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1.
Planta ; 254(4): 66, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491441

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: Advances in nanotechnology make it an important tool for improving agricultural production. Strong evidence supports the role of nanomaterials as nutrients or nanocarriers for the controlled release of fertilizers to improve plant growth. Scientific research shows that nanotechnology applied in plant sciences is smart technology. Excessive application of mineral fertilizers has produced a harmful impact on the ecosystem. Furthermore, the projected increase in the human population by 2050 has led to the search for alternatives to ensure food security. Nanotechnology is a promising strategy to enhance crop productivity while minimizing fertilizer inputs. Nanofertilizers can contribute to the slow and sustainable release of nutrients to improve the efficiency of nutrient use in plants. Nanomaterial properties (i.e., size, morphology and charge) and plant physiology are crucial factors that influence the impact on plant growth. An important body of scientific research highlights the role of carbon nanomaterials, metal nanoparticles and metal oxide nanoparticles to improve plant development through the modulation of physiological and metabolic processes. Modulating nutrient concentrations, photosynthesis processes and antioxidant enzyme activities have led to increases in shoot length, root development, photosynthetic pigments and fruit yield. In parallel, nanocarriers (nanoclays, nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite, mesoporous silica and chitosan) have been shown to be an important tool for the controlled and sustainable release of conventional fertilizers to improve plant nutrition; however, the technical advances in nanofertilizers need to be accompanied by modernization of the regulations and legal frameworks to allow wider commercialization of these elements. Nanofertilizers are a promising strategy to improve plant development and nutrition, but their application in sustainable agriculture remains a great challenge. The present review summarizes the current advance of research into nanofertilizers, and their future prospects.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Agricultura , Fertilizantes/análise , Nanotecnologia
2.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248420, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495163

RESUMO

Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Ecossistema , Animais , Humanos , Paquistão , Caramujos
3.
Planta ; 254(4): 68, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498163

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSION: In this review, we have focused on the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for improving the agronomic traits in plants through point mutations, knockout, and single base editing, and we highlighted the recent progress in plant metabolic engineering. CRISPR/Cas9 technology has immense power to reproduce plants with desired characters and revolutionizing the field of genome engineering by erasing the barriers in targeted genome editing. Agriculture fields are using this advance genome editing tool to get the desired traits in the crops plants such as increase yield, improve product quality attributes, and enhance resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses by identifying and editing genes of interest. This review focuses on CRISPR/Cas-based gene knockout for trait improvement and single base editing to boost yield, quality, stress tolerance, and disease resistance traits in crops. Use of CRISPR/Cas9 system to facilitate crop domestication and hybrid breeding are also touched. We summarize recent developments and up-gradation of delivery mechanism (nanotechnology and virus particle-based delivery system) and progress in multiplex gene editing. We also shed lights in advances and challenges of engineering the important metabolic pathways that contain a variety of dietary metabolites and phytochemicals. In addition, we endorsed substantial technical hurdles and possible ways to overcome the unpredictability of CRISPR/Cas technology for broader application across various crop species. We speculated that by making a strong interconnection among all genomic fields will give a gigantic bunt of knowledge to develop crop expressing desired traits.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Melhoramento Vegetal , Agricultura , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas/genética , Genoma de Planta , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Tecnologia
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502725

RESUMO

In response to one of the most important challenges of the century, i.e., the estimation of the food demands of a growing population, advanced technologies have been employed in agriculture. The potato has the main contribution to people's diet worldwide. Therefore, its different aspects are worth studying. The large number of potato varieties, lack of awareness about its new cultivars among farmers to cultivate, time-consuming and inaccurate process of identifying different potato cultivars, and the significance of identifying potato cultivars and other agricultural products (in every food industry process) all necessitate new, fast, and accurate methods. The aim of this study was to use an electronic nose, along with chemometrics methods, including PCA, LDA, and ANN as fast, inexpensive, and non-destructive methods for detecting different potato cultivars. In the present study, nine sensors with the best response to VOCs were adopted. VOCs sensors were used at various VOCs concentrations (1 to 10,000 ppm) to detect different gases. The results showed that a PCA with two main components, PC1 and PC2, described 92% of the total samples' dataset variance. In addition, the accuracy of the LDA and ANN methods were 100 and 96%, respectively.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum , Agricultura , Nariz Eletrônico , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502813

