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1.
J Indian Prosthodont Soc ; 23(1): 12-20, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36588370

RESUMO

Aims: The intraoral microbiota has a high potential to undergo dysbiosis, causing inflammatory changes with respect to the tissues surrounding either a natural tooth or an implant. Thus, the longevity of implant prosthesis depends on a thorough implant decontamination protocol. Among all the techniques available for doing so, laser is garnering increasing popularity, owing to minimal bleeding, high efficiency, and faster healing. However, limited literature exists regarding the superiority of lasers over chlorhexidine (CHX), the indisputable gold standard antibacterial chemical agent. The aim of this study was to compare the percentage of bacterial reduction of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans from implant healing abutments post red diode laser therapy versus 0.2% CHX treatment. Settings and Design: The current study had an ex vivo, observational, case-control design. Materials and Methods: Patients reporting for the second stage of the implant surgery were taken as the source of data and the healing abutments, the clinical samples. Eleven patients were chosen with one intraoral implant serving as the test site for laser treatment and another, the control site for CHX treatment. Microbiological analysis was performed via quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction to compare the bacterial reduction percentage after each treatment. Statistical Analysis Used: Repeated measures ANOVA and independent sample t test were used. Results: The mean bacterial viability of the test group (laser) was 1.2%-1.6%, and 0.6%-1.4% for the control group (CHX). The former caused a mean bacterial reduction of 96.1% while the latter, 96.3%. Both the treatments caused a highly statistically significant reduction of viable bacterial counts (P = 0.001). However, when compared, there was no statistically significant difference in the bacterial reduction, when compared in between the two (P = 0.902). Conclusion: Laser treatment is at par with chemical implant surface decontamination. It can help bypass the complications of CHX and revolutionize the protocols for implant surface decontamination.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Terapia a Laser , Humanos , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Implantes Dentários/microbiologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Lasers Semicondutores/uso terapêutico
2.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 31: e20220359, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36629716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on a holistic concept of polymicrobial etiology, we have hypothesized that putative and candidate periodontal pathogens are more frequently detected in consortia than alone in advanced forms of periodontal diseases (PD). OBJECTIVE: To correlate specific consortia of periodontal pathogens with clinical periodontal status and severity of periodontitis. METHODOLOGY: Subgingival biofilm was obtained from individuals with periodontal health (113, PH), gingivitis (91, G), and periodontitis (209, P). Genomic DNA was purified and the species Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Aa JP2-like strain, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Dialister pneumosintes (Dp), and Filifactor alocis (Fa) were detected by PCR. Configural frequency and logistic regression analyses were performed to correlate microbial consortia and PD. RESULTS: Aa + Pg in the presence of Dp (phi=0.240; χ2=11.9, p<0.01), as well as Aa JP2 + Dp + Fa (phi=0.186, χ2=4.6, p<0.05) were significantly more associated in advanced stages of P. The consortium Aa + Fa + Dp was strongly associated with deep pocketing and inflammation (p<0.001). The best predictors of disease severity (80% accuracy) included older age (OR 1.11 [95% CI 1.07 - 1.15], p<0.001), Black/African-American ancestry (OR 1.89 [95% CI 1.19 - 2.99], p=0.007), and high frequency of Aa + Pg + Dp (OR 3.04 [95% CI 1.49 - 6.22], p=0.002). CONCLUSION: Specific microbial consortia of putative and novel periodontal pathogens, associated with demographic parameters, correlate with severe periodontitis, supporting the multifactorial nature of PD.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais , Periodontite , Humanos , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Bacteroides , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Gravidade do Paciente
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2588: 157-169, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418687

RESUMO

The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a variant of PCR aimed to detect and quantify a targeted DNA molecule. This is made through the addition of probes labeled with fluorescent molecules that emit fluorescence within each amplification cycle, resulting in fluorescence values proportional to the amount of accumulated PCR product. This chapter presents the detailed procedures for quantification of different periodontal pathogens (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Streptococcus oralis, and Fusobacterium spp.) using qPCR. It also includes the description of the most frequent problems encountered, how to solve them, and recommendations to minimize the risks for laboratory staff handling oral samples. In addition, a detailed protocol for multiplex qPCR to detect and quantify Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Tannerella forsythia is also included.


