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2.
Nature ; 583(7814): 72-77, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612223

RESUMO

Forests provide a series of ecosystem services that are crucial to our society. In the European Union (EU), forests account for approximately 38% of the total land surface1. These forests are important carbon sinks, and their conservation efforts are vital for the EU's vision of achieving climate neutrality by 20502. However, the increasing demand for forest services and products, driven by the bioeconomy, poses challenges for sustainable forest management. Here we use fine-scale satellite data to observe an increase in the harvested forest area (49 per cent) and an increase in biomass loss (69 per cent) over Europe for the period of 2016-2018 relative to 2011-2015, with large losses occurring on the Iberian Peninsula and in the Nordic and Baltic countries. Satellite imagery further reveals that the average patch size of harvested area increased by 34 per cent across Europe, with potential effects on biodiversity, soil erosion and water regulation. The increase in the rate of forest harvest is the result of the recent expansion of wood markets, as suggested by econometric indicators on forestry, wood-based bioenergy and international trade. If such a high rate of forest harvest continues, the post-2020 EU vision of forest-based climate mitigation may be hampered, and the additional carbon losses from forests would require extra emission reductions in other sectors in order to reach climate neutrality by 20503.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Sequestro de Carbono , Monitoramento Ambiental , Política Ambiental/economia , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Europa (Continente) , União Europeia/economia , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/legislação & jurisprudência , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , História do Século XXI , Imagens de Satélites , Madeira/economia
4.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 68(1): 1-8, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Work and related exposures may play a role in suicide and there has been evidence in the literature that some occupational factors may be associated with suicide. The identification of occupational risk factors of suicide mortality among employees affiliated to the French special agricultural social security scheme (MSA), an understudied population, appears important. The objective of this study was to identify the occupational factors associated with suicide mortality among French employees from the MSA working between 2007 and 2013. METHODS: The study population included all the employees affiliated to the MSA working between 1st January 2007 and 31st December 2013, i.e. 1,699,929 men and 1,201,017 women. The studied occupational factors included: economic activity, skill level, and work contract. Survival analyses (Cox models) stratified on gender were performed using age as time scale and region and year of contract as adjustment variables. RESULTS: Among men, the factors associated with an elevated suicide risk were: economic activities of forestry, agriculture and related activities, and manufacture of food products and beverages (e.g. meat, wine), low-skilled level and working in the regions of Brittany, Burgundy Franche-Comté, Pays de la Loire, Normandy, Grand Est and Centre-Val-de-Loire. No association was observed among women. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that economic activity and low-skilled level may be associated with suicide among men affiliated to the MSA and may contribute to the implementation of prevention interventions. Further studies are needed to confirm and better understand these associations.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Agricultura Florestal , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Previdência Social , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Agricultura/organização & administração , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/mortalidade , Emprego/classificação , Emprego/organização & administração , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/organização & administração , Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Previdência Social/organização & administração , Previdência Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
5.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0222918, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626664

RESUMO

The rate of wealth accumulation is discussed, and an expression for a momentary rate of capital return is presented. An expected value of the wealth accumulation rate is produced. The return rates depend on any yield function. Three different yield functions are applied, two of them published in the literature, and a third one parametrized using a comprehensive growth model. A common economic objective function, as well as a third known objective function, are applied and compared with the clarified wealth accumulation rate. While direct optimization of wealth appreciation rate always yields best results, procedures gained by maximizing the internal rate of return are only slightly inferior. With external discounting interest rate, the maximization of net present value yields arbitrary results, the financial consequences being at worst devastating.


Assuntos
Economia , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Florestas , Humanos , Pinus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Curr Biol ; 29(19): R1008-R1020, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593660

RESUMO

If current trends continue, the tropical forests of the Anthropocene will be much smaller, simpler, steeper and emptier than they are today. They will be more diminished in size and heavily fragmented (especially in lowland wet forests), have reduced structural and species complexity, be increasingly restricted to steeper, less accessible areas, and be missing many heavily hunted species. These changes, in turn, will greatly reduce the quality and quantity of ecosystem services that tropical forests can provide. Driving these changes will be continued clearance for farming and monoculture forest plantations, unsustainable selective logging, overhunting, and, increasingly, climate change. Concerted action by local and indigenous communities, environmental groups, governments, and corporations can reverse these trends and, if successful, provide future generations with a tropical forest estate that includes a network of primary forest reserves robustly defended from threats, recovering logged and secondary forests, and resilient community forests managed for the needs of local people. Realizing this better future for tropical forests and people will require formalisation of land tenure for local and indigenous communities, better-enforced environmental laws, the widescale roll-out of payments for ecosystem service schemes, and sustainable intensification of under-yielding farmland, as well as global-scale societal changes, including reduced consumerism, meat consumption, fossil fuel reliance, and population growth. But the time to act is now, while the opportunity remains to protect a semblance of intact, hyperdiverse tropical forests.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Clima Tropical , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/legislação & jurisprudência , Agricultura Florestal/métodos
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 502, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327078

