In each sub-county, we also conducted semi-structured interviews with nine community health extension workers (CHEWs), the national LF focal point, the county NTD focal points, and seven community leaders. Content analysis of the data was conducted, involving a process of reading, coding, and displaying data in order to develop a codebook. RESULTS: We found that several barriers and facilitators impact the engagement between CDDs and community members during MDA. These barriers include poor communication and trust between CDDs and communities; community distrust of the federal government; low community knowledge and perceived risk of LF, poor timing of MDA, fragmented supervision of CDDs during MDA; and CDD bias when distributing medicines. We also found that CDD motivation was a critical factor in their ability to successfully meet MDA targets. It was acknowledged that directly observed treatment and adequate health education were often not executed by CDDs. The involvement of community leaders as informal supervisors of CDDs and community members improves MDA. CONCLUSIONS: In order to achieve global targets around the elimination of LF, CDDs and communities must be effectively engaged by improving planning and implementation of MDA.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde , Filariose Linfática/tratamento farmacológico , Filariose Linfática/epidemiologia , Filaricidas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
17.
Am J Public Health ; 110(5): 689-692, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191526

RESUMO

From April 2016 to June 2017, the Health + Housing Project employed four community health workers who engaged residents of two subsidized housing buildings in New York City to address individuals' broadly defined health needs, including social and economic risk factors. Following the intervention, we observed significant improvements in residents' food security, ability to pay rent, and connection to primary care. No immediate change was seen in acute health care use or more narrowly defined health outcomes.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Habitação Popular/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Fam Community Health ; 43(2): 141-149, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32079970

RESUMO

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act supports the integration of community health workers (CHWs) into the health care workforce, but little is known about integration and current roles of CHWs among employers in community settings. This analysis of 97 employers described the roles of CHWs in Nebraska and found significant differences between CHWs practicing in rural and urban areas in organization types employing CHWs, funding sources, and minority populations served. The findings suggest that the utility of CHWs is widely recognized among employers, but deliberate support will be needed to better define the roles of CHWs to meet the needs of the increasingly diverse demographic.


Assuntos
Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Apoio Social , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , População Rural , Estados Unidos , População Urbana
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 76, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32013946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Interventions targeting community health workers (CHWs) aim to optimise the delivery of health services to underserved rural areas. Whilst interventions are evaluated against their objectives, there remains limited evidence on the economic costs of these interventions, and the practicality and value of scale up. The aim of this paper is to undertake a cost analysis on a CHW training and supervision intervention using exclusive breastfeeding rates amongst mothers as an outcome measure. METHODS: This is a retrospective cost analysis, from an implementer's perspective, of a cluster randomised controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of a continuous quality improvement (CQI) intervention aimed at CHWs providing care and support to pregnant women and women with babies aged < 1 year in South Africa. RESULTS: One of the outcomes of the RCT revealed that the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) significantly improved, with the cost per mother EBF in the control and intervention arm calculated at US$760,13 and US$1705,28 respectively. The cost per additional mother practicing EBF was calculated to be US$7647, 88, with the supervision component of the intervention constituting 64% of the trial costs. In addition, women served by the intervention CHWs were more likely to have received a CHW visit and had significantly better knowledge of childcare practices. CONCLUSION: Whilst the cost of this intervention is high, adapted interventions could potentially offer an economical alternative for achieving selected maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes. The results of this study should inform future programmes aimed at providing adapted training and supervision to CHWs with the objective of improving community-level health outcomes.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/economia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Capacitação em Serviço/economia , Mães/psicologia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Gravidez , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , África do Sul
20.
Health Secur ; 18(S1): S23-S33, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004127

RESUMO

Community-based surveillance can be an important component of early warning systems. In 2016, the Côte d'Ivoire Ministry of Health launched a community-based surveillance project in 3 districts along the Guinea border. Community health workers were trained in detection and immediate reporting of diseases and events using a text-messaging platform. In December 2017, surveillance data from before and after implementation of community-based surveillance were analyzed in intervention and control districts. A total of 3,734 signals of priority diseases and 4,918 unusual health events were reported, of which 420 were investigated as suspect diseases and none were investigated as unusual health events. Of the 420 suspected cases reported, 23 (6%) were laboratory confirmed for a specific pathogen. Following implementation of community-based surveillance, 5-fold and 8-fold increases in reporting of suspected measles and yellow fever clusters, respectively, were documented. Reporting incidence rates in intervention districts for suspected measles, yellow fever, and acute flaccid paralysis were significantly higher after implementation, with a difference of 29.2, 19.0, and 2.5 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively. All rate differences were significantly higher in intervention districts (p < 0.05); no significant increase in reporting was noted in control districts. These findings suggest that community-based surveillance strengthened detection and reporting capacity for several suspect priority diseases and events. However, the surveillance program was very sensitive, resulting in numerous false-positives. Learning from the community-based surveillance implementation experience, the ministry of health is revising signal definitions to reduce sensitivity and increase specificity, reviewing training materials, considering scaling up sustainable reporting platforms, and standardizing community health worker roles.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/organização & administração , Vigilância da População/métodos , Agentes Comunitários de Saúde/educação , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Humanos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Paralisia/epidemiologia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia
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