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Tannerella forsythia , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , Corantes
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36497685

RESUMO

The implementation of adjunctive antibiotics has been recommended for the therapy of peri-implantitis (PI). In this review, antibiotic resistance patterns in PI patients were assessed. A systematic scoping review of observational studies and trials was established in conjunction with the PRISMA extension for scoping reviews. The SCOPUS, PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCIELO, Web of Science, and LILACS databases were reviewed along with the gray literature. The primary electronic examination produced 139 investigations. Finally, four observational studies met the selection criteria. These studies evaluated 214 implants in 168 patients. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum mainly presented high resistance to tetracycline, metronidazole, and erythromycin in PI patients. Similarly, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was also highly resistant to clindamycin and doxycycline. Other microorganisms such as Tannerella forsythia, Parvimonas micra, and Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens also presented significant levels of resistance to other antibiotics including amoxicillin, azithromycin, and moxifloxacin. However, most microorganisms did not show resistance to the combination amoxicillin metronidazole. Although the management of adjunctive antimicrobials in the therapy of PI is controversial, in this review, the resistance of relevant microorganisms to antibiotics used to treat PI, and usually prescribed in dentistry, was observed. Clinicians should consider the antibiotic resistance demonstrated in the treatment of PI patients and its public health consequences.


Assuntos
Peri-Implantite , Humanos , Peri-Implantite/tratamento farmacológico , Peri-Implantite/microbiologia , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Amoxicilina , Metronidazol , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
5.
Microb Pathog ; 173(Pt A): 105843, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374775

RESUMO

Each HACEK group pathogen, which can cause infective endocarditis, expresses type IVa pili. The type IVa major pilin PilA plays a role in bacterial colonization, virulence, twitching motility, and the uptake of extracellular DNA. The type IV prepilin homolog PilA of the periodontal pathogen A. actinomycetemcomitans (AaPilA) is linked to DNA uptake and natural competence. Our aim was to investigate the virulence properties and immunogenic potential of AaPilA. Since Neisseria meningitidis PilE, which shares sequence similarity with AaPilA, participates in sequestering host cytokines, we examined the ability of AaPilA to interact with various cytokines. Moreover, we investigated the structural characteristics of AaPilA with molecular modeling. AaPilA was conserved among A. actinomycetemcomitans strains. One of the 18 different natural variants, PilAD7S, is present in naturally competent strains. This variant interacted with DNA and bound interleukin (IL)-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Specific anti-AaPilA antibodies were present in A. actinomycetemcomitans-positive periodontitis patient sera, and the production of reactive oxygen species from human neutrophils was less effectively induced by the ΔpilA mutant than by the wild-type strains. However, AaPilA did not stimulate human macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines, nor was it cytotoxic. The results strengthen our earlier hypothesis that the DNA uptake machinery of A. actinomycetemcomitans is involved in the sequestration of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, AaPilA stimulates host immune cells, such as B cells and neutrophils, making it a potential virulence factor.


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Citocinas , Humanos , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/química , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fímbrias Bacterianas/genética , Fímbrias Bacterianas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fímbrias/genética , Proteínas de Fímbrias/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , DNA/metabolismo , Leucócitos/metabolismo
6.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 991128, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36339338

