Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 133
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 190(12): 714, 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417241

RESUMO

Shifts in government priorities in response to the 2007 global recession have affected wildfire management and natural disaster funding arrangements, leading to a reduced effectiveness of fire suppression actions and increasing fire vulnerability. Our study investigates the role of local socioeconomic contexts on fire suppression effectiveness under economic expansion and recession in a Mediterranean region (Attica, Greece) strongly affected by 2007 crisis and displaying a persistently high density of peri-urban wildfires. Basic characteristics of wildfires (spatial distribution, intensity, and land use preferences) were investigated in the study area over two consecutive 8-year time intervals characterized by economic expansion (2000-2007) and recession (2008-2015). An integrated approach based on multivariate statistics and artificial neural networks was implemented to evaluate latent relationships between fire suppression time, wildfire characteristics, and socioeconomic dynamics. Controlling for wildfires' characteristics over the two time intervals, fire time length increased under crisis-mainly for small and medium-sized fires-possibly as an indirect response to reduced effectiveness of forest land management. Local contexts and political decisions influenced by economic downturns are relevant factors shaping wildfires' severity in the Mediterranean region. With recession, local contexts vulnerable to wildfires require more effective fire prevention measures, sustainable forest management, and regional planning.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Incêndios Florestais , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , Florestas , Grécia , Região do Mediterrâneo , Análise Multivariada , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4839, 2018 11 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30446752

RESUMO

Trade-offs and synergies in the supply of forest ecosystem services are common but the drivers of these relationships are poorly understood. To guide management that seeks to promote multiple services, we investigated the relationships between 12 stand-level forest attributes, including structure, composition, heterogeneity and plant diversity, plus 4 environmental factors, and proxies for 14 ecosystem services in 150 temperate forest plots. Our results show that forest attributes are the best predictors of most ecosystem services and are also good predictors of several synergies and trade-offs between services. Environmental factors also play an important role, mostly in combination with forest attributes. Our study suggests that managing forests to increase structural heterogeneity, maintain large trees, and canopy gaps would promote the supply of multiple ecosystem services. These results highlight the potential for forest management to encourage multifunctional forests and suggest that a coordinated landscape-scale strategy could help to mitigate trade-offs in human-dominated landscapes.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Árvores/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , Humanos
11.
Nature ; 560(7720): 639-643, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30089903

RESUMO

Land change is a cause and consequence of global environmental change1,2. Changes in land use and land cover considerably alter the Earth's energy balance and biogeochemical cycles, which contributes to climate change and-in turn-affects land surface properties and the provision of ecosystem services1-4. However, quantification of global land change is lacking. Here we analyse 35 years' worth of satellite data and provide a comprehensive record of global land-change dynamics during the period 1982-2016. We show that-contrary to the prevailing view that forest area has declined globally5-tree cover has increased by 2.24 million km2 (+7.1% relative to the 1982 level). This overall net gain is the result of a net loss in the tropics being outweighed by a net gain in the extratropics. Global bare ground cover has decreased by 1.16 million km2 (-3.1%), most notably in agricultural regions in Asia. Of all land changes, 60% are associated with direct human activities and 40% with indirect drivers such as climate change. Land-use change exhibits regional dominance, including tropical deforestation and agricultural expansion, temperate reforestation or afforestation, cropland intensification and urbanization. Consistently across all climate domains, montane systems have gained tree cover and many arid and semi-arid ecosystems have lost vegetation cover. The mapped land changes and the driver attributions reflect a human-dominated Earth system. The dataset we developed may be used to improve the modelling of land-use changes, biogeochemical cycles and vegetation-climate interactions to advance our understanding of global environmental change1-4,6.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Atividades Humanas/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura/tendências , Mudança Climática/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , Atividades Humanas/tendências , Imagens de Satélites , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Environ Manage ; 62(6): 1108-1133, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128584

