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1.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD006924, 2019 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence has suggested a link between beta2-agonists and increases in asthma mortality. There has been much debate about whether regular (daily) long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA) are safe when used in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). This updated Cochrane Review includes results from two large trials that recruited 23,422 adolescents and adults mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk of mortality and non-fatal serious adverse events (SAEs) in trials that randomly assign participants with chronic asthma to regular formoterol and inhaled corticosteroids versus the same dose of inhaled corticosteroid alone. SEARCH METHODS: We identified randomised trials using the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials. We checked websites of clinical trial registers for unpublished trial data as well as FDA submissions in relation to formoterol. The date of the most recent search was February 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised clinical trials (RCTs) with a parallel design involving adults, children, or both with asthma of any severity who received regular formoterol and ICS (separate or combined) treatment versus the same dose of ICS for at least 12 weeks. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We obtained unpublished data on mortality and SAEs from the sponsors of the studies. We assessed our confidence in the evidence using GRADE recommendations. The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and all-cause non-fatal serious adverse events. MAIN RESULTS: We found 42 studies eligible for inclusion and included 39 studies in the analyses: 29 studies included 35,751 adults, and 10 studies included 4035 children and adolescents. Inhaled corticosteroids included beclomethasone (daily metered dosage 200 to 800 µg), budesonide (200 to 1600 µg), fluticasone (200 to 250 µg), and mometasone (200 to 800 µg). Formoterol metered dosage ranged from 12 to 48 µg daily. Fixed combination ICS was used in most of the studies. We judged the risk of selection bias, performance bias, and attrition bias as low, however most studies did not report independent assessment of causation of SAEs.DeathsSeventeen of 18,645 adults taking formoterol and ICS and 13 of 17,106 adults taking regular ICS died of any cause. The pooled Peto odds ratio (OR) was 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 2.56, moderate-certainty evidence), which equated to one death occurring for every 1000 adults treated with ICS alone for 26 weeks; the corresponding risk amongst adults taking formoterol and ICS was also one death (95% CI 0 to 2 deaths). No deaths were reported in the trials on children and adolescents (4035 participants) (low-certainty evidence).In terms of asthma-related deaths, no children and adolescents died from asthma, but three of 12,777 adults in the formoterol and ICS treatment group died of asthma (both low-certainty evidence).Non-fatal serious adverse eventsA total of 401 adults experienced a non-fatal SAE of any cause on formoterol with ICS, compared to 369 adults who received regular ICS. The pooled Peto OR was 1.00 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.16, high-certainty evidence, 29 studies, 35,751 adults). For every 1000 adults treated with ICS alone for 26 weeks, 22 adults had an SAE; the corresponding risk for those on formoterol and ICS was also 22 adults (95% CI 19 to 25).Thirty of 2491 children and adolescents experienced an SAE of any cause when receiving formoterol with ICS, compared to 13 of 1544 children and adolescents receiving ICS alone. The pooled Peto OR was 1.33 (95% CI 0.71 to 2.49, moderate-certainty evidence, 10 studies, 4035 children and adolescents). For every 1000 children and adolescents treated with ICS alone for 12.5 weeks, 8 had an non-fatal SAE; the corresponding risk amongst those on formoterol and ICS was 11 children and adolescents (95% CI 6 to 21).Asthma-related serious adverse eventsNinety adults experienced an asthma-related non-fatal SAE with formoterol and ICS, compared to 102 with ICS alone. The pooled Peto OR was 0.86 (95% CI 0.64 to 1.14, moderate-certainty evidence, 28 studies, 35,158 adults). For every 1000 adults treated with ICS alone for 26 weeks, 6 adults had an asthma-related non-fatal SAE; the corresponding risk for those on formoterol and ICS was 5 adults (95% CI 4 to 7).Amongst children and adolescents, 9 experienced an asthma-related non-fatal SAE with formoterol and ICS, compared to 5 on ICS alone. The pooled Peto OR was 1.18 (95% CI 0.40 to 3.51, very low-certainty evidence, 10 studies, 4035 children and adolescents). For every 1000 children and adolescents treated with ICS alone for 12.5 weeks, 3 had an asthma-related non-fatal SAE; the corresponding risk on formoterol and ICS was 4 (95% CI 1 to 11). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We did not find a difference in the risk of death (all-cause or asthma-related) in adults taking combined formoterol and ICS versus ICS alone (moderate- to low-certainty evidence). No deaths were reported in children and adolescents. The risk of dying when taking either treatment was very low, but we cannot be certain if there is a difference in mortality when taking additional formoterol to ICS (low-certainty evidence).We did not find a difference in the risk of non-fatal SAEs of any cause in adults (high-certainty evidence). A previous version of the review had shown a lower risk of asthma-related SAEs in adults taking combined formoterol and ICS; however, inclusion of new studies no longer shows a difference between treatments (moderate-certainty evidence).The reported number of children and adolescents with SAEs was small, so uncertainty remains in this age group.We included results from large studies mandated by the FDA. Clinical decisions and information provided to patients regarding regular use of formoterol and ICS need to take into account the balance between known symptomatic benefits of formoterol and ICS versus the remaining degree of uncertainty associated with its potential harmful effects.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Antiasmáticos/efeitos adversos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Fumarato de Formoterol/efeitos adversos , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
2.
N Engl J Med ; 381(13): 1227-1239, 2019 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Morbidity from asthma is disproportionately higher among black patients than among white patients, and black patients constitute the minority of participants in trials informing treatment. Data indicate that patients with inadequately controlled asthma benefit more from addition of a long-acting beta-agonist (LABA) than from increased glucocorticoids; however, these data may not be informative for treatment in black patients. METHODS: We conducted two prospective, randomized, double-blind trials: one involving children and the other involving adolescents and adults. In both trials, the patients had at least one grandparent who identified as black and had asthma that was inadequately controlled with low-dose inhaled glucocorticoids. We compared combinations of therapy, which included the addition of a LABA (salmeterol) to an inhaled glucocorticoid (fluticasone propionate), a step-up to double to quintuple the dose of fluticasone, or both. The treatments were compared with the use of a composite measure that evaluated asthma exacerbations, asthma-control days, and lung function; data were stratified according to genotypic African ancestry. RESULTS: When quintupling the dose of fluticasone (to 250 µg twice a day) was compared with adding salmeterol (50 µg twice a day) and doubling the fluticasone (to 100 µg twice a day), a superior response occurred in 46% of the children with quintupling the fluticasone and in 46% of the children with doubling the fluticasone and adding salmeterol (P = 0.99). In contrast, more adolescents and adults had a superior response to added salmeterol than to an increase in fluticasone (salmeterol-low-dose fluticasone vs. medium-dose fluticasone, 49% vs. 28% [P = 0.003]; salmeterol-medium-dose fluticasone vs. high-dose fluticasone, 49% vs. 31% [P = 0.02]). Neither the degree of African ancestry nor baseline biomarkers predicted a superior response to specific treatments. The increased dose of inhaled glucocorticoids was associated with a decrease in the ratio of urinary cortisol to creatinine in children younger than 8 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to black adolescents and adults, almost half the black children with poorly controlled asthma had a superior response to an increase in the dose of an inhaled glucocorticoid and almost half had a superior response to the addition of a LABA. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; BARD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01967173.).


