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1.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(2): 109-125, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114953

RESUMO

Playing Violent Digital Games and Openly Aggressive Behavior by Children and Adolescents: A Literature Review on the Direction of Effects The majority of adolescents play digital games and many play violent ones. That youngsters with more intensive use of violent digital games would increase their physically aggressive behavior measured outside the laboratory over time, was supported in a meta-analysis from 2018. The overall socialization effect of beta = 0.11 was, however, modest. It was reduced to a unique effect of beta = 0.08 for playing violent digital games, when third variables which also explain the physically aggressive behavior were included. In addition, selection effects must be taken into account, which are based on aggressive individuals' preferences for violent digital games. Of the ten studies in this meta-analysis which analyzed the direction of effects in cross-lagged-panel or special regression designs, three established socialization effects only, two found bidirectional effects, three found selection effects only, and two found neither effect. Selection effects were more likely to be found in larger samples and in samples with young adolescents whose preference for violent games was less stable. This more complex result is discussed before the background of the biological, cognitive, and social transitions at the beginning of adolescence.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Agressão , Comportamento Infantil , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia , Violência , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto
2.
Med Lav ; 111(1): 46-53, 2020 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096772

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence in the workplace is now universally recognized as a significant global public health issue and is one of the most serious issues affecting the healthcare sector. OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of workplace violence. METHODS: We performed a multicenter cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire submitted to doctors from Northern Italy. The survey investigates socio-demographic information, the number of years of work in the health sector and the physical and verbal aggressions that occurred in the workplace in the last 12 months. RESULTS: The sample consists of 4545 healthcare workers, of whom 2603 (57.27%) are females. The mean age of the sample is 49.79 years (SD ± 12.63). The risk of being victim of physical aggression at work in the last 12 months is significantly associated with the following independent variables: male gender (aOR 2.09, 95% CI 1.51-2.88), work in the public sector (aOR 2.57, 95% CI 1.72-3.85), being victim of verbal aggression at work in the last 12 months (aOR 22.52, 95% CI 10.97-46.20), work in the operational units of the Medical area (aOR 2.36, 95% CI 1.33-4.21) and the Territorial area (aOR 1.97, 95% CI 1.04-3.74). DISCUSSION: The prevalence of violent behaviour is difficult to assess, because violent incidents are underreported or unreported. The results of the study suggest that increased awareness is necessary to develop effective control strategies at individual, hospital and national levels.


Assuntos
Médicos , Violência no Trabalho , Adulto , Agressão , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 50(4): 1005-1007, 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31926537

RESUMO

At times severe, and occasionally fatal, aggression plays an intrinsic role in chimpanzee behavior and social dynamics, particularly among male chimpanzees in both managed and free-ranging troops. At the Los Angeles Zoo, one adult male's natural aggressive behavior developed into unmanageable violence during a period of social and emotional instability consequent to the lack of an established alpha male in the colony. The severity and duration of resulting attacks on a subdominant member of the community, despite environmental and behavioral modification, indicated the need for psychopharmaceutical intervention. Prior treatment of this animal with haloperidol and gabapentin had produced undesirable side effects. Administration of citalopram hydrobromide, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, successfully reduced both the intensity and duration of this male chimpanzee's attacks upon a conspecific animal with minimal observable side effects or adverse behavioral changes.


Assuntos
Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Citalopram/farmacologia , Pan troglodytes , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Animais , Masculino
4.
J Exp Biol ; 223(Pt 2)2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31900346

RESUMO

Social isolation strongly modulates behavior across the animal kingdom. We utilized the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to study social isolation-driven changes in animal behavior and gene expression in the brain. RNA-seq identified several head-expressed genes strongly responding to social isolation or enrichment. Of particular interest, social isolation downregulated expression of the gene encoding the neuropeptide Drosulfakinin (Dsk), the homologue of vertebrate cholecystokinin (CCK), which is critical for many mammalian social behaviors. Dsk knockdown significantly increased social isolation-induced aggression. Genetic activation or silencing of Dsk neurons each similarly increased isolation-driven aggression. Our results suggest a U-shaped dependence of social isolation-induced aggressive behavior on Dsk signaling, similar to the actions of many neuromodulators in other contexts.