RESUMO

Cloud Computing is a well-established paradigm for building service-centric systems. However, ultra-low latency, high bandwidth, security, and real-time analytics are limitations in Cloud Computing when analysing and providing results for a large amount of data. Fog and Edge Computing offer solutions to the limitations of Cloud Computing. The number of agricultural domain applications that use the combination of Cloud, Fog, and Edge is increasing in the last few decades. This article aims to provide a systematic literature review of current works that have been done in Cloud, Fog, and Edge Computing applications in the smart agriculture domain between 2015 and up-to-date. The key objective of this review is to identify all relevant research on new computing paradigms with smart agriculture and propose a new architecture model with the combinations of Cloud-Fog-Edge. Furthermore, it also analyses and examines the agricultural application domains, research approaches, and the application of used combinations. Moreover, this survey discusses the components used in the architecture models and briefly explores the communication protocols used to interact from one layer to another. Finally, the challenges of smart agriculture and future research directions are briefly pointed out in this article.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Computação em Nuvem
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502823

RESUMO

Crop geometry plays a vital role in ensuring proper plant growth and yield. Check row planting allows adequate space for weeding in both direction and allowing sunlight down to the bottom of the crop. Therefore, a light detection and ranging (LiDAR) navigated electronic seed metering system for check row planting of maize seeds was developed. The system is comprised of a LiDAR-based distance measurement unit, electronic seed metering mechanism and a wireless communication system. The electronic seed metering mechanism was evaluated in the laboratory for five different cell sizes (8.80, 9.73, 10.82, 11.90 and 12.83 mm) and linear cell speed (89.15, 99.46, 111.44, 123.41 and 133.72 mm·s-1). The research shows the optimised values for the cell size and linear speed of cell were found to be 11.90 mm and 99.46 mm·s-1 respectively. A light dependent resistor (LDR) and light emitting diode (LED)-based seed flow sensing system was developed to measure the lag time of seed flow from seed metering box to bottom of seed tube. The average lag time of seed fall was observed as 251.2 ± 5.39 ms at an optimised linear speed of cell of 99.46 mm·s-1 and forward speed of 2 km·h-1. This lag time was minimized by advancing the seed drop on the basis of forward speed of tractor, lag time and targeted position. A check row quality index (ICRQ) was developed to evaluate check row planter. While evaluating the developed system at different forward speeds (i.e., 2, 3 and 5 km·h-1), higher standard deviation (14.14%) of check row quality index was observed at forward speed of 5 km·h-1.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Zea mays , Eletrônica , Sementes
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502840

RESUMO

With the growing adoption of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology in the agricultural sector, smart devices are becoming more prevalent. The availability of new, timely, and precise data offers a great opportunity to develop advanced analytical models. Therefore, the platform used to deliver new developments to the final user is a key enabler for adopting IoT technology. This work presents a generic design of a software platform based on the cloud and implemented using microservices to facilitate the use of predictive or prescriptive analytics under different IoT scenarios. Several technologies are combined to comply with the essential features-scalability, portability, interoperability, and usability-that the platform must consider to assist decision-making in agricultural 4.0 contexts. The platform is prepared to integrate new sensor devices, perform data operations, integrate several data sources, transfer complex statistical model developments seamlessly, and provide a user-friendly graphical interface. The proposed software architecture is implemented with open-source technologies and validated in a smart farming scenario. The growth of a batch of pigs at the fattening stage is estimated from the data provided by a level sensor installed in the silo that stores the feed from which the animals are fed. With this application, we demonstrate how farmers can monitor the weight distribution and receive alarms when high deviations happen.


Assuntos
Internet das Coisas , Agricultura , Animais , Fazendas , Gado , Software , Suínos
8.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(10): 3644-3655, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480627

RESUMO

Continuously increasing human population demands increased food production, which needs greater fertilizer's input in agricultural lands to enhance crop yield. In this respect, different fertilization practices gained acceptance among farmers. We reviewed effect of three main fertilization practices (Conventional-, Organic-, and Bio-fertilization) on soil microbial diversity, activity, and community composition. Studies reported that over application of inorganic fertilizers decline soil pH, change soil osmolarity, cause soil degradation, disturb taxonomic diversity and metabolism of soil microbes and cause accumulation of extra nutrients into the soil such as phosphorous (P) accumulation. On the contrary, organic fertilizers increase organic carbon (OC) input in the soil, which strongly encourage growth of heterotrophic microbes. Organic fertilizer vermicompost application provides readily available nutrients to both plants as well as microbes and encourage overall microbial number in the soil. Most recently, role of beneficial bacteria in long-term sustainable agriculture attracted attention of scientists towards their use as biofertilizer in the soil. Studies documented favorable effect of biofertilization on microbial Shannon, Chao and ACE diversity indices in the soil. It is concluded from intensive review of literature that all the three fertilization practices have their own way to benefit the soil with nutrients, but biofertilization provides long-term sustainability to crop lands. When it is used in integration with organic fertilizers, it makes the soil best for microbial growth and activity and increase microbial diversity, providing nutrients to soil for a longer time, thus improving crop productivity.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Solo , Solo , Agricultura , Fertilização , Fertilizantes/análise , Humanos
9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(10): 639, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505936

