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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253469, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364522

RESUMO

Agriculture sector of Saudi Arabia is growing swiftly and tomato is an important crop cultivated mostly under green houses. Unfortunately, it is facing severe infestation due to divers mite species. Present study, relates to evaluation of toxicity of oxamyl against two phytophagous mites; Aculops lycopersici and Tetranychus urticae, isolated from tomato plants suffering from infestation. Simultaneous effect of oxamyl on two predatory mites; Neosiulus cucumeris and Euseius scutalis, was also evaluated. Three concentrations of oxamyl; half of the recommended dose (HRD), recommended dose (RD) and double recommended dose (DRD), were used against each mite specie to observe mortality within seven days as compared to the control. Significant mortality of 97.91% and 93.92% was observed in A. lycopersici and T. urticae, respectively at RD. In case of predatory mites; N. cucumeris and E. scutalis, mortality was 60.61% and 64.48%, respectively, under same conditions. Mortality of mites observed at HRD was insignificant and there was negligible increase in mortality at DRD. Oxamyl being less toxic to predatory mites and significantly mortal to phytophagous mites is recommended as a tool to as a tool to achieve biological control parallel to pesticidal effect.


O setor agrícola da Arábia Saudita está crescendo rapidamente e o tomate é uma cultura importante cultivada principalmente em estufas. Infelizmente, está enfrentando uma infestação severa devido a diversas espécies de ácaros. O presente estudo refere-se à avaliação da toxicidade do oxamil contra dois ácaros fitófagos; Aculops lycopersici e Tetranychus urticae, isolados de tomateiros infestados. Efeito simultâneo de oxamil em dois ácaros predadores; Neosiulus cucumeris e Euseius scutalis, também foi avaliado. Três concentrações de oxamil; metade da dose recomendada (HRD), dose recomendada (RD) e dose dupla recomendada (DRD), foram usados ​​contra cada espécie de ácaro para observar a mortalidade em sete dias em comparação com o controle. Mortalidade significativa de 97,91% e 93,92% foi observada em A. lycopersici e T. urticae, respectivamente no RD. No caso de ácaros predadores; N. cucumeris e E. scutalis, a mortalidade foi de 60,61% e 64,48%, respectivamente, nas mesmas condições. A mortalidade de ácaros observada no HRD foi insignificante e houve um aumento insignificante na mortalidade no DRD. Oxamil sendo menos tóxico para ácaros predadores e significativamente mortal para ácaros fitófagos é recomendado como ferramenta para alcançar o controle biológico paralelo ao efeito pesticida.


Assuntos
Animais , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Lycopersicon esculentum , Agricultura , Ácaros , Arábia Saudita
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253780, 2024. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360200

RESUMO

Sugarcane crops Saccharum spp. (Poales: Poaceae) produces different derivatives to the world: sugar, ethanol and bioenergy. Despite the application of pesticides, insect pests still cause economic losses, among these the pink sugarcane mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell, 1895) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) causing direct and indirect damage to the plant. This study assess the virulence of three entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) species and their symbiont bacteria against the pink sugarcane mealybug, under laboratory conditions. Fourteen treatments represented by control (distilled water), Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, 1976 (HB EN01) (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), Steinernema rarum (Doucet, 1986) (PAM25) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, 1955 (All) (Rhabditida: Steinermatidae) at concentrations of 25, 50, 75 and 100 infective juveniles (IJs)/insect, and the standard chemical product, thiamethoxam, were assayed. In a second experiment, the bacteria Photorhabdus luminescens (Thomas and Poinar, 1979), Xenorhabdus szentirmaii Lengyel, 2005 and Xenorhabdus nematophila (Poinar and Thomas, 1965) (Enterobacterales: Morganellaceae) at 3.0 x 109 cells/ml were assessed for each treatment. Ten replications were stablished, each one counting ten females/mealybugs inside a 10 cm Petri dish, amounting 100 individuals/treatment. All treatments were kept under stable conditions (25±1 ºC, H 70±10%, in the dark). All nematodes species infected S. sacchari. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) provided the highest mortality against the pink sugarcane mealybug (79.25%), followed by H. bacteriophora (HB EN01) (58.25%) and S. carpocapsae (All) (42.50%) (P<0.001). The mortality rate caused by X. szentirmaii, P. luminescens and X. nematophila were 40, 45 and 20%, respectively. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) has conditions to be a potential agent to be incorporate into the integrated pest management in sugarcane.


