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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 1275-1285, 2019 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726557

RESUMO

More than three-quarters of the world's total cultivated land is under rainfed farming, producing almost 70% of total food. Most food production comes from developing and least favored nations. Pakistan, a developing country with an agro-based economy, is facing severe threats from climate change. Rainfed agriculture, especially wheat farming, is highly susceptible due to its heavy dependency on precipitation, one of the most important climatic parameters. Wheat is the main food crop, as well as a major source of calorific intake, for millions of people in Pakistan. This study aims to quantify the impacts of climate variability on mean yield levels and yield variability of wheat crop in the rainfed zone of Pakistan. Multistage random sampling technique is used for primary data collection from 400 rainfed wheat farmers during the 2016-17 crop season. The study uses primary data on crop input-output, management, socioeconomic, institutional, and historical climatic data (1980-2017). The data are analyzed employing the Just and Pope (J-P) stochastic production function approach with linear and non-linear functional forms. The results reveal that temperature rise negatively affects observed wheat mean yields, while cumulative precipitation positively affected it. Further, input market access, seed rate, and cumulative precipitation also cause variability in yield levels, leading to yield instability. Further, farm elevation influences wheat mean yield positively while input market access influences it negatively. The findings of the study have important implications for climate resilient wheat farming. Timely and tailor-made adaptations need to be undertaken in the rainfed wheat farming systems of Pakistan. Creating awareness among farmers about the optimal use of agronomic inputs under changing climatic conditions could be an effective adaptation strategy that improves yields and copes with yield instability.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Mudança Climática , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Paquistão , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1456, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pesticides remain the mainstay for the control of agricultural pests and disease vectors. However, their indiscriminate use in agriculture has led to development of resistance to both crop pests and disease vectors. This threatens to undermine the success gained through the implementation of chemical based vector control programs. We investigated the practices of farmers with regard to pesticide usage in the vegetable growing areas and their impact on susceptibility status of An. gambiae s.l. METHODS: A stratified multistage sampling technique using the administrative structure of the Tanzanian districts as sampling frame was used. Wards, villages and then participants with farms where pesticides are applied were purposively recruited at different stages of the process, 100 participants were enrolled in the study. The same villages were used for mosquito larvae sampling from the farms and the surveys were complimented by the entomological study. Larvae were reared in the insectary and the emerging 2-3 days old female adults of Anopheles gambiae s.l were subjected to susceptibility test. RESULTS: Forty eight pesticides of different formulations were used for control of crop and Livestock pests. Pyrethroids were the mostly used class of pesticides (50%) while organophosphates and carbamates were of secondary importance. Over 80% of all farmers applied pesticides in mixed form. Susceptibility test results confirmed high phenotypic resistance among An. gambiae populations against DDT and the pyrethroids (Permethrin-0.75%, Cyfluthrin-0.15%, Deltametrin-0.05% and Lambdacyhalothrin-0.05%) with mortality rates 54, 61, 76 and 71%, respectively. Molecular analysis showed An. arabiensis as a dominant species (86%) while An. gambiae s.s constituted only 6%. The kdr genes were not detected in all of the specimens that survived insecticide exposures. CONCLUSION: The study found out that there is a common use of pyrethroids in farms, Livestocks as well as in public health. The study also reports high phenotypic resistance among An. gambiae s.l against most of the pyrethroids tested. The preponderance of pyrethroids in agriculture is of public health concern because this is the class of insecticides widely used in vector control programs and this calls for combined integrated pest and vector management (IPVM).


