Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 8.918
Filtrar
1.
Chemosphere ; 262: 127828, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763579

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a widespread environmental problem that decreases crop production, destroys the microbial ecology of soil, and poses a severe risk to human health. Organo-chemical amendment is a cost-effective, eco-friendly, and community-acceptable widely applied an in situ technique for metal-contaminated farmland. In this study, we mixed lime, zeolite, calcium magnesium phosphate fertilizer, and biochar in a mixture ratio of 71:23:5:1 to form a mixed amendment. Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effects of the mixed amendment on soil exchangeable Cd content, plant Cd accumulation, and soil microbial community. It was found that the application of 0.5% mixed amendment decreased exchangeable soil Cd by more than 85% and 64% in wheat and rice season, respectively, compared with control (CK), without increasing pH. Moreover, the application of 0.5% mixed amendment decreased Cd accumulation in grains by 22.9% and 41.2% in wheat and rice season, respectively, compared to CK. The result of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) shows that the level of soil microbial diversity and species richness under mixed amendment treatments were higher than in lime treatment, indicating more copiotrophic conditions and faster rate of nutrient turnover in mixed amendment than pure lime treatment. Hence, it concluded that the mixed amendment has a strong effect on fixing exchangeable soil Cd and reducing the accumulation of Cd in crops. Finally, it was observed that the mixed amendment improved the soil microbial community structure and accelerate the rate of nutrient turnover by microbes under this favorable condition comparative to individual treatments.


Assuntos
Cádmio/química , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/química , Agricultura/métodos , Cádmio/análise , Cádmio/toxicidade , Compostos de Cálcio , Carvão Vegetal , Produtos Agrícolas , Poluição Ambiental , Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental/métodos , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Microbiota/fisiologia , Oryza/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxidos , Fosfatos , Rotação , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Triticum
2.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239673, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027289

RESUMO

This study used high throughput, image-based phenotyping (HTP) to distinguish growth patterns, detect facilitation and interpret variations to nutrient uptake in a model mixed-pasture system in response to factorial low and high nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) application. HTP has not previously been used to examine pasture species in mixture. We used red-green-blue (RGB) imaging to obtain smoothed projected shoot area (sPSA) to predict absolute growth (AG) up to 70 days after planting (sPSA, DAP 70), to identify variation in relative growth rates (RGR, DAP 35-70) and detect overyielding (an increase in yield in mixture compared with monoculture, indicating facilitation) in a grass-legume model pasture. Finally, using principal components analysis we interpreted between species changes to HTP-derived temporal growth dynamics and nutrient uptake in mixtures and monocultures. Overyielding was detected in all treatments and was driven by both grass and legume. Our data supported expectations of more rapid grass growth and augmented nutrient uptake in the presence of a legume. Legumes grew more slowly in mixture and where growth became more reliant on soil P. Relative growth rate in grass was strongly associated with shoot N concentration, whereas legume RGR was not strongly associated with shoot nutrients. High throughput, image-based phenotyping was a useful tool to quantify growth trait variation between contrasting species and to this end is highly useful in understanding nutrient-yield relationships in mixed pasture cultivations.


Assuntos
Fabaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agricultura/métodos , Variação Biológica da População/genética , Variação Biológica da População/fisiologia , Biomassa , Fabaceae/genética , Pradaria , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fósforo/metabolismo , Poaceae/genética , Solo
3.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239851, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991619

RESUMO

Natural ventilation is an effective energy-saving strategy conducive to promoting sustainable agricultural production. A comprehensive numerical simulation is performed to predict the airflow pattern and thermal behavior in different arched greenhouses. The defined arc chord angle and position angle are employed to examine the natural ventilation process and corresponding roof vent scenarios. The numerical simulation is compared with the experimental data and good agreements are observed. Various configurations of ventilated structures, wind conditions and ventilation layouts are simulated on a high-resolution polyhedral grid based on a grid sensitivity analysis, which is beneficial to the optimization of greenhouse cooling combined with the water circulation heat collection system. The cooling effect in summer is analyzed by estimating the ventilation flow rate and microclimate inhomogeneity. The results demonstrate that the position angle of 85° of the arched greenhouses is an optimum ventilation direction and its impact on the microclimate is marginally affected by the change of the ventilation structure. The designed ventilation scheme has perfect air exchange capacity and cooling effect because the average air temperature can be reduced by 1.5°C more than the existing greenhouse in 10 minutes of ventilation. Likewise, the results show that the temperature and velocity inhomogeneities are approximately decreased by 33.3% and 11.89%, respectively. The practical value of the research is expected to provide basic quantitative conclusions for evaluating the natural ventilation performance.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Ar Condicionado , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/métodos , Hidrodinâmica , Simulação por Computador , Termodinâmica
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239552, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970779