A cultura da cana-de-açúcar Saccharum spp. (Poales: Poaceae) produz diferentes derivados para o mundo: açúcar, etanol e bioenergia. Apesar da aplicação de pesticidas, os insetos-praga ainda causam prejuízos econômicos, dentre eles a cochonilha rosada da cana-de-açúcar Saccharicoccus sacchari (Cockerell, 1895) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) causando danos diretos e indiretos à planta. Este estudo avaliou a virulência de três espécies de nematoides entomopatogênicos (NEPs) e suas bactérias simbiontes contra a cochonilha rosada da cana-de-açúcar, em condições de laboratório. Quatorze tratamentos representados pelo controle (água destilada), Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar, 1976 (HB EN01) (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), Steinernema rarum (Doucet, 1986) (PAM25) e Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser, 1955 (All) (Rhabditida: Steinermatidae) nas concentrações de 25, 50, 75 e 100 juvenis infectantes (JIs)/inseto, e o produto químico padrão, tiametoxam, foram testados. Em um segundo experimento, a bactéria Photorhabdus luminescens (Thomas e Poinar, 1979), Xenorhabdus szentirmaii Lengyel, 2005 e Xenorhabdus nematophila (Poinar e Thomas, 1965) (Enterobacterales: Morganellaceae) em 3,0 x 109 células/ml foram avaliadas para cada tratamento. Dez repetições foram estabelecidas, cada uma contendo dez fêmeas/cochonilhas dentro de uma placa de Petri de 10 cm, totalizando 100 indivíduos/tratamento. Todos os tratamentos foram mantidos em condições estáveis (25±1 ºC, U 70±10%, no escuro). Todas as espécies de nematoides infectaram S. sacchari. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) proporcionou a maior mortalidade contra a cochonilha rosada da cana-de-açúcar (79,25%), seguida por H. bacteriophora (HB EN01) (58,25%) e S. carpocapsae (All) (42,50%) (P<0,001). As taxas de mortalidade causada por X. szentirmaii, P. luminescens e X. nematophila foram de 40, 45 e 20%, respectivamente. Steinerma rarum (PAM25) tem condições de ser um agente potencial a ser incorporado ao manejo integrado de pragas da cana-de-açúcar.


Assuntos
Animais , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Saccharum , Agricultura , Hemípteros , Nematoides
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249230, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345556

RESUMO

Abstract The presence of weeds in areas of agricultural activities is a hinderance to the development of these activities. It is important to take advantage of the vast open spaces suitable for agriculture and provide food security for humans, and also it is an important indicator for determining the feasibility of growing crops, benefiting from yield and determining the percentage of loss, clearing fields through agricultural practices, that protect crops from weed attack and agricultural practice method must be followed that will reduce weed presence. This study was conducted during the years 2018 to 2020 to evaluate Portulacaceae of Flora in the Taif area in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia at different altitudes (Area 1 =1700 m, Area 2 =1500 m, Area 3 =1500 m, Area 4 =500 m ِ Area 5 = 2200 m, and Area 6 = 2200 m). The results show that there were 2,816 individuals of Portulaca oleracea weed, with the highest density found in A 1, followed by A 2, while in A 5 and A 6, no weeds were recorded. The highest density of weeds were in the Pomegranate fields, followed by Grape fields. The lowest density was found in A man field. The results of this study will help to take the necessary measures to combat weeds and its management in areas of agricultural activity, while more studies are needed to survey the ecology of weeds of Taif in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.


Resumo A presença de plantas daninhas em áreas de atividades agrícolas é um entrave ao desenvolvimento dessas atividades. É importante aproveitar os vastos espaços abertos adequados para a agricultura e dar segurança alimentar para o homem. Também é um indicador importante para determinar a viabilidade de cultivo de lavouras, beneficiando-se da produtividade e determinando o percentual de perda, desmatando campos agrícolas, práticas que protegem as lavouras do ataque de ervas daninhas, e métodos de práticas agrícolas devem ser seguidos para reduzir a presença de ervas daninhas. Este estudo foi realizado durante os anos de 2018 a 2020 para avaliar Portulacaceae de flora na área de Taif, no Reino da Arábia Saudita, em diferentes altitudes (Área 1 = 1.700 m, Área 2 = 1.500 m, Área 3 = 1.500 m, Área 4 = 500 m, Área 5 = 2.200 m, e Área 6 = 2.200 m). Os resultados mostram que houve 2.816 indivíduos de planta daninha Portulaca oleracea, com a maior densidade encontrada em A 1, seguida de A 2, enquanto em A 5 e A 6, nas plantas daninhas foram registrados. A maior densidade de ervas daninhas estava nos campos de romã, seguido pelos campos de uva. A densidade mais baixa foi encontrada no campo A man. Os resultados deste estudo ajudarão a tomar as medidas necessárias para combater as ervas daninhas e seu manejo em áreas de atividade agrícola, enquanto mais estudos são necessários para levantar a ecologia das ervas daninhas de Taif na Arábia Saudita.


Assuntos
Humanos , Portulacaceae , Arábia Saudita , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura , Plantas Daninhas
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249847, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339414

RESUMO

Abstract The Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) is a vertebrate pest of agricultural lands and forest. The study was aimed to report the damage to local crops by the Indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) in the Muzaffarabad District. A survey was conducted to identify the porcupine-affected areas and assess the crop damage to the local farmers in district Muzaffarabad Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK) from May 2017 to October 2017. Around 19 villages were surveyed, and a sum of 191 semi-structured questionnaires was distributed among farmers. Crop damage was found highest in village Dhanni where a porcupine destroyed 175 Kg/Kanal of the crops. Regarding the total magnitude of crop loss, village Danna and Koomi kot were the most affected areas. More than half (51.8%) of the respondents in the study area suffered the economic loss within the range of 101-200$, and (29.8%) of the people suffered losses in the range of 201-300$ annually. Among all crops, maize (Zea mays) was found to be the most damaged crop ranging between 1-300 Kg annually. In the study area, porcupine also inflicted a lot of damages to some important vegetables, including spinach (Spinacia oleracea), potato (Solanum tuberosum) and onion (Allium cepa). It was estimated that, on average, 511Kg of vegetables are destroyed by porcupine every year in the agricultural land of Muzaffarabad. It was concluded that the Indian crested porcupine has a devastating effect on agriculture which is an important source of income and food for the local community. Developing an effective pest control strategy with the help of the local government and the Wildlife department could help the farmers to overcome this problem.


Resumo O porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) é uma praga vertebrada de terras agrícolas e florestais. No estudo atual, o dano às plantações locais pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) foi relatado pela primeira vez no distrito de Muzaffarabad. O estudo foi projetado para investigar a perda econômica causada pelo porco-espinho de crista indiano (Hystrix indica) nos distritos de Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu e Caxemira (AJK) de maio de 2017 a outubro de 2017. Um estudo baseado em pesquisa foi conduzido para identificar as áreas afetadas por porcos-espinhos e avaliar os danos às colheitas para os agricultores locais. Cerca de 19 aldeias foram pesquisadas e um total de 191 questionários semiestruturados foi distribuído entre os agricultores. Os danos às colheitas foram encontrados mais intensamente na aldeia Dhanni, onde um porco-espinho destruiu 175 kg / Kanal das colheitas. Em relação à magnitude total da perda de safra, as aldeias Danna e Koomi Kot foram as áreas mais afetadas. Mais da metade (51,8%) dos entrevistados na área de estudo sofreu perdas econômicas na faixa de 101-200 $, e 29,8% das pessoas sofreram perdas na faixa de 201-300 $ anualmente. Entre todas as culturas, o milho (Zea mays) foi considerado a cultura mais danificada, variando entre 1-300 kg anualmente. Na área de estudo, o porco-espinho também causou muitos danos a alguns vegetais importantes, incluindo espinafre (Spinacia oleracea), batata (Solanum tuberosum) e cebola (Allium cepa). Estimou-se que, em média, 511 kg de vegetais são destruídos pelo porco-espinho todos os anos nas terras agrícolas de Muzaffarabad. Concluiu-se que o porco-espinho de crista indiano tem um efeito devastador na agricultura, que é importante fonte de renda e alimento para a comunidade local. O desenvolvimento de uma estratégia eficaz de controle de pragas com a ajuda do governo local e do Departamento de Vida Selvagem pode ajudar os agricultores a superar esse problema.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Porcos-Espinhos , Paquistão , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura , Animais Selvagens
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248420, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339367