RESUMO

The role of digital technologies for fostering sustainability and efficiency in forest-based supply chains is well acknowledged and motivated several studies in the scope of precision forestry. Sensor technologies can collect relevant data in forest-based supply chains, comprising all activities from within forests and the production of the woody raw material to its transformation into marketable forest-based products. Advanced planning systems can help to support decisions of the various entities in the supply chain, e.g., forest owners, harvest companies, haulage companies, and forest product processing industry. Such tools can help to deal with the complex interdependencies between different entities, often with opposing objectives and actions-which may increase efficiency of forest-based supply chains. This paper analyzes contemporary literature dealing with digital technologies in forest-based supply chains and summarizes the state-of-the-art digital technologies for real-time data collection on forests, product flows, and forest operations, as well as planning systems and other decision support systems in use by supply chain actors. Higher sustainability and efficiency of forest-based supply chains require a seamless information flow to foster integrated planning of the activities over the supply chain-thereby facilitating seamless data exchange between the supply chain entities and foster new forms of collaboration. Therefore, this paper deals with data exchange and multi-entity collaboration aspects in combination with interoperability challenges related with the integration among multiple process data collection tools and advanced planning systems. Finally, this interdisciplinary review leads to the discussion of relevant guidelines that can guide future research and integration projects in this domain.


Assuntos
Agricultura Florestal/tendências , Tomada de Decisões , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Tecnologia , Madeira/química
15.
Environ Manage ; 62(1): 45-57, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785612

RESUMO

A growing world population and rapid expansion of cities increase the pressure on basic resources such as water, food and energy. To safeguard the provision of these resources, restoration and sustainable management of landscapes is pivotal, including sustainable forest and water management. Sustainable forest management includes forest conservation, restoration, forestry and agroforestry practices. Interlinkages between forests and water are fundamental to moderate water budgets, stabilize runoff, reduce erosion and improve biodiversity and water quality. Sweden has gained substantial experience in sustainable forest management in the past century. Through significant restoration efforts, a largely depleted Swedish forest has transformed into a well-managed production forest within a century, leading to sustainable economic growth through the provision of forest products. More recently, ecosystem services are also included in management decisions. Such a transformation depends on broad stakeholder dialog, combined with an enabling institutional and policy environment. Based on seminars and workshops with a wide range of key stakeholders managing Sweden's forests and waters, this article draws lessons from the history of forest management in Sweden. These lessons are particularly relevant for countries in the Global South that currently experience similar challenges in forest and landscape management. The authors argue that an integrated landscape approach involving a broad array of sectors and stakeholders is needed to achieve sustainable forest and water management. Sustainable landscape management-integrating water, agriculture and forests-is imperative to achieving resilient socio-economic systems and landscapes.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Política Ambiental/tendências , Agricultura Florestal/organização & administração , Florestas , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Qualidade da Água/normas , Agricultura/organização & administração , Biodiversidade , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , Crescimento Demográfico , Suécia , Árvores/classificação , Urbanização
16.
Environ Manage ; 62(1): 15-28, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520438

RESUMO

In parts of the developing world, deforestation rates are high and poverty is chronic and pervasive. Addressing these issues through the commercialization of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) has been widely researched, tested, and discussed. While the evidence is inconclusive, there is growing understanding of what works and why, and this paper examines the acknowledged success and failure factors. African forest honey has been relatively overlooked as an NTFP, an oversight this paper addresses. Drawing on evidence from a long-established forest conservation, livelihoods, and trade development initiative in SW Ethiopia, forest honey is benchmarked against accepted success and failure factors and is found to be a near-perfect NTFP. The criteria are primarily focused on livelihood impacts and consequently this paper makes recommendations for additional criteria directly related to forest maintenance.