RESUMO

Background: To investigate human oral health and disease, models are required which represent the interactions between the oral mucosa and microbiome. Our aim was to develop an organotypic model which maintains viability of both host and microbes for an extended period of time. Methods: Reconstructed Human Gingiva (RHG) were cultured air-lifted with or without penicillin-streptomycin (PS) and topically exposed to Streptococcus gordonii (commensal) or Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (pathogen) for 72 hours in agar. RHG histology, viability and cytokines (ELISA), and bacterial viability (colony forming units) and location (FISH) were assessed. Results: The low concentration of topically applied agar did not influence RHG viability. Topically applied bacteria in agar remained localized and viable for 72 hours and did not spill over to infect RHG culture medium. PS in RHG culture medium killed topically applied bacteria. Co-culture with living bacteria did not influence RHG viability (Ki67 expression, MTT assay) or histology (epithelium differentiation, Keratin10 expression). RHG exposed to S. gordonii (with or without PS) did not influence low level of IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, CCL5, CCL20 or CXCL1 secretion. However, all cytokines increased (except CCL2) when RHG were co-cultured with A. actinomycetemcomitans. The effect was significantly more in the presence of living, rather than dead, A. actinomycetemcomitans. Both bacteria resulted in increased expression of RHG antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) Elafin and HBD-2, with S. gordonii exposure resulting in the most Elafin secretion. Conclusion: This technical advance enables living human oral host-microbe interactions to be investigated during a 72-hour period and shows differences in innate immunology triggered by S. gordonii and A. actinomycetemcomitans.


Assuntos
Elafina , Gengiva , Humanos , Gengiva/microbiologia , Ágar , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Citocinas
7.
J Periodontal Res ; 57(6): 1227-1237, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36261869

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This investigation explored oral-gut microbial signatures with potential to distinguish among periodontal conditions. BACKGROUND DATA: The interplay between the oral and gut microbiomes may be a critical pathway linking periodontal diseases and systemic inflammatory disorders. The mechanisms by which oral microorganisms translocate to the gut and cause microbial dysbiosis, favoring an inflammatory state, are still unknown. As a first approach, characterization of oral-gut microbial profiles associated with periodontal health and diseases can provide insights on such mechanisms of etiology and pathogenesis. METHODS: Fecal and saliva samples from individuals with periodontal health (PH, 8), gingivitis (GG, 17), and periodontitis (PD, 24) were analyzed for their microbial composition by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbial taxa were compared and correlated to periodontal parameters. Multivariate discriminant analysis (MDA) was carried out to identify profiles related to health and disease. RESULTS: Few significant differences in oral-gut taxa were detected among clinical groups, although increase in fecal Fusobacterium nucleatum ss vincentii and salivary Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fretibacterium sp. HMT358 were strongly correlated with deep pockets and inflammation (p < .01). Over 50% of the fecal microbiota comprised microorganisms shared between oral and gut sites, whereas oral taxa were detected in approximately 9%, particularly enriched in GG fecal samples (p = .04). Trends for lower fecal richness and higher salivary diversity in PD compared to PH were observed. MDA was able to classify correctly 82% of the patients into the clinical groups. Main classifiers of periodontitis were high BMI, older age, and enrichment of oral-fecal Leptotrichia sp. HMT4, Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Dialister invisus, and a novel Lautropia sp. HMTC89-like organism. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of an exploratory investigation, specific profiles of oral-gut taxa, including known and potential novel organisms, combined with social-demographic features were able to discriminate individuals with periodontal diseases in this study population.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota , Doenças Periodontais , Periodontite , Humanos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Microbiota/genética , Periodontite/diagnóstico , Periodontite/microbiologia , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/genética , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia
8.
Braz Dent J ; 33(5): 64-73, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36287500

RESUMO

Periodontitis and arterial hypertension are two of the pathologies with the highest global prevalence; evidence reported so far has been favorable to an association between them. This cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate and compare the microbiological counts of hypertensive and normotensive patients with periodontitis. Sociodemographic, behavioral, systemic health data and periodontal clinical parameters were assessed. Counts of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. intermedia, P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum were performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction using subgingival biofilm samples. Thirty-eight patients were included in this preliminary analysis, divided into two groups: Normotensive Group (NG) (n = 14) and Hypertensive Group (HG) (n = 24). Patients diagnosed with periodontitis composed both groups. Data analysis was performed with significance level of 5%. There was no significant difference between groups for clinical periodontitis diagnosis. In addition, hypertensive individuals had higher P. intermedia, P. gingivalis, and F. nucleatum counts when compared to normotensive individuals. The parameters probing pocket depth, bleeding on probing, and A. actinomycetemcomitans count did not presented statistical differences between groups. With these preliminary results, it can be concluded that the presence of arterial hypertension may be associated with a greater quantity of periodontopathogenic bacterial of some species in individuals with periodontitis.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Periodontite , Humanos , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Projetos Piloto , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Estudos Transversais , Prevotella intermedia
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36233133