Assuntos
Agressão , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Oligopeptídeos/metabolismo , Isolamento Social , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Masculino , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Oligopeptídeos/genética , Análise de Sequência de RNA
5.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 21, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Professional caregivers working in child and youth welfare institutions are frequently faced with the complex mental health issues, emotional needs and challenging coping strategies of clients with cumulated traumatic experiences, leaving them prone to developing high levels of stress, burn-out and compassion fatigue. Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a milieu-therapeutic approach that aims to promote the self-efficacy and self-care of youth welfare staff by guiding them to a better understanding of their own and their clients' stress symptoms and countertransference. Despite increasing efforts to implement TIC practices, and more widespread recognition of their value in youth welfare systems, there is a lack of studies evaluating the effectiveness of this approach. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of TIC practices in youth welfare institutions on both the physiological stress of staff members and clients' physical aggression towards their caregivers. . METHODS: Data was obtained from a longitudinal study investigating the effectiveness of TIC in 14 residential youth welfare institutions. Our sample consisted of 47 youth welfare employees (66.0% female) aged from 23 to 60 years (M = 37.4, SD = 10.4 years). Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and occurrences of client physical aggression were assessed at four annual measurement time points (T1 to T4). RESULTS: Participants in five institutions employing TIC practices (intervention group) showed significantly lower HCC at T4 than staff members from institutions who did not receive training in TIC (control group), indicating reduced physiological stress levels. At T4, the intervention group reported significantly less physical aggression than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: TIC might be a promising approach for reducing the emotional burden of employees and institutions should invest in training their staff in TIC practices. More research is necessary, to investigate the benefits and efficacy of TIC, both to youths and staff members, and to foster a better understanding of which specific factors may contribute to stress reduction.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Agressão/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Cabelo/química , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
6.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(1): 103-109, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929215

RESUMO

Background: Psychological violence is the most common form of workplace violence (WPV) that can affect job performance and health of the workers. Aims: This study sought to determine the prevalence of psychological WPV among employees working in a tertiary health institution in a South-eastern state of Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done in 2018 among healthcare workers at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu State using a pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Workplace Violence in the Health Sector Country Case Study Questionnaire. Proportionate sampling method was used to select 412 respondents. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 23 using Chi-square test of significance and P value set at 0.05. Results: Prevalence of psychological violence among the participants was 49.7%. Verbal abuse was the most form of psychological violence experienced 168 (40.8%) followed by bullying 29 (7.0%) while sexual abuse was reported by 8 (1.9%). Majority 114 (55.6%) of the perpetrators of the psychological violence were patient's relative, whereas 48 (23.4%) were staff members. In response to the violence, 58 (28.6%) of the healthcare workers took no action, while only 2 (1%) completed incident/accident form. Bullying was statistically significantly higher in healthcare workers who have spent less than 10 years (χ2 = 3.978 P = 0.046). There was a significant association between verbal abuse and frequent interaction with patients (χ2 = 4.757, P = 0.029). Conclusion: This study has shown that the prevalence of psychological WPV was high among healthcare workers in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu State. Therefore, there is need for the hospital management to develop policy interventions specific to psychological WPV.


Assuntos
Agressão , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bullying/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Relações Profissional-Família , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia
8.
J Psychol ; 154(2): 159-175, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738658

