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1.
Lancet Glob Health ; 9(4): e456-e468, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631132

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Violence is a leading global public health problem, and interventions in early childhood are important in the primary prevention of violence. We tested whether the Irie Classroom Toolbox, a violence-prevention teacher-training programme reduced violence against children by teachers and reduced class-wide child aggression in Jamaican preschools (catering to children aged 3-6 years). METHODS: We did a single-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial in 76 preschools in Kingston and St Andrew, randomly selected, using simple randomisation, from 120 eligible preschools. Inclusion criteria were two to four classes of children; at least ten children per class; and located in an urban area. We randomly assigned preschools (1:1) to either the Irie Classroom Toolbox intervention or waiting-list control that received no intervention, using a computer-generated randomisation sequence by an independent statistician masked to school identity. The Toolbox involved training teachers in classroom behaviour management and promoting child social-emotional competence. All assessors were masked to group assignment. All teachers and classrooms in the selected schools participated in the study. Within each school, we used simple randomisation to randomly select up to 12 children aged 4 years for evaluation of child outcomes. The Toolbox intervention was implemented from August to April the following year. Teacher and classroom measures were done at baseline (the summer school term; ie, May to June), post-intervention (after 8 months of intervention; ie, May to June of the following year), and 1-year follow-up (ie, May to June 2 years later). The primary outcomes were observations of violence against children (including physical violence and psychological aggression) by teachers occurring across one full school day, and class-wide child aggression occurring over five 20-min intervals on another school day, all measured at post-intervention and 1-year follow-up and analysed by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, number ISRCTN11968472. FINDINGS: Between June 22, 2015, and April 29, 2016, (after baseline measurements were completed), we assigned 38 preschools (with 119 teachers) to the Toolbox intervention and 38 preschools (with 110 teachers) to control. 441 children in the intervention schools and 424 in the control schools were included in the evaluation. All schools were included in the post-intervention and follow-up analyses. There were fewer counts of violence against children by teachers in the intervention schools compared with control schools at post-intervention (median counts 3 [IQR 0-11] vs 15 [3-35]; effect size -67·12%, 95% CI -80·71 to -53·52, p<0·0001) and 1-year follow-up (median counts 3 [IQR 0-9] vs 6 [1-16]; effect size -53·86, 95% CI -71·08 to -36·65, p<0·0001). No differences between groups were found for class-wide child aggression at post-intervention (effect size 0·07, 95% CI -0·16 to 0·29, p=0·72) or 1-year follow-up (-0·14, -0·42 to 0·16, p=0·72). INTERPRETATION: In Jamaican preschools, the Irie Classroom Toolbox effectively reduced violence against children by teachers. The Toolbox was designed for use with undertrained teachers working in low-resource settings and should be effective with early childhood practitioners in other LMICs. Additional research is needed to further develop the Toolbox to reduce class-wide child aggression. FUNDING: Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, UK Aid, and the National Institute of Health Research.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Psicologia da Criança , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Capacitação de Professores/métodos , Violência/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Jamaica , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Método Simples-Cego , Capacitação de Professores/organização & administração
2.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 33(1): 1-15, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617319

RESUMO

HIV discrimination has served as a barrier to addressing the HIV epidemic and providing effective HIV treatment and care. Measuring HIV discrimination, particularly covert HIV discrimination, has proven to be complex. Adapted from a previous scale, we developed a perpetuated HIV micro-aggressions scale to assess covert forms of discriminatory beliefs among HIV-negative/unknown HIV status individuals. Factor analysis resulted in three subscales, explaining 73.58% of the scale's variance. The new scale demonstrated both convergent validity (HIV prejudice, HIV stereotypes) and discriminant validity (alcohol use, depressive symptomology). Perpetuated HIV microaggressions were significantly associated with HIV conspiracy beliefs, HIV prejudice, and HIV stereotypes. This new scale can serve as an important tool in evaluating perpetuated HIV microaggressions among HIV-negative individuals.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Discriminação Psicológica , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Preconceito , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Apoio Social , Estereotipagem
3.
A A Pract ; 15(2): e01398, 2021 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625120