RESUMO

Abstract Very little is known about the malacofauna in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, situated in the Northern part of Pakistan. The Swat valley possesses a variety of suitable environmental conditions, providing different types of habitats for both flora and fauna. Taken into consideration these points, the present study was conducted to explore the terrestrial snails diversity in agricultural and non-agricultural fields in the lower Swat valley. A total of 417 shells were collected from three sites: Kokarai, Kanju Township, and Deolai. Based on conchological features, three families: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae, and Zonitidae were identified using different terrestrial snail keys. In Kokarai and Deolai, shells of members of all the above-mentioned families were found from agricultural fields. In Kanju Township, shells of members of the family Bradybaenidae and Zonitidae were found. From these findings, it was concluded that district Swat possesses a significant malacofauna which was unexplored before and aided more to the existing literature on malacofauna. It also supports the idea that the agroecosystem is rich in species diversity. Further in-depth and extensive study is recommended to be carried out for a detailed taxonomy of the described terrestrial gastropod families.


Resumo Muito pouco se sabe sobre a malacofauna no distrito de Swat, na província de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, situada na parte norte do Paquistão. O vale do Swat possui uma variedade de condições ambientais adequadas, proporcionando diferentes tipos de habitats para a flora e a fauna. Levando em consideração esses pontos, o presente estudo foi conduzido para explorar a diversidade dos caracóis terrestres em campos agrícolas e não agrícolas no vale inferior de Swat. Um total de 417 conchas foram coletadas em três locais: Kokarai, Kanju Township e Deolai. Com base em características concológicas, três famílias: Bradybaenidae, Hygromiidae e Zonitidae foram identificadas usando diferentes chaves de caramujos terrestres. Em Kokarai e Deolai, conchas de membros de todas as famílias mencionadas acima foram encontradas em campos agrícolas. No município de Kanju, foram encontradas conchas de membros da família Bradybaenidae e Zonitidae. A partir dessas constatações, concluiu-se que o distrito de Swat possui uma malacofauna significativa que antes era inexplorada e ajudava mais a literatura existente sobre a malacofauna. Também apoia a ideia de que o agroecossistema é rico em diversidade de espécies. Recomenda-se a realização de um estudo mais aprofundado e extenso para uma taxonomia detalhada das famílias de gastrópodes terrestres descritas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ecossistema , Agricultura , Paquistão , Caramujos
7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 124: 281-290, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182137

RESUMO

As a common practice in agricultural system, straw return has been reported to release a large number of trace gases and attracted much attention. However, the role of straw return in toluene emission remains poorly understood. In this study we measured the emissions of toluene as well as other 50 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wheat straw return for 66 days under flooded and non-flooded conditions, respectively. The results showed that substantial toluene was released from the returned wheat straw particularly under flooded condition, and primarily derived from the secondary product. Toluene emissions from the returned wheat straw were 36.8 and 8.45 mg C/kg, sharing 28.0% and 8.6% of total VOCs released, and over 90% of toluene emissions occurred between days 24-56 and 0-17 under flooded and non-flooded conditions, respectively. The emission rates of toluene were relatively high but decreased sharply at the beginning 2 days, and then was steady until 24 days under the two moisture conditions. After the initial decrease these rose again to form one "peak emission window" between days 24-56 under flooded condition, while these were still very low and steady until the end under non-flooded condition. The toluene emission rates significantly positively correlated with microbial biomass C under flooded condition, but negatively associated with bacteria and fungus number, microbial biomass C, and CO2 flux under non-flooded condition, suggesting that microorganism might play an important role in toluene emissions from wheat straw return. A rough estimate indicated that straw return might be important for biogenic toluene.


Assuntos
Triticum , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Agricultura/métodos , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , China , Solo , Tolueno
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(12): 846, 2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36182973

RESUMO

In this research, land cover changes in the coastal region of Turkey were analyzed using the Corine dataset between 1990 and 2018. Changes in each period were analyzed by using the rate of change and the annual rate of change, the transition matrix of net changes, and the transition probability matrix. In order to predict land cover change trends and to determine future land cover change probabilities, a combination of Markov and cellular automata models was used. It was determined that the highest increase in each study period was in artificial surfaces and the highest decrease was in the forest and the semi-natural area. The total forest areas were converted to the other land cover type in the first study period amounting to 2479.32 km2. Also, it was decreased and transformed by about 62.47 km2, 118.82 km2, and 203.09 km2 of the forest area that existed in the second, third, and fourth periods respectively. The results indicate that the probabilities of the increasing area will be covered by artificial surfaces and agricultural areas. It is estimated that the rate of 57% in 1990, the initial year of the forest areas, will decrease to 53.4% in 2034 and to 53% in 2050. Also, the rate of 2.1% in 1990, the initial year of the artificial surfaces, will increase to 4.5% in 2034 and to 5.0% in 2050. It is seen that more artificial surfaces will be needed in the Turkish coastal region due to the increasing population and number of tourists. It is important to evaluate and investigate the coastal areas where more artificial areas are expected to be needed within the scope of the coastal area management plans to be prepared at the national scale.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Agricultura/métodos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Florestas , Turquia
9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 16043, 2022 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192406

RESUMO

Achieving food security in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a multidimensional challenge. SSA reliance on food imports is expected to grow in the coming decades to meet the population's demand, projected to double to over 2 billion people by 2050. In addition, climate change is already affecting food production and supply chains across the region. Addressing these multiple food security challenges will necessitate rapid enhancements in agricultural productivity, which is influenced by a host of demographic, agronomic, and climatic factors. We use statistical approaches to examine rainfed maize in Kenya, where maize cultivation and consumption are widespread and central to livelihoods and national food security. We find that improving a suite of agronomic factors, such as applying fertilizer, planting certified seeds, and extension services, will have a greater effect on rainfed maize productivity than demographics and can offset the effects of climate change. These findings could also offer insights into similar challenges for other crops in Kenya and other SSA countries.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Zea mays , Agricultura/métodos , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas , Humanos , Quênia
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 826846, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36187659

RESUMO

China's public health emergency COVID-19 has brought great challenges to food safety. Among them, the quality and safety of agricultural products under the normalization of the COVID-19 prevention and control has become a hot issue of general concern. This study attempts to reveal the driving factors and mechanisms of farmers' green production behavior. The empirical research by collecting 673 sample data shows that: individual characteristics of farmers, government guiding factors, an industrial organization promoting factors, and market adjustment factors have a positive driving effect on farmers' green production behavior. And farmers' green production behavior has a positive influence on the quality and safety of agricultural products. Farmers' green production behavior plays an intermediary role between the quality and safety of agricultural products and individual characteristics of farmers, government guidance factors, industrial organization promotion factors, and market regulation factors. The results of the study have guiding significance for ensuring the quality and safety of agricultural products, promoting ecological environmental protection, and sustainable agricultural development under the normalization of COVID-19 prevention and control.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Fazendeiros , Agricultura , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , China , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos
11.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 3338030, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36188687

