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1.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 21, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910832

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Professional caregivers working in child and youth welfare institutions are frequently faced with the complex mental health issues, emotional needs and challenging coping strategies of clients with cumulated traumatic experiences, leaving them prone to developing high levels of stress, burn-out and compassion fatigue. Trauma-informed care (TIC) is a milieu-therapeutic approach that aims to promote the self-efficacy and self-care of youth welfare staff by guiding them to a better understanding of their own and their clients' stress symptoms and countertransference. Despite increasing efforts to implement TIC practices, and more widespread recognition of their value in youth welfare systems, there is a lack of studies evaluating the effectiveness of this approach. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of TIC practices in youth welfare institutions on both the physiological stress of staff members and clients' physical aggression towards their caregivers. . METHODS: Data was obtained from a longitudinal study investigating the effectiveness of TIC in 14 residential youth welfare institutions. Our sample consisted of 47 youth welfare employees (66.0% female) aged from 23 to 60 years (M = 37.4, SD = 10.4 years). Hair cortisol concentration (HCC) and occurrences of client physical aggression were assessed at four annual measurement time points (T1 to T4). RESULTS: Participants in five institutions employing TIC practices (intervention group) showed significantly lower HCC at T4 than staff members from institutions who did not receive training in TIC (control group), indicating reduced physiological stress levels. At T4, the intervention group reported significantly less physical aggression than the control group. CONCLUSIONS: TIC might be a promising approach for reducing the emotional burden of employees and institutions should invest in training their staff in TIC practices. More research is necessary, to investigate the benefits and efficacy of TIC, both to youths and staff members, and to foster a better understanding of which specific factors may contribute to stress reduction.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Agressão/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Cabelo/química , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Hidrocortisona/análise , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
2.
J Psychol ; 154(2): 159-175, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738658

RESUMO

Drawing on the information processing model for the development of aggression, children's acquisition of aggressive responses could be associated with parenting that communicated norms favoring aggression. Extending this view, the present study examined the mediating role of children's normative beliefs about relational aggression (NBRA) on the association between psychologically controlling parenting and children's relational aggression (RA), and further explored whether this possible indirect effect would be contingent on the child's gender. 341 upper elementary school students (174 boys and 166 girls) reported perceived paternal psychological control (PPC) and maternal psychological control (MPC) during their fifth-grade fall semester, rated their NBRA during their sixth-grade fall semester, and assessed RA through a peer-nomination procedure during their sixth-grade spring semester. Results demonstrated that the indirect effects of perceived PPC and MPC on children's RA via their NBRA were both significant among the entire sample. However, by means of conditional process analysis, we found that whereas perceived PPC positively predicted boys' and girls' NBRA, perceived MPC positively predicted boys' but not girls' NBRA. In addition, children's NBRA was only positively predictive of RA for girls. As such, the indirect effect was exclusively significant for perceived PPC among girls.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Pai/psicologia , Mães/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Atitude , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes
3.
J Psychol ; 154(1): 1-14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343957

RESUMO

Leader emergence was regressed on five factor model (FFM; NEO Five-Factor Inventory) traits and four additional traits (achievement, dominance, aggression, and Machiavellianism) in a sample of 280 undergraduates (229 women (82%), 51 men; M age = 19.7 (SD = 1.4). The Jackson Personality Research Form (Jackson, Personality research form manual (3rd ed.). Port Huron, MI: Sigma Assessment Systems, Inc.) measured achievement, dominance, and aggression. Christie and Geis' (Studies in machiavellianism. San Diego: Academic Press) Mach IV scale measured Machiavellianism. In an independent groups analysis, six of the nine traits showed significant differences, indicating that leaders are less neurotic and Machiavellian, and more extroverted, open, agreeable, and dominant. However, in a logistic regression analysis, which controlled for shared variance among traits, only extraversion, openness, and dominance predicted leader emergence. Previous studies that did not use regression models showed significant differences for a large number of traits. Results from the present study indicate the importance of accounting for shared variance when analyzing personality traits in order to develop parsimonious models.


