Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 34.295
Filtrar
1.
Georgian Med News ; (311): 125-129, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814405

RESUMO

The aim of the study is to analyze empirically obtained data to identify psychoemotional states of adolescents with manifestations of cyber addiction. The study, conducted from 2016 to the present, involved 559 respondents, 408 of whom with certain types of cyber addictions made up the main group and 151 were relatively healthy, who were included in the control group. All respondents were diagnosed using a psychodiagnostic technique - Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS). According to the results of the study, it was found that the majority (more than 80%) of respondents in the age group from 14 to 21 years old, who made up the control group, did not show signs of alexithymia (passive aggression, difficulty in choosing words when describing their own feelings and interpersonal contacts, depression and anxiety they were not typical), and respondents with cyber-addiction demonstrate manifestations of alexithymia in 30-50% of cases. The highest indicators of alexithymia manifestation were found among the respondents of the main group of males aged 16 to 18 years - 50.00% of the respondents, as well as high indicators of manifestation of alexithymia were revealed among young men of the main group aged 14 to 15 years - 45.76% and at the age from 19 to 21 years old - 46.27% of respondents. Among girls of the main group, manifestations of alexithymia were revealed in more than 25% of the respondents (MGG1 - 26.15%, MGG2 - 30.26%, MGG3 - 33.33% of the respondents). This made it possible for us to characterize cyber addicts as persons, mainly with manifestations of alexithymia, capable of reflection, prone to the manifestation of short-term, sharply expressed in the behavior of emotional outbursts, the causes of which are poorly understood, and also have manifestations of depression and anxiety. The study made it possible to include alexithymic manifestations in research markers for the further development of psychocorrectional programs for adolescents suffering from various types of cyber addictions.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Agressão , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e24648, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: higher level of aggression and antisocial behavior are frequent following head trauma, due to specific brain alterations. Many tests are used to assess this aspect. A descriptive review was conducted on the main tests used to detect the appearance of aggressive dimensions following traumatic brain injury. REVIEW SUMMARY: we searched on PubMed and Web of Science databases and screening references of included studies and review articles for additional citations. From initial 723 publications, only 7 met our search criteria. Findings showed that various psychometric tools are used to assess aggressiveness and its subdomains, following head trauma. CONCLUSIONS: further investigation are necessary to clarify whether these tools ensure a reliable diagnosis in order to make an early intervention and reduce violent behavior and its development.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/psicologia , Transtorno da Conduta/diagnóstico , Testes Psicológicos/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Variações Dependentes do Observador , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
5.
Harefuah ; 160(2): 87-93, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Hebraico | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33760409

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most serious problems in closed psychiatric wards is the issue of violence. Many studies have tried to characterize the violent patients hospitalized in a closed ward. Some research has shown that the strongest predictor of violence is past violence. The closed wards in the country consist of civil patients and patients hospitalized according to a court order following a history of violence, side by side. In this article, we characterized cases of violence that took place in closed wards in 2015, and in addition we examined the effect of hospitalization status on patient aggression and the level of violence in the wards. METHODS: The study was performed retrospectively using data from hospital medical and nursing records and reports of unusual events from a risk management database. The subjects included in the study are men and women between the ages of 18-65 years who were admitted to a closed ward in 2015 with a reported violent incident for which they were responsible. The data were examined for the specific event and the percentage of those admitted due to a court order out of all the participants in the violent events was noted. Furthermore, the authors examined the number of violent events with respect to the percentage of those hospitalized by court order in the department at that time. In addition, we examined each violent case and characterized it by pre-determined variables. RESULTS: As to the legal status, it was clearly found that those hospitalized with a court order were more involved in assault cases. However, it was not found that a higher percentage of those hospitalized by a court order raised the level of violence in the department. In terms of their characterization, the cases of assault were more frequently performed by men, by young people and by bachelors. The clinical diagnoses that characterized the attackers were prolonged disorders of the psychotic spectrum. Most of the events involved physical assault of other patients and staff. The event usually took place in the early days of the hospitalization, most often in the ward lobby and during morning hours. CONCLUSIONS: According to the research hypothesis, patients under a court order are found to be responsible for more cases of violence in active wards. At the same time, the high attendance of those hospitalized by a court order does not increase the amount of violence in the department. These results support the idea of separating outpatients in court orders from other patients, in order to reduce violence in active psychiatric wards, improve inpatient conditions, and adjust dedicated care for populations of different legal status.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Unidade Hospitalar de Psiquiatria , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Agressão , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Violência , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(4): 641-662, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599937

