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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(12)2020 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310825

RESUMO

Histamine is involved in various physiological functions like sleep-wake cycle and stress regulation. The histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) enzyme is the only pathway for termination of histamine neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Experiments with HNMT knockout mice generated aggressive behaviours and dysregulation of sleep-wake cycles. Recently, seven members of two unrelated consanguineous families have been reported in whom two different missense HNMT mutations were identified. All showed severe intellectual disability, delayed speech development and mild regression from the age of 5 years without, however, any dysmorphisms or congenital abnormality. A diagnosis of mental retardation, autosomal recessive 51 was made. Here, we describe a severely mentally retarded adolescent male born from second cousins with a homozygous mutation in HNMT. His phenotypic profile comprised aggression, delayed speech, autism, sleep disturbances and gastro-intestinal problems. At early age, regression occurred. Treatment with hydroxyzine combined with a histamine-restricted diet resulted in significant general improvement.


Assuntos
Histamina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Homozigoto , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Agressão/fisiologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Histamina/metabolismo , Histamina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidroxizina/uso terapêutico , Deficiência Intelectual/dietoterapia , Deficiência Intelectual/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Masculino , Sono/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(35): 21673-21680, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817554

RESUMO

Behavioral evolution relies on genetic changes, yet few behaviors can be traced to specific genetic sequences in vertebrates. Here we provide experimental evidence showing that differentiation of a single gene has contributed to the evolution of divergent behavioral phenotypes in the white-throated sparrow, a common backyard songbird. In this species, a series of chromosomal inversions has formed a supergene that segregates with an aggressive phenotype. The supergene has captured ESR1, the gene that encodes estrogen receptor α (ERα); as a result, this gene is accumulating changes that now distinguish the supergene allele from the standard allele. Our results show that in birds of the more aggressive phenotype, ERα knockdown caused a phenotypic change to that of the less aggressive phenotype. We next showed that in a free-living population, aggression is predicted by allelic imbalance favoring the supergene allele. Finally, we identified cis-regulatory features, both genetic and epigenetic, that explain the allelic imbalance. This work provides a rare illustration of how genotypic divergence has led to behavioral phenotypic divergence in a vertebrate.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Pardais/genética , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Inversão Cromossômica/genética , Estrogênios/genética , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Fenótipo , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Comportamento Social
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237812, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817716

RESUMO

Bhutan is one of the biological hotspots in the world where humans and natural flora and fauna co-exist in close proximity. Bhutan is home to two species of bears: Sloth Bear and Himalayan Black Bear. Human conflicts with bears are reported from all over the country. This study describes the profile of the victims and the pattern of injury resulting from bear attacks and circumstances around human conflicts with bears in Bhutan between 2015 and 2019. This was a cross-sectional study with a review of hospital records of patients treated at the National Referral Hospital from 01 January 2015 till 31 December 2019. Data were extracted into a structured pro forma and entered into EpiData Entry 3.1 and analysed in STATA 13.1. There were thirty-four patients who were provided care for bear maul injuries, with an average annual caseload of 6.8 cases per year. The injury prevalence was 100% and the kill prevalence was 0%. Bear attacks were reported from fourteen of twenty districts of the country. The mean age of the victims was 49 (±13) years. Males (26, 76%) and farmers (26, 76%) were the common victims; the risk of bear attacks was 0.16 per 100,000 farmers per year. The commonest region of the body attacked was the face (29, 85%) and victims were provided emergency and rehabilitative care within and outside the country. Thirty-three victims (97%) were provided post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies. All victims received antibiotics despite the lack of national guidelines on the choice of antibiotics post-bear maul. Human-bear conflict is multi-faceted, puts a considerable strain on bear-conservation efforts and requires multi-disciplinary efforts in the prevention of human injury and socioeconomic losses.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Ursidae/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/psicologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Butão/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/fisiopatologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/cirurgia , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Orelha/lesões , Orelha/fisiopatologia , Orelha/cirurgia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Florestas , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/patologia , Raiva/virologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Cirurgia Plástica/métodos , Ursidae/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(9): 1111-1124, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719562