Assuntos
Criação de Abelhas/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Florestas , Mel/economia , Criação de Abelhas/métodos , Criação de Abelhas/tendências , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Etiópia , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , Humanos , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190003, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29320520

RESUMO

Tropical montane habitats, grasslands, in particular, merit urgent conservation attention owing to the disproportionate levels of endemic biodiversity they harbour, the ecosystem services they provide, and the fact that they are among the most threatened habitats globally. The Shola Sky Islands in the Western Ghats host a matrix of native forest-grassland matrix that has been planted over the last century, with exotic timber plantations. The popular discourse on the landscape change is that mainly forests have been lost to the timber plantations and recent court directives are to restore Shola forest trees. In this study, we examine spatiotemporal patterns of landscape change over the last 40 years in the Palani Hills, a significant part of the montane habitat in the Western Ghats. Using satellite imagery and field surveys, we find that 66% of native grasslands and 31% of native forests have been lost over the last 40 years. Grasslands have gone from being the dominant, most contiguous land cover to one of the rarest and most fragmented. They have been replaced by timber plantations and, to a lesser extent, expanding agriculture. We find that the spatial pattern of grassland loss to plantations differs from the loss to agriculture, likely driven by the invasion of plantation species into grasslands. We identify remnant grasslands that should be prioritised for conservation and make specific recommendations for conservation and restoration of grasslands in light of current management policy in the Palani Hills, which favours large-scale removal of plantations and emphasises the restoration of native forests.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Agricultura Florestal , Pradaria , Agricultura/tendências , Área Sob a Curva , Ecossistema , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , Atividades Humanas , Lagos , Modelos Teóricos , Curva ROC , Imagens de Satélites , Sri Lanka , Árvores
19.
PLoS Biol ; 15(7): e2003292, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28759563

RESUMO

Clearing wild forests to grow food, fibre, and fuel products can deliver large financial gains. However, the benefits that people obtain from forests-known as ecosystem services-are rarely considered in economic calculations, partly because there are few markets onto which they can be traded. In some regions, the benefits delivered by nature might be more economically valuable. A new study maps where it is profitable to replace tropical forests with cropland and how this might change under future agricultural production and carbon prices. The findings address a major applied challenge by helping to identify sites where forest conservation can be economically viable.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Internacionalidade , Modelos Econômicos , Meio Selvagem , Agricultura/tendências , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Política Ambiental , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , Humanos , Incerteza
20.
PLoS Biol ; 15(7): e2001657, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28732022

RESUMO

Global demands for agricultural and forestry products provide economic incentives for deforestation across the tropics. Much of this deforestation occurs with a lack of information on the spatial distribution of benefits and costs of deforestation. To inform global sustainable land-use policies, we combine geographic information systems (GIS) with a meta-analysis of ecosystem services (ES) studies to perform a spatially explicit analysis of the trade-offs between agricultural benefits, carbon emissions, and losses of multiple ecosystem services because of tropical deforestation from 2000 to 2012. Even though the value of ecosystem services presents large inherent uncertainties, we find a pattern supporting the argument that the externalities of destroying tropical forests are greater than the current direct economic benefits derived from agriculture in all cases bar one: when yield and rent potentials of high-value crops could be realized in the future. Our analysis identifies the Atlantic Forest, areas around the Gulf of Guinea, and Thailand as areas where agricultural conversion appears economically efficient, indicating a major impediment to the long-term financial sustainability of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) schemes in those countries. By contrast, Latin America, insular Southeast Asia, and Madagascar present areas with low agricultural rents (ARs) and high values in carbon stocks and ES, suggesting that they are economically viable conservation targets. Our study helps identify optimal areas for conservation and agriculture together with their associated uncertainties, which could enhance the efficiency and sustainability of pantropical land-use policies and help direct future research efforts.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/economia , Agricultura Florestal/métodos , Florestas , Internacionalidade , Modelos Econômicos , Meio Selvagem , Agricultura/tendências , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/economia , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Animais , Ciclo do Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/toxicidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/tendências , Humanos , Clima Tropical
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA