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2.
Nat Plants ; 4(8): 540-547, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038410

RESUMO

The legacy of pre-Columbian land use in the Amazonian rainforest is one of the most controversial topics in the social1-10 and natural sciences11,12. Until now, the debate has been limited to discipline-specific studies, based purely on archaeological data8, modern vegetation13, modern ethnographic data3 or a limited integration of archaeological and palaeoecological data12. The lack of integrated studies to connect past land use with modern vegetation has left questions about the legacy of pre-Columbian land use on the modern vegetation composition in the Amazon, unanswered11. Here, we show that persistent anthropogenic landscapes for the past 4,500 years have had an enduring legacy on the hyperdominance of edible plants in modern forests in the eastern Amazon. We found an abrupt enrichment of edible plant species in fossil lake and terrestrial records associated with pre-Columbian occupation. Our results demonstrate that, through closed-canopy forest enrichment, limited clearing for crop cultivation and low-severity fire management, long-term food security was attained despite climate and social changes. Our results suggest that, in the eastern Amazon, the subsistence basis for the development of complex societies began ~4,500 years ago with the adoption of polyculture agroforestry, combining the cultivation of multiple annual crops with the progressive enrichment of edible forest species and the exploitation of aquatic resources. This subsistence strategy intensified with the later development of Amazonian dark earths, enabling the expansion of maize cultivation to the Belterra Plateau, providing a food production system that sustained growing human populations in the eastern Amazon. Furthermore, these millennial-scale polyculture agroforestry systems have an enduring legacy on the hyperdominance of edible plants in modern forests in the eastern Amazon. Together, our data provide a long-term example of past anthropogenic land use that can inform management and conservation efforts in modern Amazonian ecosystems.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Agricultura Florestal/história , Florestas , Brasil , Fósseis , História Antiga , Plantas/classificação
3.
Environ Manage ; 60(6): 1042-1061, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28905095

RESUMO

Many municipalities are setting ambitious tree canopy cover goals to increase the extent of their urban forests. A historical perspective on urban forest development can help cities strategize how to establish and achieve appropriate tree cover targets. To understand how long-term urban forest change occurs, we examined the history of trees on an urban college campus: the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, PA. Using a mixed methods approach, including qualitative assessments of archival records (1870-2017), complemented by quantitative analysis of tree cover from aerial imagery (1970-2012), our analysis revealed drastic canopy cover increase in the late 20th and early 21st centuries along with the principle mechanisms of that change. We organized the historical narrative into periods reflecting campus planting actions and management approaches; these periods are also connected to broader urban greening and city planning movements, such as City Beautiful and urban sustainability. University faculty in botany, landscape architecture, and urban design contributed to the design of campus green spaces, developed comprehensive landscape plans, and advocated for campus trees. A 1977 Landscape Development Plan was particularly influential, setting forth design principles and planting recommendations that enabled the dramatic canopy cover gains we observed, and continue to guide landscape management today. Our results indicate that increasing urban tree cover requires generational time scales and systematic management coupled with a clear urban design vision and long-term commitments. With the campus as a microcosm of broader trends in urban forest development, we conclude with a discussion of implications for municipal tree cover planning.


Assuntos
Planejamento de Cidades/organização & administração , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/organização & administração , Florestas , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arquivos , Planejamento de Cidades/história , Monitoramento Ambiental/história , Agricultura Florestal/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Pennsylvania , Fotografação , Folhas de Planta , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Urbanização
4.
Nat Plants ; 3(8): 17093, 2017 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770823

RESUMO

Significant human impacts on tropical forests have been considered the preserve of recent societies, linked to large-scale deforestation, extensive and intensive agriculture, resource mining, livestock grazing and urban settlement. Cumulative archaeological evidence now demonstrates, however, that Homo sapiens has actively manipulated tropical forest ecologies for at least 45,000 years. It is clear that these millennia of impacts need to be taken into account when studying and conserving tropical forest ecosystems today. Nevertheless, archaeology has so far provided only limited practical insight into contemporary human-tropical forest interactions. Here, we review significant archaeological evidence for the impacts of past hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists and urban settlements on global tropical forests. We compare the challenges faced, as well as the solutions adopted, by these groups with those confronting present-day societies, which also rely on tropical forests for a variety of ecosystem services. We emphasize archaeology's importance not only in promoting natural and cultural heritage in tropical forests, but also in taking an active role to inform modern conservation and policy-making.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/história , Florestas , Agricultura/história , Agricultura Florestal/história , História do Século XXI , História Antiga , Humanos , Floresta Úmida , Urbanização/história
5.
Nat Plants ; 3: 17093, 2017 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28770831

RESUMO

Significant human impacts on tropical forests have been considered the preserve of recent societies, linked to large-scale deforestation, extensive and intensive agriculture, resource mining, livestock grazing and urban settlement. Cumulative archaeological evidence now demonstrates, however, that Homo sapiens has actively manipulated tropical forest ecologies for at least 45,000 years. It is clear that these millennia of impacts need to be taken into account when studying and conserving tropical forest ecosystems today. Nevertheless, archaeology has so far provided only limited practical insight into contemporary human-tropical forest interactions. Here, we review significant archaeological evidence for the impacts of past hunter-gatherers, agriculturalists and urban settlements on global tropical forests. We compare the challenges faced, as well as the solutions adopted, by these groups with those confronting present-day societies, which also rely on tropical forests for a variety of ecosystem services. We emphasize archaeology's importance not only in promoting natural and cultural heritage in tropical forests, but also in taking an active role to inform modern conservation and policy-making.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Agricultura Florestal/história , Floresta Úmida , História Antiga , Humanos
6.
Asclepio ; 68(2): 0-0, jul.-dic. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-158650

RESUMO

En octubre de 1863 Rafael Castro y Ordóñez, artista y fotógrafo de la Comisión Científica del Pacífico, viajó junto al naturalista Francisco de Paula Martínez y Sáez por el estado de California. La Comisión acompañaba una expedición militar y política de corte panhispanista. Fruto de aquel viaje el artista produjo una veintena de fotografías, dibujos y varias cartas que se publicarían en la revista El Museo Universal. Fotografías y crónicas del viaje conforman un corpus de excepcional valor que permite reconstruir el proyecto y su fabricación de una nueva imagen de América tras la independencia de las antiguas colonias y la irrupción de los Estados Unidos como potencia emergente. Este trabajo analiza este discurso y cómo se articuló con relación a este recién incorporado territorio de los Estados Unidos. A lo largo del estudio se revelarán varios fenómenos interesantes, como la ruptura ocasional del discurso, la circulación de las fotografías más allá del contexto de la Expedición o las conexiones de este viaje de exploración con el fenómeno del turismo (AU)


In October 1863, Rafael Castro y Ordóñez, artist and photographer of the Comisión Científica del Pacífico, traveled across the State of California in the company of naturalist Francisco de Paula Martínez y Sáez. The Comisión was associated with a pan-Hispanic military and political expedition. As a result of the expedition the artist produced around twenty photographs, drawings, and several letters that were ultimately published by the Spanish pictorial magazine El Museo Universal. Both his photographs and travel accounts make up an exceptionally valuable body of knowledge allowing to reconstruct not only the Comisión project but also its attempt at portraying a new image of America following the independence of Spain’s former colonies and the ascent of the United States as a world power. This paper analyzes both this discourse and its expression in relation to California, a then recently incorporated US territory. Several interesting phenomena, including occasional breaches in the discourse, the circulation of photographs beyond the expedition’s context, and the connections of this exploration journey with tourism, will be unveiled in the course of the present study (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , História do Século XIX , Expedições/história , Fotografia/história , Botânica/história , Agricultura Florestal/história , Mineração/história , Etnobotânica/história , California/epidemiologia
7.
Technol Cult ; 57(3): 586-611, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27763365

RESUMO

This article examines the transfer of technology from Finnish enterprises to Soviet industry during the USSR's period of technological modernization between 1955 and 1964. It centers on the forestry sector, which was a particular focus of modernization programs and a key area for the transfer of foreign techniques and expertise. The aim of the article is to investigate the role of trips made by Soviet specialists to foreign (primarily Finnish) enterprises in order to illustrate the nontechnological influences that occurred during the transfer of technologies across the cold war border. To do so, the article is divided into two parts: the first presents a general analysis of technology transfer from a micro-level perspective, while the second investigates the cultural influences behind technological transfer in the Soviet-Finnish case. This study contends that although the Soviet government expected its specialists to import advanced foreign technical experience, they brought not only the technologies and expertise needed for modernizing the industry, but also a changed view on Soviet workplace management and everyday practices.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal/história , Transferência de Tecnologia , Cultura , Finlândia , Agricultura Florestal/instrumentação , História do Século XX , Mudança Social , U.R.S.S.
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27571087

RESUMO

Understanding the processes of historical land-use change is crucial to the research of global environmental sustainability. Here we examine and attempt to disentangle the evolutionary interactions between land-use change and its underlying causes through a historical lens. We compiled and synthesized historical land-use change and various biophysical, political, socioeconomic, and technical datasets, from the Qing dynasty to modern China. The analysis reveals a clear transition period between the 1950s and the 1980s. Before the 1950s, cropland expanded while forested land diminished, which was also accompanied by increasing population; after the 1980s land-use change exhibited new characteristics: changes in cropland, and decoupling of forest from population as a result of agricultural intensification and globalization. Chinese political policies also played an important and complex role, especially during the 1950s-1980s transition periods. Overall, climate change plays an indirect but fundamental role in the dynamics of land use via a series of various cascading effects such as shrinking agricultural production proceeding to population collapse and outbreaks of war. The expected continuation of agricultural intensification this century should be able to support increasing domestic demand for richer diets, but may not be compatible with long-term environmental sustainability.


Assuntos
Agricultura/história , Mudança Climática/história , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/história , Agricultura Florestal/história , China , Fazendas/história , Florestas , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
9.
Ambio ; 45(8): 904-918, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27255229

RESUMO

Pasturing of livestock in forests has had profound consequences for Europe's landscapes. In Bialowieza Primeval Forest (BPF), cattle pasturing was a part of traditional forest use that ceased only in the second half of the twentieth century. We collected information on the institutional changes governing forest cattle pasturing and the changes in spatial extent of cattle presence in BPF in last two centuries and information on cattle numbers and their impact on forest regeneration. The spatial extent of cattle pasturing was highly variable, with the distribution of grazing areas frequently changing. Forest near villages (constituting less than 10 % of the area) was most often used for cattle grazing during continued longer time periods. Historical data showed that cattle have had a clear impact on forest regeneration. However, the frequent changes that occurred in the extent of cattle grazing indicate that their impact occurred locally, was smaller in other less intensively used areas, and in the forest as a whole.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Agricultura Florestal , Florestas , Criação de Animais Domésticos/história , Criação de Animais Domésticos/organização & administração , Criação de Animais Domésticos/tendências , Animais , Biodiversidade , Bovinos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/história , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Domesticação , Agricultura Florestal/história , Agricultura Florestal/organização & administração , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , Herbivoria , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Polônia , República de Belarus , Árvores/classificação , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Asclepio ; 68(1): 0-0, ene.-jun. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-153978

RESUMO

En 1941 se creó el Instituto Español de Entomología (IEE), heredero directo de la antigua Sección de Entomología del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Entre las labores encomendadas al nuevo establecimiento estaba la de aportar «a los Centros de aplicación los datos resultantes de los trabajos que en él se efectúen con los insectos, de interés económico y sanitario». Gonzalo Ceballos fue nombrado Director y sus propuestas, junto al trabajo de las instituciones encargadas de la gestión forestal, hicieron del IEE uno de los centros motores de muchas iniciativas en este campo. Su dirección supuso, además, una excelente oportunidad para cumplir los objetivos con los que fue concebido el Instituto. En este artículo se distinguen tres formas de participación respecto al estudio, gestión y control de plagas forestales. Por un lado, la implicación del IEE en la resolución de consultas de particulares, empresas e instituciones; en segundo lugar, el desarrollo de proyectos subvencionados por el Patronato Juan de la Cierva y, finalmente, las colaboraciones con diferentes cuerpos dependientes del Ministerio de Agricultura. Se constata que la falta de personal especializado en plagas adscrito al IEE supuso un grave inconveniente para que las iniciativas de Ceballos se desarrollaran más allá de su gestión (AU)


The Spanish Institute of Entomology (IEE) was founded in 1941, direct heir of the former Entomology Section of the National Museum of Natural Science. Among the tasks assigned to the new Institute was to provide "to the interested centers the data resulting from the work that he made with insects with economic and public health significance". Gonzalo Ceballos was appointed Director; his proposals, alongside the work of the institutions responsible for forest management, turned up the IEE into one of the driving forces of many initiatives in this field. His management also provided an excellent opportunity to meet the objectives for which the Institute was conceived. Three forms of participation were distinguished on the study, management and control of forest pests. On one hand, the involvement of the IEE in resolving queries from individuals, companies and institutions; second, the development of scientific projects supported by the Juan de la Cierva Board of Trustees and, finally, collaborations with different departments belonging of the Ministry of Agriculture. It is stated that, the lack of specialized personnel assigned to the IEE pests' management was a serious drawback to continue the initiatives of Ceballos be developed beyond management (AU)


Assuntos
História do Século XIX , Entomologia/história , Entomologia/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/história , Florestas , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Controle de Pragas/história , Controle Biológico de Vetores/história , Pragas da Agricultura , Insetos Vetores , Vírus de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Insetos/microbiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 11(2): e0150087, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26918331

RESUMO

We present a gridded 8 km-resolution data product of the estimated composition of tree taxa at the time of Euro-American settlement of the northeastern United States and the statistical methodology used to produce the product from trees recorded by land surveyors. Composition is defined as the proportion of stems larger than approximately 20 cm diameter at breast height for 22 tree taxa, generally at the genus level. The data come from settlement-era public survey records that are transcribed and then aggregated spatially, giving count data. The domain is divided into two regions, eastern (Maine to Ohio) and midwestern (Indiana to Minnesota). Public Land Survey point data in the midwestern region (ca. 0.8-km resolution) are aggregated to a regular 8 km grid, while data in the eastern region, from Town Proprietor Surveys, are aggregated at the township level in irregularly-shaped local administrative units. The product is based on a Bayesian statistical model fit to the count data that estimates composition on the 8 km grid across the entire domain. The statistical model is designed to handle data from both the regular grid and the irregularly-shaped townships and allows us to estimate composition at locations with no data and to smooth over noise caused by limited counts in locations with data. Critically, the model also allows us to quantify uncertainty in our composition estimates, making the product suitable for applications employing data assimilation. We expect this data product to be useful for understanding the state of vegetation in the northeastern United States prior to large-scale Euro-American settlement. In addition to specific regional questions, the data product can also serve as a baseline against which to investigate how forests and ecosystems change after intensive settlement. The data product is being made available at the NIS data portal as version 1.0.


Assuntos
Florestas , Modelos Teóricos , Árvores , Agricultura/história , Teorema de Bayes , Cidades/história , Ecossistema , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/história , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Agricultura Florestal/história , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Método de Monte Carlo , New England , Distribuição Normal , Dispersão Vegetal , Especificidade da Espécie , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Urbanização/história
12.
Ambio ; 45 Suppl 2: 74-86, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26744044

RESUMO

By combining digital humanities text-mining tools and a qualitative approach, we examine changing concepts in forestry journals in Sweden and the United States (US) in the early twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Our first hypothesis is that foresters at the beginning of the twentieth century were more concerned with production and less concerned with ecology than foresters at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Our second hypothesis is that US foresters in the early twentieth century were less concerned with local site conditions than Swedish foresters. We find that early foresters in both countries had broader-and often ecologically focused-concerns than hypothesized. Ecological concerns in the forestry literature have increased, but in the Nordic countries, production concerns have increased as well. In both regions and both time periods, timber management is closely connected to concerns about governance and state power, but the forms that governance takes have changed.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal/história , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , Suécia , Estados Unidos
13.
Ecol Appl ; 25(5): 1167-74, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26485946

RESUMO

We analyzed historical timber inventory data collected systematically across a large mixed-conifer-dominated landscape to gain insight into the interaction between disturbances and vegetation structure and composition prior to 20th century land management practices. Using records from over 20 000 trees, we quantified historical vegetation structure and composition for nine distinct vegetation groups. Our findings highlight some key aspects of forest structure under an intact disturbance regime: (1) forests were low density, with mean live basal area and tree density ranging from 8-30 m2 /ha and 25-79 trees/ha, respectively; (2) understory and overstory structure and composition varied considerably across the landscape; and (3) elevational gradients largely explained variability in forest structure over the landscape. Furthermore, the presence of large trees across most of the surveyed area suggests that extensive stand-replacing disturbances were rare in these forests. The vegetation structure and composition characteristics we quantified, along with evidence of largely elevational control on these characteristics, can provide guidance for restoration efforts in similar forests.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal/história , Florestas , California , Monitoramento Ambiental , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
15.
Environ Manage ; 53(1): 194-201, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24271616

RESUMO

It is generally believed that forest cover in North Korea has undergone a substantial decrease since 1980, while in South Korea, forest cover has remained relatively static during that same period of time. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Forest Resources Assessments--based on the reported forest inventories from North and South Korea--suggest a major forest cover decrease in North Korea, but only a slight decrease in South Korea during the last 30 years. In this study, we seek to check and validate those assessments by comparing them to independently derived forest cover maps compiled for three time intervals between 1990 and 2010, as well as to provide a spatially explicit view of forest cover change in the Korean Peninsula since the 1990s. We extracted tree cover data for the Korean Peninsula from existing global datasets derived from satellite imagery. Our estimates, while qualitatively supporting the FAO results, show that North Korea has lost a large number of densely forested areas, and thus in this sense has suffered heavier forest loss than the FAO assessment suggests. Given the limited time interval studied in our assessment, the overall forest loss from North Korea during the whole span of time since 1980 may have been even heavier than in our estimate. For South Korea, our results indicate that the forest cover has remained relatively stable at the national level, but that important variability in forest cover evolution exists at the regional level: While the northern and western provinces show an overall decrease in forested areas, large areas in the southeastern part of the country have increased their forest cover.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal/história , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , República Democrática Popular da Coreia , Ecossistema , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , República da Coreia , Fatores de Tempo , Árvores
16.
Conserv Biol ; 27(4): 774-84, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23866037

RESUMO

The forests of southeastern Alaska remain largely intact and contain a substantial proportion of Earth's remaining old-growth temperate rainforest. Nonetheless, industrial-scale logging has occurred since the 1950s within a relatively narrow range of forest types that has never been quantified at a regional scale. We analyzed historical patterns of logging from 1954 through 2004 and compared the relative rates of change among forest types, landform associations, and biogeographic provinces. We found a consistent pattern of disproportionate logging at multiple scales, including large-tree stands and landscapes with contiguous productive old-growth forests. The highest rates of change were among landform associations and biogeographic provinces that originally contained the largest concentrations of productive old growth (i.e., timber volume >46.6 m³/ha). Although only 11.9% of productive old-growth forests have been logged region wide, large-tree stands have been reduced by at least 28.1%, karst forests by 37%, and landscapes with the highest volume of contiguous old growth by 66.5%. Within some island biogeographic provinces, loss of rare forest types may place local viability of species dependent on old growth at risk of extirpation. Examination of historical patterns of change among ecological forest types can facilitate planning for conservation of biodiversity and sustainable use of forest resources.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ecossistema , Agricultura Florestal/história , Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , Árvores , Alaska , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Geografia , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Modelos Logísticos , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
J Sci Food Agric ; 93(9): 2076-83, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23553313

RESUMO

Mast-feeding systems once formed the mainstay of pork production across Europe, but have now largely been forgotten. One of the earliest farming practices, it allowed people to fatten pigs on an otherwise wasted resource. Mast feeding was vital in the ancient world: Rome, Saxon England and the Normans all relied heavily on woodland pigs. As time and technology advanced, mast systems became outmoded and fell into disuse. However, recent public interest in improved animal welfare and sustainable agriculture, combined with anecdotal reports of improved flavour, has once again brought mast feeding into the spotlight. This article chronicles the changes in popularity and perception of mast-feeding systems throughout history, and uses the historical perspective to outline a possible future for woodland pigs.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/história , Dieta/veterinária , Sus scrofa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Criação de Animais Domésticos/economia , Criação de Animais Domésticos/tendências , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Dieta/economia , Ecologia/economia , Ecologia/tendências , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/história , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , História do Século XV , História do Século XVI , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Carne/economia , Reino Unido
18.
Hist Sci (Tokyo) ; 21(3): 161-73, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22834068

RESUMO

In South Korea, the Green Revolution has been commonly understood as the development and dissemination of new rice varieties ('Tongil' rice) and the rapid increase of rice yield in the 1970s. However, revolutionary success in agriculture was not the only green revolution South Korea experienced; another green revolution lay in the success of reforestation projects. In the 1970s, South Korea's forest greening was closely related to its agricultural revolution in several ways. Therefore, South Korea's Green Revolution was an intrinsically linked double feature of agriculture and forestry. This two-pronged revolution was initiated by scientific research - yet accomplished by the strong administrative mobilization of President Park Chung Hee's regime. The process of setting goals and meeting them through a military-like strategy in a short time was made possible under the authoritarian regime, known as 'Yushin', though the administration failed to fully acknowledge scientific expertise in the process of pushing to achieve goals.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Autoritarismo , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Agricultura Florestal , Governo , Oryza , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/educação , Agricultura/história , Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/história , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/história , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/educação , Agricultura Florestal/história , Agricultura Florestal/legislação & jurisprudência , Governo/história , História do Século XX , Oryza/economia , Oryza/história , República da Coreia/etnologia , Mudança Social/história
20.
J Environ Manage ; 106: 56-68, 2012 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22562012

RESUMO

Alien conifers, mainly pines, have been planted in South Africa for a range of purposes for over 300 years. Formal plantations cover 660,000 ha of the country, and invasive stands of varying density occur on a further 2.9 million ha. These trees have brought many benefits but have also caused unintended problems. The management of alien conifers has evolved in response to emerging problems such as excessive water use by plantations of conifers, changing values and markets, and the realities of a new ecological order brought about by invasive alien conifers. This paper reviews the history of conifer introductions to South Africa, the benefits and impacts with which they are associated, and the ongoing and evolving research that has been conducted to inform their management. The South African approach has included taking courageous steps to address the problem of highly invasive species that are also an important commercial crop. These interventions have not, however, had the desired effect of both retaining benefits from formal plantations while simultaneously reversing the trend of growing impacts associated with self-sown invasive stands. We suggest that different approaches need to be considered, including the systematic phasing out of commercial forestry in zones where it delivers low returns, and the introduction of more effective, focussed and integrated, region-specific approaches to the management of invasive stands of conifers. These steps would deliver much improved economic outcomes by protecting valuable ecosystem services, but will require political commitment to policies that could be unpopular in certain sectors of society.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/história , Espécies Introduzidas , Negociação , Traqueófitas , Animais , Biodiversidade , Sequestro de Carbono , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Ecossistema , Meio Ambiente , Política Ambiental , Fogo , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Pinus , Privatização , África do Sul
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