RESUMO

Although considerable research has examined factors that influence social-cognitive processes related to aggression, few studies have examined the factors that influence adolescents' appraisal of the effectiveness of responses, particularly nonviolent alternatives to aggression. This study addressed that gap by examining patterns of adolescents' perceived effectiveness of nonviolent and aggressive responses to hypothetical problem situations and their relations with aggression, victimization, and individual and contextual risk factors. The participants were a predominantly African American (90%) sample of 1469 students (55% female; mean age = 12.7 years; age range = 11-16) from three middle schools who completed measures of perceived effectiveness, self-efficacy, aggression and victimization, and contextual factors. Ratings of adolescents' physical, relational, and verbal aggression and victimization, nonviolent and prosocial behavior were also obtained from their teachers. Latent class analysis identified four subgroups of adolescents including distinguishes effective, mixed support, everything works, and nothing works. Subgroups differed on measures of aggression, victimization, prosocial and nonviolent behavior, self-efficacy for nonviolence, witnessing community violence, and parents' and peers' support for nonviolence and aggression. The findings underscore the importance of designing violence prevention programs to target the unique needs of subgroups of adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Agressão , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Violência
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572503

RESUMO

Dementia produces a loss of independence to carry out the activities of daily life. The great demand for care that these people need usually falls on the family through informal care. This study aims to analyse the burden showed by the informal caregiver of a person with dementia. In addition, we analyse whether this burden present in informal caregivers could be related to abusive behaviour. We also study the relationship between the stage of the disease, the appearance of behavioural disorders and the level of burden in the caregiver using the Scales of Zarit, CASE and FAST. The data showed that 45.50 per cent of caregivers have light burden or burden. After the research, it was identified that the presence of behavioural disorders in patients with dementia showed a correlation with the increase in both the main caregiver burden and abuse. An increase in the level of burden is followed by an increase in the level of abuse (r = 0.844; p = 0.000). Furthermore, we analysed several conditions that could have a correlation with this burden and abuse. It was found that burden in the caregiver could be linked with the presence of behavioural disorders, like aggression (r = 0.577; p = 0.008) and irritability (r = 0.600; p = 0.005) at the moderate stage of the disease. On the other hand, there is a positive correlation between the probability that people with dementia suffer abuse in the moderate stage of the disease and the presence of aggression (r = 0.732; p = 0.000), lack of inhibition (r = 0.571; p = 0.009) and irritability (r = 0.827; p = 0.000). Taking this data into account, burden and abuse seem to be linked to the presence of behavioural disorders in patients with dementia in the moderate stage.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Demência , Agressão , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Demência/epidemiologia , Humanos
8.
Zoo Biol ; 40(2): 160-168, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544907

RESUMO

The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior and welfare in captivity of reptiles and of freshwater turtles in particular, which are popular aquarium and pet species, is very little studied compared to other taxa. We carried out a small scale case-study on the effect of colored object enrichment, with and without fish scent, on the behavior of a group of 15 cooters (Pseudemys sp.) and sliders (Trachemys scripta ssp.) on display at a public aquarium. The new enrichment aimed to reduce the escape behavior (interaction with transparent boundaries) and increase exploration and random swimming. We used simultaneous recording of behavior at whole group level and for focal individually-marked turtles. The escape behavior decreased on days with new enrichment before feeding at whole group level and for the focal turtles overall, in spite of the relatively low interest in the colored objects. Fish-scented objects attracted significantly more interest. Random swimming, enrichment focus, aggression and submission increased significantly, and basking decreased significantly at whole group level before feeding, with smaller differences after feeding. There were large differences between individual turtles with respect to activity budgets and changes in behavior on days with new enrichment, with both increases and decreases seen in escape behavior, aggression, and levels of activity. Our outcomes suggested that introducing new colored objects with food scent may be beneficial for reducing escape behavior in captive freshwater turtles. However, careful monitoring of effects at individual level and much larger scale investigations, including postenrichment periods, are needed.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Comportamento Animal , Tartarugas/fisiologia , Agressão , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Feminino , Masculino , Odorantes
9.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(4): 663-673, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528705