RESUMO

Sexual and aggressive behaviors are fundamental to animal survival and reproduction. The medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHvl) are essential regions for male sexual and aggressive behaviors, respectively. While key inhibitory inputs to the VMHvl and MPN have been identified, the extrahypothalamic excitatory inputs essential for social behaviors remain elusive. Here we identify estrogen receptor alpha (Esr1)-expressing cells in the posterior amygdala (PA) as a main source of excitatory inputs to the hypothalamus and key mediators for mating and fighting in male mice. We find two largely distinct PA subpopulations that differ in connectivity, gene expression, in vivo responses and social behavior relevance. MPN-projecting PAEsr1+ cells are activated during mating and are necessary and sufficient for male sexual behaviors, while VMHvl-projecting PAEsr1+ cells are excited during intermale aggression and promote attacks. These findings place the PA as a key node in both male aggression and reproduction circuits.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/citologia , Animais , Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Vias Neurais/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/fisiologia
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(31): 18566-18573, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675244

RESUMO

Dominant individuals are often most influential in their social groups, affecting movement, opinion, and performance across species and contexts. Yet, behavioral traits like aggression, intimidation, and coercion, which are associated with and in many cases define dominance, can be socially aversive. The traits that make dominant individuals influential in one context may therefore reduce their influence in other contexts. Here, we examine this association between dominance and influence using the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, comparing the influence of dominant and subordinate males during normal social interactions and in a more complex group consensus association task. We find that phenotypically dominant males are aggressive, socially central, and that these males have a strong influence over normal group movement, whereas subordinate males are passive, socially peripheral, and have little influence over normal movement. However, subordinate males have the greatest influence in generating group consensus during the association task. Dominant males are spatially distant and have lower signal-to-noise ratios of informative behavior in the association task, potentially interfering with their ability to generate group consensus. In contrast, subordinate males are physically close to other group members, have a high signal-to-noise ratio of informative behavior, and equivalent visual connectedness to their group as dominant males. The behavioral traits that define effective social influence are thus highly context specific and can be dissociated with social dominance. Thus, processes of hierarchical ascension in which the most aggressive, competitive, or coercive individuals rise to positions of dominance may be counterproductive in contexts where group performance is prioritized.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Predomínio Social , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Ciclídeos/fisiologia , Consenso , Feminino , Masculino
7.
J Neurosci ; 40(25): 4858-4880, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424020

RESUMO

Heightened aggression can be serious concerns for the individual and society at large and are symptoms of many psychiatric illnesses, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. The circuit and synaptic mechanisms underlying experience-induced aggression increase, however, are poorly understood. Here we find that prior attack experience leading to an increase in aggressive behavior, known as aggression priming, activates neurons within the posterior ventral segment of the medial amygdala (MeApv). Optogenetic stimulation of MeApv using a synaptic depression protocol suppresses aggression priming, whereas high-frequency stimulation enhances aggression, mimicking attack experience. Interrogation of the underlying neural circuitry revealed that the MeApv mediates aggression priming via synaptic connections with the ventromedial hypothalamus (VmH) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). These pathways undergo NMDAR-dependent synaptic potentiation after attack. Furthermore, we find that the MeApv-VmH synapses selectively control attack duration, whereas the MeApv-BNST synapses modulate attack frequency, both with no effect on social behavior. Synaptic potentiation of the MeApv-VmH and MeApv-BNST pathways contributes to increased aggression induced by traumatic stress, and weakening synaptic transmission at these synapses blocks the effect of traumatic stress on aggression. These results reveal a circuit and synaptic basis for aggression modulation by experience that can be potentially leveraged toward clinical interventions.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Heightened aggression can have devastating social consequences and may be associated with psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. The circuit and synaptic mechanisms underlying experience-induced aggression escalation, however, are poorly understood. Here we identify two aggression pathways between the posterior ventral segment of the medial amygdala and its downstream synaptic partners, the ventromedial hypothalamus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis that undergo synaptic potentiation after attack and traumatic stress to enhance aggression. Notably, weakening synaptic transmission in these circuits blocks aggression priming, naturally occurring aggression, and traumatic stress-induced aggression increase. These results illustrate a circuit and synaptic basis of aggression modulation by experience, which can be potentially targeted for clinical interventions.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Complexo Nuclear Corticomedial/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal/fisiologia , Transmissão Sináptica/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Angústia Psicológica
8.
Neuron ; 107(2): 368-382.e8, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442399

RESUMO

The ventral tegmental area (VTA) has dopamine, GABA, and glutamate neurons, which have been implicated in reward and aversion. Here, we determined whether VTA-glutamate or -GABA neurons play a role in innate defensive behavior. By VTA cell-type-specific genetic ablation, we found that ablation of glutamate, but not GABA, neurons abolishes escape behavior in response to threatening stimuli. We found that escape behavior is also decreased by chemogenetic inhibition of VTA-glutamate neurons and detected increases in activity in VTA-glutamate neurons in response to the threatening stimuli. By ultrastructural and electrophysiological analysis, we established that VTA-glutamate neurons receive a major monosynaptic glutamatergic input from the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and found that photoinhibition of this input decreases escape responses to threatening stimuli. These findings indicate that VTA-glutamate neurons are activated by and required for innate defensive responses and that information on threatening stimuli to VTA-glutamate neurons is relayed by LHA-glutamate neurons.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Ácido Glutâmico/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/citologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Animais , Reação de Fuga , Humanos , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/citologia , Região Hipotalâmica Lateral/fisiologia , Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/fisiologia , Camundongos , Neurônios/ultraestrutura , Optogenética , Estimulação Luminosa , Reflexo Monosináptico/fisiologia , Área Tegmentar Ventral/ultraestrutura , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/fisiologia
9.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7898, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398716

RESUMO

Aggression plays a crucial role in survival all across the animal kingdom. In this study, we investigate the aggressive behaviour of Drosophila suzukii, a known agricultural pest. Bioassays were performed between same sex pairs and the effect of environmental (food deprivation, sex, age and photophase) and social factors (non-social and social). Initially the inter-male and inter-female aggression was determined ethologically consisting of several behaviour patterns. Two hours starvation period increase locomotor activity of flies, promoting increased aggressive behaviour. Most of the behavioural patterns were common between males and females with a few sex-selective. Number of male encounters was higher in flies held in isolation than in those that had been reared with siblings whereas in case of females, only those that were isolated exhibited increased aggression. Females and males D. suzukii that were 4-day-old were more aggressive. In addition it is found that on the 3rd hour after the beginning of photophase, regardless of age, both males and females rise to high intensity aggression patterns.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Drosophila/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Comportamento Social , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Privação de Alimentos/fisiologia , Masculino , Atividade Motora/fisiologia
10.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(8): 2451-2467, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430516

RESUMO

Topiramate, an antiepileptic drug, has been found to be useful for the treatment of aggression in clinical populations. Most preclinical studies related to Topiramate have been focused exclusively on the quantitative aspects of the aggressive behavior between mice. However, there is still limited knowledge regarding the effects of Topiramate on neuronal mechanisms occurring in aggressive mice. The present work aims to understand further the effects of the antiepileptic drug Topiramate on aggressive behaviors, and on the neural correlates underlying such behaviors. To achieve this, we combined the resident-intruder model of isolation-induced aggression in mice with two drug regimens of Topiramate administration (30.0 mg/kg; acute and sub-chronic treatments). Our data showed that both acute and subchronic treatments decreased the intensity of agonistic encounters and reinforced social behavior. By using C-fos immunoreactivity, we investigated the neuronal activation of several brain regions involved in aggressive behavior following subchronic treatment. We found that Topiramate produced activation in several cortical areas and in the lateral septum of resident brain mice compared with their controls. However, Topiramate induced inhibition in the medial nucleus of the amygdala, the dorsomedial nucleus of the periaqueductal gray, and especially in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus. Finally, we performed microinfusion of Topiramate (0.1 and 0.3 mM) into the lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus on offensive behaviors in isolation-induced-aggression paradigm. Interestingly, the microinfusion of Topiramate into the lateral septum has the capacity to alleviate aggressive behavior, without affecting social behavior. However, the microinfusion of Topiramate into the anterior hypothalamus decreased aggressive behavior and slightly reinforced social behavior. Our observations supported that the dose of 0.1 mM of Topiramate appeared more efficacy to treat aggression in adult mice. These pharmacological characteristics may account for Topiramate efficacy on aggressive symptoms in psychiatric patients.


