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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317001

RESUMO

The Huang-Huai-Hai Plain is the major crop-producing region in China. Based on the climate and socio-economic data from 1995 to 2018, we analyzed the spatial-temporal characteristics in grain production and its influencing factors by using exploratory spatial data analysis, a gravity center model, a spatial panel data model, and a geographically weighted regression model. The results indicated the following: (1) The grain production of eastern and southern areas was higher, while that of western and northern areas was lower; (2) The grain production center in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain shifted from the southeast to northwest in Tai'an, and was distributed stably at the border between Jining and Tai'an; (3) The global spatial autocorrelation experienced a changing process of "decline-growth-decline", and the area of hot and cold spots was gradually reduced and stabilized, which indicated that the polarization of grain production in local areas gradually weakened and the spatial difference gradually decreased in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain; (4) The impact of socio-economic factors has been continuously enhanced while the role of climate factors in grain production has been gradually weakened. The ratio of the effective irrigated area, the amount of fertilizer applied per unit sown area, and the average per capita annual income of rural residents were conducive to the increase in grain production in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain; however, the effect of the annual precipitation on grain production has become weaker. More importantly, the association between the three factors and grain production was found to be spatially heterogeneous at the local geographic level.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Grão Comestível , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , China , Clima , Grão Comestível/provisão & distribução , Fatores de Tempo
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321896

RESUMO

Many studies have shown that climate change has a significant impact on crop yield in China, while results have varied due to uncertain factors. This study has drawn a highly consistent consensus from the scientific evidence based on numerous existing studies. By a highly rational systematic review methodology, we obtained 737 result samples with the theme of climate change affecting China's crop yields. Then, we used likelihood scale and trend analysis methods to quantify the consensus level and uncertainty interval of these samples. The results showed that: (i) The crop yield decrease in the second half of the 21st century will be greater than 5% of that in the first half. (ii) The crop most affected by climate change will be maize, with the decreased value exceeding -25% at the end of this century, followed by rice and wheat exceeding -10% and -5%. (iii) The positive impact of CO2 on crop yield will change by nearly 10%. Our conclusions clarify the consensus of the impact of future climate change on China's crop yield, and this study helps exclude the differences and examine the policies and actions that China has taken and should take in response to climate change.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura/tendências , China , Consenso
3.
Nature ; 588(7838): 436-441, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328667

RESUMO

Rivers support some of Earth's richest biodiversity1 and provide essential ecosystem services to society2, but they are often fragmented by barriers to free flow3. In Europe, attempts to quantify river connectivity have been hampered by the absence of a harmonized barrier database. Here we show that there are at least 1.2 million instream barriers in 36 European countries (with a mean density of 0.74 barriers per kilometre), 68 per cent of which are structures less than two metres in height that are often overlooked. Standardized walkover surveys along 2,715 kilometres of stream length for 147 rivers indicate that existing records underestimate barrier numbers by about 61 per cent. The highest barrier densities occur in the heavily modified rivers of central Europe and the lowest barrier densities occur in the most remote, sparsely populated alpine areas. Across Europe, the main predictors of barrier density are agricultural pressure, density of river-road crossings, extent of surface water and elevation. Relatively unfragmented rivers are still found in the Balkans, the Baltic states and parts of Scandinavia and southern Europe, but these require urgent protection from proposed dam developments. Our findings could inform the implementation of the EU Biodiversity Strategy, which aims to reconnect 25,000 kilometres of Europe's rivers by 2030, but achieving this will require a paradigm shift in river restoration that recognizes the widespread impacts caused by small barriers.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Altitude , Biodiversidade , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/tendências , Europa (Continente) , Atividades Humanas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Densidade Demográfica , Centrais Elétricas/provisão & distribução
4.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13492, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314560

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to assess the productivity of pigs to investigate the time-dependent change in productivity and compare productivity according to breeding company group and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) status on commercial swine farms in southern Kyushu, Japan. Data used in the present study were 245 annual productivity records from 2014 to 2018 obtained from 72 farms. Average sow inventory was 481.2 sows. Mean numbers of pigs weaned per sow per year and market pigs sold per sow per year were 23.7 and 21.6, respectively. Pigs born alive per litter increased from 11.1 to 11.9 pigs from 2014 to 2018 (p < .05). Farms using domestic breeding companies had similar numbers in 2016 to those using international breeding companies, but fewer pigs in 2014, 2015, 2017, and 2018 (p < .05). Farms with an unknown or unstable PRRS status had fewer pigs born alive per litter and pigs weaned per sow per year than those with stable or negative PRRS statuses (11.2 ± 0.06 vs. 11.8 ± 0.08 pigs and 22.6 ± 0.38 vs. 25.0 ± 0.22 pigs, respectively; p < .05). These results can be used to establish feasible targets and standards of performance to identify problem areas and improve production.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Cruzamento/economia , Cruzamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Eficiência , Fazendas/economia , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Reprodução , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Japão/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Tempo , Desmame
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238237, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925932

RESUMO

The objective of this paper is to assess foodstuff storage throughout Recent Prehistory (5600-50 BCE) from the standpoint of the three different types (household, surplus and supra-household) identified in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula. The volumetric data of the underground silos serves as a proxy to evaluate the link between them and the agricultural systems and technological changes. The study also assesses the ability, and specifically, the will of the ancient communities of the northeastern Iberia to generate domestic and extra-domestic surpluses.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Características da Família/história , Armazenamento de Alimentos/história , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo
8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 73, 2020.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725097

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE To analyze how the profile of food purchases from family farming under the National School Feeding Program (PNAE) is related to socioeconomic and demographic indicators in Brazilian capitals. METHODS This cross-sectional and descriptive study was based on secondary data from 2016 and 2017 from the Brazilian government. We used demographic and socioeconomic data, as well as the amount of federal funding; the percentage used purchases of food from family farming and the public call notices. RESULTS The capitals in the largest quartile of HDI and funding by the federal government used less than 30% of the resource for the purchase of crops from family farming in 2016. All capitals of the Northern region used more than 30%, while the Southern and Southeastern regions did not comply with the legislation. We highlight that most analyzed food items were in natura. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of this public policy occurs unequally in Brazilian capitals, with greater difficulty in those supposedly with better institutional structure and higher volume of resources destined to the National School Feeding Program. The program, however, maintains its potential for the promotion of adequate and healthy food in schools, due to the quality of food included in public calls.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Serviços de Alimentação/economia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Humanos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708323

RESUMO

Agriculture has been identified as one of the most vulnerable sectors affected by climate change. In the present study, we investigate the impact of climatic change on dryland wheat yield in the northwest of Iran for the future time horizon of 2041-2070. The Just and Pope production function is applied to assess the impact of climate change on dryland wheat yield and yield risk for the period of 1991-2016. The Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) is used to generate climate parameters from General Circulation Model (GCM) outputs. The results show that minimum temperature is negatively related to average yield in the linear model while the relationship is positive in the non-linear model. An increase in precipitation increases the mean yield in either model. The maximum temperature has a positive effect on the mean yield in the linear model, while this impact is negative in the non-linear model. Drought has an adverse impact on yield levels in both models. The results also indicate that maximum temperature, precipitation, and drought are positively related to yield variability, but minimum temperature is negatively associated with yield variability. The findings also reveal that yield variability is expected to increase in response to future climate scenarios. Given these impacts of temperature on rain-fed wheat crop and its increasing vulnerability to climatic change, policy-makers should support research into and development of wheat varieties that are resistant to temperature variations.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Mudança Climática , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secas , Temperatura , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)
10.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 32(1): 113-122, 2020 Jun 18.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706221

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Madagascar has adopted strategies to fight against maternal malnutrition, but the evaluation of their implementation is not effective.Purpose of research: The present study aims to describe beneficiary appreciation of interventions to fight maternal malnutrition and to identify their expectations. METHOD: A qualitative study was conducted in the Amoron’i Mania region, Madagascar. The study included mothers of children under 5, pregnant women, and other family members and community members (fathers, grandmothers, matrons and community workers). Six focus groups and 16 individual interviews were conducted to collect the data. The thematic analysis was used. RESULTS: Food supplementation, improved production of agriculture and livestock, and nutrition education, operated by NGOs, are the best-known interventions. The health centers were not mentioned as interveners and their interventions were ignored. The effectiveness of the intervention is generally judged on the benefits perceived by the beneficiaries. Interveners working on a project basis were assessed as unsustainable. Two main problems were mentioned: first, the insufficiency of agricultural production resulting in the inaccessibility of the ingredients required for the nutrition education, and second the low coverage of the interventions. The improvement of agricultural production is the main suggestion mentioned to fight against maternal undernutrition. CONCLUSIONS: Beneficiaries thought that existing interventions in the region are insufficient to address the problem of malnutrition among mothers.


