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2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(8): 502, 2019 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327078

RESUMO

The purpose of this study is to analyze the role of state ownership in forest governance in Turkey. It seeks to explore how property rights are affected by the complex, dynamic interplay of policies, economic influences, and the law. The historical development of state ownership, including its legal aspects, has been investigated in order to better understand the roots of current issues. An institutional approach has been followed. It is hypothesized that as the state exercises its property rights, it has both positive and negative effects on forest governance. This analysis confirms that state ownership may exceed its implementation capacity under the pressure of economic development objectives and that in areas where economic development is a priority, the loss of forests is inevitable. There is a need for a more adaptive approach to making policies related to property rights. The concept of the overriding public interest could be vital in achieving purposeful governance.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Monitoramento Ambiental , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Propriedade , Formulação de Políticas , Turquia
4.
BMC Ecol ; 19(1): 9, 2019 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30738432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Riparian forests surrounding streams host high biodiversity values, but are threatened by clear-cut logging. Narrow buffer strips of about 15 m are commonly left between the stream and the clear-cut, but studies suggest that the buffer width should be at least 30 m to protect riparian plant communities. Moreover, selective logging is often allowed on the buffer strips in order to increase economic gain. We used an experiment of 43 riparian sites where buffer strip width and selective logging within the strip were manipulated and supplemented with unlogged control sites. We report the short-term changes in the community composition of vascular plants and mosses near the stream (0-15 m distance). RESULTS: 15-meter buffers are not enough to protect the vascular plant communities from changes caused by a clear-cut irrespective of the selective logging on the buffer strip. For moss communities 15-m buffers were not enough if they were selectively logged. Relative to the control sites, we observed no significant changes in community composition of vascular plants or mosses in the sites with 30-m buffer strips, whether selectively logged or not. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that buffer strips of 15 m are not sufficient to protect streamside plant communities even in the short term, but that buffers of 30 m should be left on both sides of the stream. Selective logging appears not to have effects on buffers that are at least 30 m wide. Thus, it may be more reasonable to increase buffer width and to allow selective logging on the wider buffer in order to compensate for the economic losses than to leave all trees on a narrow and ecologically insufficient buffer.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Plantas , Árvores , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Finlândia , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Rios
5.
J Agromedicine ; 24(2): 186-196, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Forestry services is a hazardous industry with high job-related injury, illness, and fatality rates. The Northwest workforce is largely Spanish-speaking, Latino, and immigrant, working in poor conditions with insufficient attention paid to safety and health. Institutional racism fundamentally shapes the structural vulnerability of Latino immigrant workers. Given this context, we sought to understand how workplace organizational factors and safety climate affect job-related injuries in this industry. METHODS: We developed 23 case studies from personal interviews after selecting from an initial participant survey pool of 99 Latino forest workers in southern Oregon who had been injured at work in the previous 2 years. Workers were recruited through snowball sampling and door-to-door canvassing. Questions spanned work conditions, tasks, employer safety practices, injury experience, medical treatment, and workers' compensation benefits. RESULTS: Workers reported broken bones, chainsaw lacerations, back pain, heat and pesticide illnesses, and other occupational injuries. One-third of the cases fell into a Systems Functional category in which they reported their injuries to their supervisors and received medical treatment and workers' compensation benefits. The remaining two-thirds experienced System Failures with difficulties in receiving medical treatment and/or workers' compensation benefits, employer direction to not report, being fired, or seeking alternative home remedies. CONCLUSION: Workers employed by companies with more indicators of safety climate were more likely to obtain adequate treatment for their injuries and fully recover. Workers for whom interpretation at medical exams was provided by someone unaffiliated with their employers also reported better treatment and recovery outcomes.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal/economia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/economia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/economia , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador/etnologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etnologia , Oregon , Inquéritos e Questionários , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos/economia
6.
J Agromedicine ; 24(2): 205-214, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624159

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Current industry classification systems in the United States do not differentiate mechanized and nonmechanized logging operations. The objectives of this article are to quantify injury risk differences between mechanized and nonmechanized logging operations in Washington State and to evaluate for potential injury risk tradeoffs, such as decreasing traumatic injuries while increasing nontraumatic injuries that might occur when mechanized logging operations are substituted for nonmechanized logging operations. METHODS: Using Washington State workers' compensation insurance risk classes to differentiate mechanized and nonmechanized logging operations, injury and illness claims data and employer reported hours were used to compare claim rates and to characterize injuries by type of logging operation. RESULTS: From 2005 to 2014, the accepted Washington State worker's compensation claim rate for nonmechanized logging was 46.4 per 100 full-time equivalent employees compared to 6.7 per 100 full-time equivalent (FTE) for mechanized logging activities. The rate ratio for comparing nonmechanized to mechanized logging claims rates for all accepted claims was 6.9 (95% Confidence Interval 6.4-7.5). Claim rates for traumatic injury and nontraumatic injuries in nonmechanized logging exceeded comparable rates in mechanized logging activities, although the distribution of types of injury differed by type of logging operation. A greater percentage of accepted claims in nonmechanized logging were traumatic injuries than in mechanized logging (92.2% vs. 85.0%, respectively). In addition, nonmechanized logging had higher total claim and medical costs per FTE and had a higher proportion of claims with lost work time than mechanized logging. CONCLUSION: Mechanized logging offers a considerable safety advantage over nonmechanized logging operations. Continued efforts to increase the mechanization of logging operations will result in decreased injury rates.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/economia , Agricultura Florestal/instrumentação , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/economia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/economia , Acidentes de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos e Análise de Custo , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Humanos , Washington
7.
Nat Plants ; 5(2): 141-147, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664731

RESUMO

Global and local ecosystem change resulting in diversity loss has motivated efforts to understand relationships between species diversity and ecosystem services. However, it is unclear how such a general understanding can inform policies for the management of ecosystem services in production systems, because these systems are primarily used for food or fibre, and are rarely managed for the conservation of species diversity. Here, using data from a nationwide forest inventory covering an area of 230,000 km2, we show that relative abundances of commercial tree species in mixed stands strongly influence the potential to provide ecosystem services. The mixes provided higher levels of ecosystem services compared to respective plant monocultures (overyielding or transgressive overyielding) in 35% of the investigated cases, and lower (underyielding) in 9% of the cases. We further show that relative abundances, not just species richness per se, of specific tree-species mixtures affect the potential of forests to provide multiple ecosystem services, which is crucial information for policy and sustainable forest management.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Árvores , Sequestro de Carbono , Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , Solo/química , Suécia
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 655: 1169-1180, 2019 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30577110

RESUMO

Forestry has a dual role in mitigating climate change and increasing regional output value. Therefore, forestry is meaningful for the anthroposphere and the atmosphere. In this study, slacks-based measure (SBM) approach and Malmquist-Luenberger Index are adopted to measure the static efficiency and dynamic changes in forestry productivity in thirty regions in China. Ecological development is measured by setting forest carbon sinks as desirable output and economic development is evaluated by forestry output value. Moreover, using the three-stage DEA model, the economic and environmental factors are introduced to adjust regional forest carbon sinks and forestry output slacks. Finally, from timely evolution and spatial non-equilibrium perspectives, the ecological-economic efficiency and total factor productivity of forests are analyzed according to the results. The results revealed that the estimators of ecological efficiency and productivity are greater than the economic development of the forest. The highest ecological economic efficiency and productivity is in the southwest region of China. Eight economic or environmental factors adjusting the output have influence on the total factor productivity of forestry, and the results show that harvest has no clear effect on environmental improvement. Policy implications are further proposed to develop environmental management to mitigate climate change.


Assuntos
Sequestro de Carbono , Mudança Climática , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Desenvolvimento Econômico , Florestas , Modelos Teóricos
9.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0207855, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517153

RESUMO

Brazil recently began granting timber concessions in public forests to promote sustainable forest use. The effectiveness of this strategy hinges on the design and implementation of the concessions themselves as well as their competitive position within the logging sector as a whole. There is, however, a lack of information on the competitive interaction between legal and illegal logging and its effects on concessions profits. We address this knowledge gap by using a spatially explicit simulation model of the Amazon timber industry to examine the potential impact of illegal logging on timber concessions allocation and profits in a 30-year harvest cycle. In a scenario in which illegal logging takes place outside concessions, including private and public "undesignated" lands, concession harvested area would decrease by 59% due to competition with illegal logging. Moreover, 29 out of 39 National Forests (≈74%) would experience a decrease in harvested area. This "leakage" effect could reduce concession net rents by up to USD 1.3 Billion after 30 years. Federal and State "undesignated" lands, if not adequately protected, could have 40% of their total volume illegally harvested in 30 years. Our results reinforce the need to invest in tackling illegal logging, if the government wants the forest concessions program to be successful.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Agricultura Florestal/legislação & jurisprudência , Florestas , Árvores , Brasil , Simulação por Computador , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Comportamento Criminoso , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Humanos , Motivação , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Madeira/economia
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(46): 11671-11679, 2018 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30397144

RESUMO

Large uncertainties still dominate the hypothesis of an abrupt large-scale shift of the Amazon forest caused by climate change [Amazonian forest dieback (AFD)] even though observational evidence shows the forest and regional climate changing. Here, we assess whether mitigation or adaptation action should be taken now, later, or not at all in light of such uncertainties. No action/later action would result in major social impacts that may influence migration to large Amazonian cities through a causal chain of climate change and forest degradation leading to lower river-water levels that affect transportation, food security, and health. Net-present value socioeconomic damage over a 30-year period after AFD is estimated between US dollar (USD) $957 billion (×109) and $3,589 billion (compared with Gross Brazilian Amazon Product of USD $150 billion per year), arising primarily from changes in the provision of ecosystem services. Costs of acting now would be one to two orders of magnitude lower than economic damages. However, while AFD mitigation alternatives-e.g., curbing deforestation-are attainable (USD $64 billion), their efficacy in achieving a forest resilience that prevents AFD is uncertain. Concurrently, a proposed set of 20 adaptation measures is also attainable (USD $122 billion) and could bring benefits even if AFD never occurs. An interdisciplinary research agenda to fill lingering knowledge gaps and constrain the risk of AFD should focus on developing sound experimental and modeling evidence regarding its likelihood, integrated with socioeconomic assessments to anticipate its impacts and evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of mitigation/adaptation options.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Brasil , Mudança Climática , Simulação por Computador , Ecossistema , Florestas , Políticas , Medição de Risco/métodos , Árvores
11.
Environ Manage ; 62(5): 858-876, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120499

RESUMO

Growing levels of uncertainty and vulnerability generated by land use conversion and climate change set demands on local communities and national institutions to build synergies between the diverse array of knowledge systems in order to provide policy makers and practitioners with the best available information to decide what urgent actions must be taken. Science policy arenas and agreements such as the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognize the importance of different types of knowledge and the need for broad stakeholder involvement, yet the use of indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) in environmental decision-making processes is still underdeveloped. This study involved working with local stakeholders, using the MARISCO method (adaptive MAnagement of vulnerability and RISks at COnservation sites) to carry out a systematic situation analysis of the existing socioenvironmental conditions. The assessments were conducted in the Kavango East Region in northern Namibia with the participation of inhabitants of the Khaudum North Complex, a protected area network covering wooded savannahs belonging to the Northern Kalahari sandveld. General outcomes of the assessments and evaluations made by the local stakeholders concerning the most critical drivers of degradation of the ecosystems appeared to support existing scientific knowledge of the study area, demonstrating that community-based assessments can provide valuable information about socioecological systems where scientific data are scarce. The findings of this study also highlight the importance of power dynamics for the implementation of participatory processes and the interpretation of their outcomes.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Setor Privado/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Biodiversidade , Botsuana , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conhecimento , Namíbia
13.
Ecol Appl ; 28(8): 1982-1997, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791763

RESUMO

Forest fragmentation can lead to habitat reduction, edge increase, and exposure to disturbances. A key emerging policy to protect forests is payments for ecosystem services (PES), which offers compensation to landowners for environmental stewardship. Mexico was one of the first countries to implement a broad-scale PES program, enrolling over 2.3 Mha by 2010. However, Mexico's PES did not completely eliminate deforestation in enrolled parcels and could have increased incentives to hide deforestation in ways that increased fragmentation. We studied whether Mexican forests enrolled in the PES program had less forest fragmentation than those not enrolled, and whether the PES effects varied among forest types, among socioeconomic zones, or compared to the protected areas system. We analyzed forest cover maps from 2000 to 2012 to calculate forest fragmentation. We summarized fragmentation for different forest types and in four socioeconomic zones. We then used matching analysis to investigate the possible causal impacts of the PES on forests across Mexico and compared the effects of the PES program with that of protected areas. We found that the area covered by forest in Mexico decreased by 3.4% from 2000 to 2012, but there was 9.3% less forest core area. Change in forest cover was highest in the southern part of Mexico, and high-stature evergreen tropical forest lost the most core areas (-17%), while oak forest lost the least (-2%). Our matching analysis found that the PES program reduced both forest cover loss and forest fragmentation. Low-PES areas increased twice as much of the number of forest patches, forest edge, forest islets, and largest area of forest lost compared to high-PES areas. Compared to the protected areas system in Mexico, high-PES areas performed similarly in preventing fragmentation, but not as well as biosphere reserve core zones. We conclude that the PES was successful in slowing forest fragmentation at the regional and country level. However, the program could be improved by targeting areas where forest changes are more frequent, especially in southern Mexico. Fragmentation analyses should be implemented in other areas to monitor the outcomes of protection programs such as REDD+ and PES.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Florestas , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , México
14.
Environ Manage ; 62(1): 15-28, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520438

RESUMO

In parts of the developing world, deforestation rates are high and poverty is chronic and pervasive. Addressing these issues through the commercialization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been widely researched, tested, and discussed. While the evidence is inconclusive, there is growing understanding of what works and why, and this paper examines the acknowledged success and failure factors. African forest honey has been relatively overlooked as an NTFP, an oversight this paper addresses. Drawing on evidence from a long-established forest conservation, livelihoods, and trade development initiative in SW Ethiopia, forest honey is benchmarked against accepted success and failure factors and is found to be a near-perfect NTFP. The criteria are primarily focused on livelihood impacts and consequently this paper makes recommendations for additional criteria directly related to forest maintenance.


Assuntos
Criação de Abelhas/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Florestas , Mel/economia , Criação de Abelhas/métodos , Criação de Abelhas/tendências , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Etiópia , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , Humanos , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Environ Manage ; 61(6): 1031-1047, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29560524

RESUMO

Life cycle assessment (LCA) has become a common methodology to analyze environmental impacts of forestry systems. Although LCA has been widely applied to forestry since the 90s, the LCAs are still often based on generic Life Cycle Inventory (LCI). With the purpose of improving LCA practices in the forestry sector, we developed a European Life Cycle Inventory of Forestry Operations (EFO-LCI) and analyzed the available information to check if within the European forestry sector national differences really exist. We classified the European forests on the basis of "Forest Units" (combinations of tree species and silvicultural practices). For each Forest Unit, we constructed the LCI of their forest management practices on the basis of a questionnaire filled out by national silvicultural experts. We analyzed the data reported to evaluate how they vary over Europe and how they affect LCA results and made freely available the inventory data collected for future use. The study shows important variability in rotation length, type of regeneration, amount and assortments of wood products harvested, and machinery used due to the differences in management practices. The existing variability on these activities sensibly affect LCA results of forestry practices and raw wood production. Although it is practically unfeasible to collect site-specific data for all the LCAs involving forest-based products, the use of less generic LCI data of forestry practice is desirable to improve the reliability of the studies. With the release of EFO-LCI we made a step toward the construction of regionalized LCI for the European forestry sector.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Madeira/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Europa (Continente) , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Environ Manage ; 62(1): 128-142, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29411075

RESUMO

Dutch policies have advocated sustainable commodity value chains, which have implications for the landscapes from which these commodities originate. This study examines governance and policy options for sustainability in terms of how ecosystem services are addressed in cocoa, soy, tropical timber and palm oil value chains with Dutch links. A range of policies addressing ecosystem services were identified, from market governance (certification, payments for ecosystem services) to multi-actor platforms (roundtables) and public governance (policies and regulations). An analysis of policy narratives and interviews identified if and how ecosystem services are addressed within value chains and policies; how the concept has been incorporated into value chain governance; and which governance options are available. The Dutch government was found to take a steering but indirect role in all the cases, primarily through supporting, financing, facilitating and partnering policies. Interventions mainly from end-of-chain stakeholders located in processing and consumption countries resulted in new market governance, notably voluntary sustainability standards. These have been successful in creating awareness of some ecosystem services and bringing stakeholders together. However, they have not fully addressed all ecosystem services or stakeholders, thus failing to increase the sustainability of value chains or of the landscapes of origin. We argue that chains sourced in tropical landscapes may be governed more effectively for sustainability if voluntary, market policy tools and governance arrangements have more integrated goals that take account of sourcing landscapes and impacts along the entire value chain. Given the international nature of these commodities. These findings have significance for debates on public-private approaches to value chain and landscape governance.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cacau/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mercantilização , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Regulamentação Governamental , Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Madeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Ecossistema , Política Ambiental/economia , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Humanos , Países Baixos , Parcerias Público-Privadas
17.
Environ Manage ; 62(1): 58-69, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29297091

RESUMO

Forest landscape restoration is emerging as an effective approach to restore degraded forests for the provision of ecosystem services and to minimize trade-offs between conservation and rural livelihoods. Policy and institutional innovations in China illustrate the governance transformation of forest landscape restoration from state-controlled to polycentric governance. Based on a case study of the Ecological Forest Purchase Program in Yong'an municipality, China's Fujian Province, this paper explores how such forest governance transformation has evolved and how it has shaped the outcomes of forest landscape restoration in terms of multi-dimensionality and actor configurations. Our analysis indicates that accommodating the participation of multiple actors and market-based instruments facilitate a smoother transition from state-centered to polycentric governance in forest landscape restoration. Governance transitions for forest landscape restoration must overcome a number of challenges including ensurance of a formal participation forum, fair participation, and a sustainable legislative and financial system to enhance long-term effectiveness.


Assuntos
Política Ambiental/tendências , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/organização & administração , Florestas , Regulamentação Governamental , China , Ecologia , Política Ambiental/economia , Política Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/economia , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 345, 2018 01 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321628

RESUMO

European temperate and boreal forests sequester up to 12% of Europe's annual carbon emissions. Forest carbon density can be manipulated through management to maximize its climate mitigation potential, and fast-growing tree species may contribute the most to Climate Smart Forestry (CSF) compared to slow-growing hardwoods. This type of CSF takes into account not only forest resource potentials in sequestering carbon, but also the economic impact of regional forest products and discounts both variables over time. We used the process-based forest model 4 C to simulate European commercial forests' growth conditions and coupled it with an optimization algorithm to simulate the implementation of CSF for 18 European countries encompassing 68.3 million ha of forest (42.4% of total EU-28 forest area). We found a European CSF policy that could sequester 7.3-11.1 billion tons of carbon, projected to be worth 103 to 141 billion euros in the 21st century. An efficient CSF policy would allocate carbon sequestration to European countries with a lower wood price, lower labor costs, high harvest costs, or a mixture thereof to increase its economic efficiency. This policy prioritized the allocation of mitigation efforts to northern, eastern and central European countries and favored fast growing conifers Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris to broadleaves Fagus sylvatica and Quercus species.


Assuntos
Clima , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Carbono , Europa (Continente) , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/legislação & jurisprudência , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Modelos Teóricos
19.
Environ Manage ; 61(1): 103-115, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29098362

RESUMO

Based on a framework for analyzing stakeholder coherence horizontally and vertically, the present study examined the governance of forest threats in Sweden. Opinions of forest risk governance in stakeholder groups with and without a connection to private forestry were compared (n = 2496) and the opinions were analyzed in relation to current governance practices. More specifically, forest threat appraisals, trust in the Swedish Forest Agency (SFA), and the acceptability of forest risk policy measures directed at private forest owners were assessed. Results revealed an overall coherence between different stakeholders in this context. However, the groups differed in, for example, the acceptability of the hypothetical regulative measure aiming to reduce damages threatening the forest long-term (e.g., climate change). Furthermore, an extensive use of advice for a fee may challenge particularly the internal, but also the external, legitimacy of forest risk governance. The forest owner stakeholder group showed lower threat appraisals when evaluating threat to one's own forest rather than to the Swedish forest, except regarding browsing by animals. Regulations were not disapproved of in any of the stakeholder groups, although the forest owner group generally displayed higher acceptability of encouraging measures compared to the general public. Trust in the SFA was furthermore confirmed as an important driver of policy acceptability, and higher threat appraisals of novel threats, such as climate change and fire, resulted in a higher acceptability of measures less central or new in this context. The value of analyzing stakeholder coherence for natural resource management and governance is discussed.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Mudança Climática , Comércio/economia , Comércio/organização & administração , Agricultura Florestal/organização & administração , Florestas , Governo , Humanos , Suécia
20.
Environ Manage ; 62(1): 143-156, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28412765

RESUMO

Value chain analyses have focused mainly on collaboration between chain actors, often neglecting collaboration "beyond the chain" with non-chain actors to tackle food security, poverty and sustainability issues in the landscapes in which these value chains are embedded. Comparing conventional and advanced value chain collaborations involving small-scale cocoa farmers in Ghana, this paper analyzes the merits of a more integrated approach toward value chain collaboration. It particularly asks whether advanced value chain collaboration targeting cocoa-producing areas potentially offers an entry point for implementing a landscape approach. The findings detail current chain actors and institutions and show how advanced value chain collaboration has a greater positive impact than conventional value chain collaboration on farmers' social, human and natural capital. The paper concludes that the integrated approach, focus on learning, and stable relationships with small-scale farmers inherent in advanced value chain collaboration makes it both more sustainable and effective at the local level than conventional approaches. However, its scope and the actors' jurisdictional powers and self-organization are too limited to be the sole tool in negotiating land use and trade-offs at the landscape level. To evolve as such would require certification beyond the farm level, partnering with other landscape stakeholders, and brokering by bridging organizations.


Assuntos
Cacau/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Comportamento Cooperativo , Agricultura Florestal/organização & administração , Parcerias Público-Privadas , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Gana , Humanos , Pobreza
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