Assuntos
Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Agressão/psicologia , Anticonvulsivantes/administração & dosagem , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Topiramato/administração & dosagem , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Comportamento Social
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(23): 12923-12930, 2020 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457140

RESUMO

Costly interactions between species that arise as a by-product of ancestral similarities in communication signals are expected to persist only under specific evolutionary circumstances. Territorial aggression between species, for instance, is widely assumed to persist only when extrinsic barriers prevent niche divergence or selection in sympatry is too weak to overcome gene flow from allopatry. However, recent theoretical and comparative studies have challenged this view. Here we present a large-scale, phylogenetic analysis of the distribution and determinants of interspecific territoriality. We find that interspecific territoriality is widespread in birds and strongly associated with hybridization and resource overlap during the breeding season. Contrary to the view that territoriality only persists between species that rarely breed in the same areas or where niche divergence is constrained by habitat structure, we find that interspecific territoriality is positively associated with breeding habitat overlap and unrelated to habitat structure. Furthermore, our results provide compelling evidence that ancestral similarities in territorial signals are maintained and reinforced by selection when interspecific territoriality is adaptive. The territorial signals linked to interspecific territoriality in birds depend on the evolutionary age of interacting species, plumage at shallow (within-family) timescales, and song at deeper (between-family) timescales. Evidently, territorial interactions between species have persisted and shaped phenotypic diversity on a macroevolutionary timescale.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Hibridização Genética/fisiologia , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Territorialidade , Adaptação Biológica , Animais , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Especiação Genética , Masculino , América do Norte , Reprodução/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
12.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229633, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348317

RESUMO

Aggression between individuals of the same sex is almost ubiquitous across the animal kingdom. Winners of intrasexual contests often garner considerable fitness benefits, through greater access to mates, food, or social dominance. In females, aggression is often tightly linked to reproduction, with females displaying increases in aggressive behavior when mated, gestating or lactating, or when protecting dependent offspring. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, females spend twice as long fighting over food after mating as when they are virgins. However, it is unknown when this increase in aggression begins or whether it is consistent across genotypes. Here we show that aggression in females increases between 2 to 4 hours after mating and remains elevated for at least a week after a single mating. In addition, this increase in aggression 24 hours after mating is consistent across three diverse genotypes, suggesting this may be a universal response to mating in the species. We also report here the first use of automated tracking and classification software to study female aggression in Drosophila and assess its accuracy for this behavior. Dissecting the genetic diversity and temporal patterns of female aggression assists us in better understanding its generality and adaptive function, and will facilitate the identification of its underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Reprodução/genética , Comportamento Sexual Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster/fisiologia , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Masculino , Reprodução/fisiologia , Predomínio Social
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(15): 8602-8610, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234781

RESUMO

Regulating aggression after social feedback is an important prerequisite for developing and maintaining social relations, especially in the current times with larger emphasis on online social evaluation. Studies in adults highlighted the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in regulating aggression. Little is known about the development of aggression regulation following social feedback during childhood, while this is an important period for both brain maturation and social relations. The current study used a longitudinal design, with 456 twins undergoing two functional MRI sessions across the transition from middle (7 to 9 y) to late (9 to 11 y) childhood. Aggression regulation was studied using the Social Network Aggression Task. Behavioral aggression after social evaluation decreased over time, whereas activation in the insula, dorsomedial PFC and DLPFC increased over time. Brain-behavior analyses showed that increased DLPFC activation after negative feedback was associated with decreased aggression. Change analyses further revealed that children with larger increases in DLPFC activity from middle to late childhood showed stronger decreases in aggression over time. These findings provide insights into the development of social evaluation sensitivity and aggression control in childhood.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/anatomia & histologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Rejeição em Psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Encéfalo/anatomia & histologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
14.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231330, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32287305

RESUMO

Animals show various behavioural, neural and physiological changes in response to losing aggressive encounters. Here, we investigated affective state, which are emotion-like processes influenced by positive or negative experiences, in a territorial fish following aggressive encounters and explore links to bold/shy behavioural traits. Eighteen 15-month old Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii) received three tests in order to determine bold/shy behavioural traits then underwent a typical go/no-go judgement bias (JB) test. The JB apparatus had five adjacent chambers with access provided by a sliding door and fish underwent a training procedure to enter a chamber at one end of the apparatus to receive a food reward but were chased using a net if they entered the chamber at the opposite end. Only one third (N = 6) of fish successfully completed the training procedure (trained fish), and the remaining 12 fish failed to reach the learning criterion (untrained fish). Trained fish housed with a larger aggressive Murray cod for 24 h were significantly less likely to enter intermediate chambers during probe tests compared to control fish, demonstrating a pessimistic response. Trained fish showed "bolder" responses in emergence and conspecific inspection tests than untrained fish, suggesting that shyer individuals were less able to apply a learned behaviour in a novel environment. Our limited sample was biased towards bold individuals but supports the hypothesis that losing an aggressive encounter leads to pessimistic decision-making.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Perciformes/fisiologia , Agressão/fisiologia , Animais
15.
J Neurosci ; 40(20): 3981-3994, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284340