RESUMO

Previous research has provided evidence for developmental cascades between externalizing and internalizing problems via mechanisms such as peer and academic problems; however, there remains a need to illuminate other key mediating processes that could serve as intervention targets. This study, thus, evaluated whether developmental associations between aggression and internalizing are mediated by teacher-as well as peer-relationships. Using data from z-proso, a longitudinal study of Swiss youth (n = 1523; 785 males), an autoregressive latent trajectory model with structured residuals (ALT-SR) was fit over ages 11, 13, and 15 to examine within-person developmental links between aggression, internalizing problems, and the mediating role of peer and teacher relationships, while disaggregating between- and within-person effects. Teacher and peer relationships did not play a role in the progression of externalizing to internalizing problems or vice versa, however, teacher and peer relationships showed a protective effect against developing internalizing problems at ages 13. The results suggest that good quality relationships with teachers in early adolescence can help prevent internalizing problems from developing.


Assuntos
Agressão , Grupo Associado , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino
10.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 34(2): 131-136, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630771

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microaggressions are daily commonplace, subtle behaviors and attitudes toward others that arise from conscious or unconscious bias. Not only can microaggressions affect one's access to power, resources, and opportunity, but they could also contribute to the persistent disparities faced by marginalized groups among healthcare professionals as well as patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Physicians, especially those in perioperative specialties, commonly have distress during their medical training. Workplace mistreatment, such as discrimination, has been commonly reported by residents across multiple specialties. Microaggressions also impact patient care as they can influence decisions of medical professionals toward a person or group of people. SUMMARY: This review offers education on the correlation of microaggression and unconscious bias to health disparities, provides tools to address microaggressions as a bystander, and outlines processes for institutional improvement.


Assuntos
Profissionalismo , Agressão , Assistência à Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Local de Trabalho
11.
Animal ; 15(3): 100158, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573987

RESUMO

Aggression resulting from mixing to establish a dominance hierarchy is a major welfare concern for group-housed sows. The associated stress can negatively impact aspects of reproductive performance. Objectives of this study were to investigate associations between 1) age at first service (AFS) and mixing aggression intensity in first parity sows, 2) mixing aggression intensity and reproductive performance within and between parity one and parity two, and 3) mixing aggression intensity, floor type during gestation and reproductive performance. Gilts (n =160, hereafter referred to as sows) were mixed into stable groups of eight unfamiliar individuals approximately 4 days after artificial insemination, housed on fully slatted concrete (CON; n =80) floor uncovered or covered with rubber slat mats (RUB; n =80), and followed through two parities. Skin lesions (SLMIX; a proxy for the intensity of mixing aggression), were scored post mixing in each parity according to severity (0=no lesions to 5=severe lesions) on five body regions (ear, neck, hindquarter, rump, and belly) on the left and right sides, and at the tail/anogenital region. Total SLMIX score was calculated for each sow. Data on reproductive performance traits were acquired retrospectively from farm records for both parities. Two analyses were performed: 1) data from each parity were analysed separately and 2) SLMIX score in parity one was used to predict reproductive performance in parity two. Lower AFS was associated with a lower SLMIX score in parity one (P =0.031). There was no association between SLMIX score and reproductive performance in parity one, while sows with higher SLMIX score in parity two had a higher proportion of piglets dead during lactation (P =0.027) and a longer cycle length (P =0.003) in parity two. Sows with higher SLMIX scores in parity one had more non-productive days (P <0.001) in parity two. Concrete sows had a higher SLMIX score than RUB sows in parity one (P =0.015), but not in parity two. In addition, CON sows had a higher proportion of piglets born dead (P =0.013) compared with RUB sows in parity two. Mixing aggression has a negative influence on reproductive performance within parities, and it may also have a long-term negative carry-over effect on reproductive performance in subsequent parities. Serving gilts at younger ages could help to minimize the intensity of aggression at mixing, while housing on rubber flooring has beneficial implications for their reproductive performance.


