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1.
Turk Neurosurg ; 34(4): 733-736, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971977

RESUMO

Taste consists of sensation and perception. Specific neural structures transmit a stimulus from the taste buds to the gustatory cortex to generate taste sensation. Any disruption of this pathway, whether it affects sensation or perception, can result in taste disorders. Stereotactic procedures involving the thalamus may result in gustatory complications. A 41-year-old female patient who underwent stereotactic drainage of a thalamic cyst suffered transient ageusia. Subsequently, she developed metallic taste perception. When her stereotactic plan was re-evaluated, it was noted that the posteromedial ventral thalamus nucleus was in the path of the needle tract and the needle had passed through it. Follow-up was recommended and her symptoms completely resolved within 2 months following surgery. Modern imaging techniques allow for the visualization of neural structures related to the sense of taste. Additionally, care must be taken when planning stereotactic procedures for such lesions.


Assuntos
Ageusia , Drenagem , Disgeusia , Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Ageusia/etiologia , Disgeusia/etiologia , Drenagem/métodos , Cistos/cirurgia , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Técnicas Estereotáxicas/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Doenças Talâmicas/cirurgia , Doenças Talâmicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tálamo/cirurgia
2.
BMJ Open ; 14(6): e080393, 2024 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) were on the front line of the COVID-19 outbreak. Identifying clinical profiles in COVID-19 might improve patient care and enable closer monitoring of at-risk profiles. OBJECTIVES: To identify COVID-19 profiles in a population of adult primary care patients, and to determine whether the profiles were associated with negative outcomes and persistent symptoms. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: In a prospective multicentre study, 44 GPs from multiprofessional primary care practices in the Paris area of France recruited 340 consecutive adult patients (median age: 47 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 during the first two waves of the epidemic. METHOD AND OUTCOME: A latent class (LC) analysis with 11 indicators (clinical signs and symptoms) was performed. The resulting profiles were characterised by a 3-month composite outcome (COVID-19-related hospital admission and/or death) and persistent symptoms three and 6 months after inclusion. RESULTS: We identified six profiles: 'paucisymptomatic' (LC1, 9%), 'anosmia and/or ageusia' (LC2, 12.9%), 'influenza-like syndrome with anosmia and ageusia' (LC3, 15.5%), 'influenza-like syndrome without anosmia or ageusia' (LC4, 24.5%), 'influenza-like syndrome with respiratory impairment' (LC5) and a 'complete form' (LC6, 17.7%). At 3 months, 7.4% of the patients were hospitalised (with higher rates in LC5), and 18% had persistent symptoms (with higher rates in LC5 and LC6). At 6 months, 6.4% of the patients had persistent symptoms, with no differences between LCs. CONCLUSION: Our findings might help GPs to identify patients at risk of persistent COVID-19 symptoms and hospital admission and then set up procedures for closer monitoring.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Medicina Geral , Análise de Classes Latentes , SARS-CoV-2 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Masculino , Feminino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto , Medicina Geral/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , França/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Paris/epidemiologia , Anosmia/epidemiologia , Ageusia/epidemiologia
3.
Neurocase ; 30(2): 55-62, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38762763

RESUMO

A 70-year-old right-handed housewife suffered an acute loss of taste, an unpleasant change in the taste of foods and liquids, and a strong aversion to all kinds of food due to a small lacune in the right dorsomedial pontine tegmentum. Eating became so unpleasant that she lost 7 kg in three weeks. Olfaction and the sensibility of the tongue were spared. The right medial longitudinal fascicle, the central tegmental tract, or both, were injured by the tegmental lesion. A discrete right-sided lesion in the upper pontine tegmentum may cause a reversible syndrome consisting of bilateral hypogeusia which is more severe ipsilaterally.


Assuntos
Ageusia , Tegmento Pontino , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Ageusia/etiologia , Ageusia/fisiopatologia , Tegmento Pontino/patologia , Tegmento Pontino/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética
4.
Wiad Lek ; 77(1): 114-119, 2024.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38431815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Aim: To review the publications subject to the problem of COVID-19 associated anosmia incidence in pediatric patients as well as its pathogenesis, diagnostics, treatment and recovery. The peculiarity of pediatric COVID-19 anosmia is due to children accounting for very low percentage of COVID-19 patients (comparing to one in adults), mostly with milder course of the disease. Awareness of anosmia and its proper diagnostics is crucial in children and adolescents, considering it can be the only manifestation in COVID-19 positive pediatric patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and Methods: In order to achieve this goal a meta-analysis of information from databases followed by statistical processing and generalisation of the obtained data was carried out. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Publications on COVID-19 anosmia in children and adolescents are less numerous than those concerning adult patients, so it is important to use every single trustworthy one. Anosmia/ageusia may be the only symptom, early identifier and the strongest predictor of COVID-19 infection in pediatric patients. Prospects for further scientific researches. Further researches regarding differential diagnostics of COVID-19 and other infections, including seasonal influenza, manifesting with both olfactory and taste dysfunction as well as anosmia diagnostics in children and adolescents with autistic spectrum and different types of mental disorders are possible.


Assuntos
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Ageusia/diagnóstico , Ageusia/epidemiologia , Ageusia/etiologia , Anosmia/etiologia , Anosmia/complicações , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 51(3): 443-449, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38520975

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Olfactory and gustatory functions are important sensory aspects in humans. Although they are believed to influence each other, their interrelationship is not well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between the olfactory and gustatory functions based on the results of a large-scale epidemiological study (Iwaki Health Promotion Project) of the general local population. METHODS: We analyzed 565 participants who underwent taste and olfactory tests in the 2019 Iwaki Project. Gustatory function was tested for four taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter) using whole-mouth taste tests. Olfactory function was tested using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test modified for Japanese (UPSIT-J). We evaluated sex-related differences between olfactory and gustatory functions and the effects of various factors on olfactory identification using multivariate analysis. Furthermore, we compared the percentage of accurate UPSIT-J responses between the normal and hypogeusia groups. We also analyzed the effects of taste and olfactory functions on eating. RESULTS: Olfactory and gustatory functions were lower in men than in women. Among the four taste qualities, salty taste was the most closely associated with olfactory identification ability, with lower olfactory scores of salty taste in the hypogeusia group than in the normal group. Moreover, the hyposmia group had higher daily salt intake than the normal olfaction group in women. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that olfactory identification tests may be useful in predicting elevated salt cognitive thresholds, leading to a reduction in salt intake, which may contribute to hypertension prevention.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Japão/epidemiologia , Idoso , Fatores Sexuais , Olfato/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Ageusia/fisiopatologia , Ageusia/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/epidemiologia , Anosmia/fisiopatologia , Percepção Gustatória/fisiologia
6.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 3455, 2024 02 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38342941

RESUMO

Recent literature indicates that post-COVID-19 patients suffer from a plethora of complications, including chemosensory dysfunction. However, little attention has been given to understand the interactions between chemosensory, trigeminal, and salivary dysfunctions in these patients. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the prevalence and combinations of chemosensory, trigeminal, and salivary dysfunctions, (2) to identify the odorants/tastants that are compromised, and (3) to explore possible associations between the four dysfunctions in post-COVID-19 patients. One hundred post-COVID-19 patients and 76 healthy controls (pre-COVID-19) were included in this cross-sectional, case-controlled study. Participants' smell, taste, trigeminal, and salivary functions were assessed. The patients had a significantly higher prevalence of parosmia (80.0%), hyposmia (42.0%), anosmia (53.0%), dysgeusia (34.0%), complete ageusia (3.0%), specific ageusia (27.0%), dysesthesia (11.0%) and dry mouth (18.0%) compared to controls (0.0% for all parameters, except 27.6% for hyposmia). Complete loss of bitter taste was the most prevalent specific ageusia (66.7%) and coffee was the most common distorted smell (56.4%). Seven different combinations of dysfunction were observed in the patients, the most common being a combination of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction (48.0%). These findings indicate that post-COVID-19 patients experience a range of chemosensory, trigeminal, and salivary disturbances, occurring in various combinations.


Assuntos
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ageusia/etiologia , Anosmia , Estudos Transversais , SARS-CoV-2 , Disgeusia/epidemiologia , Disgeusia/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/etiologia , Transtornos do Olfato/complicações , Olfato
7.
Chem Senses ; 492024 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38421250

RESUMO

Many common chemotherapeutics produce disruptions in the sense of taste which can lead to loss of appetite, nutritional imbalance, and reduced quality of life, especially if taste loss persists after treatment ends. Cyclophosphamide (CYP), an alkylating chemotherapeutic agent, affects taste sensitivity through its cytotoxic effects on mature taste receptor cells (TRCs) and on taste progenitor cell populations, retarding the capacity to replace TRCs. Mechanistic studies have focused primarily on taste cells, however, taste signaling requires communication between TRCs and the gustatory nerve fibers that innervate them. Here, we evaluate cyclophosphamide's effects on the peripheral gustatory nerve fibers that innervate the taste buds. Following histological analysis of tongue tissues, we find that CYP reduces innervation within the fungiform and circumvallates taste buds within 4 days after administration. To better understand the dynamics of the denervation process, we used 2-photon intravital imaging to visualize the peripheral gustatory nerve fibers within individual fungiform taste buds up to 20 days after CYP treatment. We find that gustatory fibers retract from the taste bud properly but are maintained within the central papilla core. These data indicate that in addition to TRCs, gustatory nerve fibers are also affected by CYP treatment. Because the connectivity between TRCs and gustatory neurons must be re-established for proper function, gustatory fibers should continue to be included in future studies to understand the mechanisms leading to chemotherapy-induced persistent taste loss.


Assuntos
Ageusia , Papilas Gustativas , Animais , Camundongos , Papilas Gustativas/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Língua , Ciclofosfamida/farmacologia , Paladar
8.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 103(1_suppl): 164S-170S, 2024 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38411125

RESUMO

Aim: To systematically review the cases of anosmia or ageusia after receiving the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases, including Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, and PubMed, to identify any published study that evaluated the anosmia or ageusia after receiving the COVID-19 vaccine, including case reports, case series, letter to editor articles with reported cases regarding our topic, or observational studies with at least 1 eligible patient consisted with our criteria. We excluded the studies that reported anosmia or ageusia due to COVID-19 infection and non-COVID-19 vaccines. Results: Five studies consisting of 11 patients were included in this systematic review. Of the 11 patients, 5 patients had received the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine and 6 patients received the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, of which 6 patients developed symptoms after the first dose of vaccination and 5 patients were symptomatic after the second vaccine dose. Most of the patients developed symptoms within 1 week after the vaccination. The disorders of the patients included partial or total anosmia, parosmia, phantosmia, hyposmia, ageusia, and dysgeusia. Also, the patients had symptoms other than smell or taste disorders, including arthralgia, fever, chills, rhinorrhea, myalgia, abdominal pain, fatigue, muscle weakness, altered bowel pattern, aural fullness, tinnitus, and headache. Most of the evaluated patients did not receive any treatment as for their disorders. However, in some cases, treatment with oral corticosteroids or dietary supplementation was required. Conclusion: Anosmia and ageusia are important symptoms of COVID-19 vaccination. These symptoms will resolve without any treatment in most cases, although some interventions may be needed in some patients.


Assuntos
Ageusia , Anosmia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Humanos , Ageusia/etiologia , Ageusia/induzido quimicamente , Anosmia/etiologia , Anosmia/induzido quimicamente , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/complicações , Vacinas contra COVID-19/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Masculino , Vacinação/efeitos adversos , SARS-CoV-2 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto , Vacina BNT162/efeitos adversos , Idoso
9.
Epidemiol Infect ; 152: e37, 2024 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38250791

RESUMO

To investigate the symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, their dynamics and their discriminatory power for the disease using longitudinally, prospectively collected information reported at the time of their occurrence. We have analysed data from a large phase 3 clinical UK COVID-19 vaccine trial. The alpha variant was the predominant strain. Participants were assessed for SARS-CoV-2 infection via nasal/throat PCR at recruitment, vaccination appointments, and when symptomatic. Statistical techniques were implemented to infer estimates representative of the UK population, accounting for multiple symptomatic episodes associated with one individual. An optimal diagnostic model for SARS-CoV-2 infection was derived. The 4-month prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 2.1%; increasing to 19.4% (16.0%-22.7%) in participants reporting loss of appetite and 31.9% (27.1%-36.8%) in those with anosmia/ageusia. The model identified anosmia and/or ageusia, fever, congestion, and cough to be significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptoms' dynamics were vastly different in the two groups; after a slow start peaking later and lasting longer in PCR+ participants, whilst exhibiting a consistent decline in PCR- participants, with, on average, fewer than 3 days of symptoms reported. Anosmia/ageusia peaked late in confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (day 12), indicating a low discrimination power for early disease diagnosis.