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic prompted the creation of novel techniques to protect patients and health care providers. Simulations showed that disposable oxygen face tents act as a physical barrier and can be repurposed as a negative airflow tent. This case study presents a pediatric patient requiring dental surgery, ineligible for preoperative testing for COVID-19 due to developmental delay and aggression. Precautionary measures were taken by means of full personal protective equipment (PPE) and negative airflow tent. The tent added additional protection and is a promising new technique that is disposable, widely available, and offers full access to proceduralists.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Extração Dentária , Agressão/psicologia , Movimentos do Ar , Anestesia Geral , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia
4.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435391

RESUMO

Background and objectives: Bipolar disorder (BD) is one of the most burdensome psychiatric illnesses, being associated with a negative long-term outcome and the highest suicide rate. Although affective temperaments can impact on BD long-term outcome, their role remains poorly investigated. The aims of the present study are to describe the clinical characteristics of patients with BD more frequently associated with the different affective temperaments and to assess the relation between affective temperaments and severity of clinical picture in a sample of patients with BD. Materials and Methods: A total of 199 patients have been recruited in the outpatients units of two university sites. Patients' psychiatric symptoms, affective temperaments, and quality of life were investigated through validated assessment instruments. Results: Predominant cyclothymic and irritable temperaments are associated to higher number of relapses, poorer quality of life, higher rates of aggressive behaviors, and suicide attempts. Conversely, the predominant hyperthymic disposition was a protective factor for several outcome measures, including relapse rate, severity of anxiety, depressive and manic symptoms, suicidality, and earlier age at onset. One limitation of the present study is that the recruitment took place in two university sites; therefore, our findings cannot be fully generalized to the whole community of BD patients. Other limitations are the lack of a control group and the cross-sectional design of the study. Conclusions: The early identification of affective temperaments can help clinicians to identify those BD patients who are more likely to show a poor long-term outcome. An early screening of affective temperaments can be useful to develop targeted integrated pharmacological and psychosocial interventions.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtorno Ciclotímico/psicologia , Humor Irritável , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Temperamento , Adulto , Afeto , Idade de Início , Agressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
5.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113692, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421841

RESUMO

The current study examined the impact of the lockdown due to the Covid-19 disease on mood state and behaviours of children and adolescents with ADHD. Nine hundred ninety-two parents of children and adolescents with ADHD filled out an anonymous online survey through the ADHD family association website. The survey investigated the degree of severity of six emotional and mood states (sadness, boredom, little enjoyment/interest, irritability, temper tantrums, anxiety) and five disrupted behaviours (verbal and physical aggression, argument, opposition, restlessness) based on their frequency/week (absent; low: 1-2 days/week; moderate: 3-4 days/week; severe: 5-7 days/week) before and during the lockdown. Important fluctuations were found in all dimensions during the lockdown independently by the severity degree. Subjects with previous low severity degree of these behaviors significantly worsened in almost all dimensions during the lockdown. On the contrary, ADHD patients with moderate and severe degree showed important improvement during the lockdown. Little enjoyment/interests and boredom resulted the dimensions more strongly affected by the condition of restriction, overall in children. Children vs. adolescents showed substantially similar trend but the former resulted significantly more vulnerable to emotive changes. The results provided both the individuation of domains affected, and the indirect benefits produced by restriction condition.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Tédio , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Humor Irritável , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 415-420, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1151286

RESUMO

Objetivo: identificar os comportamentos agressivos e as reações à agressão entre escolares e verificar se há associação com as variáveis idade, sexo, escolaridade, situação conjugal dos pais e ao tipo de instituição escolar. Método: estudo descritivo, transversal e quantitativo. População composta por 492 crianças, a qual gerou uma amostra de 26 crianças da escola privada e 86 da escola pública, que responderam ao Questionário de Comportamentos Agressivos e Reativos entre Pares. Os dados passaram pela análise descritiva e o teste exato de Fisher. Resultados: a maioria das crianças apresentou agressividade e reações agressivas abaixo da média. E no que se refere as reações a agressividade as mais frequentes foram as respostas internalizadas. Conclusão: os dados obtidos podem nortear intervenções de combate e prevenção da agressividade escolar. Porém, ficou evidente que será necessário desenvolver estudos com designs metodológicos mais robustos


Objective: to identify aggressive behaviors and reactions to aggression among schoolchildren and to verify if there is an association with the variables age, sex, schooling, parents' marital status and type of school institution. Method: descriptive, cross - sectional and quantitative study. A population composed of 492 children, which generated a sample of 26 children from the private school and 86 from the public school, who answered the Questionnaire on Aggressive and Reactive Behaviors among Peers. Data were subjected to descriptive analysis and Fisher's exact test. Results: most children presented aggression and aggressive reactions below average. And the most frequent reactions to aggression were the internalized responses. Conclusion: the data obtained can guide interventions to combat and prevent school aggression. However, it has become evident that it will be necessary to develop studies with more robust methodological designs


Objetivo: identificar los comportamientos agresivos y las reacciones a la agresión entre escolares y verificar si hay asociación con las variables edad, sexo, escolaridad, situación conyugal de los padres y al tipo de institución escolar. Método: estudio descriptivo, transversal y cuantitativo. Población compuesta por 492 niños, la cual generó una muestra de 26 niños de la escuela privada y 86 de la escuela pública, que respondieron al Cuestionario de Comportamientos Agresivos y Reactivos entre Pares. Los datos pasaron por el análisis descriptivo y la prueba exacta de Fisher. Resultados: la mayoría de los niños presentó agresividad y reacciones agresivas por debajo de la media. Y en lo que se refiere a las reacciones a agresividad las más frecuentes fueron las respuestas internalizadas. Conclusión: los datos obtenidos pueden orientar intervenciones de combate y prevención de la agresividad escolar. Sin embargo, resulta evidente que será necesario desarrollar estudios con diseños metodológicos más robustos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Estudantes , Educação em Saúde , Agressão/psicologia , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Causalidade
7.
Rev. psiquiatr. salud ment. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 13(4): 202-212, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-198686

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: El propósito de este estudio fue identificar subgrupos de adolescentes con dificultades emocionales y conductuales mediante análisis de perfiles latentes. También se analizó el patrón diferencial de ajuste personal, socioafectivo y escolar entre los perfiles latentes identificados. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Mediante muestreo aleatorio estratificado por conglomerados se seleccionaron un total de 1.506 estudiantes, 667 varones (44,3%). La media de edad fue de 16,15 años (DT=1,36). Se utilizaron el Cuestionario de Capacidades y Dificultades, el Índice de Bienestar Personal-versión escolar, la Escala breve de Afecto Positivo y Negativo, el Cuestionario de Pródromos de Psicosis Breve, la Escala Paykel de Suicidio, la Test Matrices de Razonamiento, el Cuestionario de Ciberbullying Breve y un test ad hoc para la evaluación del rendimiento académico. RESULTADOS: El 7,7% de los adolescentes obtuvo puntuaciones de riesgo en dificultades de salud mental. Se identificaron 3 conglomerados de participantes denominados: bajo riesgo, externalizante e internalizante. Estos 3 perfiles demostraron un patrón diferencial en cuanto a ajuste socioemocional y rendimiento académico. CONCLUSIONES: Identificar y validar grupos de jóvenes de riesgo para problemas emocionales y comportamentales permite poner en marcha medidas de promoción del bienestar emocional y la prevención de problemas mentales. Futuros estudios deberían seguir analizando longitudinalmente a los jóvenes identificados con problemas emocionales y conductuales e incorporar nuevas formas de evaluación e intervención


INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to identify homogenous subgroups of adolescents with emotional and behavioural difficulties using latent profile analysis. The relationship between the latent profile classes and socio-emotional and school adjustment was also analysed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,506 students, 667 men (44.3%) were selected by random cluster sampling. The mean age was 16.15 years (SD=1.36). The instruments used were the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, the Personal Wellbeing Index-School Version, The 10-item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children, the Prodromal Questionnaire Brief, the Paykel Suicide Scale, the Cyberbullying-Brief Questionnaire, the Penn Matrix Reasoning Test, and the school performance assessment. RESULTS: A total of 7.7% of adolescents obtained risk scores for mental health difficulties. We identified 3 mental health subgroups named: Low risk, Externalizing, and Internalizing. These 3 latent classes demonstrated a differential pattern in terms of socio-emotional adjustment and academic performance. CONCLUSIONS: To identify and validate risk groups of youths for emotional and behavioural problems allows implementing measures to promote emotional well-being and prevent mental health problems. Future studies should continue to analyse young people with emotional and behavioural problems longitudinally and to incorporate new forms of assessment and intervention


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Emoções , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Acad Med ; 95(10): 1529-1538, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006870

RESUMO

Though overt sexism is decreasing, women now experience subtle, often unconscious, gender bias as microaggressions. The authors sought to explore the prevalence and impact of the sexist microaggressions female surgeons experience, using a sequential exploratory mixed methods approach (January 2018-April 2018), to identify opportunities for education and prevention. First, all resident, fellow, and attending female surgeons at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center (UNM HSC) were invited to participate in focus groups conducted by experienced moderators using a semistructured interview guide based on the 7 Sexist Microaggressions Experiences and Stress Scale (Sexist MESS) domains. Qualitative analysis was performed using line-by-line manual coding to identify themes aligned with the Sexist MESS domains as well as other gender bias experiences of female surgeons. Next, a survey was sent to all resident, fellow, and attending female surgeons at the UNM HSC, which included the Sexist MESS questionnaire and questions related to surgeon-specific experiences of gender bias that the authors developed based on major thematic categories from the focus groups.Four focus groups of 23 female surgeons were conducted, revealing 4 themes: exclusion, increased effort, adaptation, and resilience to workplace slights. The survey response rate was 64% (65/101 surgeons). Across Sexist MESS domains, the frequency and severity of microaggressions was higher for trainees than attendings. The variables of non-White race/ethnicity, having children under 18, and fellowship training generally did not demonstrate statistical significance. This exploratory study adds to the growing body of evidence that gender bias in surgery continues and frequently manifests as microaggressions. Trainees reported the highest rates and severity of microaggressions and bias experiences. Further research should investigate how to address microaggressions, the experiences of male surgeons, the perspectives of medical students and groups who were reported as often perpetuating gender bias, and the efficacy of possible interventions.


Assuntos
Médicas/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Cirurgiões/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , New Mexico , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD007668, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is associated with poor mental health, criminality, substance use and relationship difficulties. This review updates Gibbon 2010 (previous version of the review). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the potential benefits and adverse effects of psychological interventions for adults with AsPD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 13 other databases and two trials registers up to 5 September 2019. We also searched reference lists and contacted study authors to identify studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials of adults, where participants with an AsPD or dissocial personality disorder diagnosis comprised at least 75% of the sample randomly allocated to receive a psychological intervention, treatment-as-usual (TAU), waiting list or no treatment. The primary outcomes were aggression, reconviction, global state/functioning, social functioning and adverse events. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: This review includes 19 studies (eight new to this update), comparing a psychological intervention against TAU (also called 'standard Maintenance'(SM) in some studies). Eight of the 18 psychological interventions reported data on our primary outcomes. Four studies focussed exclusively on participants with AsPD, and 15 on subgroups of participants with AsPD. Data were available from only 10 studies involving 605 participants. Eight studies were conducted in the UK and North America, and one each in Iran, Denmark and the Netherlands. Study duration ranged from 4 to 156 weeks (median = 26 weeks). Most participants (75%) were male; the mean age was 35.5 years. Eleven studies (58%) were funded by research councils. Risk of bias was high for 13% of criteria, unclear for 54% and low for 33%. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) + TAU versus TAU One study (52 participants) found no evidence of a difference between CBT + TAU and TAU for physical aggression (odds ratio (OR) 0.92, 95% CI 0.28 to 3.07; low-certainty evidence) for outpatients at 12 months post-intervention. One study (39 participants) found no evidence of a difference between CBT + TAU and TAU for social functioning (mean difference (MD) -1.60 points, 95% CI -5.21 to 2.01; very low-certainty evidence), measured by the Social Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ; range = 0-24), for outpatients at 12 months post-intervention. Impulsive lifestyle counselling (ILC) + TAU versus TAU One study (118 participants) found no evidence of a difference between ILC + TAU and TAU for trait aggression (assessed with Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form) for outpatients at nine months (MD 0.07, CI -0.35 to 0.49; very low-certainty evidence). One study (142 participants) found no evidence of a difference between ILC + TAU and TAU alone for the adverse event of death (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.04 to 4.54; very low-certainty evidence) or incarceration (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.86; very low-certainty evidence) for outpatients between three and nine months follow-up. Contingency management (CM) + SM versus SM One study (83 participants) found evidence that, compared to SM alone, CM + SM may improve social functioning measured by family/social scores on the Addiction Severity Index (ASI; range = 0 (no problems) to 1 (severe problems); MD -0.08, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.02; low-certainty evidence) for outpatients at six months. 'Driving whilst intoxicated' programme (DWI) + incarceration versus incarceration One study (52 participants) found no evidence of a difference between DWI + incarceration and incarceration alone on reconviction rates (hazard ratio 0.56, CI -0.19 to 1.31; very low-certainty evidence) for prisoner participants at 24 months. Schema therapy (ST) versus TAU One study (30 participants in a secure psychiatric hospital, 87% had AsPD diagnosis) found no evidence of a difference between ST and TAU for the number of participants who were reconvicted (OR 2.81, 95% CI 0.11 to 74.56, P = 0.54) at three years. The same study found that ST may be more likely to improve social functioning (assessed by the mean number of days until patients gain unsupervised leave (MD -137.33, 95% CI -271.31 to -3.35) compared to TAU, and no evidence of a difference between the groups for overall adverse events, classified as the number of people experiencing a global negative outcome over a three-year period (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.08 to 2.19). The certainty of the evidence for all outcomes was very low. Social problem-solving (SPS) + psychoeducation (PE) versus TAU One study (17 participants) found no evidence of a difference between SPS + PE and TAU for participants' level of social functioning (MD -1.60 points, 95% CI -5.43 to 2.23; very low-certainty evidence) assessed with the SFQ at six months post-intervention. Dialectical behaviour therapy versus TAU One study (skewed data, 14 participants) provided very low-certainty, narrative evidence that DBT may reduce the number of self-harm days for outpatients at two months post-intervention compared to TAU. Psychosocial risk management (PSRM; 'Resettle') versus TAU One study (skewed data, 35 participants) found no evidence of a difference between PSRM and TAU for a number of officially recorded offences at one year after release from prison. It also found no evidence of difference between the PSRM and TAU for the adverse event of death during the study period (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.05 to 14.83, P = 0.94, 72 participants (90% had AsPD), 1 study, very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is very limited evidence available on psychological interventions for adults with AsPD. Few interventions addressed the primary outcomes of this review and, of the eight that did, only three (CM + SM, ST and DBT) showed evidence that the intervention may be more effective than the control condition. No intervention reported compelling evidence of change in antisocial behaviour. Overall, the certainty of the evidence was low or very low, meaning that we have little confidence in the effect estimates reported. The conclusions of this update have not changed from those of the original review, despite the addition of eight new studies. This highlights the ongoing need for further methodologically rigorous studies to yield further data to guide the development and application of psychological interventions for AsPD and may suggest that a new approach is required.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Dirigir sob a Influência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Reincidência/estatística & dados numéricos , Recompensa , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 220-231, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192058

RESUMO

La violencia filio-parental es un fenómeno de marcada prevalencia con consecuencias negativas a nivel individual, familiar y social. El objetivo de este estudio de alcance fue identificar los factores explicativos y la fundamentación teórica del fenómeno. Se revisaron estudios en inglés y español desde el año 2000, de las bases: Web of Science, Scopus, PsycIN-FO, ERIC y Dialnet Plus, identificando 57 estudios relevantes. Se encontraron como factores explicativos recurrentes: la monoparentalidad, la cohesión, el estrés y disciplina familiar, el historial de violencia, problemas escolares, trastornos clínicos y la relación con iguales violentos. Se destaca la concurrencia con la violencia escolar, entre hermanos y en las relaciones de noviazgo. Los fundamentos teóricos utilizados se pueden clasificar en psicológicos, comunicacionales, criminológicos, sociológicos y modelos integrativos más amplios (Ecosistémicos, Fenomenológicos y Constructivistas). La revisión realizada no arrojó datos sobre patrones de interacción, estrategias de afrontamiento y percepciones sociales alrededor de la VFP que puedan influir en las familias implicadas en estas situaciones


Child-to-parent violence is a phenomenon with a fairly high prevalence rate and negative consequences at an individual, family and so-cial level. The aim of this scoping review was to identify the theoretical frameworks and explanatory factors for this phenomenon. The review comprised studies written in English and Spanish since the year 2000, from the following databases: Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, ERIC and Dialnet Plus. A total of 57 relevant studies were identified. The recurrent explanatory factors were: single parenthood, cohesion, stress, family discipline, history of violence, problems at school, clinical disorders and violent peer relationships. The concurrence of school, sibling and dating violence was particularly noteworthy. The theoretical frameworks referred to can be grouped into psychological, communicational, criminological, sociological and broader integrative models (Ecosystemic, Phenomenological and Constructivist). No data was found on interaction patterns, coping strategies or social perceptions of CPV which may influence families immersed in these kinds of situations