Assuntos
Agressão , Abrigo para Animais , Animais , Feminino , Pisos e Cobertura de Pisos , Tamanho da Ninhada de Vivíparos , Paridade , Gravidez , Reprodução , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suínos
12.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(4): e456-e468, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence is a leading global public health problem, and interventions in early childhood are important in the primary prevention of violence. We tested whether the Irie Classroom Toolbox, a violence-prevention teacher-training programme reduced violence against children by teachers and reduced class-wide child aggression in Jamaican preschools (catering to children aged 3-6 years). METHODS: We did a single-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial in 76 preschools in Kingston and St Andrew, randomly selected, using simple randomisation, from 120 eligible preschools. Inclusion criteria were two to four classes of children; at least ten children per class; and located in an urban area. We randomly assigned preschools (1:1) to either the Irie Classroom Toolbox intervention or waiting-list control that received no intervention, using a computer-generated randomisation sequence by an independent statistician masked to school identity. The Toolbox involved training teachers in classroom behaviour management and promoting child social-emotional competence. All assessors were masked to group assignment. All teachers and classrooms in the selected schools participated in the study. Within each school, we used simple randomisation to randomly select up to 12 children aged 4 years for evaluation of child outcomes. The Toolbox intervention was implemented from August to April the following year. Teacher and classroom measures were done at baseline (the summer school term; ie, May to June), post-intervention (after 8 months of intervention; ie, May to June of the following year), and 1-year follow-up (ie, May to June 2 years later). The primary outcomes were observations of violence against children (including physical violence and psychological aggression) by teachers occurring across one full school day, and class-wide child aggression occurring over five 20-min intervals on another school day, all measured at post-intervention and 1-year follow-up and analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN11968472. FINDINGS: Between June 22, 2015, and April 29, 2016, (after baseline measurements were completed), we assigned 38 preschools (with 119 teachers) to the Toolbox intervention and 38 preschools (with 110 teachers) to control. 441 children in the intervention schools and 424 in the control schools were included in the evaluation. All schools were included in the post-intervention and follow-up analyses. There were fewer counts of violence against children by teachers in the intervention schools compared with control schools at post-intervention (median counts 3 [IQR 0-11] vs 15 [3-35]; effect size -67·12%, 95% CI -80·71 to -53·52, p<0·0001) and 1-year follow-up (median counts 3 [IQR 0-9] vs 6 [1-16]; effect size -53·86, 95% CI -71·08 to -36·65, p<0·0001). No differences between groups were found for class-wide child aggression at post-intervention (effect size 0·07, 95% CI -0·16 to 0·29, p=0·72) or 1-year follow-up (-0·14, -0·42 to 0·16, p=0·72). INTERPRETATION: In Jamaican preschools, the Irie Classroom Toolbox effectively reduced violence against children by teachers. The Toolbox was designed for use with undertrained teachers working in low-resource settings and should be effective with early childhood practitioners in other LMICs. Additional research is needed to further develop the Toolbox to reduce class-wide child aggression. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, UK Aid, and the National Institute of Health Research.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Psicologia da Criança , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Capacitação de Professores/métodos , Violência/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Jamaica , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Método Simples-Cego , Capacitação de Professores/organização & administração
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(4): e23894, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530185

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the effect of music-based intervention on the aggressive behavior in children and adolescents, and made a comparison of music medicine and music therapy. METHODS: We searched PubMed (MEDLINE), Ovid-Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) to identify relevant studies. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were estimated with random-effect model. RESULTS: We included 10 studies and found a significant decrease of aggressive behavior (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI = -1.42 to -0.56) and a significant increase of self-control (SMD = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.93) in the music-based intervention group compared with the control group. The aggressive behavior was significantly decreased in the music therapy group compared with the control group (SMD = -1.79; 95% CI = -3.23 to -0.35); while, no difference was observed between music medicine group and control group. Sub-group analyses exhibited a more efficacious in reducing aggressive behavior in the children received ≥2 sessions per week, the children with a mean age > 10 years, the children whose behavior were reported by teachers, and the children with aggressive behavior before intervention. Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. CONCLUSION: Music-based intervention seemed to be more efficacious for reducing aggression and increasing self-control in children and adolescents, especially music therapy.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Agressão , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/terapia , Musicoterapia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Humanos , Autocontrole
14.
South Med J ; 114(2): 111-115, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33537793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Physicians in training may be particularly vulnerable to the negative effects of discrimination and inappropriate behaviors by patients. We sought to determine the frequency of inappropriate behaviors by patients toward Internal Medicine (IM) residents, residents' confidence to manage the behaviors, and differences among demographic characteristics, including race, sex, and level of clinical experience. METHODS: We developed a curricular session to equip IM residents and faculty to respond to discrimination or inappropriate behaviors by patients. Before the session, we surveyed residents about their experiences with macroaggressions, microaggressions, and other inappropriate behaviors using a 16-question survey instrument. We used descriptive statistics to summarize the participants' characteristics and the χ2 or Fisher exact test for comparison between groups. RESULTS: Eighty-two percent (27 of 33) of residents who attended the workshop completed the survey. We found that the majority of residents experienced patient macro- and microaggressions. More than 50% had a personal experience or witnessed experience with a macroaggression related to race (56%) or gender (59%). Seventy percent of residents personally experienced a microaggression by a patient. Women and residents of color are more likely to experience these types of encounters, which become more common in residents with higher postgraduate year level. Confidence in how to appropriately respond to such encounters is low. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights that macro- and microaggressions by patients toward IM residents are common. Curricula are needed to equip trainees with tools to appropriately respond during such encounters.