RESUMO

Male animals may show alternative behaviors toward infants: attack or parenting. These behaviors are triggered by pup stimuli under the influence of the internal state, including the hormonal environment and/or social experiences. Converging data suggest that the medial preoptic area (MPOA) contributes to the behavioral selection toward the pup. However, the neural mechanisms underlying how integrated stimuli affect the MPOA-dependent behavioral selection remain unclear. Here we focus on the amygdalohippocampal area (AHi) that projects to MPOA and expresses oxytocin receptor, a hormone receptor mediating social behavior toward pups. We describe the activation of MPOA-projection AHi neurons in male mice by social contact with pups. Input mapping using the TRIO method reveals that MPOA-projection AHi neurons receive prominent inputs from several regions, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, and olfactory cortex. Electrophysiological and histologic analysis demonstrates that oxytocin modulates inhibitory synaptic responses on MPOA-projection AHi neurons. In addition, AHi forms the excitatory monosynapse to MPOA, and pharmacological activation of MPOA-projection AHi neurons enhances only aggressive behavior, but not parental behavior. Interestingly, this promoted behavior was related to social experience in male mice. Collectively, our results identified a presynaptic partner of MPOA that can integrate sensory input and hormonal state, and trigger pup-directed aggression.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The medial preoptic area (MPOA) plays critical roles in parental behavior, such as motor control, motivation, and social interaction. The MPOA projects to multiple brain regions, and these projections contribute to several neural controls in parental behavior. In contrast, how inputs to MPOA are regulated by social and environmental information is poorly understood. In this study, we focus on the amygdalohippocampal area (AHi) that connects to MPOA and expresses oxytocin receptor. We demonstrate the disruption of the expression of parental behavior triggered by the activation of MPOA-projection AHi neurons. This behavior may be regulated not only by oxytocin but also by neural input from several regions.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Hipocampo/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Área Pré-Óptica/fisiologia , Tonsila do Cerebelo/citologia , Animais , Mapeamento Encefálico , Fenômenos Eletrofisiológicos , Hipocampo/citologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Inibição Neural , Comportamento Paterno , Área Pré-Óptica/citologia , Receptores de Ocitocina/metabolismo , Comportamento Social , Meio Social
16.
Nat Neurosci ; 23(5): 638-650, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32284606

RESUMO

Heightened aggression is characteristic of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders and can have various negative effects on patients, their families and the public. Recent studies in humans and animals have implicated brain reward circuits in aggression and suggest that, in subsets of aggressive individuals, domination of subordinate social targets is reinforcing. In this study, we showed that, in male mice, orexin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus activated a small population of glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 (GAD2)-expressing neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb) via orexin receptor 2 (OxR2) and that activation of these GAD2 neurons promoted male-male aggression and conditioned place preference for aggression-paired contexts. Moreover, LHb GAD2 neurons were inhibitory within the LHb and dampened the activity of the LHb as a whole. These results suggest that the orexin system is important for the regulation of inter-male aggressive behavior and provide the first functional evidence of a local inhibitory circuit within the LHb.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Neurônios GABAérgicos/metabolismo , Habenula/metabolismo , Orexinas/metabolismo , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
17.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229470, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251476

RESUMO

The present study used exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) to examine the theorized dimension structure of the brief version of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ-BR) at the scale-level (i.e., 11 lower-order primary factors loading on four higher-order factors) and item-level (sets of 12 items loading on 11 lower-order primary factors). A total of 214 adults from the community addressed the MPQ-BR and the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)/Behavioral Approach System (BAS) scales. The findings revealed poor fit and poorly defined factors at the item-level alongside adequate fit and well-defined factors at the scale-level. The higher-order factors in the latter model were supported for external validity in terms of demonstrating the expected theoretical and empirical correlations with the scales of the BIS/BAS scales. Result related implications for professional application, as well as potential revisions of the MPQ-BF are illustrated.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/genética , Personalidade/genética , Psicometria , Adulto , Agressão/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Personalidade/fisiologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/patologia , Transtornos da Personalidade/fisiopatologia , Inventário de Personalidade/normas , Testes de Personalidade , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Neuron ; 106(4): 637-648.e6, 2020 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164875