Assuntos
Liderança , Personalidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Logro , Agressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Maquiavelismo , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Dev Neurorehabil ; 23(1): 9-17, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055992

RESUMO

Aim: Aggressive incidents (AI) are a serious concern in health care and can have negative effects on the physical and emotional well-being staff. This study aimed to determine frequency, characteristics and risk factors for aggressive behavior.Methods: AI were recorded during six months by the staff in a pediatric rehabilitation clinic using the evaluation form for AI (EVA). Patients were divided into the study group (patients who were involved in AI) and controls.Results: 14/105 (13%) of patients were involved in 79 AI. 0.44 AI per day occurred. Most often AI occurred on Mondays and 98% included physical, 22% verbal aggression. Most frequent target (43%) were nurses, followed by therapists (31.6%).Significant risk factors for AI were: previous aggressive behavior (p = .038), lower cognitive and higher mobility sub-scores in the WeeFIM. Conclusion: Findings emphasize the magnitude of AI in pediatric rehabilitation and thus the importance of implement preventive strategies.Abbreviations: ADL: Activity of daily living; AI: Aggressive Incidents; CFCS: Communication Function Classification System; EVA: Recording aggressive incidents (Erfassung von Aggressionsereignissen); GMFCS: Gross Motor Function Classification System; MACS: Manual Ability Classification System; SOAS-R: Staff Observation of Aggression Scale-Revised; WeeFIM: Functional Independence Measure for Children; WPV: Workplace violence.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Reabilitação Neurológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Reabilitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia
5.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e82, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31839013

RESUMO

AIMS: This review aims to understand the scope of the literature regarding mental health-related microaggressions towards people affected by mental health problems. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to explore this question. Four electronic health-oriented databases were searched alongside Google Scholar. As per scoping review principles, the inclusion criteria were developed iteratively. The results of included studies were synthesised using a basic narrative synthesis approach, utilising principles of thematic analysis and thematic synthesis where appropriate. RESULTS: A total of 1196 records were identified, of which 17 met inclusion criteria. Of these, 12 were peer-reviewed journal articles, three were research degree theses and two were book chapters. Six included empirical studies were qualitative, four were quantitative and two employed a mixed-methods design. Within these, five qualitative studies aimed to describe the nature of mental health microaggressions experienced by people with mental health problems. Themes identified in a thematic synthesis of these five studies included stereotypes about mental illness, invalidating peoples' experience and blaming people with mental illness for their condition. The included publications informed on the perpetration of mental health microaggressions by family, friends, health professionals and social workers. In addition, two studies created scales, which were then used in cross-sectional surveys of the general public and community members to assess characteristics, such as right-wing political views, associated with endorsement of mental health microaggressions. A consensus definition of microaggressions emerged from the included studies: microaggressions are brief, everyday slights, snubs or insults, that may be subtle or ambiguous, but communicate a negative message to a target person based on their membership of a marginalised group, in this case, people affected by mental illness. CONCLUSIONS: The study of mental health microaggressions is an emerging, heterogeneous field, embedded in the wider stigma and discrimination literature. It has been influenced by earlier work on racial microaggressions. Both can be ambiguous and contradictory, which creates difficulty defining the boundaries of the concept, but also underpins the key theoretical basis for the negative impact of microaggressions. Mental illness is a more concealable potential type of identity, so it follows that the reported perpetrators of microaggressions are largely friends, family and professionals. This has implications for intervening to reduce the impact of microaggressions. There are several challenges facing research in this area, and further work is needed to understand the impact of mental health microaggressions on people affected by mental health problems.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Pessoas Mentalmente Doentes/psicologia , Preconceito/psicologia , Discriminação Social , Estigma Social , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Estereotipagem
6.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0224150, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851686

RESUMO

Rules regulate behavior, but in competitive contexts they also create incentives for rule-breaking because enforcement is imperfect. Sports is a prime example of this, and one that lends itself well to investigation because strategic rule-breaking is often measurable. Professional soccer is a highly competitive team sport with economic rewards for winning given to teams and players. It has a set of rules to ensure fair play, but the enforcement is incomplete, and hence can lead to strategic behavior. Using newly available data, we examine strategic time-wasting, a behavior that help teams win games, or tie games against superior opponents, but is contrary to the objective of game play as entertainment for the spectators. We demonstrate that strategic time-wasting is widespread and is done through delayed restart of the game after goalie capture of the ball, goal kick, throw-in, free kick, corner kick, and substitution. The strategic time-wasting has substantial magnitude, and models of the value per minute predict time-wasting well. Because this time-wasting is a result of incentives created by not stopping the game clock, we predict that a change to rules with stopped game clock when the play is stopped would make game play more time efficient.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Futebol/psicologia , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 51-59, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183599