RESUMO

Drawing on the information processing model for the development of aggression, children's acquisition of aggressive responses could be associated with parenting that communicated norms favoring aggression. Extending this view, the present study examined the mediating role of children's normative beliefs about relational aggression (NBRA) on the association between psychologically controlling parenting and children's relational aggression (RA), and further explored whether this possible indirect effect would be contingent on the child's gender. 341 upper elementary school students (174 boys and 166 girls) reported perceived paternal psychological control (PPC) and maternal psychological control (MPC) during their fifth-grade fall semester, rated their NBRA during their sixth-grade fall semester, and assessed RA through a peer-nomination procedure during their sixth-grade spring semester. Results demonstrated that the indirect effects of perceived PPC and MPC on children's RA via their NBRA were both significant among the entire sample. However, by means of conditional process analysis, we found that whereas perceived PPC positively predicted boys' and girls' NBRA, perceived MPC positively predicted boys' but not girls' NBRA. In addition, children's NBRA was only positively predictive of RA for girls. As such, the indirect effect was exclusively significant for perceived PPC among girls.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Atitude , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes
10.
J Psychol ; 154(1): 1-14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343957

RESUMO

Leader emergence was regressed on five factor model (FFM; NEO Five-Factor Inventory) traits and four additional traits (achievement, dominance, aggression, and Machiavellianism) in a sample of 280 undergraduates (229 women (82%), 51 men; M age = 19.7 (SD = 1.4). The Jackson Personality Research Form (Jackson, Personality research form manual (3rd ed.). Port Huron, MI: Sigma Assessment Systems, Inc.) measured achievement, dominance, and aggression. Christie and Geis' (Studies in machiavellianism. San Diego: Academic Press) Mach IV scale measured Machiavellianism. In an independent groups analysis, six of the nine traits showed significant differences, indicating that leaders are less neurotic and Machiavellian, and more extroverted, open, agreeable, and dominant. However, in a logistic regression analysis, which controlled for shared variance among traits, only extraversion, openness, and dominance predicted leader emergence. Previous studies that did not use regression models showed significant differences for a large number of traits. Results from the present study indicate the importance of accounting for shared variance when analyzing personality traits in order to develop parsimonious models.


Assuntos
Liderança , Personalidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Logro , Agressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Maquiavelismo , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Anim Genet ; 51(1): 14-21, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633208

RESUMO

Molecular mechanisms underlying aggressive behavior are primitive and similar among the subphylum Vertebrata. In humans, a primary goal in the study of aggression is to determine the neurobehavioral molecular factors triggering violence. Although several species have been used to study agonistic responses, researchers are limited by the difficulty of artificially inducing aggression in animals not selected for it. Conversely, the Lidia cattle breed has been selected since the eighteenth century to display agonistic responses based on traits such as aggressiveness, ferocity and mobility, all of them showing significant heritability values. This intensive selection may have driven shifts in specific allele frequencies. In a previous analysis across the autosomes, we revealed long-term selection regions including genes involved in behavioral development. In the present study, we focus on mapping recent signatures of selection associated with aggressiveness at chromosome X, by comparing Lidia cattle samples with two non-specialized Spanish breeds showing tamed behavior. The most significant markers peaked around the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) gene, and thus the associations of three functionally important regions located near the promoter of this gene were further investigated. A polymorphism consisting of a variable number of tandem repeats of the nucleotide 'C' (BTX:105,462,494) and displaying lower number of repetitions in the Lidia breed when compared with the tamed breeds was detected. In silico analyses predicted that the g.105,462,494delsinsC variant may code for the Sp1 binding motif, one of the major transcription factors controlling the core promoter and expression of the MAOA gene in humans.


Assuntos
Agressão , Bovinos/genética , Monoaminoxidase/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Cruzamento , Repetições Minissatélites , Seleção Genética , Cromossomo X
12.
Ecol Lett ; 23(2): 221-230, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733032

RESUMO

Many interspecifically territorial species interfere with each other reproductively, and in some cases, aggression towards heterospecifics may be an adaptive response to interspecific mate competition. This hypothesis was recently formalised in an agonistic character displacement (ACD) model which predicts that species should evolve to defend territories against heterospecific rivals above a threshold level of reproductive interference. To test this prediction, we parameterised the model with field estimates of reproductive interference for 32 sympatric damselfly populations and ran evolutionary simulations. Asymmetries in reproductive interference made the outcome inherently unpredictable in some cases, but 80% of the model's stable outcomes matched levels of heterospecific aggression in the field, significantly exceeding chance expectations. In addition to bolstering the evidence for ACD, this paper introduces a new, predictive approach to testing character displacement theory that, if applied to other systems, could help in resolving long-standing questions about the importance of character displacement processes in nature.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Territorialidade , Agressão , Reprodução , Simpatria
14.
Dev Neurorehabil ; 23(1): 9-17, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055992