RESUMO

Although the ventromedial hypothalamus ventrolateral area (VMHvl) is now well established as a critical locus for the generation of conspecific aggression, its role is complex, with neurons responding during multiple phases of social interactions with both males and females. It has been previously unclear how the brain uses this complex multidimensional signal and coordinates a discrete action: the attack. Here, we find a hypothalamic-midbrain circuit that represents hierarchically organized social signals during aggression. Optogenetic-assisted circuit mapping reveals a preferential projection from VMHvlvGlut2 to lPAGvGlut2 cells, and inactivation of downstream lPAGvGlut2 populations results in aggression-specific deficits. lPAG neurons are selective for attack action and exhibit short-latency, time-locked spiking relative to the activity of jaw muscles during biting. Last, we find that this projection conveys male-biased signals from the VMHvl to downstream lPAGvGlut2 neurons that are sensitive to features of ongoing activity, suggesting that action selectivity is generated by a combination of pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Mesencéfalo/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Ventromedial/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Mesencéfalo/citologia , Camundongos , Vias Neurais/citologia , Neurônios/citologia , Núcleo Hipotalâmico Ventromedial/citologia
19.
J Sports Sci Med ; 19(1): 38-42, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132825

RESUMO

A functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene (rs4680) is a gene variant that has been shown to predict the ability to maintain cognitive agility during combat and competition. Critically, COMT Met (low-activity; high dopamine) allele carriers outperform Val (high-activity; low dopamine) homozygotes on a variety of cognitive tasks. However, the relationship between genotype and cognitive performance appears to reverse under stressful conditions. Stress increases pre-frontal cortex dopamine (PFC DA) levels, and Met allele carriers (with higher DA) show performance deficits relative to Val allele carriers. This pattern reflects the inverted U-shaped function of DA activity where too little (Val allele) or too much (Met allele carriers under stress) DA is associated with poor cognitive performance. The Val allele advantage for stress resiliency is referred to as the COMT "warrior/ worrier" model. In line with this model, we predicted that elite level mixed martial arts (MMA) fighters would be more likely than athlete controls to carry the GG (warrior) genotype compared to an athlete group and a non-athlete group. Based on findings in our previous studies, we also assessed the stress biomarkers cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA). There was an overall significant difference in genotype frequencies between groups (p =0.01) and the MMA group showed a significantly greater GG (warrior) genotype frequency than the non-athlete control group (p = 0.003). There was not a significant group x genotype interaction for the cortisol or sAA; however, the non-athlete GG group had significantly higher cortisol than the A/- group (p = 0.038). Combined, our findings suggest that the "warrior" genotype may play a participation role in combat sports.


Assuntos
Catecol O-Metiltransferase/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Adulto , Agressão/fisiologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Metionina , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Valina , Adulto Jovem
20.
Behav Processes ; 173: 104079, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007560

RESUMO

Personality and physiological traits often have close relationships with dominance status, but the significance and/or direction of the relationships vary between studies. This study examines whether two personality traits (aggressiveness and boldness) and three physiological traits (testosterone and cortisol levels and oxygen consumption rates) are associated with contest decisions/performance using a mangrove killifish Kryptolebias marmoratus. The results show that individuals that attacked their own mirror images (an aggressiveness index) at higher rates or had higher levels of testosterone were more likely to attack their opponent and win non-escalated contests, while individuals that had higher levels of cortisol were more likely to lose. After the contests, (1) individuals that had attacked their opponents or won had higher post-contest oxygen consumption rates, and (2) individuals that had attacked their opponents also had higher post-contest levels of cortisol. Although no significant correlations were detected among pre-contest physiological traits, post-contest levels of cortisol were positively correlated with oxygen consumption rates. Overall, personality and physiological traits provide useful predictors for the fish's contest decisions/performance. Contest interactions subsequently modified post-contest physiological traits and potentially also promoted associations between them. Nevertheless, the fish's physiological traits remained rather consistent over the entire study period.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Fundulidae/sangue , Fundulidae/fisiologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Animais , Masculino
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