RESUMO

In order to examine the literature on the relationship between child-to-parent violence and parent-to-child violence, a meta-analytic review was designed with 26 effect sizes assessing the relationship between child-to-parent and parent-to-child violence in 19 primary studies. Correlational effect sizes were computed and corrected for sampling error, and predictor and criterion unreliability. The results showed a significantly positive, medium magnitude (ρ = .36) mean true effect size for the relationship between child-to-parent violence and parent-to-child violence. Similar results were found for direct and vicarious victimization. The probability of developing child-to-parent violence for children victimized by parents increased 71% as compared to non-victimized children. The child-to parent violence type (physical or psychological), and the population (judicial or community) were analysed as moderators. The results revealed similar effects in both types of child-to-parent violence and in both populations: a significantly positive, medium in magnitude mean true effect size. The theoretical and practical implications for measuring child-to parent violence are discussed


Con el propósito de examinar la literatura sobre la relación entre la violencia de hijos a padres y la violencia de padres a hijos, se diseñó una revisión metaanalítica con 26 tamaños del efecto que evalúan la relación de la violencia entre hijos y padres y padres e hijos en 19 estudios principales. Se calcularon y corrigieron los tamaños del efecto correlacional para el error de muestreo y la predicción y la fiabilidad del criterio. Los resultados mostraron una magnitud media significativamente positiva (ρ = .36), que significa el tamaño verdadero del efecto para la relación entre la violencia de hijos a padres y la violencia de padres a hijos. Se encontraron resultados similares para la victimización directa e indirecta. La probabilidad de desarrollar violencia de hijos a padres para los niños victimizados por los padres aumentó 71% en comparación con los niños no victimizados. El tipo de violencia del niño hacia el padre (física o psicológica) y la población (judicial o comunitaria) se analizaron como moderadores. Los resultados revelaron efectos similares en ambos tipos de violencia entre padres e hijos en ambas poblaciones: un nivel de efecto medio significativamente positivo, de magnitud media. Se discuten las implicaciones teóricas y prácticas para medir la violencia de los hijos hacia sus padres


Assuntos
Humanos , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia
8.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 61-69, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-183600

RESUMO

Psychological intimate partner violence (IPV) is the most prevalent form of IPV and is often thought to precede physical IPV. However, psychological IPV often occurs independently of other forms of IPV, and it can often emerge during routine relationship interactions. Using data from imprisoned male offenders we investigate the effect of hostile and benevolent sexist attitudes on psychological IPV and the hypothesized mediating role of positive attitudes toward IPV and this effect when accounting for broader risk factors at the levels of community (social disorder), family-of-origin (conflictive climate in family of origin), and personality (antisocial personality traits) variables. The sample involved 196 male inmates of the Penitentiary Center of Villabona (Asturias, Spain). Structural equation models result showed significant total, direct and indirect effect of hostile sexism on psychological IPV, but not of benevolent sexism. When individual, family-of-origin, and community variables were considered, however, hostile sexism showed only an indirect effect on psychological IPV via positive attitudes toward abuse. These results are discussed in light of the debate of the role of sexist attitudes in the psychological IPV explanation when broader models are considered