RESUMO

With the rapid development of agriculture, modern agriculture has achieved remarkable results. Agriculture is the foundation of China's national economy, and the Party Central Committee has always insisted on solving the "three rural issues" as the top priority of the work of the whole party. However, China's agricultural foundation is weak, and the problem of unbalanced supply and demand structure of agricultural products still exists in agricultural development. With the development of blockchain, the application basis in the agricultural value chain has been established. At present, the research on the application of agricultural value chain financing is still in progress, but it is still in the initial stage. The integration of agricultural finance blockchain is low, and there are a series of problems. Extending blockchain technology to the financial area of agricultural value chains can help overcome the information barriers to traditional agricultural value chain financing and improve access to information resources for traditional agricultural value chains. The high cost of these value chains and inadequate financial management mechanisms remove bottlenecks in financing agricultural development. In this paper, we study the operation model and revenue distribution model of agricultural value chains using blockchain, analyze examples, and finally identify the basic elements of agricultural value chain financing based on sectoral chain technology. It provides theoretical support for the financing decision and production decision of each member of the agricultural supply chain, and it is hoped that the content and conclusions of the study can provide methodological reference and theoretical guidance for agricultural supply chain enterprises.


Assuntos
Blockchain , Agricultura , Tecnologia
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(41): e2202742119, 2022 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191196

RESUMO

China is set to actively reduce its methane emissions in the coming decade. A comprehensive evaluation of the current situation can provide a reference point for tracking the country's future progress. Here, using satellite and surface observations, we quantify China's methane emissions during 2010-2017. Including newly available data from a surface network across China greatly improves our ability to constrain emissions at subnational and sectoral levels. Our results show that recent changes in China's methane emissions are linked to energy, agricultural, and environmental policies. We find contrasting methane emission trends in different regions attributed to coal mining, reflecting region-dependent responses to China's energy policy of closing small coal mines (decreases in Southwest) and consolidating large coal mines (increases in North). Coordinated production of coalbed methane and coal in southern Shanxi effectively decreases methane emissions, despite increased coal production there. We also detect unexpected increases from rice cultivation over East and Central China, which is contributed by enhanced rates of crop-residue application, a factor not accounted for in current inventories. Our work identifies policy drivers of recent changes in China's methane emissions, providing input to formulating methane policy toward its climate goal.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Metano , Agricultura , China , Metano/análise , Políticas
13.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 9408535, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36105633

RESUMO

Pesticides are chemicals used to eradicate pests. Not only are they used for plant protection and livestock in agriculture, but they are also used in public areas to kill mosquitoes, cockroaches, and other pests. Approximately 95% of the pesticides produced are only used in agriculture for crop protection. Every country wants to increase crop production. To protect their crops from pests, farmers must use pesticides. Exposure to pesticides is increasing day by day, whether occupationally or environmentally. This has resulted in an increase in crop production, but it has numerous adverse effects on human health, animal health, and the environment. Farmers repeatedly use the same pesticides on their crops, which is detrimental to human health and the environment. In this research, according to authors, the repetition of pesticides in agriculture is controlled using adjuvant and machine learning algorithms. An adjuvant is a chemical agent that is inserted within the pesticide product for enhanced pesticide performance. By utilizing an algorithm for machine learning, it is no longer necessary to repeatedly spray the same pesticide over the entire crop field in order to determine which sections of the crop field still require repeated pesticide spraying. In this research, the authors predict that 72.5% of insecticides are used in India. Logical regression classification, polynomial regression, and K-nearest neighbor algorithm (KNN) are applied to detect this required field.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/análise , Plantas
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 937657, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106166

RESUMO

Work in agriculture is a significant area of research that highlights the problem of the integration of young people in the former, in particular, in the recent period. Work in agriculture is hard and not prestigious, and young people tend to leave rural areas in the search for alternative activities in urban areas. The study addresses the problem of how the youth should be integrated into agricultural workforce by focusing on identification of the reasons behind the (un)willingness to work in agriculture. The aim of the study is to assess the reasons behind the youth's (un)willingness of work in agriculture, using Lithuania as the case study. The data were collected by means of a questionnaire designed to investigate the perception and opinions toward work in agriculture. The Binary Logistic Regression was used to identify the factors affecting the youth's opinion about (un)willingness to work in agriculture. The study analyzed 430 young people 's responses to the questionnaires survey. The BLR has revealed that youth's unwillingness to work in agriculture is mostly affected by gender, area of residence and youths' beliefs that work in agriculture does not provide any opportunities for self-realization. In summary, this paper argues that the major motivation to work in agriculture is associated with having parents who are engaged in agricultural activities, love of animals and natural environment, and the availability of specialized training. The findings have confirmed the need to attract young people to work in agriculture. Its results are necessary for the scientific community, policy makers, farmers, and practitioners exploring the possibilities for integration of the youth into the agricultural workforce.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Atitude , Animais , Humanos , Motivação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
15.
Nature ; 609(7926): 299-306, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36071193