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of state ownership in forest governance in Turkey. It seeks to explore how property rights are affected by the complex, dynamic interplay of policies, economic influences, and the law. The historical development of state ownership, including its legal aspects, has been investigated in order to better understand the roots of current issues. An institutional approach has been followed. It is hypothesized that as the state exercises its property rights, it has both positive and negative effects on forest governance. This analysis confirms that state ownership may exceed its implementation capacity under the pressure of economic development objectives and that in areas where economic development is a priority, the loss of forests is inevitable. There is a need for a more adaptive approach to making policies related to property rights. The concept of the overriding public interest could be vital in achieving purposeful governance.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Monitoramento Ambiental , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Propriedade , Formulação de Políticas , Turquia
10.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218213, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181124

RESUMO

Conflicts between biodiversity conservation and resource production can be mitigated by multi-objective management planning. Optimizing management for multiple objectives over larger land areas likely entails trading off the practicability of the process against the goodness of the solution. It is therefore worthwhile to resolve how large areas are required as management planning regions to reconcile conflicting objectives as effectively as possible. We aimed to reveal how the extent of forestry planning regions impacts the potential to mitigate a forestry-conservation conflict in Finland, represented as a trade-off between harvest income and deadwood availability. We used forecasted data from a forest simulator, a hierarchy of forestry planning regions, and an optimization model to explore the production possibility frontier between harvest income and deadwood. We compared the overall outcomes when management was optimized within the different-sized planning regions in terms of the two objectives, the spatial variation of deadwood, and the optimal combinations of management regimes. Increasing the size of the planning regions did produce higher simultaneous levels of the two objectives, but the differences were most often of the magnitude of only a few percentages. The differences among the scales were minor also in terms of the spatial variation in deadwood availability and in the optimal management combinations. The conflict between timber harvesting and deadwood availability is only marginally easier to mitigate at large spatial scales than at small forest ownership scales. However, regardless of the spatial scale of planning, the achievable solutions may not be good enough to safeguard deadwood-dependent biodiversity without active deadwood creation.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Finlândia , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Madeira
11.
Curr Biol ; 29(9): R315-R316, 2019 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063720

RESUMO

Invasive tree pests and diseases present some of the greatest global threats to forests, and the recent global acceleration in invasions has caused massive ecological damage [1,2]. Calls to improve biosecurity have, however, often lost out to economic arguments in favour of trade [3]. Human activities, such as trade, move organisms between continents, and interventions to reduce risk of introductions inevitably incur financial costs. No previous studies have attempted to estimate the full economic cost of a tree disease, and the economic imperative to improve biosecurity may have been underappreciated. We set out to estimate the cost of the dieback of ash, Fraxinus excelsior, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, in Great Britain, and investigate whether this may be the case [4].