Assuntos
Humanos , Relações Pai-Filho , Violência/psicologia , Modelos Psicológicos , Adaptação Psicológica , Fatores de Risco , Agressão/psicologia
13.
Rev. med. cine ; 16(3): 165-174, sept. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-197479

RESUMO

La trama del Joker nos muestra el surgimiento del antihéroe a partir de Arthur, un individuo con un trastorno llamado afectación pseudobulbar, con antecedentes de abandono y abuso físico severo y maltrato con probable traumatismo encefálico, que vive sin vínculos sociales, carente de afecto, como cuidador primario de una familiar dependiente enteramente de él; el protagonista se mueve en un ambiente adverso, hostil en el que la sociedad que espera que él se comporte como si no tuviera ningún trastorno. un comportamiento normal”. Sin recursos y rechazado por su medio, resulta colateralmente afectado por la reducción de presupuesto para terapia y medicamentos. En un momento decisivo, convergen los diferentes detonantes de sus manifestaciones psicopatológicas que dan paso a la transformación del joker y paradójicamente lo llevarán a ser aceptado socialmente. Joker nos invita a reflexionar sobre la importancia de a los programas de salud mental, los valores humanos, la cultura de la Paz y el buen trato como pilares fundamentales para promover la salud mental en la sociedad. El presente artículo tiene por objetivo el revisitar la fisiopatología de la afección pseudobulbar y establecer los aspectos clínicos, familiares, ambientales y socioculturales potencialmente asociados a la conducta destructiva de Joker


The plot of the Joker shows us the emergence of the antihero from Arthur, an individual with a pseudobulbar disorder, a history of abandonment and severe physical abuse and abuse with probable brain trauma, living without social ties, lacking affection, as a primary caregiver of a relative dependent entirely on him; the protagonist moves in an adverse, hostile environment in which the society that expects him to behave as if he had no disorder. normal behavior. «Without resources and rejected by its means, it is collaterally affected by the reduction of budget for therapy and medications. At a decisive moment, the different triggers of his psychopathological manifestations converge that give way to the transformation of the joker and paradoxically lead him to be socially accepted. Joker invites us to reflect on the importance of mental health programs, human values, the culture of Peace and good treatment as fundamental pillars to promote mental health in society. This article aims to revisit the pathophysiology of the pseudobulbar condition and establish the clinical, family, environmental and sociocultural aspects potentially associated with Joker’s destructive behavior


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina nas Artes , Filmes Cinematográficos , Transtornos do Humor/fisiopatologia , Sintomas Afetivos/fisiopatologia , Agressão/psicologia , Transtornos do Humor/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Saúde Mental , Síndrome , Psicopatologia , Riso/psicologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237812, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817716

RESUMO

Bhutan is one of the biological hotspots in the world where humans and natural flora and fauna co-exist in close proximity. Bhutan is home to two species of bears: Sloth Bear and Himalayan Black Bear. Human conflicts with bears are reported from all over the country. This study describes the profile of the victims and the pattern of injury resulting from bear attacks and circumstances around human conflicts with bears in Bhutan between 2015 and 2019. This was a cross-sectional study with a review of hospital records of patients treated at the National Referral Hospital from 01 January 2015 till 31 December 2019. Data were extracted into a structured pro forma and entered into EpiData Entry 3.1 and analysed in STATA 13.1. There were thirty-four patients who were provided care for bear maul injuries, with an average annual caseload of 6.8 cases per year. The injury prevalence was 100% and the kill prevalence was 0%. Bear attacks were reported from fourteen of twenty districts of the country. The mean age of the victims was 49 (±13) years. Males (26, 76%) and farmers (26, 76%) were the common victims; the risk of bear attacks was 0.16 per 100,000 farmers per year. The commonest region of the body attacked was the face (29, 85%) and victims were provided emergency and rehabilitative care within and outside the country. Thirty-three victims (97%) were provided post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies. All victims received antibiotics despite the lack of national guidelines on the choice of antibiotics post-bear maul. Human-bear conflict is multi-faceted, puts a considerable strain on bear-conservation efforts and requires multi-disciplinary efforts in the prevention of human injury and socioeconomic losses.