Assuntos
Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Madagáscar/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
11.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235846, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706787

RESUMO

The extraordinary population growth of the 20th century will subside in the 21st century, followed by depopulation, constituting the first population decline phase in human history in Japan and other developed countries. The drivers of land-use change during the population decline phase are expected to differ from those of the population growth phase; however, research on land-use drivers during the decline phase is limited. Identifying these drivers is necessary to develop effective management plans for biodiversity and ecosystem services in the decline phase. First, we calculated the probability of farmland abandonment in Hokkaido, a Japanese food production area, from 1973-2009 and divided the period into the population growth phase (1978-1997) and the decline phase (1997-2009). We examined various geographical and social factors that were assumed to alter the land use during these two phases. Geographical and social conditions are key factors in determining the probability of farmland abandonment, but their influences varied between the two phases. The farmlands located on geographically uncultivable sites, such as marginal, underproductive, narrow, and steep land, were abandoned during these phases; however, social conditions, such as the distance from densely inhabited districts (DIDs) and the population, exerted opposite effects during these two phases. Farmland abandonment occurred near DIDs (i.e., urban areas) during the population growth phase, whereas farmland abandonment occurred far from DIDs and sparsely populated farmlands during the decline phase. Farmland abandonment was strongly affected by government policy during the population growth phase, but the policy weakened during the decline phase, which triggered farmland abandonment throughout Hokkaido. The geographical and social drivers found in the present study may provide new insights for other developed countries experiencing depopulation problems.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Ecossistema , Fazendeiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fazendas/estatística & dados numéricos , Migração Humana/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura/economia , Fazendas/economia , Japão , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(7): 413, 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32494993

RESUMO

The loads of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) in the Chao Phraya River Basin (CPRB), Thailand were analyzed in terms of how they were generated (BODgen), stocked in the environment (BODen-stock), and discharged into the Chao Phraya River (BODCPR) using material flow analysis. BODgen from the industrial sector was the highest; however, BODen-stock and BODCPR from this point source were not significantly higher than those from the domestic sector. BODgen, BODen-stock, and BODCPR from swine farming and aquaculture across the river basin were lower than those from the domestic and industrial sectors. Of the total 251,884 tons per year (t/year) BODCPR, 49,614 t/year were in the upper river section, 35,976 t/year in the middle river section, and 166,294 t/year in the lower river section. These amounts were more than the carrying capacities of the relevant river sections (i.e., 7230 t/year, 18,380 t/year, and 37,851 t/year of the BOD loads for the upper, middle, and lower river sections, respectively). The first priority in BOD reduction in the CPRB should emphasize domestic wastewater by increasing wastewater treatment efficiency and onsite installations of wastewater treatment systems, while the second should be on paddy fields and other nonpoint sources. Specific best management practices may be considered, e.g., creating constructed wetlands or preserving riverbank vegetation as natural swales to alleviate BOD discharge from agricultural activities into water sources.


Assuntos
Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Suínos , Tailândia , Águas Residuárias/química , Qualidade da Água
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232267, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357184

RESUMO

Experience across many countries shows that, without large premium subsidies, crop insurance uptake rates are generally low. In this article, we propose to use the cumulative prospect theory to design weather insurance products for situations in which farmers frame insurance narrowly as a stand-alone investment. To this end, we introduce what we call "behavioral weather insurance" whereby insurance contract parameters are adjusted to correspond more closely with farmers' preferences. Depending on farmers' preferences, we find that a stochastic multiyear premium increases the prospect value of weather insurance, while a zero deductible design does not. We suggest that insurance contracts should be tailored precisely to serve farmers' needs. This offers potential benefits for both the insurer and the insured.