RESUMO

Cytolethal distending toxins (Cdt) are produced by a diverse group of pathogens. One Cdt-producing organism, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of a unique form of periodontitis, formerly referred to as localized aggressive periodontitis. The active Cdt subunit, CdtB, is a potent phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3,4,5-triphosphate phosphatase capable of inducing PI-3-kinase signaling blockade, a requisite for Cdt-induced toxicity in lymphocytes. In this study, we extended our observations to include the oral keratinocyte response to AaCdt using cell lines and primary gingival keratinocytes. All three exhibited G2/M arrest when exposed to AaCdt toxin within 24 h. Toxin-treated cells exhibited reduced levels of pAkt and pGSK3ß within 6 h. Pre-treatment with GSK3ß kinase inhibitors, LY2090314, CHIR99021 and Tideglusib, abrogated Cdt-induced G2/M arrest. None of the oral epithelial cells exhibited evidence of apoptosis. Cells remained arrested in the G2/M phase for at least 72 h without evidence of DNA damage response activation (H2AX phosphorylation). Cdt-treated cells displayed increased phosphorylation of the cyclin dependent kinase 1 (CDK1); moreover, the GSK3 inhibitors blocked this increase and reduced total CDK1 levels. This study further clarifies the potential mechanism(s) contributing to Cdt toxicity and toxin-mediated pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Periodontite Agressiva , Apoptose , Toxinas Bacterianas , Proteína Quinase CDC2/metabolismo , Ciclo Celular , Pontos de Checagem do Ciclo Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G2 do Ciclo Celular , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos , Fosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Monoéster Fosfórico Hidrolases/metabolismo
10.
Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg ; 40(9): 646-655, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36070584

RESUMO

Background: Stage 3 grade C periodontitis (S3GCP) has always been a challenge for clinicians. However, it is proposed that the use of lasers in addition to periodontal therapy can result in a more efficient therapy outcome. Objective: The aim of this clinical study was to determine the effects of additional application of diode laser (DL, 810 nm ±5) on clinical and microbiological values during Modified Widman Flap (MWF) periodontal surgery in the S3GCP patients. Methods: A total of 18 patients were randomly assigned to the test site (MWF + activeDL) and the control site (MFW alone). Clinical parameters and microbial samples were taken preoperatively, and postoperatively at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Visual analog scale (VAS), tissue edema (TE), tissue color (TC), and pain medication (PM) consumption, were evaluated postoperatively at 10th day. Results: All bacteria were significantly decreased at follow-up times compared with preoperative amounts in both therapy sites (p < 0.05). Bacterial amounts of Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at 6 weeks, Porphyromonas gingivalis and T. denticola at 3 months, T. denticola and A. actinomycetemcomitans at 6 months were statistically lower in the test site than the control site. All clinical parameters significantly improved after MWF surgery at follow-up times compared with preoperative values in intragroup comparisons, but a significant difference was not detected in the intergroup comparison. No differences were found in terms of VAS, PM, TE, and only TC was statistically more pink in the test site than the control site. Conclusions: The present study findings suggest that the use of DL together with MWF may have positive effects in the therapy of S3GCP patients by reducing the microbial load. Clinical Trial.org: NCT05108727.