Assuntos
Agressão/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/epidemiologia , Ursidae/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/psicologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Butão/epidemiologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/fisiopatologia , Mordeduras e Picadas/cirurgia , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Orelha/lesões , Orelha/fisiopatologia , Orelha/cirurgia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fazendeiros , Feminino , Florestas , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/fisiopatologia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Raiva/epidemiologia , Raiva/patologia , Raiva/virologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Cirurgia Plástica/métodos , Ursidae/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 228-239, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between facial affect recognition and criminal justice involvement has been extensively researched, yet there are virtually no data on the capacity for facial affect recognition in post-incar+cerated individuals, and the results of many studies are limited due to a narrow focus on psychopathy rather than offence category. AIMS: To test the first hypothesis that individuals reporting a history of a violent offence would show a deficit in facial affect recognition and the second hypothesis that the violent offender's deficit would be exclusive to recognition of negative expressions, not affecting positive or neutral expressions. METHOD: Post-incarcerated individuals (N = 298) were recruited online through Qualtrics and completed questionnaires assessing their criminal justice background and demographics. They completed measures of facial affect recognition, anxiety and depression, and components of aggression. RESULTS: A logistic regression, including sex, ethnicity, age and years of education and depression/anxiety scores, indicated that committing a violent offence was independently associated with lower facial affect recognition scores as well as male gender and a trait-based propensity towards physical aggression, but no other co-variable. These data provided no evidence that this deficit was specific to negative emotions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH/PRACTICE: Our study is one of the first to examine facial affect recognition in a post-incarcerated sample. It suggests that deficits in facial affect recognition, already well documented among violent prisoners, persist. While acknowledging that these may be relatively fixed characteristics, this study also suggests that, for these people, nothing happening during their imprisonment was touching this. Improving capacity in facial affect recognition should be considered as a target of intervention for violent offenders, developing or revising in-prison programmes as required.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Face , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção Social , Voluntários
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858996

RESUMO

The relationship between Dark Triad traits and risky behaviours has been shown in recent years. However, few studies have attempted to disentangle this relationship using a person-centred approach. The goal of the current study was to identify subgroups of individuals on the basis of their scores on Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and narcissism and analyse the differences between them in a set of risky behaviours (i.e., frequency of substance use, reactive and proactive aggression, risk perception and risk engagement, and problematic internet use). The sample consisted of 317 undergraduates aged 18-34 (46% males). The results of the latent profile analysis showed five subgroups of individuals that were identified based on their scores on the Dark Triad traits: low-Dark Triad, narcissistic, Machiavellian/narcissistic, psychopathic, and Machiavellian/psychopathic. Overall, the Machiavellian/narcissistic and Machiavellian/psychopathic subgroups showed higher scores for most risky behaviours. The low-Dark Triad scored higher for risk perception. No significant differences between subgroups were found as regards frequency of alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use. These findings suggest that the combination of the Dark Triad traits lead to more negative outcomes as regards risky behaviour than individual components. Moreover, they highlight the relevance of using a person-centred approach in the study of dark personalities.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/psicologia , Maquiavelismo , Narcisismo , Personalidade/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Assunção de Riscos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701959

RESUMO

Chronic social defeat (CSD) can lead to impairments in social interaction and other behaviors that are supposed to model features of major depressive disorder (MDD). Not all animals subjected to CSD, however, develop these impairments, and maintained social interaction in some animals is widely used as a model for resilience to stress-induced mental dysfunctions. So far, animals have mainly been studied shortly (24 hours and 7 days) after CSD exposure and longitudinal development of behavioral phenotypes in individual animals has been mostly neglected. We have analyzed social interaction and novel object recognition behavior of stressed mice at different time points after CSD and have found very dynamic courses of behavior of individual animals. Instead of the two groups, resilient or susceptible, that are found at early time points our data suggest four groups with (i, ii) animals behaving resilient or susceptible at early and late time points, respectively (iii) animals that start susceptible and recover with time or (iv) animals that are resilient at early time points but develop vulnerability later on.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Agressão/psicologia , Animais , Técnicas de Observação do Comportamento , Comportamento Animal , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Camundongos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 240-255, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715530