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/fisiologia , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Fraxinus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/economia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reino Unido
12.
BMC Ecol ; 19(1): 9, 2019 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Riparian forests surrounding streams host high biodiversity values, but are threatened by clear-cut logging. Narrow buffer strips of about 15 m are commonly left between the stream and the clear-cut, but studies suggest that the buffer width should be at least 30 m to protect riparian plant communities. Moreover, selective logging is often allowed on the buffer strips in order to increase economic gain. We used an experiment of 43 riparian sites where buffer strip width and selective logging within the strip were manipulated and supplemented with unlogged control sites. We report the short-term changes in the community composition of vascular plants and mosses near the stream (0-15 m distance). RESULTS: 15-meter buffers are not enough to protect the vascular plant communities from changes caused by a clear-cut irrespective of the selective logging on the buffer strip. For moss communities 15-m buffers were not enough if they were selectively logged. Relative to the control sites, we observed no significant changes in community composition of vascular plants or mosses in the sites with 30-m buffer strips, whether selectively logged or not. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that buffer strips of 15 m are not sufficient to protect streamside plant communities even in the short term, but that buffers of 30 m should be left on both sides of the stream. Selective logging appears not to have effects on buffers that are at least 30 m wide. Thus, it may be more reasonable to increase buffer width and to allow selective logging on the wider buffer in order to compensate for the economic losses than to leave all trees on a narrow and ecologically insufficient buffer.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Plantas , Árvores , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Finlândia , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Rios
13.
J Agromedicine ; 24(2): 186-196, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Forestry services is a hazardous industry with high job-related injury, illness, and fatality rates. The Northwest workforce is largely Spanish-speaking, Latino, and immigrant, working in poor conditions with insufficient attention paid to safety and health. Institutional racism fundamentally shapes the structural vulnerability of Latino immigrant workers. Given this context, we sought to understand how workplace organizational factors and safety climate affect job-related injuries in this industry. METHODS: We developed 23 case studies from personal interviews after selecting from an initial participant survey pool of 99 Latino forest workers in southern Oregon who had been injured at work in the previous 2 years. Workers were recruited through snowball sampling and door-to-door canvassing. Questions spanned work conditions, tasks, employer safety practices, injury experience, medical treatment, and workers' compensation benefits. RESULTS: Workers reported broken bones, chainsaw lacerations, back pain, heat and pesticide illnesses, and other occupational injuries. One-third of the cases fell into a Systems Functional category in which they reported their injuries to their supervisors and received medical treatment and workers' compensation benefits. The remaining two-thirds experienced System Failures with difficulties in receiving medical treatment and/or workers' compensation benefits, employer direction to not report, being fired, or seeking alternative home remedies. CONCLUSION: Workers employed by companies with more indicators of safety climate were more likely to obtain adequate treatment for their injuries and fully recover. Workers for whom interpretation at medical exams was provided by someone unaffiliated with their employers also reported better treatment and recovery outcomes.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal/economia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/economia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/economia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador/etnologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etnologia , Oregon , Inquéritos e Questionários , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos/economia
14.
J Agromedicine ; 24(2): 205-214, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Current industry classification systems in the United States do not differentiate mechanized and nonmechanized logging operations. The objectives of this article are to quantify injury risk differences between mechanized and nonmechanized logging operations in Washington State and to evaluate for potential injury risk tradeoffs, such as decreasing traumatic injuries while increasing nontraumatic injuries that might occur when mechanized logging operations are substituted for nonmechanized logging operations. METHODS: Using Washington State workers' compensation insurance risk classes to differentiate mechanized and nonmechanized logging operations, injury and illness claims data and employer reported hours were used to compare claim rates and to characterize injuries by type of logging operation. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2014, the accepted Washington State worker's compensation claim rate for nonmechanized logging was 46.4 per 100 full-time equivalent employees compared to 6.7 per 100 full-time equivalent (FTE) for mechanized logging activities. The rate ratio for comparing nonmechanized to mechanized logging claims rates for all accepted claims was 6.9 (95% Confidence Interval 6.4-7.5). Claim rates for traumatic injury and nontraumatic injuries in nonmechanized logging exceeded comparable rates in mechanized logging activities, although the distribution of types of injury differed by type of logging operation. A greater percentage of accepted claims in nonmechanized logging were traumatic injuries than in mechanized logging (92.2% vs. 85.0%, respectively). In addition, nonmechanized logging had higher total claim and medical costs per FTE and had a higher proportion of claims with lost work time than mechanized logging. CONCLUSION: Mechanized logging offers a considerable safety advantage over nonmechanized logging operations. Continued efforts to increase the mechanization of logging operations will result in decreased injury rates.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/economia , Agricultura Florestal/instrumentação , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/economia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/economia , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Humanos , Washington
15.
Nat Plants ; 5(2): 141-147, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664731

RESUMO

Global and local ecosystem change resulting in diversity loss has motivated efforts to understand relationships between species diversity and ecosystem services. However, it is unclear how such a general understanding can inform policies for the management of ecosystem services in production systems, because these systems are primarily used for food or fibre, and are rarely managed for the conservation of species diversity. Here, using data from a nationwide forest inventory covering an area of 230,000 km2, we show that relative abundances of commercial tree species in mixed stands strongly influence the potential to provide ecosystem services. The mixes provided higher levels of ecosystem services compared to respective plant monocultures (overyielding or transgressive overyielding) in 35% of the investigated cases, and lower (underyielding) in 9% of the cases. We further show that relative abundances, not just species richness per se, of specific tree-species mixtures affect the potential of forests to provide multiple ecosystem services, which is crucial information for policy and sustainable forest management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Árvores , Sequestro de Carbono , Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/química , Suécia
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 655: 1169-1180, 2019 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577110