Assuntos
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Humanos , Anosmia/epidemiologia , Anosmia/etiologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Teste para COVID-19 , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Longitudinais , SARS-CoV-2 , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto
10.
Virol J ; 21(1): 16, 2024 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38212781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses estimating the prevalence of the post-COVID-19 condition (PCC) were confounded by the lack of negative control groups. This may result in an overestimation of the prevalence of those experiencing PCC, as these symptoms are non-specific and common in the general population. In this study, we aimed to compare the burden of persistent symptoms among COVID-19 survivors relative to COVID-19-negative controls. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using the following databases (PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus) until July 2023 for comparative studies that examined the prevalence of persistent symptoms in COVID-19 survivors. Given that many of the symptoms among COVID-19 survivors overlap with post-hospitalization syndrome and post-intensive care syndrome, we included studies that compare the prevalence of persistent symptoms in hospitalized COVID-19 patients relative to non-COVID-19 hospitalized patients and in non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients relative to healthy controls that reported outcomes after at least 3 months since infection. The results of the meta-analysis were reported as odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval based on the random effects model. RESULTS: Twenty articles were included in this study. Our analysis of symptomatology in non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients compared to negative controls revealed that the majority of symptoms examined were not related to COVID-19 infection and appeared equally prevalent in both cohorts. However, non-COVID-19 hospitalized patients had higher odds of occurrence of certain symptoms like anosmia, ageusia, fatigue, dyspnea, and brain fog (P < 0.05). Particularly, anosmia and ageusia showed substantially elevated odds relative to the negative control group at 11.27 and 9.76, respectively, P < 0.05. In contrast, analysis of hospitalized COVID-19 patients compared to those hospitalized for other indications did not demonstrate significantly higher odds for the tested symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The persistent symptoms in COVID-19 survivors may result from hospitalization for causes unrelated to COVID-19 and are commonly reported among the general population. Although certain symptoms exhibited higher odds in non-hospitalized COVID-19 patients relative to controls, these symptoms are common post-viral illnesses. Therefore, the persistent symptoms after COVID-19 may not be unique to SARS-CoV-2. Future studies including well-matched control groups when investigating persistent symptoms in COVID-19 survivors are warranted to draw a firm conclusion.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Ageusia/etiologia , Anosmia/etiologia , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda/complicações , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 119, 2024 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38262969

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the frequency, duration and patterns of long-term coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms and to analyse risk factors for long-lasting COVID-19 sequelae among a cohort of hospital employees (HEs). METHODS: We conducted a survey regarding persistent COVID-19 related symptoms with all HEs from three medical centres in Cologne, Germany, who were tested SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive from March 2020 until May 2021. Duration of symptoms and possible risk factors for protracted COVID-19 course were analysed. RESULTS: Of 221 included HEs, a number of 104 HEs (47.1%) reported at least one persisting symptom for more than 90 days after initial SARS-CoV-2 detection. Each one cycle higher initial Ct value significantly increased the chances of overcoming symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 1.05; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 1.01-1.09; p = 0.019). The occurrence of breathlessness within the first ten days (OR 7.89; 95%CI 1.87-41.43; p = 0.008), an initial Ct value under 30 (OR 3.36; 95%CI 1.22-9.94; p = 0.022) as well as the occurrence of anosmia or ageusia within the first ten days (OR 3.01; 95%CI 1.10-8.84; p = 0.037) showed a statistically significant association with increased odds of illness duration over 90 days. CONCLUSION: About half of the HEs suffered from long lasting symptoms over 90 days after almost entirely mild acute COVID-19. Predictive factors could possibly be used for early treatment to prevent development of long-term symptoms after COVID-19 in future.