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Endêmicas/prevenção & controle , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Malária/prevenção & controle , Mosquitos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anopheles/efeitos dos fármacos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Malária/epidemiologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1257, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Media advocacy plays an important role in public health initiatives, as it can provide vital information to target populations, policy makers, or other relevant stakeholders. Unfortunately, little is currently known about the use of media advocacy to promote occupational safety and health programs. This study explores media coverage related to the Rollover Protection Structure (ROPS) Rebate Programs, which were designed to encourage the use of rollover protection on agricultural tractors, thus reducing the risk of tractor overturn fatalities. The Program's portrayal in the media, as well as the role that the media has played in implementing and sustaining these Programs. METHODS: Media articles pertaining to any of the state-based or National ROPS Rebate Programs and published between November 1, 2006 and October 31, 2018 were included for review. Discourse analysis was used to understand the messages portrayed by the media and how those messages shaped the outcomes of the ROPS Rebate Programs. RESULTS: During the study period, 212 unique articles were published about the ROPS Rebate Programs. While these articles all portrayed the ROPS Rebate Programs in a largely positive light, they were used at different stages, from pre-implementation through sustainment of the ROPS Rebate Programs, and to different extents. CONCLUSIONS: Media articles have played an important role in implementing and sustaining the ROPS Rebate Programs. Based on the results of this study, more robust and continuous media coverage are important for the longevity and success of public health programs.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trabalho/prevenção & controle , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal Administrativo , Segurança de Equipamentos , Humanos , Estados Unidos
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 33416-33426, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522393

RESUMO

Fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from two rice varieties, Huayou 14 and Hanyou 8, were monitored using closed chamber/gas chromatography method. Huayou 14 is a commonly grown variety of rice whereas Hanyou 8 is a water-saving and drought-resistant rice (WDR) variety. Low soil volumetric water content (VWC) existed in the treatments on the slope (W5 < W4 < W3 < W2). On the slope, rice yields of Hanyou 8 decreased by 12-39%, and Huayou 14 by 11-46% as compared to the plots on the flat. The total compatible solutes in Hanyou 8 had a greater variational range than Huayou 14. Compared to W1, CH4 emissions from W2-W5 decreased by 58-86% in Hanyou 8 and 38-86% in Huayou 14, whereas those of N2O increased by 26-121% in Hanyou 8 and 49-189% in Huayou 14 across both two seasons, which was mainly because the VWC varied in W2-W5 treatment. Under the treatments in the slope (W2, W3, W4, and W5), the global warming potential (GWP) was dominated by N2O emissions, which accounted for 69-90% of the GWP. Hanyou 8 had greater tolerance for water stress than Huayou 14 did, as evident from the smaller reductions in rice yield and greater variational range of total compatible solutes content. Water stress could reduce CH4 emissions but decrease N2O emissions for both rice varieties. This results suggest that planting WDR varieties under water shortage irrigation (such as W4, W5) will be able to maintain rice yields and reduce the GWP with less water.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Gases de Efeito Estufa/análise , Oryza , Agricultura/métodos , China , Secas , Aquecimento Global , Efeito Estufa , Metano/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Estações do Ano , Solo/química
5.
Bull Soc Pathol Exot ; 112(2): 96-104, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478619

RESUMO

Big cities have thrived on all continents, so have domestic and industrial wastes not to mention the often irrational use of agricultural inputs (fertilizers and pesticides) detrimental to plants and animals. One hundred and eighty million tons of fertilizers and 2.4 million tons of pesticides are spread every year worldwide. Such pollutions, whether urban or rural, have a significant impact on the biology of mosquitoes. Today some urban spaces have properly become a land of plenty for mosquitoes. The combined use of fertilizer and pesticides in the country, quite paradoxically also favor their proliferation. Ironically the very reasons that account for the multitudes of mosquitoes are the exact reasons responsible for the depletion of biodiversity.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Culicidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Atividades Humanas , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Patógenos Transmitidos pelo Sangue/isolamento & purificação , Cidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Fertilizantes/efeitos adversos , Atividades Humanas/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Humanas/tendências , Humanos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455022