RESUMO

Lower Shiwalik foothill ranges (Kandi regions) are dominated by different land use systems, varying in fertility status due to soil erosion owing to undulating topographical features. For assessment of soil nutrient status of study area, the soil sampling was conducted to investigate the variation in micronutrient status and physicochemical characteristics of soil. Long-range basis soil sampling was carried out in 11 blocks falling in the entire Shiwalik ranges of lower Himalaya under different land use systems (LUSs), viz., agriculture (AG), horticulture (HR), agri-horticulture (AH), grassland (GL), and agroforestry (AF) systems. A total of 440 soil samples were collected from two depths (0-15, 15-30 cm) for analysis. The results had reported that the soils were slightly acidic to slightly alkaline (6.61 to 8.10) in the whole range. Soil organic carbon (SOC) was found to be varying from very low to very high (2.43 to 10.43 g kg-1). DTPA-extractable Fe and Mn were found to be in dominant concentrations in the soils whereas, the deficiency of Zn was found under all existing land uses. Interestingly, Fe (r = 0.62*), Cu (r = 0.44), and Mn (r = 0.35) micronutrients were positively correlated with clay content whereas Zn (r = - 0.02) was negatively correlated. Soil quality based on principal component analysis (SQI-PCA) reported clay, SOC, and Zn are major dominating parameters to be considered of soil in Shiwalik ranges.


Assuntos
Carbono , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Índia , Micronutrientes
10.
Horm Metab Res ; 53(9): 575-587, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496408

RESUMO

Global warming and the rising prevalence of obesity are well described challenges of current mankind. Most recently, the COVID-19 pandemic arose as a new challenge. We here attempt to delineate their relationship with each other from our perspective. Global greenhouse gas emissions from the burning of fossil fuels have exponentially increased since 1950. The main contributors to such greenhouse gas emissions are manufacturing and construction, transport, residential, commercial, agriculture, and land use change and forestry, combined with an increasing global population growth from 1 billion in 1800 to 7.8 billion in 2020 along with rising obesity rates since the 1980s. The current Covid-19 pandemic has caused some decline in greenhouse gas emissions by limiting mobility globally via repetitive lockdowns. Following multiple lockdowns, there was further increase in obesity in wealthier populations, malnutrition from hunger in poor populations and death from severe infection with Covid-19 and its virus variants. There is a bidirectional relationship between adiposity and global warming. With rising atmospheric air temperatures, people typically will have less adaptive thermogenesis and become less physically active, while they are producing a higher carbon footprint. To reduce obesity rates, one should be willing to learn more about the environmental impact, how to minimize consumption of energy generating carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions, and to reduce food waste. Diets lower in meat such as a Mediterranean diet, have been estimated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 72%, land use by 58%, and energy consumption by 52%.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Obesidade/etiologia , Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/tendências , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/patologia , Mudança Climática/história , Comorbidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Meio Ambiente , Exposição Ambiental/história , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/toxicidade , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148499, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465050

RESUMO

The damaging effects of climate change on agricultural productivity are on the increase. Relevant adaptation strategies are important to cope with climate change risks and sustain agricultural productivity. This study employed descriptive statistics, multivariate probit (MVP) model and endogenous switching regression model (ESRM), to analyze the data collected using a survey questionnaire from four provinces in South Africa. The study estimated the determining factors influencing the adoption of climate change adaptation strategies and credit access among smallholder farmers in the study areas. The empirical results of the multivariate probit model showed that location, access to extension, non-farm income, farming experience, crop and livestock production, susceptibility, agricultural training and access to credit variables influenced the smallholder decision to adopt climate change adaptation strategies. On the other hand, the ESRM showed that location, age, marital status, gender among others, influenced the decision to adopt climate change adaptation strategies. The variables such as location, education, drought experience affected the smallholder farmers' access to credit. Thus, to improve the adaptive capacity of farmers, stakeholders and government must cooperate and collaborate to improve the conditions under which farmers can gain access to climate change information and suitable agricultural credit as well as policy incentives to ensure overall sustainability of the agricultural sector.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Fazendeiros , Agricultura , Fazendas , Humanos , África do Sul
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148416, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465054