Assuntos
Lasers Semicondutores , Treponema denticola , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Humanos , Lasers Semicondutores/uso terapêutico , Bolsa Periodontal/microbiologia
11.
F1000Res ; 11: 557, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36112976

RESUMO

Background: A relationship between oral microbiota and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection has been extensively studied. However, the relationship between oral commensal flora and expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 ( ACE2) remains to be established. In this observational study, we collected saliva from patients with COVID-19 and evaluated the relationship between ACE2 expression and Candida albicans as well as with selected gram-negative bacteria ( Aggregatibacter actin o mycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Veillonella parvula). We investigated how this may be directly or indirectly involved in oral dysbiosis in patients with COVID-19. Methods: We included 23 hospitalized patients admitted to Universitas Indonesia Hospital with PCR-confirmed COVID-19, with six healthy participants serving as controls. Saliva and tongue surface swabs were collected from patients with diabetes (DG) and without diabetes (NDG) and subject controls. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR) we assessed the mRNA expression of ACE2, the abundance of C. albicans, and the transcription levels of its biofilm-associated genes, agglutinin-like protein 3 ( ALS3), hyphal wall protein 1 ( HWP1), and yeast-form wall protein 1 ( YWP1). We also counted the relative proportion of the three selected gram-negative oral bacteria in saliva. All analyses were performed to determine the relationship between ACE2 expression and C. albicans and gram-negative bacteria. Results: ACE2 mRNA expression was significantly higher in tongue swab samples than in saliva. However, no significant difference was observed between the patient groups. Conversely, DG patients had a significantly higher abundance of C. albicans in saliva compared to NDG patients and control group patients. The correlation and sensitivity/specificity relationship between ACE2 expression and C. albicans or the selected oral bacteria were also observed. Conclusions: The data show that ACE2 expression can be detected in saliva of patients with COVID-19 and its association with C. albicans and gram-negative oral bacteria might contribute toward developing an oral dysbiosis based predictor for prognosis of COVID-19 severity.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Candida albicans , Actinas , Aglutininas/metabolismo , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2 , Disbiose , Humanos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/microbiologia
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36077312

RESUMO

Periodontal disease is a frequent pathology worldwide, with a constantly increasing prevalence. For the optimal management of periodontal disease, there is a need to take advantage of actual technology to understand the bacterial etiology correlated with the pathogenic mechanisms, risk factors and treatment protocols. We analyzed the scientific literature published in the last 5 years regarding the recent applications of mRNA analysis in periodontal disease for the main known bacterial species considered to be the etiological agents: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Tannerella forsythia. We identified new pathogenic mechanisms, therapeutic target genes and possible pathways to prevent periodontal disease. The mRNA analysis, as well as the important technological progress in recent years, supports its implementation in the routine management of periodontal disease patients.


Assuntos
Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Doenças Periodontais , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans/genética , Humanos , Doenças Periodontais/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Tannerella forsythia/genética , Treponema denticola
13.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants ; 37(5): 913-919, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170305

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of periopathogens on bone grafts for maxillary sinus floor augmentation and implant survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort study was designed. Samples from maxillary sinus floor augmentation sites and from periodontal pockets in adjacent teeth of the same patients were collected during the surgery and following periodontal maintenance and plaque removal. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed by an external lab service for analysis of the following periopathogens: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola. Correlations between the presence of periopathogens in sinus sites and periodontal pockets in adjacent teeth and the clinical findings (bone and implant survival) were studied. RESULTS: A total of 23 patients were suitable for study inclusion. Periopathogens were found in sinus sites in 6 patients (26%) and in tooth sites in 15 patients (65%). There was low correlation for the presence of periopathogens between tooth sites and sinus sites and for complications. CONCLUSION: The presence of periopathogens as revealed by PCR was lower in sinus sites compared with tooth sites. Their presence neither caused bone pathology nor affected dental implant survival. The presence of periopathogens in sinus sites is inevitable even under periodontal maintenance. Although its presence did not endanger implant survival, future studies are recommended for studying this issue. Further analyses of the presence of periopathogens in cases of bone resorption at the apex of dental implants inserted into sites of augmented sinuses are warranted.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Levantamento do Assoalho do Seio Maxilar , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Bolsa Periodontal , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia , Treponema denticola
14.
J Periodontal Res ; 57(6): 1116-1126, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the influence of smoking on clinical, microbiological and immunological parameters in young adult with stage III-IV Grade C periodontitis after full-mouth ultrasonic debridement (FMUD) associated with Amoxicillin and Metronidazole (AMX + MTZ), comparing smokers (PerioC-Y-Smk) with non-smokers (PerioC-Y-NSmk). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen PerioC-Y-NSmk and 14 PerioC-Y-Smk patients underwent FMUD associated with AMX + MTZ for 10 days. All parameters were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 months after treatment. Plaque index (PI), bleeding on probing (BoP), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL)- the primary variable-, and gingival recession (GR) were clinically assessed. The impact of PI on CAL change at 6-month was verified by a regression analysis. Samples of the subgingival biofilm was collected for detection of levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.gingivalis), Tannerella forsythia (T. forsythia), and Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp (F. nucleatum), and were analyzed by real-time qPCR; gingival crevicular fluid was collected for detection of levels of interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ, which were analyzed using an enzyme immunoassay. RESULTS: PerioC-Y-Smk had significantly higher PI, BOP, and GR at baseline compared to non-smokers (p < .05). PerioC-Y-Smk presented higher PD, CAL, and GR at 3 and 6 months (p < .05) compared with PerioC-Y-NSmk in the same periods; PI negatively affected CAL gain in PerioC-Y-NSmk at 6-month follow-up (p = .052) and did not impact on clinical response in PerioC-Y-Smk (p = .882). Lower levels of IFN-γ, IL1-ß, and IL-4 were observed at 3 months in the PerioC-Y-NSmk (p < .05) compared with PerioC-Y-Smk. Lower proportions of P. gingivalis were observed in PerioC-Y-NSmk at baseline and at 3 months (p < .05) and lower proportions of F. nucleatum were observed at 6 months, in the PerioC-Y-NSmk (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: PerioC-Y-Smk presents an unfavorable clinical, microbiological, and immunological response after 3 and 6 months after FMUD associated with AMX + MTZ. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Smoking worsens periodontal condition of young treated adults presenting stage III/IV Grade C periodontitis.


Assuntos
Interleucina-4 , Periodontite , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Líquido do Sulco Gengival , Amoxicilina/uso terapêutico , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos
15.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272148, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35994451

RESUMO

This study explores the risk for cancer by level of antibodies to the anaerobe oral bacteria of periodontitis Tannerella forsythia (TF), Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG), and Treponema denticola (TD) all three collectively termed the red complex, and the facultative anaerobe bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (AA). The prospective cohort, the Oslo II-study from 2000, the second screening of the Oslo study of 1972/73, has been followed for 17 ½ years with regard to cancer incidence and mortality. A random sample of 697 elderly men comprised the study cohort. The antibody results measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used in the Cox proportional hazards analyses, and quartile risk on cancer incidence in a 17 ½ years follow-up. Among the 621 participants with no prior cancer diagnoses, 221 men developed cancer. The incidence trend was inverse, and the results are shown as 1st quartile of highest value and 4th as lowest of antibody levels. The results of the Cox proportional regression analyses showed that TF inversely predicts bladder cancer (n = 22) by Hazard Ratio (HR) = 1.71 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.61). TD inversely predicts colon cancer (n = 26) by HR = 1.52 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.19) and bladder cancer (n = 22) by HR = 1.60 (95% CI: 1.05, 2.43). Antibodies to two oral bacteria, TF and TD, showed an inverse risk relationship with incidence of specific cancers: TF bladder cancer, TD bladder and colon cancer. Lowered immunological response to the oral infection, periodontitis, is shown to be a risk factor in terms of cancer aetiology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Periodontite , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Idoso , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Periodontite/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Estudos Prospectivos , Tannerella forsythia , Treponema denticola
16.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0270177, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951554

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to examine the periodontal status of patients with atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms. The occurrence of 5 periodontopathogens was evaluated in periodontal pockets and atheromatous plaques together with specimens from pathologically changed vascular walls of aortic aneurysms. The study comprised 39 patients who qualified for vascular surgeries. Patients with periodontitis and concomitant atherosclerosis or aneurysms were enrolled in the study. Periodontal indices were evaluated, and subgingival plaque samples were examined together with atheromatous plaques or specimens from vascular walls to identify, by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the following periodontopathogens: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tanarella forsythia, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Treponema denticola. The majority of patients had chronic severe generalized periodontitis in stages III and IV. Laboratory investigations showed the occurrence of one or more of the five targeted periodontopathogens in 94.6% of the periodontal pockets examined. Of the examined periodontopathogens, only Porphyromonas gingivalis was confirmed in 1 atheromatous plaque sample collected from the wall of an aortic aneurysm. Therefore, the occurrence of this bacterium in these vessels was considered to be occasional in patients with chronic periodontitis.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal , Aterosclerose , Periodontite Crônica , Placa Aterosclerótica , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/complicações , Aterosclerose/microbiologia , Bacteroides , Periodontite Crônica/microbiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Bolsa Periodontal/microbiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica/microbiologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Prevotella intermedia , Treponema denticola
17.
J Periodontal Res ; 57(5): 1083-1092, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35978527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic periodontitis is caused by multiple risk factors. To predict chronic periodontitis in older people, we evaluated the association between a combination of major periodontal pathogens and salivary biomarkers and the presence of periodontitis. METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples were collected to analyze the prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia, as well as four biomarkers: interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). A total of 201 Japanese patients were recruited. Oral examinations ware performed to determine chronic periodontitis as measured by Community Periodontal Index. The sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics were also obtained, and the parameters were adjusted as potential confounders to employ statistical models. RESULTS: The odds ratio (OR) for the presence of P. gingivalis and the third tertile level of IL-1ß as compared with the absence of P. gingivalis and the lowest tertile of IL-1ß was highest in individuals with periodontitis (OR = 13.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.87-50.52) with the best level (0.79) of area under the curve (AUC) based on the receiver operating characteristic curve. The OR for the presence of P. gingivalis and the third tertile of PGE2 was 7.76 (CI 1.89-31.91) with an AUC of 0.78. The coexistence of more than two periodontal bacteria and the third tertile of PGE2 was also strongly associated with chronic periodontitis (OR = 9.23, 95% CI 2.38-35.79) with an AUC of 0.76. CONCLUSIONS: The combined information of the presence of P. gingivalis in stimulated saliva, and higher levels of salivary IL-1ß may play a vital role in the detection and prediction of chronic periodontitis in older adults.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Idoso , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Bacteroides , Biomarcadores , Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Periodontite Crônica/microbiologia , Dinoprostona , Humanos , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Treponema denticola
18.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces ; 218: 112741, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35961112

RESUMO

Although extensive efforts have been made to explore effective antibiotics, the development of antibiotics lags far behind the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria. Antimicrobial materials as an alternative strategy provide effective functions in aiding in relieving the dose of antibiotics. Herein, we report a novel antibacterial agent with high antibacterial effectivity and low toxicity, which is simply composed of a trace amount of Cu2+ ion and nanoscale biocompatible polymer poly (acrylic acid-co-itaconic acid) (PAI-Cu). The polymer shows greatly enhanced antibacterial activity against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens compared with equal concentrations of copper ion solution, yet shows nearly no toxicity towards human cells. The antibacterial performance and mechanism of copper ionized polymer hydrogel are evaluated in terms of multiple methods, towards various oral bacteria including Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomycetes viscosus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Prevotella intermedia. Bacterial cell membrane and wall damage caused by PAI-Cu nanohydrogel should be regarded as an important antibacterial mechanism. Moreover, PAI-Cu nanohydrogel, as the role of catalytic active center, can activate the surrounding oxygen, and generate hydroxyl radical (·OH), which can destroy the proliferation ability of microbial cells. We suggest that PAI-Cu nanohydrogel is a promising antibacterial agent against dental pathogens and beyond.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Cobre , Acrilatos , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Cobre/farmacologia , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Humanos , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Radical Hidroxila , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Oxigênio/farmacologia , Polímeros/farmacologia , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Streptococcus mutans , Succinatos
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12353, 2022 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35854051