La violencia de pareja (VP) psicológica es la forma más prevalente de VP y habitualmente suele preceder a la VP física. Sin embargo, la VP psicológica ocurre a menudo independientemente de otras formas de VP y puede darse en interacciones rutinarias con la pareja. Utilizando datos de hombres recluidos en prisión, hemos investigado el efecto del sexismo hostil y benevolente sobre la VP psicológica, así como el rol mediador de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso de la pareja. Hemos investigado también ese efecto cuando están presentes otros factores de riesgo de VP psicológica señalados en la literatura reciente están presentes: comunidad (desorden social), familia de origen (clima conflictivo en la familia de origen) y factores individuales (rasgos de personalidad antisocial). Participaron en el estudio 196 hombres internos en el Centro Penitenciario de Villabona (Asturias, España). Los resultados de los modelos de ecuaciones estructurales estimados indican un efecto total, directo e indirecto significativo del sexismo hostil sobre la VP psicológica, pero no del sexismo benevolente. Cuando las variables de la comunidad, la familia de origen y factores individuales se incorporaron al modelo únicamente el efecto indirecto del sexismo hostil a través de las actitudes positivas hacia el abuso siguió siendo significativo. Los resultados se discuten en relación con el debate sobre el rol de las actitudes sexistas sobre la VP psicológica en el marco de modelos más generales de violencia


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Repressão Psicológica , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Esgotamento Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Violência contra a Mulher , Conflito (Psicologia) , Homicídio/psicologia
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31635096

RESUMO

The objective of the present study is to analyse the relationships between parental socialization styles-indulgent, authoritarian, authoritative and negligent, school adjustment (social integration, academic competence and family involvement) and cyber-aggression (direct and indirect) in adolescents. Participating in this study were 1304 Spanish students of both sexes (53.1% girls), aged between 12 and 18 years (M = 13.87, SD = 1.33). Multivariate analyses of variance were performed. The results showed significant relationships between parental socialization styles, school adjustment and cyber-aggression. It was observed that adolescents from indulgent and authoritative families showed greater academic competence and greater family involvement. Additionally, the children from authoritarian families displayed greater involvement in direct and indirect cyber-aggression behaviours. The results obtained and their implications are discussed in the final section.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Socialização , Adolescente , Autoritarismo , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Espanha , Estudantes
10.
East Asian Arch Psychiatry ; 29(3): 87-90, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of violence and factors associated with aggressive or violent behaviour in Thai patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in all patients with schizophrenia aged ≥18 years admitted to Suan Prung Psychiatric Hospital, Thailand, between January and November 2014. Baseline interviews were conducted by a psychiatrist and psychiatric nurses. Accessibility to weapons and toxic chemicals was evaluated. RESULTS: Of 230 patients with schizophrenia screened, 207 (162 men and 45 women) were included. Of them, only 16 (7.7%) patients had aggressive or violent behaviour, including verbal aggression (n = 7), physical aggression (n = 5), and aggression against property (n = 4). Nonetheless, only 2 (12.5%) of them had been charged by the police. The weapon score was higher in violent than non-violent patients (p < 0.05). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the weapon score was the only significant predictor of violence. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with schizophrenia with greater access to weapons were more likely to have aggressive or violent behaviour. Routine screening for access to weapons in clinical settings and adequate treatment of psychotic symptoms may reduce the incidence of aggressive or violent behaviour and violent offences.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Violência/psicologia , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitalização , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Tailândia/epidemiologia , Armas/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Tijdschr Psychiatr ; 61(8): 572-581, 2019.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512741

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals with eating disorders tend to internalise their anger and aggression excessively. However, an evidence-based intervention, targeted on this persistent issue, was missing until now. Therefore, a body and movement oriented intervention was developed, which supports patients to reframe and redirect anger and aggression against the destructive influence of the eating disorder.
AIM: To study the effectiveness of the aggression regulation intervention.
METHOD: The intervention was tested in a first randomised controlled trial (RCT) in an outpatient setting and in a two-center RCT in a multidisciplinary day hospital setting. Coping with anger was measured by the Self-Expression and Control Scale (SECS). Eating disorder pathology was measured by the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q).
RESULTS: Both RCTs delivered first evidence for the brief body and movement oriented intervention to reduce excessive anger internalisation in individuals with eating disorders. Moreover, in the outpatient trial the eating disorder pathology was significantly more reduced in the intervention group compared to the control group.
CONCLUSION: There is first evidence for the effectiveness of a body and movement oriented approach of reducing excessive anger internalisation in individuals with eating disorders.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Ira , Humanos , Psicoterapia Breve , Autocontrole
13.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(11): 2241-2254, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520236

RESUMO

The relationship between schizophrenia and violence has been well-established. Yet very little prior research exists on the factors that might explain the nature of this relationship and even fewer studies seek to clarify the etiology of aggressive behavior in adolescents with specific features of schizotypal personality that might help improve the specificity of intervention. The current study tested whether one dimension of schizotypy alone (i.e., the 'suspicious' feature) or the other 8 dimensions (i.e., the 'non-suspicious' features) were particularly associated with aggressive behaviors (reactive and proactive aggression), and if peer problems and low self-esteem mediated these relationships. A serial multiple mediation model testing the hypothesized flow from suspicious and non-suspicious schizotypy to peer problems to low self-esteem and to increased aggression was tested in Hong Kong schoolchildren aged 8- to 14-years (N = 1412; Mage = 11.47, SD = 1.67 years, female = 47.6%). Increased suspicious and non-suspicious schizotypal features were found to be independently associated with increased reactive aggression, but not proactive aggression. Children with high levels of suspicious schizotypy and non-suspicious schizotypy were more likely to have poor peer problems and low self-esteem concurrently, which in turn was associated with reactive aggression only. This explanatory model suggests that future longitudinal intervention studies that enhance self-esteem in schizotypal adolescents may potentially reduce co-morbid reactive aggressive behaviors too.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Infuência dos Pares , Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Personalidade , Autorrelato
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480523

RESUMO

The present study examined the effect of aggression on peer acceptance among adolescents. We focused on the moderating effects of gender and participation in physical education activities and examined whether these effects varied during school transition. We used longitudinal data of adolescents aged 10 to 17 years that were obtained from a survey that was conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute. In only early adolescence, the interaction effect of gender and physical education activity influenced the relationship between aggression and peer acceptance. Specifically, the negative relationship between aggression and peer acceptance was strengthened among female students who participated in physical education activities as compared to female students who did not. This effect was not observed in male students. However, during transition from primary to secondary school, the negative effect of physical education activities did not exist. For middle-adolescents, for whom physical education activities increased more than previous years, the negative relationship between aggression and peer acceptance worsened. These influences were the same, regardless of gender. Thus, this study suggests that physical education activities improve the negative relationship between aggression and peer acceptance during school transition.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Educação Física e Treinamento , Distância Social , Adolescente , Criança , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Sexuais , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 2005-2022, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482513

RESUMO

How the interplay between peer relationships and behaviors unfolds and how this differs between classrooms is an understudied topic. This study examined whether adolescents befriend or dislike peers whom they consider as aggressor or victim and whether these results differ in classrooms that received an intervention to promote prosocial behavior compared to classrooms without the intervention. The sample was composed of 659 seventh graders (Mage = 12.32; 48% girls) from nine intervention and seven control classrooms in eight schools in Santiago, Chile. It was hypothesized that adolescents in intervention classrooms would be less befriended and more disliked by classmates who considered them as aggressors, and more befriended and less disliked by classmates who considered them as victims, compared to control classrooms. Longitudinal multiplex social network analyses (RSiena) indicate that antipathies toward peers considered as aggressive and victimized were significantly lower in intervention classrooms than in control classrooms, but no significant differences were found for friendships. These findings suggest that the impact of an educational intervention may go beyond changing individual behavior and extend to the way peer relations develop in classrooms.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying/prevenção & controle , Chile , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Grupo Associado
16.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1046, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While power imbalance is now recognized as a key component of bullying, reliable and valid measurement instruments have yet to be developed. This research aimed to develop a self-report instrument that measures power imbalance as perceived by the victim of frequent aggressive behavior. METHODS: A mixed methods approach was used (468 participants, Grade 4 to 6). This paper describes the exploratory (n = 111) and confirmatory factor analysis of the new instrument (n = 337), and assessment of reliablity and construct validity. RESULTS: A 2-factor model represented physical and social aspects of power imbalance (n = 127: normed chi-square = 1.2, RMSEA = .04, CF1 = .993). The social factor included constructs of group and peer valued characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: This research will enhance health and education professionals understanding of power imbalance in bullying and will inform the design and evaluation of interventions to address bullying in children.