Assuntos
Agricultura/economia , Seguro/economia , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Tomada de Decisões , Estudos de Viabilidade , Alemanha , Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Estatísticos , Fatores de Risco
14.
Rev Med Suisse ; 16(694): 1049-1055, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432423

RESUMO

Global warming is considered by most scientists as one of the greatest public health threats of the 21st century. Some individual behaviours and consumption habits related to the food and mobility sectors are responsible for a high amount of CO2 emissions, the main greenhouse gas. Thus, some messages promoted by health professionals will have an impact on the fight against the epidemic of lifestyle-related chronic diseases but will also have an environmental co-benefit. With a population increasingly aware of current environmental issues, environmental considerations could be an additional motivating factor for patients when promoting a healthier diet or physical activity.


Assuntos
Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Humanos
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(6): 393, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451637

RESUMO

The physico-chemical and bacteriological analyses of four rivers namely: Ajali, Obinna, Karawa and Adada in Ezeagu and Uzo-uwani Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Enugu State, South-eastern Nigeria, were carried out to evaluate their suitability for consumption. Water samples from Ajali River were taken from a point where the river receives brewery effluents and other two points that were impacted by non-point pollution sources. A total of 54 water samples were collected during the dry season, early rainy season and rainy season proper for 2 years. For each trip, nine samples were collected from three sampling points in Ajali and two each in Adada, Obinna and Karawa. The water quality index (WQI) was calculated using the arithmetic index method. Significant seasonal and spatial variations (p < 0.05) were evident for sulphate, phosphate, sodium, magnesium, pH, total alkalinity, nitrate and total dissolved solids. Mean values of WQI were 71.75 ± 16.07 57.26 ± 5.39, 60.47 ± 13.12, and 66.75 ± 15.30 for Adada, Obinna, Karawa and Ajali, respectively.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Rios , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Qualidade da Água , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Nigéria , Rios/química , Estações do Ano , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água/normas
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(6): 392, 2020 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451715

RESUMO

Statistical surveys to detect trends in time series are fundamental tools to evaluate farming dynamics of sugarcane and of adaptation plans for possible impacts caused by climate change. This work analyzed the influence of climate change in the cultivation of sugarcane in the state of Paraíba (Northeast Brazil), in order to investigate what are the consequences of temperature increase, air humidity level, and changes in the precipitation regime forecasted for the region in sugarcane farming. Data of temperature, total precipitation, and relative humidity of six meteorological stations kept by the Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology (INMET) spread across the state of Paraíba and data from the area of sugarcane harvesting from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Mann-Kendall trend test was employed in order to analyze the existence of trends in each station, separately. The results pointed trends of significant increase in temperature for the stations of Campina Grande, João Pessoa, Monteiro, Patos, and Sousa. The stations of Areia, Campina Grande, and João Pessoa obtained significant precipitation trends. Regarding relative humidity, the stations of João Pessoa, Monteiro, and Patos presented significant decreasing trends, while Sousa showed significant increase trends. The results suggest that these trends may be increasing sugarcane production close to the coast of the region and decreasing production inland.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Mudança Climática , Saccharum , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Monitoramento Ambiental , Temperatura
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(5): 314, 2020 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342183

RESUMO

The study assessed changes in the total 16 PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) content of soil which occurred in 1998-2009, during a multi-annual, manure-mineral and mineral fertilisation experiment, carried out in Balcyny near Ostróda (Poland), according to a design unchanged since 1986 The study focused on the impact of multi-annual, diversified mineral fertilisation (N, P, K, Mg and Ca) compared to manure applied every two years at a dose of 40 t/ha. The four plants used in the crop rotation included sugar beet, spring barley, maize and spring wheat. The content of the total 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was significantly higher in the manure-fertilised soil than in the soil fertilised with mineral fertilisers only. Under the regular manure fertilisation conditions, liming of the soil significantly increased the total 16 PAH content, and the lowest dose of nitrogen significantly decreased its PAH content. The lowest nitrogen dose had an opposite effect in the soil fertilised with mineral fertilisers only, where it caused a significant increase in the content of the PAHs. However, the increased doses of nitrogen also resulted in an increase in the PAH content in the soil fertilised with manure and without this fertiliser.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Fertilizantes , Esterco , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Polônia , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1258, 2020 03 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152272