RESUMO

The potential of mitigation actions to limit global warming within 2 °C (ref. 1) might rely on the abundant supply of biomass for large-scale bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) that is assumed to scale up markedly in the future2-5. However, the detrimental effects of climate change on crop yields may reduce the capacity of BECCS and threaten food security6-8, thus creating an unrecognized positive feedback loop on global warming. We quantified the strength of this feedback by implementing the responses of crop yields to increases in growing-season temperature, atmospheric CO2 concentration and intensity of nitrogen (N) fertilization in a compact Earth system model9. Exceeding a threshold of climate change would cause transformative changes in social-ecological systems by jeopardizing climate stability and threatening food security. If global mitigation alongside large-scale BECCS is delayed to 2060 when global warming exceeds about 2.5 °C, then the yields of agricultural residues for BECCS would be too low to meet the Paris goal of 2 °C by 2200. This risk of failure is amplified by the sustained demand for food, leading to an expansion of cropland or intensification of N fertilization to compensate for climate-induced yield losses. Our findings thereby reinforce the urgency of early mitigation, preferably by 2040, to avoid irreversible climate change and serious food crises unless other negative-emission technologies become available in the near future to compensate for the reduced capacity of BECCS.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Segurança Alimentar , Aquecimento Global , Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/tendências , Atmosfera/química , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Sequestro de Carbono , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Retroalimentação , Segurança Alimentar/métodos , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Objetivos , Humanos , Nitrogênio/análise , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(10): 787, 2022 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104465

RESUMO

Agriculture is the most sensitive sector which has largely been affected by the impacts of drought. The study aims to detect and characterize agricultural droughts using MODIS-based multiple indices in North Wollo, Ethiopia. Two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets (MOD13Q1 and MOD11A2) for the period 2000 to 2019 were used to generate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST). Accordingly, NDVI anomaly, Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), and Vegetation Health Index (VHI) were computed to characterize agricultural droughts during the crop growing season. Both the NDVI anomaly and VCI confirmed that there was no single drought-free year in the area throughout the study period. TCI showed relatively exaggerated drought stress than the other indices. However, VHI indicated lower area coverage and a lower level of stress than its aggregates (VCI and TCI). Specifically, 2002, 2004, 2009, 2010, and 2015 were all identified as severe drought years, where over 60% of the area was affected by droughts. Results of the regression analysis indicated that VCI, TCI, and VHI were having significant positive trends with precipitation in the majority of the districts. Using the aggregated drought frequency of each index, 13.5, 73.7, and 12.8% of the area were under moderate, high, and extremely high levels of agricultural drought occurrence, respectively, and the likelihood of implied risks. Therefore, all the districts of North Wollo were affected by persistent drought stress. Such drought recurrences have the potential to impose significant impacts on the agro-based livelihoods of the local community demanding ongoing drought monitoring and the application of effective early warning systems.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Imagens de Satélites , Agricultura , Secas , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Etiópia
17.
J Environ Manage ; 321: 115924, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104880