Assuntos
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Recursos Humanos em Hospital , Hospitais
12.
Int J Infect Dis ; 140: 9-16, 2024 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38141960

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examines long COVID symptoms course over 12 months, their impact on daily life, and associated factors for symptom relief. METHODS: A prospective cohort study included 231 participants with long COVID at 12-month follow-up. Data on characteristics, symptom course, and remission were collected using a questionnaire and a remission scale. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the prevalence rate ratio (PRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for factors associated with symptom improvement. RESULTS: Of the 231 participants, 63.2% developed SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before COVID-19 vaccination. At 12 months, only 8.7% (95% CI: 5.4-13.1%) reported complete remission, while 28.6% noted significant improvement. Most symptoms remained prevalent: asthenia (83.1%), neurocognitive/neurological (93.9%), cardiothoracic (77.9%), Musculoskeletal (78.8%). During long COVID, 62.2% stopped working, and only 32.5% resumed full-time professional activities. Presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before vaccination increased the probability of improvement (aPRR: 1.60, P = 0.028), while ageusia at initial long COVID phase decreased the probability (aPRR: 0.38, P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Long-COVID symptoms persisted in the majority of participants after 12 months, with significant impacts on daily life and work. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were associated with better prognosis, while persistent ageusia indicated a lower probability of improvement. These findings highlight the need for ongoing support and care for individuals with long COVID.


Assuntos
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , França/epidemiologia , Anticorpos Antivirais
13.
Chem Senses ; 482023 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38100383

RESUMO

Chemosensory scientists have been skeptical that reports of COVID-19 taste loss are genuine, in part because before COVID-19 taste loss was rare and often confused with smell loss. Therefore, to establish the predicted prevalence rate of taste loss in COVID-19 patients, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of 376 papers published in 2020-2021, with 235 meeting all inclusion criteria. Drawing on previous studies and guided by early meta-analyses, we explored how methodological differences (direct vs. self-report measures) may affect these estimates. We hypothesized that direct measures of taste are at least as sensitive as those obtained by self-report and that the preponderance of evidence confirms taste loss is a symptom of COVID-19. The meta-analysis showed that, among 138,015 COVID-19-positive patients, 36.62% reported taste dysfunction (95% confidence interval: 33.02%-40.39%), and the prevalence estimates were slightly but not significantly higher from studies using direct (n = 15) versus self-report (n = 220) methodologies (Q = 1.73, df = 1, P = 0.1889). Generally, males reported lower rates of taste loss than did females, and taste loss was highest among middle-aged adults. Thus, taste loss is likely a bona fide symptom of COVID-19, meriting further research into the most appropriate direct methods to measure it and its underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Transtornos do Olfato , Masculino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Feminino , Humanos , COVID-19/complicações , Ageusia/etiologia , Ageusia/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Distúrbios do Paladar/diagnóstico , Distúrbios do Paladar/etiologia , Distúrbios do Paladar/epidemiologia , Olfato , Paladar
14.
Eur J Gen Pract ; 29(1): 2270707, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37870070

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early in the COVID-19 pandemic, GPs had to distinguish SARS-CoV-2 from other aetiologies in patients presenting with respiratory tract infection (RTI) symptoms on clinical grounds and adapt management accordingly. OBJECTIVES: To test the diagnostic accuracy of GPs' clinical diagnosis of a SARS-CoV-2 infection in a period when COVID-19 was a new disease. To describe GPs' management of patients presenting with RTI for whom no confirmed diagnosis was available. To investigate associations between patient and clinical features with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: In April 2020-March 2021, 876 patients (9 countries) were recruited when they contacted their GP with symptoms of an RTI of unknown aetiology. A swab was taken at baseline for later analysis. Aetiology (PCR), diagnostic accuracy of GPs' clinical SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, and patient management were explored. Factors related to SARS-CoV-2 infection were determined by logistic regression modelling. RESULTS: GPs suspected SARS-CoV-2 in 53% of patients whereas 27% of patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. True-positive patients (23%) were more intensively managed for follow-up, antiviral prescribing and advice than true-negatives (42%). False negatives (5%) were under-advised, particularly for social distancing and isolation. Older age (OR: 1.02 (1.01-1.03)), male sex (OR: 1.68 (1.16-2.41)), loss of taste/smell (OR: 5.8 (3.7-9)), fever (OR: 1.9 (1.3-2.8)), muscle aches (OR: 2.1 (1.5-3)), and a known risk factor for COVID-19 (travel, health care worker, contact with proven case; OR: 2.7 (1.8-4)) were predictive of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Absence of loss of taste/smell, fever, muscle aches and a known risk factor for COVID-19 correctly excluded SARS-CoV-2 in 92.3% of patients, whereas presence of 3, or 4 of these variables correctly classified SARS-CoV-2 in 57.7% and 87.1%. CONCLUSION: Correct clinical diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, without POC-testing available, appeared to be complicated.