RESUMO

Aim: Aggressive incidents (AI) are a serious concern in health care and can have negative effects on the physical and emotional well-being staff. This study aimed to determine frequency, characteristics and risk factors for aggressive behavior.Methods: AI were recorded during six months by the staff in a pediatric rehabilitation clinic using the evaluation form for AI (EVA). Patients were divided into the study group (patients who were involved in AI) and controls.Results: 14/105 (13%) of patients were involved in 79 AI. 0.44 AI per day occurred. Most often AI occurred on Mondays and 98% included physical, 22% verbal aggression. Most frequent target (43%) were nurses, followed by therapists (31.6%).Significant risk factors for AI were: previous aggressive behavior (p = .038), lower cognitive and higher mobility sub-scores in the WeeFIM. Conclusion: Findings emphasize the magnitude of AI in pediatric rehabilitation and thus the importance of implement preventive strategies.Abbreviations: ADL: Activity of daily living; AI: Aggressive Incidents; CFCS: Communication Function Classification System; EVA: Recording aggressive incidents (Erfassung von Aggressionsereignissen); GMFCS: Gross Motor Function Classification System; MACS: Manual Ability Classification System; SOAS-R: Staff Observation of Aggression Scale-Revised; WeeFIM: Functional Independence Measure for Children; WPV: Workplace violence.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Reabilitação Neurológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Reabilitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia
15.
Insect Sci ; 27(1): 122-132, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29659142

RESUMO

Although the Neotropical territorially dominant arboreal ant Azteca chartifex Forel is very aggressive towards any intruder, its populous colonies tolerate the close presence of the fierce polistine wasp Polybia rejecta (F.). In French Guiana, 83.33% of the 48 P. rejecta nests recorded were found side by side with those of A. chartifex. This nesting association results in mutual protection from predators (i.e., the wasps protected from army ants; the ants protected from birds). We conducted field studies, laboratory-based behavioral experiments and chemical analyses to elucidate the mechanisms allowing the persistence of this association. Due to differences in the cuticular profiles of the two species, we eliminated the possibility of chemical mimicry. Also, analyses of the carton nests did not reveal traces of marking on the envelopes. Because ant forager flows were not perturbed by extracts from the wasps' Dufour's and venom glands, we rejected any hypothetical action of repulsive chemicals. Nevertheless, we noted that the wasps "scraped" the surface of the upper part of their nest envelope using their mandibles, likely removing the ants' scent trails, and an experiment showed that ant foragers were perturbed by the removal of their scent trails. This leads us to use the term "erasure hypothesis." Thus, this nesting association persists thanks to a relative tolerance by the ants towards wasp presence and the behavior of the wasps that allows them to "contain" their associated ants through the elimination of their scent trails, direct attacks, "wing-buzzing" behavior and ejecting the ants.


Assuntos
Formigas/fisiologia , Comportamento de Nidação , Vespas/fisiologia , Agressão , Animais , Guiana Francesa , Territorialidade , Árvores
16.
Soins Gerontol ; 24(140): 29-31, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31806175

RESUMO

Managing aggression and agitation in elderly people with dementia can be seen from the perspective of certain conditions. Some therapies, particularly the use of neuroleptics, should be avoided. The need to put limits on non-pharmacological treatments must be emphasised.