RESUMO

Deforestation can increase the transmission of malaria. Here, we build upon the existing link between malaria risk and deforestation by investigating how the global demand for commodities that increase deforestation can also increase malaria risk. We use a database of trade relationships to link the consumption of deforestation-implicated commodities in developed countries to estimates of country-level malaria risk in developing countries. We estimate that about 20% of the malaria risk in deforestation hotspots is driven by the international trade of deforestation-implicated export commodities, such as timber, wood products, tobacco, cocoa, coffee and cotton. By linking malaria risk to final consumers of commodities, we contribute information to support demand-side policy measures to complement existing malaria control interventions, with co-benefits for reducing deforestation and forest disturbance.


Assuntos
Comércio , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Internacionalidade , Malária/transmissão , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura/tendências , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/estatística & dados numéricos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Ecologia , Economia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Geografia , Humanos , Malária/epidemiologia , Modelos Teóricos , Políticas , Fatores de Risco , Árvores , Madeira
19.
Nature ; 579(7799): 393-396, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188954

RESUMO

Agricultural practices constitute both the greatest cause of biodiversity loss and the greatest opportunity for conservation1,2, given the shrinking scope of protected areas in many regions. Recent studies have documented the high levels of biodiversity-across many taxa and biomes-that agricultural landscapes can support over the short term1,3,4. However, little is known about the long-term effects of alternative agricultural practices on ecological communities4,5 Here we document changes in bird communities in intensive-agriculture, diversified-agriculture and natural-forest habitats in 4 regions of Costa Rica over a period of 18 years. Long-term directional shifts in bird communities were evident in intensive- and diversified-agricultural habitats, but were strongest in intensive-agricultural habitats, where the number of endemic and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List species fell over time. All major guilds, including those involved in pest control, pollination and seed dispersal, were affected. Bird communities in intensive-agricultural habitats proved more susceptible to changes in climate, with hotter and drier periods associated with greater changes in community composition in these settings. These findings demonstrate that diversified agriculture can help to alleviate the long-term loss of biodiversity outside natural protected areas1.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Biodiversidade , Aves/classificação , Florestas , Animais , Bovinos , Costa Rica , Produtos Agrícolas/provisão & distribução , Extinção Biológica , Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , Aquecimento Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Polinização , Dispersão de Sementes , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Chemosphere ; 244: 125543, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050340

RESUMO

Environmentally friendly and cost-effective techniques are required to reclaim land degraded during mining activities. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals (HMs) in vegetables grown on contaminated soils can increase human health risks. The potential effects of hardwood biochar (HWB) was assessed for chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn) and lead (Pb) bioavailability in mine-contaminated soils and their subsequently bioaccumulation in crops and associated health risk. HWB was applied to chromium-manganese mine contaminated soils at the rate of 3% to investigate the efficiency of HWB for the second crop in crop rotation technique. Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) and spinach (Spinaccia oleracea) were grown as second crop in the same pots which were already used for rice cultivation as first crop (without adding further amendments). Application of HWB decreased the concentrations of Cr, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Pb in cilantro by 25.5%, 37.1%, 42.5%, 34.3%, and 36.2%, respectively as compared to control. In spinach, the reduction in concentrations of Cr was 75.0%, Zn 24.1%, Cu 70.1%, Mn 78.0%, and Pb 50.5% as compared to control. HWB significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the HMs uptake in spinach cultivated in the amended soils as compared to the spinach in control. Bioaccumulation factor results also indicate that HWB decreased the bioaccumulation of selected HMs in cilantro and spinach, thus reducing health risks. Results of the study clearly demonstrate that the use of HWB can significantly reduce HMs in vegetables, associated health risk and improve food quality, therefore can be used as soil amendment for reclamation of mine-degraded soils.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal , Coriandrum/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Spinacia oleracea/metabolismo , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Disponibilidade Biológica , Cobre/metabolismo , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Manganês/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Verduras/metabolismo , Zinco/análise
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