RESUMO

Excess diffuse fine sediment losses from agriculture are associated with a reduction in the ecological status of lakes and rivers. Agri-environment initiatives aim to help reduce these excessive losses through targeted on-farm advice and capital grants. However, to deliver optimum cost-benefit such initiatives must target the most important sediment sources. Sediment source fingerprinting provides an approach by which sediment provenance data can be generated; however, conventional tracers are expensive and state-of-the-art data processing for source discrimination and apportionment requires significant expertise. In consequence, sediment fingerprinting is not routinely used for catchment management. Against this context, sediment colour measured using an ordinary document scanner is trialled as an inexpensive and accessible tracer in eight catchments classed as high priority for an agri-environment initiative in England. Colour is interpreted using simple scatter bi-plots of source and sediment samples and compared to the results produced by a conventional composite tracer sediment source fingerprinting methodology. It was found that in two study catchments, sediment colour was as effective as conventional sediment fingerprinting. In four catchments, sediment colour provided less source discrimination or minor differences in results but still identified the most important targets for sediment mitigation. In two catchments, colour was un-successful; however, significant challenges were also encountered with more conventional tracers due to specific local conditions. The findings suggest that use of low-cost colour tracers by non-experts has the potential to significantly increase the uptake of sediment source tracing to improve the cost-benefit of agri-environment initiatives combating the degradation of water quality and aquatic ecology by accelerated sediment losses.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos , Rios , Agricultura , Cor , Inglaterra
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148464, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465062

RESUMO

Mitigating environmental pollution and sustaining grain production have been foundational issues in sustainable development, however, ascertaining the optimal balance remains poorly investigated. This study used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to simulate crop growth and nitrogen loss, established the mapping relationship between nitrogen input to yield and water quality, and proposed a general method to determine a nitrogen application strategy for high yield and low pollution at a basin scale. Lake Xiaoxingkai basin, which is the primary maize producing area in China as well as an internationally important wetland distribution area, was used as a case study. First, we designed application scenarios for 10 base fertilizers (B1-B10) and 10 topdressing fertilizers (T1-T10) and evaluated their combined effects of maize growth to identify the critical nitrogen fertilizer rates determined under fixed and dynamic base/topdressing ratios. Then, the critical base and topdressing fertilizer rates were determined. Based on the mapping relationship between nitrogen fertilizer rate and nitrogen loss, we then revealed water quality at the basin outlet under the critical base and topdressing fertilizer rates. Finally, we proposed alternative nitrogen application strategies for high yield and low pollution while considering the different preferences of decision-makers for the economy, agriculture, and environment. We found that adjusting the ratio of base to topdressing fertilizer may create a win-win situation for agriculture and the environment, which will provide a scientific basis for sustainable development.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Agricultura , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo , Qualidade da Água , Zea mays
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 792: 148161, 2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465063

RESUMO

Paludiculture, the cultivation of crops on rewetted peatlands, is often proposed as a viable climate change mitigation option that reduces greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe), while simultaneously providing novel agricultural business options. In West Europe, experiments are ongoing in using the paludicrop cattail (Typha spp.) as feedstock for insulation panel material. Here, we use a Dutch case study to investigate the environmental potential and economic viability of shifting the use of peat soils from grassland (for dairy production) to Typha paludiculture (for cultivation and insulation panel production). Using a life cycle assessment and cost-benefit analysis, we compared the global warming potential (GWP), yearly revenues and calculated Net Present Value (NPV) of 1 ha Dutch peat soil used either for dairy production or for Typha paludiculture. We estimated that changing to Typha paludiculture leads to a GWP reduction of ~32% (16.4 t CO2-eq ha-1), mainly because of lower emissions from peat decomposition as a result of land-use management (-21.6 t CO2-eq ha-1). If biogenic carbon storage is excluded, the avoided impact of conventional insulation material is insufficient to compensate the impact of cultivating and processing Typha (9.7 t CO2-eq ha-1); however, this changes if biogenic carbon storage is included (following PAS2050 guidelines). Typha paludiculture is currently not competitive with dairy production, mainly due to high cultivation costs and low revenues, which are both uncertain, and will likely improve as the system develops. Its NPV is negative, mainly due to high investment costs. This can be improved by introducing carbon credits, with carbon prices for Typha paludiculture (30 years) comparable to EU-ETS prices. In conclusion, Dutch Typha paludiculture has a significant climate change mitigation potential by reducing emissions from deep drained peatlands. Nevertheless, attention is needed to increase its economic viability as this is a key aspect of the system change.