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that periodontitis is associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontal bacteria, such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) are involved in the pathogenesis of RA via citrullinated proteins. Smoking has also been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of RA; however, the extent of this involvement is still poorly understood. In addition, RA and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) are sometimes difficult to differentiate; however, the relationship between PMR and the factors from smoking and periodontal bacteria is unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between periodontal pathogenic bacterial infections and smoking in patients with RA or PMR. This case-control study included 142 patients with untreated RA or PMR. This study evaluated the serum antibody titers against periodontal pathogenic bacterial antigens and an anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA). In patients with RA, the relationship between antibody titers and disease activity of RA and response after 3 months of treatment was also investigated. Additionally, the effects of smoking were evaluated. Although there was no significant difference in serum antibody titer against periodontal pathogenic bacteria between the ACPA-positive RA group and the ACPA-negative PMR group, we found an association between the elevated antibody titer against Pg and the degree of ACPA value, especially between negative group and high-value positive group (≥ 100 U/mL). The antibody titers against Aa and Pg did not differ depending on disease activity score 28 (DAS28) at baseline; however, patients with high antibody titers had poor RA therapeutic response as judged by DAS28 after 3 months. We could not find any association between smoking and any of these parameters. Periodontal pathogenic bacteria, especially Pg, are associated with elevated ACPA levels. Our findings suggest that Pg and Aa infections interfere with the therapeutic response of RA.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Fumar , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Fumar/efeitos adversos
20.
Clin Oral Investig ; 26(11): 6639-6652, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35829773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the clinical and microbiological effects of a single subgingival administration of sodium hypochlorite gel (NaOCl) and compare it with 1% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel and a placebo gel following mechanical re-instrumentation during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two patients who had been treated for stage III-IV periodontitis and enrolled in SPT were included in the study based on following criteria: (1) active periodontal therapy completed at least 6 months before enrollment in the study, (2) presence of at least 4 non-adjacent sites with probing pocket depths (PPDs) ≥ 4 mm with bleeding on probing (BOP), or presence of 5-8 mm PPDs with or without BOP. All sites presenting PPD ≥ 4 mm and BOP at baseline and 3-, 6-, and 9-month follow-up timepoints were subgingivally re-instrumented with ultrasounds. Selected patients were randomly assigned into three groups and treated additionally with a single subgingival administration of NaOCl gel (group A); 1% CHX gel (group B); and placebo gel (group C). Main outcome variable was pocket closure at 12 months. Secondary outcome variables were changes in mean PPD, BOP, and clinical attachment level (CAL) along with changes in the numbers of the following five keystone bacterial pathogens: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.), Prevotella intermedia (P.i.), Tannerella forsythia (T.f.), and Treponema denticola (T.d.). RESULTS: At 12 months, pocket closure was obtained in 77.5% in the NaOCl treated sites. The reduction in PPD was higher with CHX than with NaOCl, although a statistically significant adjunctive effect for NaOCl (P = 0.028) was only observed in comparison with placebo only. Mean CAL improved in all groups and at all timepoints, compared to the baseline (P < 0.05). However, after 6 months, CAL gain was statistically significantly higher in the NaOCl treated group than following application of CHX (P = 0.0026). CONCLUSION: In SPT patients, a single adjunctive use of a NaOCl gel may provide benefits in controlling inflammation and residual pockets. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry of Clinical Trials (ISRCTN11387188). CLINICAL RELEVANCE: A baseline single application of NaOCl gel in conjunction with mechanical debridement may achieve substantial pocket closure in patients enrolled in SPT; treatment time, cost, and applicability considerations should be taken into account when selecting this therapy.


Assuntos
Periodontite , Hipoclorito de Sódio , Humanos , Bolsa Periodontal/microbiologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Hipoclorito de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Periodontite/microbiologia , Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans , Porphyromonas gingivalis , Raspagem Dentária
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