RESUMO

Despite achieving remarkable development, China's agricultural economy has been under severe environmental pressure. Based on previous studies, the present study further considers the sources of agricultural carbon emissions in depth, estimates China's agricultural carbon emissions from 1997 to 2016, and analyzes the agricultural pollution faced by China and its provinces. The study estimates the amount and intensity of agricultural carbon emissions in China from five carbon sources-agricultural materials, rice planting, soil N2O, livestock and poultry farming, and straw burning-and analyzes their spatial and temporal characteristics. The following results were obtained: (1) between 1997 and 2016, the amount of agricultural carbon emissions in China generally increased, while the intensity of agricultural carbon emissions decreased; (2) in the same period, the amount of carbon emissions from each category of carbon source generally increased, with the exception of rice planting; however, the amount of emissions fluctuated; (3) the amount and intensity of carbon emissions varied greatly among provinces; (4) the emissions from different categories of carbon source showed different concentration trends and agglomeration forms; (5) China's agricultural carbon emissions showed obvious spatial correlation, which overall was high-high agglomeration; however, its carbon emissions gradually weakened, and the spatial agglomeration of agricultural carbon emissions in each province changed between 1997 and 2016.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Carbono/análise , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Poluição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Análise Espaço-Temporal
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416145

RESUMO

The high-yield agricultural model in Almería is based on eight different crops. Having led fruit and vegetable exports in Spain for more than 50 years, a decrease in melon and watermelon growing areas in Almería caused a change in supply that affected the model's profit. Papaya cultivation could reactivate the profit of the agricultural model in Almería and also improve the available product range. The papaya crop needs greenhouse infrastructures high enough to contain the growth and size of the plants during a cycle crop, which is possible in most of the greenhouses of the Horticultural production model of Almería. The papaya harvests obtained in the region meet the quality requirements demanded by European markets. Furthermore, yields obtained are equal or higher than yields obtained by other producing countries. This crop improves profit compared with the profit obtained from the rotation of other horticultural crops that have been traditionally grown in the region.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Carica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/economia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , /estatística & dados numéricos , Verduras/economia , Espanha , Verduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 691: 538-548, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325854

RESUMO

In subsistence farming populations of sub-Saharan Africa reliant on rainfed agriculture, years of low crop yields result in poorer child nutrition and survival. Estimates of such impacts are critical for their reduction and prevention. We developed a model to quantify such health impacts, and the degree to which they are attributable to weather variations, for a subsistence farming population in the Nouna district of Burkina Faso (89,000 people in 2010). The method combines data from a new weather-crop yield model with empirical epidemiological risk functions. We quantify the child mortality impacts for 1984-2012 using observed weather data and estimate potential future burdens in 2050 and 2100 using daily weather data generated by global climate models parameterized to simulate global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. For 1984-2012, crop yields below 90% of the period average were estimated to result in the total of 109.8 deaths per 10,000 children <5years, or around 7122.0years of life lost, 72% of which are attributable to unfavourable weather conditions in the crop growing season. If all non-weather factors are assumed to remain unchanged, the mortality burden related to low crop yields would increase about twofold under 1.5°C global warming by 2100. These results emphasize the importance and value of developing strategies to protect against the effects of low crop yields and specifically the adverse impact of unfavourable weather conditions in such settings under the current and future climate.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/provisão & distribução , Mortalidade/tendências , Agricultura/métodos , Burkina Faso , Clima , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 686: 819-827, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195289

RESUMO

Despite the fact that it is the total crop production that shapes future food supply rather than one of its single component, previous studies have mainly focused on the changes in crop yield. It is possible that recent gains in crop production are mainly due to improvement of yield rather than growth of harvest area. However, it remains unclear about the geographical patterns of their relative contributions at fine scales and the possible mechanisms. Analysis of US maize production shows that maize production has increased significantly at a rate of 2.1%/year during 1980-2010. Although yield is the dominant factor contributing to production growth for the country as a whole, the importance of harvest area has become more evident with time. In 56% of US's maize growing counties, harvest area has also contributed more than yield to production changes. High spatial correlation between the change rates of harvest area and production is observed (R = 0.96), while a weak relation (R = 0.21) is found between the spatial patterns of yield and production. This suggests that harvest area has exerted the dominant role in modulating the spatial distribution pattern of maize production changes. Further analysis suggests that yield and harvest area respond differently to climate variability, which has great implications for adaptation strategies. Comparing 11 state-of-the-art crop model simulations against census data reveals large bias in the simulated spatial patterns of maize production. Nevertheless, such bias can be reduced substantially by incorporating the observed dynamics of harvest area, pointing to a potential pathway for future model improvement. This study highlights the importance of accounting for harvest area dynamics in assessing agricultural production empirically or with crop models.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Modelos Teóricos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Mudança Climática , Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Geografia , Estados Unidos
11.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 26(2): 280-289, 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232060

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fear appeals are a common tactic used in work safety interventions to motivate farmers to adopt safer behaviours. They begin by introducing a threat, followed by information on how to remove the threat. However, fear appeals tend to be ineffective when developed without a firm grasp of the cognitive processes underlying behavioural change. Although previous research on farm safety interventions have investigated fear appeals, they have focused on very narrow threats and behaviours, such as tractor or cow safety, while others have studied the threats but not the cognitive processing. Consequently, not enough is known about the range of threats that evoke fear, how farmers behave when under threat, or their general cognitive beliefs regarding self-efficacy, response cost and response efficacy. In In this study, 23 Swedish Farmers were interviewed and participated in a work safety intervention to identify the range of threats farmers perceive, and actions taken to remove those threats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The extended parallel processing model was used to gain insights into how farmers cognitively processed threats and their subsequent behaviour. Interestingly, it was found that farmers were more fearful of work safety threats related to family members and employees-yet the actions they took to reduce threats were mostly personal in nature. To help explain this finding, a typology of threat complexity was developed by the authors. RESULTS: It was found that simple, common, and direct threats to safety tended to lead to adaptive, threat-reducing behaviours, whereas complex, general, or indirect threats promoted more maladaptive behaviours that reduced fear, but not the threats.


Assuntos
Fazendeiros/psicologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Suécia
14.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 39(5): 178-186, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091061

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Previous Canadian epidemiologic studies have identified associations between occupations and prostate cancer risk, though evidence is limited. However, there are no well-established preventable risk factors for prostate cancer, which warrants the need for further investigation into occupational factors to strengthen existing evidence. This study uses occupation and prostate cancer information from a large surveillance cohort in Ontario that linked workers' compensation claim data to administrative health databases. METHODS: Occupations were examined using the Occupational Disease Surveillance System (ODSS). ODSS included 1 231 177 male workers for the 1983 to 2015 period, whose records were linked to the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) in order to identify and follow up on prostate cancer diagnoses. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate age-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CI to estimate the risk of prostate cancer by occupation group. RESULTS: A total of 34 997 prostate cancer cases were diagnosed among workers in ODSS. Overall, elevated prostate cancer risk was observed for men employed in management/ administration (HR 2.17, 95% CI = 1.98-2.38), teaching (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.79-2.21), transportation (HR 1.20, 95% CI = 1.16-1.24), construction (HR 1.09, 95% CI = 1.06-1.12), firefighting (HR 1.62, 95% CI = 1.47-1.78), and police work (HR 1.20, 95% CI = 1.10-1.32). Inconsistent findings were observed for clerical and farming occupations. CONCLUSION: Associations observed in white collar, construction, transportation, and protective services occupations were consistent with previous Canadian studies. Findings emphasize the need to assess job-specific exposures, sedentary behaviour, psychological stress, and shift work. Understanding specific occupational risk factors can lead to better understanding of prostate cancer etiology and improve prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Indústrias/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Demandas Administrativas em Assistência à Saúde , Pessoal Administrativo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria da Construção/estatística & dados numéricos , Bombeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Ontário/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Transportes/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117300

RESUMO

Although chemical pesticide use has increased agricultural productivity, it has caused adverse effects on human health and the environment. For example, pesticide exposure may result in the incidence of a human health condition (e.g., heart disease, immune disorders, cancer, and damaged skin) and it can pollute air, water, and soil conditions and damage biodiversity. Mitigating the negative externalities associated with pesticide use is essential to improve human health and environmental performance. In this study, we are trying to explore whether farm machine use reduces pesticide expenditure by analyzing farm household survey data collected from 493 maize farmers in China. An endogenous switching regression model is employed to address the sample selection bias issue associated with voluntary farm machine use. The empirical results reveal that farm machine use exerts a negative and statistically significant impact on pesticide expenditure. The findings highlight the important role of farm machines in helping reduce pesticide expenditure, which is, in turn, beneficial for improving human health conditions and environmental performance.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas/economia , Zea mays , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Work ; 62(4): 657-665, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31104049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the call for the application of ergonomics in developing countries, the African share of ergonomic studies is modest. Date palm farming is considered one of the most important economic resources in hot and dry areas. In African countries, including Algeria, there exist millions of date palms. Date palm work can be precarious and associated with higher rates of work related musculoskeletal disorders. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to:1.Reveal how the workers climb the trunk of the date palm to get to the crown.2.Detect the amount of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs) in date palm trees work, and how to combat it. METHOD: The descriptive method was used. RESULTS: Objective 1, Majority of date palm workers are still using the traditional methods, i.e. free climbing, and belt aided climbing. However, a minority of workers have started using modern methods i.e. ladders, climbing devices, and modern technology (e.g. hydraulic lifts). Objective 2, the workers complained about WRMSDs presence in the shoulders, hands, wrists, lower back, hips knees, and feet. Efforts to combat these WRMSDs are personal, educational and scientific efforts. CONCLUSION: Regarding climbing, the traditional methods are still dominant, and the use of technology is very limited. As regards WRMSDs, date palm workers complain about their presence in many parts of the body.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Ergonomia/normas , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Argélia/epidemiologia , Ergonomia/métodos , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Árvores
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(4): 1389-1396, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994303

RESUMO

To explore the effects of land use change on the potassium in soil profile under the background of rapid urbanization, we collected data of 187 soil profiles from four typical land use patterns (rice-wheat, rice-vegetable, rice-oil and garden) in Chengdu Plain. The contents of available potassium (AP), slow-acting potassium (SP), mineral potassium (MP), and total potassium (TP) in soil profile under different land use patterns and their relationships were analyzed. Our results showed that compared with the traditional rotation (rice-wheat, rice-oil), soil AP and SP contents significantly varied among different land use patterns. Rice-vegetable rotation increased the contents of AP and SP in the surface soil, while garden land increased the consumption of AP and SP in the soil. For the more stable forms, soil MP and TP, there was no significant difference in their contents under different land use patterns. In the deep soil, the content of AP in the rice-vegetable rotation pattern was significantly decreased with deepening soil layer, and the AP in traditional rotation was significantly higher than that in garden land. The trend of SP was opposite to that of AP. The difference of MP and TP in different land use patterns was small. Among the four land use patterns, the ratio of AP to TP and SP to TP in the lower layer of rice-vegetable rotation was higher than that in other patterns, while the ratio of AP to TP decreased significantly under different land use patterns at 20-40 cm. The change of SP to TP with the downward ratio of soil layer was opposite to that of AP to TP. Additionally, the ratio of MP to TP was relatively stable under different land use patterns. Therefore, different land use patterns exerted significant effects on the distribution of AP and SP in the soil profile of Chengdu Plain.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Potássio/análise , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Minerais , Fósforo , Solo/química
18.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(4): 1415-1422, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994306