Assuntos
Currículo , Medicina Interna/educação , Internato e Residência/métodos , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/educação , Relações Médico-Paciente , Adulto , Agressão , Feminino , Assédio não Sexual , Humanos , Masculino , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar/psicologia , Pacientes/psicologia , Discriminação Social
15.
Aggress Behav ; 47(3): 310-319, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570759

RESUMO

This study assessed aggression statuses and transitions among children and examined the effects that gender and exposure to online violence can exert on aggression. A sample of 2155 children recruited from 30 primary schools in Taipei, Taiwan completed surveys in both 2015 (5th grade) and 2016 (6th grade). Latent transition analysis (LTA) was performed, and the results identified three latent statuses of aggression: "None," "School aggression," and "Cyber-aggression." About 10% of children behaved aggressively. When in their 5th-grade year, boys were more likely than girls to be a school aggressor (6.48% vs. 4.04%) or a cyber-aggressor (2.37% vs. 1.64%). Among boys who originally were considered to be a school aggressor, 36.19% remained so, 58% renounced their school aggression status, and 5.81% became a cyber-aggressor. Among girls who originally were considered to be a cyber-aggressor, 22.23% remained so, 68.29% renounced their cyber-aggression status, and 9.48% became a school aggressor. Controlling for student's academic performance, household income, and parents' marital status, exposure to online violence was a statistically significant predictor of aggression status for both boys and girls. Children's exposure to online violence appeared to increase the risk of aggression.


Assuntos
Agressão , Violência , Criança , Feminino , Identidade de Gênero , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Taiwan/epidemiologia
16.
Aggress Behav ; 47(3): 296-309, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580517

RESUMO

Aggression in correctional and psychiatric settings is relatively common and has a negative effect on physical and mental health both among inmates/clients and staff, as well as organizational-level functioning. The aim of the present study was to critically review the evidence on the effectiveness of nutritional supplements in reducing aggression and violence to contribute to a better understanding of options available for managing aggressive behaviors in adults. The EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, and PubMed databases were searched for effectiveness studies published in English anytime up until March 2020. Study quality was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. Altogether, 14 studies met inclusion criteria; 2 investigated micronutrients, 10 examined macronutrients, while further 2 examined a combination of micro and macronutrients. Out of the 14 studies, 5 reported a beneficial effect of nutritional supplementation (omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins/minerals, S-adenosyl-l-methionine, or tryptophan). Five studies did not report a significant beneficial effect of nutritional supplementation (omega-3 fatty acids, folic acid, tryptophan, broad range supplement containing vitamins and fatty acids, and fatty acids in augmentation with valproic acid), while four studies reported mixed effects (on l-tryptophan, broad-range micronutrient formula, folic acid, and omega-3 fatty acids). The results overall indicated that research in this area is in its infancy: very few studies examined the same composition of nutritional supplementation and when they did so the results were contradictory. The methodological shortcoming of existing studies and directions for future research are discussed to facilitate high-quality research in this evolving area of nutritional psychiatry.