RESUMO

Most studies of prisoners, the nature of their offending and any related characteristics have been conducted in rich Western countries. In Nigeria, prison conditions differ in many important respects, key among them that prisoners share large communal spaces much of the time-up to 50 men sleeping in the same space as well as spending the day together. Our aim was to compare levels of impulsivity, aggression and suicide-related behaviours between prisoners in one prison in Nigeria who had committed a homicide and those who had not, allowing for socio-demographic factors. A case-control study design was employed with 102 homicide and an equal number of non-homicide offenders. Each participant was interviewed using the Abbreviated Barratt Impulsiveness Scale for impulsivity, the Modified Overt Aggression Scale for aggression, the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview (Module C) for suicide-related behaviours, and a questionnaire for ascertaining socio-demographic characteristics. On bivariate analysis, motor impulsivity was higher among homicide offenders (p = .014) while non-planning was higher among non-homicide offenders (p = .006), but this relationship was affected by demographic variables. Physical aggression levels did not distinguish the two groups, but homicide offenders were less likely to record property-directed and auto-aggressive behaviours (p < .05). By contrast, on average, scores for suicide-related behaviours were lower among the homicide offenders (p = .001), with non-homicide offenders showing a mean score in the high-risk category (13.25; SD, 1.25). As motor impulsivity significantly differentiated the groups, this may be an important measure to add to any risk assessment battery when there are concerns about homicidal behaviours. In this sample, history of interpersonal aggression did not distinguish the groups. People with indications of self-harm or suicide-related behaviours may be at less risk of violence to others, but care should be taken in interpreting this finding as it is not entirely consistent with other findings.


Assuntos
Agressão/psicologia , Criminosos/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Homicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência/psicologia
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235477, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663843

RESUMO

Based on Social Learning Theory and the General Aggression Model, this study aims to explore the relationship between parental emotional warmth and the cyberbullying perpetration attitudes of college students and the mediating roles of trait gratitude and empathy. Using the stratified cluster random sampling method, 1198 college students (716 boys and 482 girls with an average age of 20.44 years) were tested using the subscale of the Parenting Styles Instrument, the Basic Empathy Scale, the Gratitude Questionnaire-6, and the Cyberbullying Attitude Questionnaire. Results: Emotional warmth, trait gratitude, cognitive empathy, and affective empathy all demonstrated significantly positive relationships with each other (rs from .175 to .403, ps < 0.01) and negative correlations with cyberbullying perpetration attitudes (rs from -.137 to -.306, ps < 0.01). Emotional warmth can exert an impact on cyberbullying perpetration attitudes through three fully mediating paths: the mediating roles of trait gratitude (41.91% of the total effect), cognitive empathy (14.5% of the total effect), and the chain mediating roles of trait gratitude-cognitive empathy (19.5% of the total effect). The results may have important implications for future studies to develop effective interventions for cyberbullying.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Agressão/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bullying/psicologia , Emoções , Empatia/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664533

RESUMO

We examined how risk level of video games, measured by maturity and violence level, was associated with behavioral health, social impacts, and online social interactions. School-based surveys in two different cohorts assessed self-reported gaming behaviors, health, and social media use. For Study 1, our 700 participants were 52% female and 48% White (mean age 12.7). Middle school students who played the high-risk games reported higher depressive symptoms and problematic internet behaviors, less sleep, more time spent playing games, and higher frequency of checking social media than non-gaming students. Those who played high-risk games were less likely to play alone and to play with strangers than those who played minimal-risk games. For Study 2, our 772 participants were 50% female and 57% White (mean age 12.6). Similar to Study 1, we found that those who played the high-risk games spent significantly more time playing games, were more interactive with other players, and had poorer sleep outcomes than non-high-risk gamers. Additionally, playing high-risk games had significantly different social impacts of gaming compared to less-risky gaming, including spending more money on games, spending less time on homework and with family or skipping meals due to gaming. Mature and violent content of video games and amount of online social interaction associated with gaming play a strong role in behavioral health and social impacts within families. These results can inform guidelines to intervene when problematic behaviors emerge.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Agressão/psicologia , Comportamento Aditivo , Jogos de Vídeo , Violência/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
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