RESUMO

Citrus wastewaters (CWWs) are by-products of the citrus fruit transformation process. Currently, more than 700 million of m³ of CWWs per year are produced worldwide. Until nowadays, the management of CWWs is based on a take-make-use-dispose model. Indeed, after being produced within a citrus processing industry, CWWs are subjected to treatment and then discharged into the environment. Now, the European Union is pushing towards a take-make-use-reuse management model, which suggests to provide for the minimization of residual pollutants simultaneously with their exploitation through a biorefinery concept. Indeed, the recovery of energy nutrients and other value-added products held by CWWs may promote environmental sustainability and close the nutrient cycles in line with the circular bio-economy perspective. Unfortunately, knowledge about the benefits and disadvantages of available technologies for the management and valorisation of CWWs are very fragmentary, thus not providing to the scientific community and stakeholders an appropriate approach. Moreover, available studies focus on a specific treatment/valorisation pathway of CWWs and an overall vision is still missing. This review aims to provide an integrated approach for the sustainable management of CWWs to be proposed to company managers and other stakeholders within the legislative boundaries and in line with the circular bio-economy perspective. To this aim, firstly, a concise analysis of citrus wastewater characteristics and the main current regulations on CWWs are reported and discussed. Then, the main technologies with a general comparison of their pros and cons, and alternative pathways for CWWs utilization are presented and discussed. Finally, a focus was paid to the economic feasibility of the solutions proposed to date relating to the recovery of the CWWs for the production of both value-added compounds and agricultural reuse. Based on literature analysis an integrated approach for a sustainable CWWs management is proposed. Such an approach suggests that after chemicals recovery by biorefinery, wastewaters should be directly used for crop irrigation if allowed by regulations or addressed to treatment plant. The latter way should be preferred when CWWs cannot be directly applied to soil due to lack of concomitance between CWWs production and crop needs. In such a way, treated wastewater should be reused after tertiary treatments for crop irrigation, whereas produced sludges should be undergone to dewatering treatment before being reused as organic amendment to improve soil fertility. Finally, this review invite European institutions and each Member State to promote common and specific legislations to overcome the fragmentation of the regulatory framework regarding CWWs reuse.


Assuntos
Citrus , Águas Residuárias , Agricultura , Solo
18.
J Environ Manage ; 321: 116002, 2022 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36104889

RESUMO

The aim of the research work was to present a multilayer hydrogel capsule with controlled nutrient release properties as an innovative fertilizer designed for sustainable agriculture. Preparation of the capsules included the following steps: sorption of micronutrients (Cu, Mn, Zn) on eggshells (1) and their immobilization in sodium alginate, with the crosslinking agent being the NPK solution (2). The capsules were coated with an additional layer of a mixture of biopolymers (0.79% alginate, 0.24% carboxymethylcellulose and 8.07% starch)by means of dipping and spraying techniques. The biocomposites were characterized by limited (<10% within 100 h for the structures encapsulated by the dipping method) release of fertilizer ions (except for small K+ ions). The hydrogel fertilizer formulations were analyzed for physicochemical properties such as macro- and micronutrient content, surface morphology analysis, coating structure evaluation, mechanical properties, swelling and drying kinetics. High nutrient bioavailability was confirmed in vitro (extraction in water and neutral ammonium citrate). Germination and pot tests have revealed that the application of multicomponent hydrogel fertilizers increases the length of cucumber roots by 20%, compared to the commercial product.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Hidrogéis , Agricultura , Alginatos , Cápsulas , Fertilizantes/análise
20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15317, 2022 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097148

RESUMO

Soil organic matter (SOM) is of vital importance to soil health, and also plays a crucial role in the quality of the crops such as tobacco. However, the link between tobacco quality and SOM chemical compositions is still not well understood. To fill the information gap, we analyzed the quality of tobacco leaves and the corresponding SOM molecular compositions by electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS), that were collected from six different sites in Bijie, Guizhou Province, China. The tobacco quality variedin six sites based on their chemical compositions. SOM compounds had a remarked impact on the quality of tobacco leaves and a distinct difference in SOM composition between low-quality and high-quality tobacco leaves was observed as well. Specifically, 105 common molecular formulas were detected in three SOM compounds of high-quality tobacco, which were more than those in low-quality samples. Although amino sugar, proteins, lipids, tannins, and carbohydrates had a collective influence on the chemical composition of tobacco leaves, the effect contributed by amino sugar and tannins was more prominent. In summary, fully understanding the association between tobacco chemical composition and SOM compounds can provide new insight into the regulation of tobacco quality and the sustainable development of agriculture.


Assuntos
Solo , Tabaco , Agricultura , Amino Açúcares , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Solo/química , Taninos
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