RESUMO

Understanding the effects of land use patterns on soil water and gas transport in the water-wind erosion crisscross region can provide guidance for high-efficiency use of limited soil and water resource in the ecological rehabilitation process on the Loess Plateau. To investigate the cha-racteristics of soil water and gas transport under different land use patterns and to study the relationships between soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), air permeability (Ka) and relative gas diffusivity (DP/D0), we collected soil samples (0-5 cm depth) from Caragana korshinskii land, abandoned land, alfalfa land, cropland, and bare land. Ks was measured by constant-head method. DP/D0 was measured by gas chamber method. Ka under field capacity (FC) was measured using the soil gas permeability meter. Results showed that soil bulk density (ρb) ranked as alfalfa land>bare land>abandoned land>C. korshinskii land >cropland, with that of abandoned land, bare land and alfalfa land being significantly different from that of cropland. Total soil porosity (Φ) ranked as cropland>C. korshinskii land>abandoned land>bare land>alfalfa land. Compared with cropland, Φ of alfalfa land, bare land and abandoned land was lower by 7.5%, 4.7% and 3.1%, respectively. Air filled porosity (ε100) ranked as cropland>abandoned land>C. korshinskii land>bare land>alfalfa land. ε100 of alfalfa land, bare land, C. korshinskii land and abandoned land was lower by 38.3%, 33.6%, 12.8% and 10.1%, respectively, as compared with cropland. Soil Ks ranked as abandoned land>C. korshinskii land>alfalfa land>bare land>cropland, with that of the abandoned land being significantly higher than the other four land use patterns. Soil Ka ranked as abandoned land>alfalfa land>C. korshinskii land>bare land>cropland, with that of abandoned land being significantly diffe-rent with cropland. Soil DP/D0 ranked as abandoned land> C. korshinskii land> alfalfa land>cropland>bare land, in which DP/D0 of C. korshinskii land and abandoned land was significantly higher than cropland by 36.8% and 61.6%, respectively. There were significant correlations between Ks and Ka, DP/D0 under FC conditions. Land use patterns significantly changed soil permeability. Farmland, abandonment, C. korshinskii, and alfalfa plantation improved hydraulic and gas transport parameters of the surface soil. In contrast, farmland and bare land had poor capability of soil water and gas transport.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Caragana , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fenômenos Geológicos , Solo , China , Medicago sativa , Água , Vento
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991735

RESUMO

Land use consolidation aims to address food insecurity challenges in Rwanda. However, there is contradictory evidence on whether this tool has met food security objectives or not. This study addresses two questions: How has the land use consolidation improved (or not improved) food security at the local level? How can food security challenges be addressed using a renewed approach to land use consolidation that adopts a tenure responsive land use planning procedure? We investigate these questions in Nyange Sector (in the Musanze District) of Rwanda using mixed research methods. The study generates theoretical and policy relevant outcomes. Theoretically, it links the concept of tenure responsive land-use planning to food security improvements. Policy wise, it provides an operational framework for implementing land use consolidation to make it more responsive to food security (based on tenure responsive land-use planning measures) in Rwanda.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Planejamento Estratégico , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ruanda
20.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0215124, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990846

RESUMO

The impact of environmental change on internal migration has received wide attention in recent years. Mass internal migration has been a significant economic and social phenomenon in China, and soil erosion is a major environmental problem that impacts sustainable socioeconomic development. This study aims to identify the impact of soil erosion on internal migration in China at the county level based on gravity model by analyzing related data, such as the sixth national population census data and the soil and water conservation survey data. The results of spatial overlay could not identify an obvious relationship between soil erosion and net outmigration in China. The traditional gravity model of migration is modified to analyze the impact of soil erosion on net outmigration while other variables are controlled. The results indicate that only serious soil erosion increases the possibility of outmigration and that the impact is considerably higher in agricultural counties than in non-agricultural counties. In general, the impact of soil erosion on internal migration is far less than the impact of socioeconomic factors.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Emigração e Imigração/estatística & dados numéricos , Fenômenos Geológicos , Modelos Teóricos , Dinâmica Populacional , Solo/química , China , Demografia , Ecossistema , Humanos
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