RESUMO

Forestry has a dual role in mitigating climate change and increasing regional output value. Therefore, forestry is meaningful for the anthroposphere and the atmosphere. In this study, slacks-based measure (SBM) approach and Malmquist-Luenberger Index are adopted to measure the static efficiency and dynamic changes in forestry productivity in thirty regions in China. Ecological development is measured by setting forest carbon sinks as desirable output and economic development is evaluated by forestry output value. Moreover, using the three-stage DEA model, the economic and environmental factors are introduced to adjust regional forest carbon sinks and forestry output slacks. Finally, from timely evolution and spatial non-equilibrium perspectives, the ecological-economic efficiency and total factor productivity of forests are analyzed according to the results. The results revealed that the estimators of ecological efficiency and productivity are greater than the economic development of the forest. The highest ecological economic efficiency and productivity is in the southwest region of China. Eight economic or environmental factors adjusting the output have influence on the total factor productivity of forestry, and the results show that harvest has no clear effect on environmental improvement. Policy implications are further proposed to develop environmental management to mitigate climate change.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Mudança Climática , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Florestas , Modelos Teóricos
17.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0207855, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517153

RESUMO

Brazil recently began granting timber concessions in public forests to promote sustainable forest use. The effectiveness of this strategy hinges on the design and implementation of the concessions themselves as well as their competitive position within the logging sector as a whole. There is, however, a lack of information on the competitive interaction between legal and illegal logging and its effects on concessions profits. We address this knowledge gap by using a spatially explicit simulation model of the Amazon timber industry to examine the potential impact of illegal logging on timber concessions allocation and profits in a 30-year harvest cycle. In a scenario in which illegal logging takes place outside concessions, including private and public "undesignated" lands, concession harvested area would decrease by 59% due to competition with illegal logging. Moreover, 29 out of 39 National Forests (≈74%) would experience a decrease in harvested area. This "leakage" effect could reduce concession net rents by up to USD 1.3 Billion after 30 years. Federal and State "undesignated" lands, if not adequately protected, could have 40% of their total volume illegally harvested in 30 years. Our results reinforce the need to invest in tackling illegal logging, if the government wants the forest concessions program to be successful.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Agricultura Florestal/legislação & jurisprudência , Florestas , Árvores , Brasil , Simulação por Computador , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Comportamento Criminoso , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Humanos , Motivação , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Madeira/economia
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(46): 11671-11679, 2018 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397144

RESUMO

Large uncertainties still dominate the hypothesis of an abrupt large-scale shift of the Amazon forest caused by climate change [Amazonian forest dieback (AFD)] even though observational evidence shows the forest and regional climate changing. Here, we assess whether mitigation or adaptation action should be taken now, later, or not at all in light of such uncertainties. No action/later action would result in major social impacts that may influence migration to large Amazonian cities through a causal chain of climate change and forest degradation leading to lower river-water levels that affect transportation, food security, and health. Net-present value socioeconomic damage over a 30-year period after AFD is estimated between US dollar (USD) $957 billion (×109) and $3,589 billion (compared with Gross Brazilian Amazon Product of USD $150 billion per year), arising primarily from changes in the provision of ecosystem services. Costs of acting now would be one to two orders of magnitude lower than economic damages. However, while AFD mitigation alternatives-e.g., curbing deforestation-are attainable (USD $64 billion), their efficacy in achieving a forest resilience that prevents AFD is uncertain. Concurrently, a proposed set of 20 adaptation measures is also attainable (USD $122 billion) and could bring benefits even if AFD never occurs. An interdisciplinary research agenda to fill lingering knowledge gaps and constrain the risk of AFD should focus on developing sound experimental and modeling evidence regarding its likelihood, integrated with socioeconomic assessments to anticipate its impacts and evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of mitigation/adaptation options.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Brasil , Mudança Climática , Simulação por Computador , Ecossistema , Florestas , Políticas , Medição de Risco/métodos , Árvores
19.
Environ Manage ; 62(5): 858-876, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120499

RESUMO

Growing levels of uncertainty and vulnerability generated by land use conversion and climate change set demands on local communities and national institutions to build synergies between the diverse array of knowledge systems in order to provide policy makers and practitioners with the best available information to decide what urgent actions must be taken. Science policy arenas and agreements such as the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognize the importance of different types of knowledge and the need for broad stakeholder involvement, yet the use of indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) in environmental decision-making processes is still underdeveloped. This study involved working with local stakeholders, using the MARISCO method (adaptive MAnagement of vulnerability and RISks at COnservation sites) to carry out a systematic situation analysis of the existing socioenvironmental conditions. The assessments were conducted in the Kavango East Region in northern Namibia with the participation of inhabitants of the Khaudum North Complex, a protected area network covering wooded savannahs belonging to the Northern Kalahari sandveld. General outcomes of the assessments and evaluations made by the local stakeholders concerning the most critical drivers of degradation of the ecosystems appeared to support existing scientific knowledge of the study area, demonstrating that community-based assessments can provide valuable information about socioecological systems where scientific data are scarce. The findings of this study also highlight the importance of power dynamics for the implementation of participatory processes and the interpretation of their outcomes.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Setor Privado/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Biodiversidade , Botsuana , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conhecimento , Namíbia
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