Assuntos
Agressão , Suplementos Nutricionais , Adulto , Humanos , Micronutrientes
17.
Aggress Behav ; 47(3): 364-374, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624339

RESUMO

The current study examined and compared the relative influence of ecological factors on youth antisocial behaviors (i.e., aggression and rule-breaking) using longitudinal data while assessing the moderating effect of youth attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis. The study used the fifth and sixth wave of data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n = 2595; mean age = 9.26 at wave five) for the analysis. Multivariate models show that youth ADHD, physically and psychologically abusive parenting, peer victimization, and community cohesion were important predictors of youth antisocial behaviors. Furthermore, youth ADHD diagnosis moderated some associations between the ecological factors and antisocial behaviors, suggesting that youth with and without ADHD may respond to some ecological contexts differently regarding the concerning behaviors. The findings imply that interventions targeting youth antisocial behaviors should involve collaboration across systems and coordination across programs to tackle a multilayered ecological context, especially when youth with ADHD are involved.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Adolescente , Agressão , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais
18.
Epilepsy Behav ; 117: 107806, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621813

RESUMO

This study investigated to which degree levetiracetam (LEV) and perampanel (PER), antiseizure medications (ASM) that are both known to cause aggression and irritability, share the same or different, behavioral side-effect profiles. In this self-report study, 68 participants with epilepsy treated with LEV (n = 35) or PER (n = 33) as part of their medication were asked to rate their behavioral experience with the respective drug as positive, neutral, or negative. Results of a German adaptation of the Adverse Events Profile (AEP) and of the "FPZ", a German personality questionnaire, were analyzed as a function of drug and rating. Thirty-eight percent of the LEV group and 36% of the PER group experienced negative change after the evaluated drug was introduced. By subdividing participants in the LEV sample into those who attributed the negative effects to LEV and those with neutral or positive experience with LEV, a negative evaluation of LEV was associated with significantly worse scores in cognition, mood, and physical domains (80% versus 20-40%). Subdividing participants in the PER sample into those who attributed negative the side effects to PER, and those with a neutral or positive experience with PER, significance could be shown for mood domains only (100% versus 50%), and within this domain only for increased aggression and irritability. Comparing features of the behavioral negative side effects of LEV and PER revealed that LEV appears to have a negative impact on a much broader range of behaviors than PER, which specifically seems to induce aggression and irritability and no other psychiatric side effects. Further research should aim at different expression and different mechanisms of aggression and irritability underlying the superficially similar effects of the two drugs.


Assuntos
Agressão , Piracetam , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Levetiracetam/uso terapêutico , Piridonas , Autorrelato
19.
Z Psychosom Med Psychother ; 67(1): 21-35, 2021.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565376

RESUMO

Question: For decades hysteria has been psychodynamically interpreted sexualized as part of a frustrated desire with a depressive core. However, this "victim" side should be faced with the other often hidden aspects of hysteria with aggression and striving for power. Method: The basic hypothesis pursued here is that the hysterical/histrionic person was not primarily "disadvantaged" in his or her development, but that his or her striving for power and thus his or her potential for aggression is to be understood above all as a learned mode of global relationship that the adolescents have learned to respond and assert themselves to an intra-familiar situation of tension and pressure. Results: Any therapy that does not take this sufficiently into account falls short and reinforces the underlying mechanism of the therapeutic relationship dynamics. During treatment the patient must increasingly feel how much destruction and loneliness this global relationship implies. Conclusions: Only if the patient experiences that reduction of dominance and self-reference as well as increase of "true" felt empathy lead to more satisfying relations, the "imprisonment" in hysterical mode can be gradually lifted.


Assuntos
Agressão , Histeria/psicologia , Histeria/terapia , Poder Psicológico , Psicoterapia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Zoolog Sci ; 38(1): 45-50, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33639717

RESUMO

In medaka fishes, the family Adrianichthyidae, tropical species are known to be sexually more dimorphic than temperate species. If this reflects that tropical species are exposed to stronger sexual-selection pressures than temperate species, mating behaviors may also differ between tropical and temperate species. Our mating experiments revealed that males of Oryzias woworae, a tropical species of the family, perform "chasing" another male more frequently than males of O. sakaizumii, a temperate congener, and that male-male "combats" of O. woworae tended to be followed by chasing compared with combats of O. sakaizumii males, indicating that O. woworae males are more aggressive in male-male interactions than O. sakaizumii males. Males of O. woworae also performed "approaching" a female and "mating dance" more frequently than O. sakaizumii males, indicating that O. woworae males are also more active in courting females. Males of O. sakaizumii often omitted "mating dance" in their mating sequences, supporting this view. Moreover, O. woworae females tended to reject male "wrapping", an attempt for fertilization, more frequently than O. sakaizumii females, suggesting that O. woworae females are choosier in mating than O. sakaizumii females. These findings are concordant with the view that O. woworae is exposed to stronger sexual-selection pressures than O. sakaizumii.


Assuntos
Agressão , Oryzias/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...