Assuntos
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Humanos , Masculino , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias , Teste para COVID-19 , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Dor
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37681818

RESUMO

(1) Background: A substantial proportion of COVID-19 patients continue to experience long-lasting effects that hamper their quality of life. The objectives of this study were (1) to report the prevalence of persistent clinical symptoms 6-12 months after the onset of COVID-19 and (2) to identify potential factors at admission associated with the occurrence of long COVID. (2) Methods: A prospective study was conducted among COVID-19 adult patients, hospitalized in four French university hospitals. Patients were invited to two ambulatory follow-up medical visits, 6-8 months (visit #1) and one year (visit #2) after the onset of their COVID-19. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess factors associated with long COVID. (3) Results: In total, 189 patients participated in this study (mean age of 63.4 years). BMI > 30 kg/m2 (aOR 3.52), AST levels between 31 and 42 U/L (aOR 8.68), and AST levels > 42 U/L (aOR 3.69) were associated with persistent clinical symptoms at visit #1. Anosmia (aOR 13.34), AST levels between 31 and 42 U/L (aOR 10.27), stay in ICU (aOR 5.43), pain (aOR 4.31), and longer time before hospitalization (aOR 1.14) were significantly associated with persistent clinical symptoms at visit #2. Patients with ageusia (aOR 0.17) had a lower risk of long COVID. (4) Conclusions: This study showed that some patients experienced persistent clinical symptoms one year after COVID-19 onset that were associated with some determinants at the acute phase/stage.


Assuntos
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de COVID-19 Pós-Aguda , Estudos Prospectivos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida
16.
PLoS One ; 18(9): e0291259, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37682916

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection invokes variable immune responses and poses a risk of post-acute sequelae SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) symptoms; however, most data on natural history are derived from patients with severe infection. Further data are needed among patients with mild infection, who comprise most cases. METHODS: The Dallas Fort-Worth (DFW) COVID-19 Prevalence Study included 21,597 community-dwelling adults (ages 18-89) who underwent COVID-19 PCR and anti-nucleocapsid antibody testing between July 2020 and March 2021. We invited participants with positive COVID-19 results (cases) and a subset with negative results (controls), matched on age, sex, race/ethnicity, and ZIP code, to complete a follow-up questionnaire for PASC symptoms and repeat anti-nucleocapsid testing, and anti-spike antibody testing between July and December 2021. RESULTS: Of 3,917 adults invited to participate, 2260 (57.7%) completed the questionnaire- 1150 cases and 1110 controls. Persistent symptoms were reported in 21.1% of cases, with the most common being shortness of breath, fatigue, and loss of taste or smell. Among 292 cases with asymptomatic infection, >15% reported new fatigue and 8-10% reported new loss of taste/smell, myalgias, or headache. Median anti-nucleocapsid levels in cases decreased from 3.5U to 0.7U over a median follow-up of 8.6 months. Anti-spike antibody levels at 6-7 months post-vaccination in cases were similar to that of controls. CONCLUSIONS: More than 1 in 5 patients with COVID-19 infection, including those with mild infection, reported persistent symptoms during follow-up. Both nucleocapsid and spike protein antibody levels decreased within six months following a COVID-19 infection and vaccination.


Assuntos
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , COVID-19/complicações , Progressão da Doença , Fadiga/etiologia , Nucleocapsídeo , SARS-CoV-2 , Masculino , Feminino
17.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther ; 83: 102252, 2023 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37678663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic refractory cough is a challenging condition that requires a thorough evaluation and management approach. P2X3 receptors that are ATP-dependent play an important part in nerve fiber sensitization and pathological pain pathways. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the long-term safety and efficacy of P2X3 receptor antagonist drugs in chronic cough. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase to identify all relevant published studies through January 15, 2023 that assessed P2X3 antagonists in chronic cough. The protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database with ID: CRD42023422408. Efficacy outcomes were awake (daytime) cough frequency, night cough frequency, 24-h cough frequency, Cough Severity Diary, and total Leicester Cough Questionnaire score. We used the random-effect model to pool the data using RStudio and CMA software. RESULTS: A total of 11 randomized controlled trials comprising 1350 patients receiving a p2x3 antagonist compared to the placebo group were included in this meta-analysis. A significant decrease in 24-h cough frequency (MD = -4.99, 95% CI [-7.15 to -2.82], P < 0.01), awake (daytime) cough frequency (MD = -7.18, 95% CI [-9.98 to 4.37], P < 0.01), and total Leicester Cough Questionnaire score (MD = 1.74, 95% CI [1.02 to 2.46], P < 0.01) exhibited between the P2X3 antagonist and placebo groups. The frequency of the night cough showed an insignificant difference between the two groups. According to the safety, drug-related adverse events, dysgeusia, hypogeusia, and ageusia significantly increased between the P2X3 antagonist and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: P2X3 receptor antagonists are promising drugs for treating chronic cough by significantly reducing the frequency, severity, and quality. Some potential side effects may include drug-related adverse events such as hypogeusia, ageusia, and dysgeusia.


Assuntos
Ageusia , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X , Humanos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2X/efeitos adversos , Ageusia/induzido quimicamente , Ageusia/tratamento farmacológico , Disgeusia/induzido quimicamente , Disgeusia/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Crônica , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Tosse/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Acta Neurol Taiwan ; 32(4): 202-206, 2023 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37723912

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While the gustatory pathway of animals has been well-researched, that of humans is still a mystery. Several theories have been established, and some earlier reports hypothesized the relation to laterality. However, some cases could not be fully explained by the laterality theory (1). To clarify the gustatory pathway, we reported a case with bilateral hypogeusia after right thalamic infarction. CASE: This 55-year-old, right-handed man suffered from sudden decreased sensitivity of taste. He was unable to differentiate sweetness and saltiness at bilateral anterior parts of tongue. Additionally, there was numbness at the upper palate and the lips. Neurological examination revealed decreased taste sense at both sides of his anterior tongue and decreased pin-prick sensation of the left part of his lips. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed acute ischemic stroke at the right ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM). Thus, single antiplatelet therapy was administered. Two weeks later, the symptoms improved significantly and completely recovered without sequelae. CONCLUSION: The exact gustatory pathway in humans remains uncertain nowadays. First, there were few reports about dysgeusia, which might be related to clinical neglect of taste deficits. Second, our knowledge of the human gustatory pathway depends solely on sporadic cases of taste-involved brain lesions. We reported a case of bilateral hypogeusia after right thalamic infarction. This finding indicates that, although there might be laterality of gustatory fibers to the left hemisphere, anatomical variations may exist in the human gustatory system. More research is needed to elucidate the understanding of the gustatory pathway in humans.


Assuntos
Ageusia , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral Lacunar , Animais , Masculino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ageusia/etiologia , Tálamo/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleos Ventrais do Tálamo , Infarto Cerebral/complicações , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 59(9)2023 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37763630

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Hypo/anosmia is a characteristic symptom of COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the time of smell recovery and to identify a possible order of perception recovery of different odors in COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted on not hospitalized COVID-19 patients, selected according to eligible criteria. The study was approved by the Ethical Committee. A questionnaire formulated by our team was submitted to patients in order to know the duration of the hypo/anosmia and hypo/ageusia and the order of odor recovery: vanillin (mixed olfactory/gustatory substances), phenyl ethyl alcohol (rosewater) (pure olfactory substances), eucalyptol (mixed olfactory/trigeminal substances), and eugenol (mixed olfactory/trigeminal/gustatory substances). Results: 181 patients were included. Hypo/ageusia and hypo/anosmia lasted on average 10.25 (±8.26) and 12.8 (±8.80) days, respectively. The most frequent odor recovery sequence was: (1) phenyl ethyl alcohol; (2) eucalyptol; (3) vanillin; and (4) eugenol. In COVID-19 patients, hypo/anosmia occurs more often in women and at a young age. Conclusions: This preliminary investigation highlighted novel data: there is a chronological order in perception recovery of different olfactory substances and, therefore, in the restoration of the various sensitive nerve pathways involved in the sense of smell.


Assuntos
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Álcool Feniletílico , Humanos , Feminino , Olfato , Anosmia , Eucaliptol/uso terapêutico , Eugenol/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações
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