Assuntos
Gases de Efeito Estufa , Typhaceae , Agricultura , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Solo , Áreas Alagadas
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(9): 621, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476631

RESUMO

Global acreage of forested lands has increased in some countries. At least some of this increase is due to the natural conversion of abandoned agricultural lands into forests. However, little is known about how these new stands develop on abandoned agricultural lands in comparison with natural regeneration of existing forests. Specifically, knowledge of how black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) naturally establishes and develops on abandoned agricultural lands is limited. In this study, we examined the density and growth of black pine saplings as well as some morphological and anatomical characteristics on an abandoned agricultural land (AAS). These data were compared with those observed in a naturally regenerated stand (NRS), and in a forest opening (FOS). The greatest sapling density was observed in the NRS site, while sapling growth and stem biomass were higher in AAS followed by NRS and FOS. Moreover, each study site exhibited site-specific morphological and anatomical traits in their saplings. Our findings showed that site treatments and overstory openness would both play crucial role for establishment and development of black pine.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Pinus , Agricultura , Biomassa , Florestas , Árvores
17.
Chimia (Aarau) ; 75(9): 772-779, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34526183

RESUMO

Today, the production of food accounts for roughly one quarter of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Since the 1970s, thanks to substantial research and development, the overall yield output in farm fields has increased by ca. 60%, while the net use of crop protection agents per square meter of farm field has been reduced by more than 90%. The development of modern crop protection agents remains an important need as new pests, diseases and weeds continue to affect crops. The vast majority of these effective solutions are manufactured using raw materials that ultimately come from fossil resources. In this article, we are touring within the agrochemical landscape to provide the reader with an overview of concrete examples on how in this industrial field, renewable and sustainable raw materials have been used to produce active ingredients. We are also discussing the opportunities for future development as well as some of the challenges and needs that are emerging.


Assuntos
Proteção de Cultivos , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura , Agroquímicos
18.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249847, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34524374

RESUMO

The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


Assuntos
Porcos-Espinhos , Agricultura , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Produtos Agrícolas , Humanos , Paquistão
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 125954, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492872

RESUMO

Biodegradable (Bio) plastic films are widely viewed as promising alternative products of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films to minimize plastic debris accumulation and pollution in agroecosystems. Yet, this speculation indeed lacks of sufficient evidences. We conducted a landfill investigation on the aging characteristics of Bio and LDPE plastic films in maize field, and the effects on soil aggregate composition and carbon & nitrogen stocks. The degradation rate of Bio film was up to 41.1% while that of LDPE film was zero. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the crack formation of Bio film had a pronounced domino effect, and FTIR showed that old Bio film displayed an extra wide peak threshold ranging from 3000 to 3500 cm-1. Particularly, the abundance of microplastics was elevated with the increased plastic residues, and the increment mostly resulted from Bio residues. Critically, plastic residues significantly lowered the soil macro-aggregates (>0.25 mm) proportion, while increasing that of micro-aggregates (0.1-0.25 mm) in LDPE, and silt/clay fraction (<0.1 mm) in Bio respectively. They significantly promoted total nitrogen content of the aggregates with the same size, but decreased the organic carbon content, dramatically lowering the C/N. Therefore, we first identified the fate of plastic film residues in agroecosystems and revealed the serious deficiencies of Bio plastic film.


Assuntos
Plásticos Biodegradáveis , Solo , Agricultura , Carbono , Ecossistema , Nitrogênio , Plásticos
20.
Rev Sci Tech ; 40(2): 469-481, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542100

RESUMO

Animal welfare is an essential component of the future of sustainable agriculture and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. There is growing global recognition of the importance of animal welfare, which must always be considered as part of the decision-making around food and nutrition security. Veterinary Services, encompassing public and private veterinarians and para-veterinarians, are custodians of animal welfare and key players in future actions to improve it. The welfare of animals is everyone's responsibility, from the individual farmer and practitioner to policymakers at the national and intergovernmental level. In this paper, after providing background information about current animal welfare issues and identifying animal welfare risks, the authors make a number of recommendations for action at the institutional and individual level. They do so because while the former is essential to generate change at scale and effective resourcing, the latter can create immediate action at a local level and drive change from the ground up. Without coordinated action from Veterinary Services, opportunities to improve animal welfare, alongside human and environmental health and well-being, may very well be lost, and animal welfare may fail to improve or even be at risk of decline.


Assuntos
Médicos Veterinários , Medicina Veterinária , Agricultura , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Fazendeiros , Humanos
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