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Afro-Americanos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Fluticasona/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Xinafoato de Salmeterol/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
3.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 1019-1031, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190787

RESUMO

Purpose: Global evidence-based treatment strategies for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend using long-acting bronchodilators (LABDs) as maintenance therapy. However, COPD patients are often undertreated. We examined COPD treatment patterns among Medicare beneficiaries who initiated arformoterol tartrate, a nebulized long-acting beta2 agonist (LABA), and identified the predictors of initiation. Methods: Using a 100% sample of Medicare administrative data, we identified beneficiaries with a COPD diagnosis (ICD-9 490-492.xx, 494.xx, 496.xx) between 2010 and 2014 who had ≥1 year of continuous enrollment in Parts A, B, and D, and ≥2 COPD-related outpatient visits within 30 days or ≥1 hospitalization(s). After applying inclusion/exclusion criteria, three cohorts were identified: (1) study group beneficiaries who received nebulized arformoterol (n=11,886), (2) a subset of the study group with no LABD use 90 days prior to initiating arformoterol (n=5,542), and (3) control group beneficiaries with no nebulized LABA use (n=220,429). Logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of arformoterol initiation. Odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and p values were computed. Results: Among arformoterol users, 47% (n=5,542) had received no LABDs 90 days prior to initiating arformoterol. These beneficiaries were being treated with a nebulized (50%) or inhaled (37%) short-acting bronchodilator or a systemic corticosteroid (46%), and many received antibiotics (37%). Compared to controls, beneficiaries who initiated arformoterol were significantly more likely to have had an exacerbation, a COPD-related hospitalization, and a pulmonologist or respiratory therapist visit prior to initiation (all p<0.05). Beneficiaries with moderate/severe psychiatric comorbidity or dual-eligible status were significantly less likely to initiate arformoterol, as compared to controls (all p<0.05). Conclusion: Medicare beneficiaries who initiated nebulized arformoterol therapy had more exacerbations and hospitalizations than controls 90 days prior to initiation. Findings revealed inadequate use of maintenance medications, suggesting a lack of compliance with evidence-based treatment guidelines.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicare , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde , Aerossóis , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/tendências , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos
4.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 1251-1265, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239659