Assuntos
Agressão , Demência , Idoso , Demência/complicações , Demência/psicologia , Humanos , Agitação Psicomotora
17.
Curr Top Behav Neurosci ; 43: 161-210, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31808002

RESUMO

Parental care is critical for offspring survival in many species. In mammals, parental care is primarily provided through maternal care, due to obligate pregnancy and lactation constraints, although some species also show paternal and alloparental care. These behaviors are driven by specialized neural circuits that receive sensory, cortical, and hormonal input to generate a coordinated and timely change in behavior, and sustain that behavior through activation of reward pathways. Importantly, the hormonal changes associated with pregnancy and lactation also act to coordinate a broad range of physiological changes to support the mother and enable her to adapt to the demands of these states. This chapter will review the neural pathways that regulate maternal behavior, the hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy and lactation, and how these two facets merge together to promote both young-directed maternal responses (including nursing and grooming) and young-related responses (including maternal aggression and other physiological adaptions to support the development of and caring for young). We conclude by examining how experimental animal work has translated into knowledge of human parenting, particularly in regards to maternal mental health issues.


Assuntos
Neuroendocrinologia , Agressão , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactação , Comportamento Materno , Poder Familiar , Gravidez
19.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e82, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839013

RESUMO

AIMS: This review aims to understand the scope of the literature regarding mental health-related microaggressions towards people affected by mental health problems. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to explore this question. Four electronic health-oriented databases were searched alongside Google Scholar. As per scoping review principles, the inclusion criteria were developed iteratively. The results of included studies were synthesised using a basic narrative synthesis approach, utilising principles of thematic analysis and thematic synthesis where appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 1196 records were identified, of which 17 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 12 were peer-reviewed journal articles, three were research degree theses and two were book chapters. Six included empirical studies were qualitative, four were quantitative and two employed a mixed-methods design. Within these, five qualitative studies aimed to describe the nature of mental health microaggressions experienced by people with mental health problems. Themes identified in a thematic synthesis of these five studies included stereotypes about mental illness, invalidating peoples' experience and blaming people with mental illness for their condition. The included publications informed on the perpetration of mental health microaggressions by family, friends, health professionals and social workers. In addition, two studies created scales, which were then used in cross-sectional surveys of the general public and community members to assess characteristics, such as right-wing political views, associated with endorsement of mental health microaggressions. A consensus definition of microaggressions emerged from the included studies: microaggressions are brief, everyday slights, snubs or insults, that may be subtle or ambiguous, but communicate a negative message to a target person based on their membership of a marginalised group, in this case, people affected by mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: The study of mental health microaggressions is an emerging, heterogeneous field, embedded in the wider stigma and discrimination literature. It has been influenced by earlier work on racial microaggressions. Both can be ambiguous and contradictory, which creates difficulty defining the boundaries of the concept, but also underpins the key theoretical basis for the negative impact of microaggressions. Mental illness is a more concealable potential type of identity, so it follows that the reported perpetrators of microaggressions are largely friends, family and professionals. This has implications for intervening to reduce the impact of microaggressions. There are several challenges facing research in this area, and further work is needed to understand the impact of mental health microaggressions on people affected by mental health problems.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Discriminação Social , Estigma Social , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Estereotipagem
20.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0224150, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851686

RESUMO

Rules regulate behavior, but in competitive contexts they also create incentives for rule-breaking because enforcement is imperfect. Sports is a prime example of this, and one that lends itself well to investigation because strategic rule-breaking is often measurable. Professional soccer is a highly competitive team sport with economic rewards for winning given to teams and players. It has a set of rules to ensure fair play, but the enforcement is incomplete, and hence can lead to strategic behavior. Using newly available data, we examine strategic time-wasting, a behavior that help teams win games, or tie games against superior opponents, but is contrary to the objective of game play as entertainment for the spectators. We demonstrate that strategic time-wasting is widespread and is done through delayed restart of the game after goalie capture of the ball, goal kick, throw-in, free kick, corner kick, and substitution. The strategic time-wasting has substantial magnitude, and models of the value per minute predict time-wasting well. Because this time-wasting is a result of incentives created by not stopping the game clock, we predict that a change to rules with stopped game clock when the play is stopped would make game play more time efficient.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Futebol/psicologia , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fatores de Tempo
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