Assuntos
Bullying/psicologia , Autorrelato , Agressão/psicologia , Criança , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
Scand J Psychol ; 60(5): 421-429, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378010

RESUMO

Prior studies have shown that facial emotion displays communicate emotional states and interpersonal intentions. This study addressed gender differences in aggression based on the facial emotional cues expressed from a fictional opponent. A modified version of the competitive reaction time task (CRTT) was used to measure aggression. Participants (N = 251), between 18 and 35 years of age, were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions of the fictional opponents' facial emotional cue displayed during the CRTT: anger, sadness, neutral, or the absence of facial expression. After each trial, participants were asked to report their own feelings and to choose a level of noise to administer to their opponent. Finally, motives for aggression were assessed. Results showed that women were less aggressive than men when receiving emotional cues of sadness and anger from the sender. In contrast, no gender differences occurred when a neutral expression was displayed or in the absence of any expression. In addition, men displayed similar levels of aggression across the four conditions, whereas women were more aggressive in both neutral and no feedback conditions than in the sad and anger conditions. Instrumental motives contributed to explaining the overall gender differences in aggression. These results suggest important moderator and mediator factors of gender differences in aggressive behavior.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Emoções , Expressão Facial , Adolescente , Adulto , Ira , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Tristeza , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(12): 2377-2390, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414374

RESUMO

It is widely accepted that adolescents exposed to violence are more likely to become perpetrators of dating aggression. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of exposure to violence on later perpetration of dating aggression vary based on the nature of the violence exposure (e.g., witnessing versus being a victim) and the contexts of exposure to violence. Thus, the relationships between two types of exposure to violence (witnessing and victimization) in early adolescence and perpetrating dating aggression in late adolescence were compared within and across three social contexts: the home, the community, and the school. Participants included 484 youth (51% females; 81% African-Americans, 18% European-Americans, 1% Hispanic or Other). Information on exposure to violence were collected at Waves 1 and 2 during early adolescence (Wave 1: M = 11.8 years old; Wave 2: M = 13.2 years old) and dating aggression data were collected during late adolescence (Wave 3: M = 18.0 years old). The results showed that across all contexts witnessing violence was a more consistent predictor of later dating aggression relative to victimization. Being exposed to violence in the home either via observation or victimization was a stronger predictor of physical dating aggression and threatening behaviors compared to being exposed to violence in the school. These findings provide a deeper understanding of the roles of various forms of exposure to violence during early adolescence in perpetrating dating aggression later in the life course.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Exposição à Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Fatores de Risco , Meio Social
19.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 2065-2078, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440880

RESUMO

Growing evidence reveals heterogeneity in antisocial behavior and urges the need to distinguish between aggressive and nonaggressive rule-breaking behaviors. This study characterized how aggression and rule-breaking behaviors shaped peer selection and influence. Using a longitudinal social network modeling approach, these questions were addressed in a sample of 1034 ethno-racially diverse early adolescents (49.52% females, Mage = 12.1), who were assessed in fall and spring of the same year. The results showed no evidence of peer selection on aggressive and rule-breaking behaviors, and significant peer influence on aggressive behavior only. Rule-breaking also forecasted a decreased susceptibility to peer influence on aggressive behavior. The findings expanded our knowledge about complex pathways through which heterogeneity in antisocial behavior is reciprocally related to friendship networks.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Amigos/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Infuência dos Pares , Adolescente , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(11): 2222-2240, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407188

RESUMO

Despite prior studies supporting the existence of "aggressive-victims", it remains unclear if they possess unique risk factors from adolescents who are mostly aggressive or victimized. The present study sought to determine whether aggressive-victims differ from adolescents with distinct patterns of involvement in aggression and victimization in their social and emotional adjustment. Secondary analyses were conducted on baseline data from 984 seventh grade students (54% female) from three schools. Most participants identified their race as White (49%) or African American (19%), with 24% identifying as Latino/a. Latent class analysis identified four subgroups: predominant-aggressors (25%), predominant-victims (17%), aggressive-victims (12%), and limited-involvement (47%). The findings did not provide evidence of unique social-emotional characteristics of aggressive-victims that were not accounted for by their involvement in both aggression and victimization. Further evidence of unique differences in risk factors is needed to support targeted interventions for aggressive-victims.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Bullying/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo Associado , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ajustamento Social , Estudantes/psicologia
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