RESUMO

The use of inhaled, fixed-dose, long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA) combined with long-acting, beta2-adrenergic receptor agonists (LABA) has become a mainstay in the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). One of the fixed-dose LAMA/LABA combinations is the dry powder inhaler (DPI) of umeclidinium bromide (UMEC) and vilanterol trifenatate (VI) (62.5 µg/25 µg) approved for once-a-day maintenance treatment of COPD. This paper reviews the use of fixed-dose combination LAMA/LABA agents focusing on the UMEC/VI DPI inhaler in the maintenance treatment of COPD. The fixed-dose combination LAMA/LABA inhaler offers a step beyond a single inhaled maintenance agent but is still a single device for the COPD patient having frequent COPD exacerbations and persistent symptoms not well controlled on one agent. Currently available clinical trials suggest that the once-a-day DPI of UMEC/VI is well-tolerated, safe and non-inferior or better than other currently available inhaled fixed-dose LAMA/LABA combinations for COPD.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Álcoois Benzílicos/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Clorobenzenos/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Quinuclidinas/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacocinética , Álcoois Benzílicos/efeitos adversos , Álcoois Benzílicos/farmacocinética , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Broncodilatadores/farmacocinética , Clorobenzenos/efeitos adversos , Clorobenzenos/farmacocinética , Combinação de Medicamentos , Inaladores de Pó Seco , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacocinética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Quinuclidinas/efeitos adversos , Quinuclidinas/farmacocinética , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 14: 1167-1176, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213796

RESUMO

Background: Dynamic lung hyperinflation (DLH) following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation (MPIH) was reported to be useful for assessment of pathophysiological impairment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the effects of tiotropium and olodaterol on DLH following MPIH have not been reported. Methods: Treatment consisted of administration of tiotropium/olodaterol 5/5 µg inhalation solution (2.5/2.5 µg per actuation) using a soft-mist inhaler once a day. We compared outcomes before and after 8 weeks of treatment. The primary outcome was defined as a decrease in inspiratory capacity (IC) from rest by MPIH, which is an index of DLH. The secondary outcomes were COPD assessment test (CAT), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), and 6-min walking distance (6MWD). In addition, we investigated whether there were correlations between changes with treatment in DLH and FEV1, 6MWD, and dyspnea. Results: Thirty-three of the 38 registered patients completed this study. Most of these 33 patients had mild to moderate COPD. Decreasing IC by MPIH was significantly reduced by treatment for 8 weeks, with a mean change of about -0.11 to -0.13 mL (P <0.05). In addition, CAT score, FEV1, and 6MWD improved with treatment (P <0.05). There were no significant correlations between changes in DLH, FEV1, 6MWD, or dyspnea with treatment. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the combination of tiotropium and olodaterol is effective for improvement of DLH following hyperventilation.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Benzoxazinas/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Dispneia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperventilação/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Brometo de Tiotrópio/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/fisiopatologia , Tolerância ao Exercício , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Hiperventilação/diagnóstico , Japão , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Tempo , Brometo de Tiotrópio/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 370(1): 127-136, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085697

RESUMO

AZD8871 is a novel muscarinic antagonist and ß 2-adrenoceptor agonist in development for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study describes the pharmacological profile of AZD8871 in in vitro and in vivo assays. AZD8871 is potent at the human M3 receptor (pIC50 in binding assays: 9.5) and shows kinetic selectivity for the M3 (half-life: 4.97 hours) over the M2 receptor (half-life: 0.46 hour). It is selective for the ß 2-adrenoceptor over the ß 1 and ß 3 subtypes (3- and 6-fold, respectively) and shows dual antimuscarinic and ß 2-adrenoceptor functional activity in isolated guinea pig tissue (pIC50 in electrically stimulated trachea: 8.6; pEC50 in spontaneous tone isolated trachea: 8.8, respectively), which are sustained over time. AZD8871 exhibits a higher muscarinic component than batefenterol in human bronchi, with a shift in potency under propranolol blockade of 2- and 6-fold, respectively, together with a persisting relaxation (5.3% recovery at 8 hours). Nebulized AZD8871 prevents acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction in both guinea pig and dog with minimal effects on salivation and heart rate at doses with bronchoprotective activity. Moreover, AZD8871 shows long-lasting effects in dog, with a bronchoprotective half-life longer than 24 hours. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that AZD8871 is a dual-acting molecule with a high muscarinic component and a long residence time at the M3 receptor; moreover, its preclinical profile in animal models suggests a once-daily dosing in humans and a favorable safety profile. Thus, AZD8871 has the potential to be a next generation of inhaled bronchodilators in respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Receptor Muscarínico M3/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/metabolismo , Segurança , Triazóis/efeitos adversos , Triazóis/farmacologia , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacocinética , Animais , Brônquios/efeitos dos fármacos , Brônquios/fisiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cães , Cobaias , Humanos , Masculino , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacocinética , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/farmacocinética , Receptor Muscarínico M2/metabolismo , Distribuição Tecidual , Traqueia/efeitos dos fármacos , Traqueia/fisiologia , Triazóis/administração & dosagem , Triazóis/farmacocinética
8.
N Engl J Med ; 380(21): 2020-2030, 2019 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31112386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, budesonide-formoterol used on an as-needed basis resulted in a lower risk of severe exacerbation of asthma than as-needed use of a short-acting ß2-agonist (SABA); the risk was similar to that of budesonide maintenance therapy plus as-needed SABA. The availability of data from clinical trials designed to better reflect clinical practice would be beneficial. METHODS: We conducted a 52-week, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, controlled trial involving adults with mild asthma. Patients were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: albuterol (100 µg, two inhalations from a pressurized metered-dose inhaler as needed for asthma symptoms) (albuterol group); budesonide (200 µg, one inhalation through a Turbuhaler twice daily) plus as-needed albuterol (budesonide maintenance group); or budesonide-formoterol (200 µg of budesonide and 6 µg of formoterol, one inhalation through a Turbuhaler as needed) (budesonide-formoterol group). Electronic monitoring of inhalers was used to measure medication use. The primary outcome was the annualized rate of asthma exacerbations. RESULTS: The analysis included 668 of 675 patients who underwent randomization. The annualized exacerbation rate in the budesonide-formoterol group was lower than that in the albuterol group (absolute rate, 0.195 vs. 0.400; relative rate, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.33 to 0.72; P<0.001) and did not differ significantly from the rate in the budesonide maintenance group (absolute rate, 0.195 in the budesonide-formoterol group vs. 0.175 in the budesonide maintenance group; relative rate, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.79; P = 0.65). The number of severe exacerbations was lower in the budesonide-formoterol group than in both the albuterol group (9 vs. 23; relative risk, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.86) and the budesonide maintenance group (9 vs. 21; relative risk, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.96). The mean (±SD) dose of inhaled budesonide was 107±109 µg per day in the budesonide-formoterol group and 222±113 µg per day in the budesonide maintenance group. The incidence and type of adverse events reported were consistent with those in previous trials and with reports in clinical use. CONCLUSIONS: In an open-label trial involving adults with mild asthma, budesonide-formoterol used as needed was superior to albuterol used as needed for the prevention of asthma exacerbations. (Funded by AstraZeneca and the Health Research Council of New Zealand; Novel START Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12615000999538.).


Assuntos
Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Budesonida/administração & dosagem , Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Albuterol/efeitos adversos , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Budesonida/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Fumarato de Formoterol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Inaladores Dosimetrados , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Ter Arkh ; 91(3): 76-85, 2019 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094464

RESUMO

Currently, combinations of long-acting beta2-agonists and long-acting anticholinergics are considered as the basic therapy for majority of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). These combinations have different pharmacological characteristics and delivery devices that provides different clinical effects and new opportunities for personalized treatment of COPD. Aclidinium/formoterol fixed combination differs from other dual bronchodilators by twice-daily dosing regimen, good safety profile and a specific delivery system. Recent information on clinical efficacy and safety of aclidinium/formoterol combination in COPD patients is given in this article.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tropanos/uso terapêutico , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Combinação de Medicamentos , Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Fumarato de Formoterol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Tropanos/administração & dosagem , Tropanos/efeitos adversos
10.
Ther Adv Respir Dis ; 13: 1753466619850725, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096854

RESUMO

Aclidinium bromide/formoterol fumarate (AB/FF) 400/12 µg is a twice-daily long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist and long-acting ß2 agonist (LAMA/LABA) dual-bronchodilator maintenance therapy used to relieve symptoms and reduce future risk of exacerbations in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To date, there have been several clinical studies and post hoc analyses of AB/FF, assessing treatment outcomes in patients with moderate-to-severe COPD. These studies have looked at a range of outcomes, including lung function parameters, patient-reported symptom scores, quality-of-life measures assessing impaired health and perceived well-being, and the frequency, duration, and severity of exacerbations. In light of the major 2017 revision to the Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) recommendations, and the subsequent updates, we present an update on the latest evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of AB/FF. This review discusses the clinical relevance of the improvements in lung function, symptoms, quality of life, and exacerbations in patients with COPD reported in the phase III and IV trials of AB/FF. Given the current concerns over unnecessary inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) use in COPD, we also touch briefly on the use of blood eosinophils as a biomarker for identifying those patients with COPD already using LAMA/LABA therapy for whom the addition of ICS might be of benefit.


Assuntos
Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tropanos/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Adulto , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/farmacologia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Fumarato de Formoterol/farmacologia , Humanos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/farmacologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tropanos/farmacologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114180

RESUMO

Background: There are currently limited real-world data on the clinical burden of illness in patients with COPD who continue to exacerbate despite receiving triple therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the burden of COPD in patients with and without a phenotype characterized by a high blood eosinophil count and high risk of exacerbations while receiving triple therapy. Methods: This retrospective cohort study (GSK ID: 207323/PRJ2647) used UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink records linked with Hospital Episode Statistics. Eligible patients had a COPD medical diagnosis code recorded between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2014, and a blood eosinophil count recorded on/after that date. Patients were followed from index date (first qualifying blood eosinophil count) until December 31, 2015. The study phenotype was defined as ≥2 moderate/≥1 severe acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) in the year prior to the index date, current use of multiple-inhaler triple therapy (MITT), and blood eosinophil count ≥150 cells/µL on the index date. Outcomes measured during follow-up included moderate/severe AECOPDs, severe AECOPDs, all-cause mortality, primary care (GP) clinical consultations, and non-AECOPD-related unscheduled hospitalizations. Results: Of 46,814 patients eligible for inclusion, 2512 (5.4%) met the definition of the study phenotype. Adjusted rate ratios (95% CI) of moderate/severe AECOPDs and all-cause mortality in patients with the study phenotype versus those without were 2.32 (2.22, 2.43) and 1.26 (1.16, 1.37), respectively. For GP visits and non-AECOPD-related unscheduled hospitalizations, adjusted rate ratios (95% CI), in patients with the study phenotype versus those without, were 1.09 (1.05, 1.12) and 1.31 (1.18, 1.46), respectively. Conclusion: Patients with COPD and raised blood eosinophil counts who continue to exacerbate despite MITT represent a distinct subgroup who experience substantial clinical burden and account for high healthcare expenditure. There is a need for more effective management and therapeutic options for these patients.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Eosinofilia/sangue , Eosinófilos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eosinofilia/diagnóstico , Eosinofilia/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Fenótipo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31114181

RESUMO

Background: Long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) and long-acting ß2-agonists (LABAs) are the mainstay of maintenance therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although previous studies have supported inhaled long-acting bronchodilators (ILABs) for overall cardiovascular safety, the risk of specific cardiovascular outcomes such as arrhythmia, heart failure and stroke is still unknown. Materials and methods: We systematically searched from PubMed, the Embase database and the Cochrane Library for published studies on ILABs and COPD, from its inception to November 10, 2018, with no language restrictions. The RRs and corresponding 95% CIs were pooled to evaluate ILAB/placebo. Results: Finally, 43 randomized controlled trials were included. Compared with placebo, ILABs do not increase the risk of overall and specific cardiovascular adverse events (AEs); on the contrary, they can reduce the incidence of hypertension (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.98;I219.9%; P= 0.221). However, when stratified according to the specific agents of ILABs, olodaterol might reduce the risk of overall cardiovascular adverse events (OCAEs) (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.49-0.88;I227.5%; P= 0.000), and the protective effect of lowing blood pressure disappeared. Similarly, the use of inhaled LABA might increase the risk of cardiac failure (RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.04-2.84;I20%; P= 0.538), but this risk disappeared when stratified according to the specific agents of LABA. Besides, formoterol might decrease the risk of cardiac ischemia (RR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.91; I20%; P= 0.676). Conclusions: Overall, the use of ILABs was not associated with overall cardiovascular AEs in patients with stable COPD. When stratified according to the specific agents of LABA, olodaterol might reduce the risk of OCAE; and formoterol might decrease the risk of cardiac ischemia. LABA might reduce the incidence of hypertension, but might increase the risk of heart failure. Therefore, COPD patients with a history of heart failure should use it with caution.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Esquema de Medicação , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Proteção , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Ter Arkh ; 91(1): 78-83, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090376

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of the study. To estimate the effectiveness of clinical patients register implementation as well as to analyze different treatment and prophylactic programs on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients' structure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The COPD patient's register consists of 4257 cases. Spirometrical data were evaluated. Dynamic follow was performed on 567 COPD patients. Bronchodilator's therapy was estimated as well as combined inhaled corticosteroid/ long acting ß2-agonist medications and vaccination against pneumococcal infection. RESULTS: Computer program "Electronic polyclinic" proposed by the authors of this article is effective in precision of diagnostic decision making in cohort study, dynamic follow up after clinical symptoms, evaluation of instrumental and laboratory results, prophylactics and treatment effectiveness, "clinical patients registers" automatic formation using syndrome or nosological principle, checking the COPD patients in the group of those with bronchial obstruction. CONCLUSION: Positive effects of long-acting bronchodilator treatment on COPD exacerbation decreasing and more expressed effect of inhaled corticosteroid/ long acting ß2-agonists were confirmed. More interesting result was influence of vaccination against pneumococcal infection PCV13 (polyvalent conjugated vaccine) on exacerbation frequency and dyspnea severity.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Registros , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962681

RESUMO

Background: AMPLIFY assessed the efficacy and safety of aclidinium bromide/formoterol fumarate (AB/FF) vs its monocomponents and tiotropium (TIO) in patients with moderate-to-very severe symptomatic COPD (NCT02796677). Methods: In this 24-week, Phase III, double-dummy, active-controlled study, symptomatic patients (COPD Assessment Test score ≥10) were randomized to twice-daily AB/FF 400/12 µg, AB 400 µg, or FF 12 µg, or once-daily TIO 18 µg. Co-primary endpoints were change from baseline at week 24 in 1-hour morning post-dose FEV1 (AB/FF vs AB) and in pre-dose (trough) FEV1 (AB/FF vs FF). Non-inferiority of AB vs TIO in pre-dose FEV1 was also an objective. Normalized area under the curve (AUC)0-3/3 h FEV1 and nighttime and early morning symptoms were also assessed. A subgroup participated in a 24-hour serial spirometry sub-study. Results: A total of 1,594 patients were randomized; 566 entered the sub-study. At week 24, 1-hour post-dose FEV1 significantly improved with AB/FF vs AB, FF, and TIO (84, 84, and 92 mL; all P<0.0001). AB/FF significantly improved trough FEV1 vs FF (55 mL, P<0.001) and AB was non-inferior to TIO. AB/FF significantly improved AUC0-3/3 h FEV1 vs all comparators (P<0.0001) and provided significant improvements in early morning symptoms vs TIO. The 24-hour spirometry demonstrated significantly greater improvements with AB/FF in AUC12-24/12 h vs all comparators, and in AUC0-24/24 h vs FF or TIO at week 24. Conclusion: In patients with moderate-to-very severe symptomatic COPD, twice-daily AB/FF significantly improved lung function vs monocomponents and TIO, and early morning symptom control vs TIO.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Brometo de Tiotrópio/administração & dosagem , Tropanos/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Fumarato de Formoterol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Israel , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Brometo de Tiotrópio/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tropanos/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos , Capacidade Vital
15.
Int J Pharm ; 562: 351-358, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935915

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the main health problems worldwide. It is characterised by chronic inflammation in the lungs that leads to progressive, chronic, largely irreversible airflow obstruction. The use of long-acting ß agonists remain today the frontline treatment for COPD with the aim of minimizing side effects and enhancing therapeutic usefulness. To this purpose, in this paper, mucoadhesive solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) containing a long-acting ß-2 agonist, Salmeterol Xinafoate (SX) were prepared, characterised (size, z-potential, aerodynamic diameter, turbidimetric evaluations, drug loading and entrapping efficiency) and tested in a model of bronchial epithelial cells. It was demonstrated that the incorporation of SX into SLMs led to the production of particles suitable for inhalation and more efficient than the free molecule at increasing the cAMP expression in bronchial epithelial cells. In conclusion, the prepared systems, due to their aerodynamic behaviour and mucoadhesive properties, could improve the retention time of SX in the lung epithelium and its therapeutic effect, thus representing a good strategy for the treatment of COPD patients.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Xinafoato de Salmeterol/administração & dosagem , Adesividade , Alginatos/administração & dosagem , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Muco , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Clin Respir J ; 13(7): 413-428, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947394

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is evolving specially with triple inhaler therapy. OBJECTIVES: To perform a meta-analysis to ascertain the safety and efficacy of triple inhaler therapy consisting of an inhaled-glucocorticoid (ICS), long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) when compared with dual therapy (ICS-LABA or LAMA-LABA). METHODS: We performed an electronic database search to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing between triple and dual inhalers. Pooled rate-ratio (RR) or odds-ratio (OR) for dichotomous data and weighted mean difference (MD) for continuous data were calculated with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Our study included 12 RCTs totaling 19,322 patients, mean age of 65 ± 8.2 years and 68.2% were male. Pooled analysis demonstrated a significant reduction in moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbations with triple therapy (RR 0.75; 95% CI 0.69-0.83; P < 0.01). Additionally, triple therapy caused significant increase in trough FEV1 (MD 0.09 L; 95% CI 0.07-0.12; P < 0.01), significant reduction in the mean St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score (MD -1.67; 95% CI -2.02- -1.31; P < 0.01), and more patients experienced ≥ 4 points reduction of SGRQ score (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.19-1.35; P < 0.01). Triple therapy was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia when compared to LABA/LAMA (OR 1.25; 95% 1.03-1.97; P = 0.03) but there were no significant differences in other adverse events between triple and dual inhalers. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with moderate-to-severe COPD, triple inhaler therapy was associated with a reduction of moderate-to-severe COPD exacerbations, improved lung function and improved quality of life when compared to dual inhaler therapy but with an increased pneumonia risk.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inaladores Dosimetrados , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Testes de Função Respiratória , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Drug Test Anal ; 11(7): 950-956, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865387

RESUMO

Formoterol is a long-acting beta2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) used for the treatment of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Formoterol is usually administered as a racemic (rac-) mixture of (R,R)- and (S,S)-enantiomers. While formoterol is restricted by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), inhalation of formoterol is permitted to a predetermined dose (54 µg/24 hours) and a urine threshold of 40 ng/mL. However, chiral switch enantiopure (R,R)-formoterol is available, effectively doubling the therapeutic advantage for the same threshold. The aim of this study was to investigate whether formoterol exhibits enantioselective urinary pharmacokinetics following inhalation. Six healthy volunteers were administered a 12 µg inhaled dose of rac-formoterol. Urine was collected over 24 hours and analyzed by enantioselective ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) assay. Total (free drug plus conjugated metabolite) median (min-max) rac-formoterol urine levels following inhalation were 1.96 (1.05-13.4) ng/mL, 1.67 (0.16-9.67) ng/mL, 0.45 (0.16-1.51) ng/mL, 0.61 (0.33-0.78) ng/mL, and 0.17 (0.08-1.06) ng/mL at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours, respectively, well below the 2019 urine threshold. The proportion of conjugation differed between enantiomers with glucuronide conjugation much greater for (R,R)-formoterol (around 30%-60% of total) compared to (S,S)-formoterol (0%-30%). There was clear evidence of inter-individual enantioselectivity observed in the ratios of (R,R):(S,S)-formoterol, where (S,S)- was predominant in free formoterol, and (R,R)- predominant in the conjugated metabolite. In conclusion, rac-formoterol delivered by inhalation exhibits enantioselective elimination in urine following single-dose administration. Enantioselective assays should be employed in doping control to screen for banned beta2-agonist chiral switch products such as (R,R)-formoterol, and total hydrolyzed rac-formoterol is warranted to account for inter-individual differences in enantioselective glucuronidation.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/urina , Fumarato de Formoterol/urina , Glucuronídeos/urina , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Doping nos Esportes , Feminino , Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estereoisomerismo , Detecção do Abuso de Substâncias/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880938

RESUMO

Background: Aclidinium/formoterol 400/12 µg is a twice-daily maintenance bronchodilator for COPD. This post hoc study evaluated aclidinium/formoterol vs aclidinium 400 µg, formoterol 12 µg, or placebo in patient subgroups. Patients and methods: Data were pooled from two 24-week Phase III clinical trials (ACLIFORM and AUGMENT). Patients (N=3,394) were analyzed by baseline airflow obstruction severity (moderate/severe), age (<65/≥65 years), sex, and exacerbation history (0/≥1 exacerbation in the previous 12 months). Changes from baseline vs placebo and mono-therapies were evaluated: morning pre-dose (trough) and morning 1-hour post-dose FEV1, Transition Dyspnea Index (TDI), and moderate/severe exacerbation rates (healthcare resource utilization [HCRU] and EXAcerbations of Chronic pulmonary disease Tool [EXACT] criteria). Results: Aclidinium/formoterol improved the post-dose FEV1 vs placebo and monotherapy in all subgroups (all P<0.01) and trough FEV1 vs placebo (P<0.001) and formoterol (P<0.05) across all subgroups. Improvements in trough FEV1 were observed vs aclidinium in patients with severe airflow obstruction, patients aged <65 years, males, and patients with exacerbation history (P<0.05). Improvements in TDI were observed vs placebo in all subgroups (all P<0.001), monotherapies for patients with moderate (formoterol P<0.05) or severe airflow obstruction (aclidinium P<0.05), patients aged <65 years (aclidinium P<0.01, formoterol P<0.05), males (formoterol P<0.05), and patients with no exacerbation history (formoterol P<0.05). HCRU exacerbation rates were lower for aclidinium/formoterol vs placebo in patients with no exacerbation history (P<0.01). EXACT exacerbation rates were lower for aclidinium/formoterol in patients with moderate airflow obstruction vs placebo and aclidinium, patients aged <65 years vs placebo and ≥65 years vs formoterol, males vs placebo, and patients with no exacerbation history vs placebo (all P<0.05). Conclusion: Aclidinium/formoterol significantly improved post-dose FEV1, trough FEV1, and TDI vs placebo across all subgroups and vs monotherapy in many subgroups. These findings further support the benefits of aclidinium/formoterol for all patients with COPD.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Tropanos/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Progressão da Doença , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Fumarato de Formoterol/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Tropanos/efeitos adversos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880941

RESUMO

Purpose: The Respimat is a handheld, propellant-free, soft-mist inhaler. Observations by patients and physicians prompted development of an improved second-generation Respimat inhaler. Human-factor studies assessing the usability of the new inhaler and in vitro assessment of aerosol performance are important to demonstrate functionality of the updated inhaler. Methods: Studies were performed to assess any possible impact of the reusable Respimat inhaler design on aerosol performance (delivered dose [DD] and fine-particle dose [FPD]) and iteratively assess and improve usability of the new design. The tiotropium-olodaterol inhalation solution for Respimat was used as a model. The DD and FPD of the reusable Respimat inhaler (across multiple cartridges) and the disposable Respimat inhaler were determined by laser diffraction and with an alternative Andersen cascade impactor. Usability was measured across three studies involving health care professionals and patients with diagnoses of COPD, asthma, or combined disease (with and without experience with the Respimat inhaler). These studies measured performance of handling tasks and collected subjective feedback directly related to the inhaler's new or altered features, which fed into optimization of the inhaler. Results: DDs of tiotropium and olodaterol were stable up to 15 cartridges and consistently within the upper and lower limits of the disposable Respimat inhaler. The FPD was also found to be batch-consistent over the cartridges and comparable with the reference. The usability of the reusable Respimat inhaler compared with the disposable inhaler was improved in terms of assembly and daily use. Cartridge exchange was rated as intuitive and easy to very easy. Conclusion: The new reusable Respimat is a medical inhaler developed with enhanced features that meets health care professionals' and patients' needs. Drug delivery across multiple cartridges is not affected by the design. Compared with the original disposable inhaler, the usability of the reusable inhaler has been improved, and cartridge exchange was rated as easy to perform. The reusable Respimat provides greater convenience for patients vs the disposable inhaler, with reduced environmental impact.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Combinação Albuterol e Ipratrópio/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/administração & dosagem , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Aerossóis , Idoso , Brasil , Criança , Desenho de Equipamento , Europa (Continente) , Retroalimentação , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tamanho da Partícula , Satisfação do Paciente , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880943

RESUMO

Background: Current pharmacological therapies for COPD improve quality of life and symptoms and reduce exacerbations. Given the progressive nature of COPD, it is arguably more important to understand whether the available therapies are able to delay clinical deterioration; the concept of "clinically important deterioration" (CID) has therefore been developed. We evaluated the efficacy of the single-inhaler triple combination beclometasone dipropionate, formoterol fumarate, and glycopyrronium (BDP/FF/G), using data from three large 1-year studies. Methods: The studies compared BDP/FF/G to BDP/FF (TRILOGY), tiotropium (TRINITY), and indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY; TRIBUTE). All studies recruited patients with symptomatic COPD, FEV1 <50%, and an exacerbation history. We measured the time to first CID and to sustained CID, an endpoint combining FEV1, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), moderate-to-severe exacerbations, and death. The time to first CID was based on the first occurrence of any of the following: a decrease of ≥100 mL from baseline in FEV1, an increase of ≥4 units from baseline in SGRQ total score, the occurrence of a moderate/severe COPD exacerbation, or death. The time to sustained CID was defined as: a CID in FEV1 and/or SGRQ total score maintained at all subsequent visits, an exacerbation, or death. Results: Extrafine BDP/FF/G significantly extended the time to first CID vs BDP/FF (HR 0.61, P<0.001), tiotropium (0.72, P<0.001), and IND/GLY (0.82, P<0.001), and significantly extended the time to sustained CID vs BDP/FF (HR 0.64, P<0.001) and tiotropium (0.80, P<0.001), with a numerical extension vs IND/GLY. Conclusion: In patients with symptomatic COPD, FEV1 <50%, and an exacerbation history, extrafine BDP/FF/G delayed disease deterioration compared with BDP/FF, tiotropium, and IND/GLY. Trial registration: The studies are registered in ClinicalTrials.gov: TRILOGY, NCT01917331; TRINITY, NCT01911364; TRIBUTE, NCT02579850.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Beclometasona/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Glicopirrolato/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Beclometasona/efeitos adversos , Broncodilatadores/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Fumarato de Formoterol/efeitos adversos , Glicopirrolato/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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