RESUMO

Low productivity and climate change require climate-smart agriculture (CSA) for sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), through (i) sustainably increasing crop productivity, (ii) enhancing the resilience of agricultural systems, and (iii) offsetting greenhouse gas emissions. We conducted a meta-analysis on experimental data to evaluate the contributions of combining organic and mineral nitrogen (N) applications to the three pillars of CSA for maize (Zea mays). Linear mixed effect modeling was carried out for; (i) grain productivity and agronomic efficiency of N (AE) inputs, (ii) inter-seasonal yield variability, and (iii) changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) content, while accounting for the quality of organic amendments and total N rates. Results showed that combined application of mineral and organic fertilizers leads to greater responses in productivity and AE as compared to sole applications when more than 100 kg N ha-1 is used with high-quality organic matter. For yield variability and SOC, no significant interactions were found when combining mineral and organic fertilizers. The variability of maize yields in soils amended with high-quality organic matter, except manure, was equal or smaller than for sole mineral fertilizer. Increases of SOC were only significant for organic inputs, and more pronounced for high-quality resources. For example, at a total N rate of 150 kg N ha-1 season-1, combining mineral fertilizer with the highest quality organic resources (50:50) increased AE by 20% and reduced SOC losses by 18% over 7 growing seasons as compared to sole mineral fertilizer. We conclude that combining organic and mineral N fertilizers can have significant positive effects on productivity and AE, but only improves the other two CSA pillars yield variability and SOC depending on organic resource input and quality. The findings of our meta-analysis help to tailor a climate smart integrated soil fertility management in SSA.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Solo/química , África ao Sul do Saara , Carbono/análise , Sequestro de Carbono/fisiologia , Esterco/análise , Minerais , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo , Triticum , Zea mays/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238861, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970699

RESUMO

There is increasing interest in documenting adaptation of weedy plant species to agricultural ecosystems, beyond the evolution of herbicide resistance. Waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) is a native plant of the Midwestern U.S. that began infesting agricultural fields in the 20th century within the central portion of its range. We hypothesized that the vegetative growth and reproductive traits of waterhemp from this heavily infested central region provide differential fitness benefits in agricultural environments. We collected seeds from across the species' native range, representing regions with varying degrees of waterhemp infestation, and planted them together in common garden soybean plots. A 2010 common garden experiment was conducted within the range of agriculturally weedy waterhemp (in Missouri), and a 2011 common garden experiment was conducted outside of this range (in Ohio). Days to flowering and flowering plant height, mature plant size data (height, number of branches, and length of the longest branch), and above-ground biomass were measured to estimate relative fitness. In both common garden locations, plants from regions where waterhemp occurs as an agricultural weed - including those from the heavily infested Mississippi Valley region (Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri) and the less severely infested Plains region (Nebraska, Kansas, and Oklahoma) - had higher relative performance in almost all fitness-related measures than plants from the Northeast region (Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario), which had little to no agriculturally weedy waterhemp at the time of our study. Further analysis revealed that fewer days to flowering in the Northeast populations can be largely accounted for by latitude of origin, suggesting a strong genetic influence on this reproductive trait. These findings suggest intraspecific variation in agricultural adaptation in a native U.S. weed, and support the use of agricultural weeds to study adaptation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Agricultura/métodos , Amaranthus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Resistência a Herbicidas , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Plantas Daninhas/métodos , Amaranthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Fenótipo , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estados Unidos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238916, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Field margins are ecologically important to an agroecosystem as they are a source of biodiversity. They can be composed of a diverse flora which may offer resources to a wide range of insects and birds. The vegetation composition of field margins is determined by soil characteristics, management, and landscape structures. However, little is known about the effect of individual field margin components such as ditches, grass strips, shrubs and trees, and the overall margin's complexity, on the vegetation composition and its functional effect and response traits. METHODS: This paper reports on the effects of field margin component typology (ditches, grass strips, shrubs, trees, and vehicle tracks) and complexity (the number of components), on the herbaceous vegetation of field margins. Forty field margins were sampled in 2016 in a 200 ha. organic mixed arable livestock farm. RESULTS: The factor which was identified as having the most effect on vegetation composition was adjacent land-use type, which reflected the margins' management regime. However, field margin components were found to affect vegetation response and effect traits. Tree components had less grassweeds than vehicle tracks while more complex field margins also had less grassweeds than simple field margins near cropped fields, most likely due to the lower availability in light and less disturbance from vehicles. Simple grassy margins produced a high proportion of hymenoptera flowers. DISCUSSION: These results highlight the importance of field margin components in maintaining a high diversity of vegetation typologies differing in effect traits that are relevant for the provisioning of ecosystem services, such as supporting pollen and nectar requirements of beneficial insects, as well as their importance in determining the presence of weed species that could potentially invade the cropped fields.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Biodiversidade , Aves/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Insetos/fisiologia , Itália , Plantas Daninhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
7.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239746, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986785

RESUMO

This research work aims to develop a deep learning-based crop classification framework for remotely sensed time series data. Tobacco is a major revenue generating crop of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) province of Pakistan, with over 90% of the country's Tobacco production. In order to analyze the performance of the developed classification framework, a pilot sub-region named Yar Hussain is selected for experimentation work. Yar Hussain is a tehsil of district Swabi, within KP province of Pakistan, having highest contribution to the gross production of the KP Tobacco crop. KP generally consists of a diverse crop land with different varieties of vegetation, having similar phenology which makes crop classification a challenging task. In this study, a temporal convolutional neural network (TempCNNs) model is implemented for crop classification, while considering remotely sensed imagery of the selected pilot region with specific focus on the Tobacco crop. In order to improve the performance of the proposed classification framework, instead of using the prevailing concept of utilizing a single satellite imagery, both Sentinel-2 and Planet-Scope imageries are stacked together to assist in providing more diverse features to the proposed classification framework. Furthermore, instead of using a single date satellite imagery, multiple satellite imageries with respect to the phenological cycle of Tobacco crop are temporally stacked together which resulted in a higher temporal resolution of the employed satellite imagery. The developed framework is trained using the ground truth data. The final output is obtained as an outcome of the SoftMax function of the developed model in the form of probabilistic values, for the classification of the selected classes. The proposed deep learning-based crop classification framework, while utilizing multi-satellite temporally stacked imagery resulted in an overall classification accuracy of 98.15%. Furthermore, as the developed classification framework evolved with specific focus on Tobacco crop, it resulted in best Tobacco crop classification accuracy of 99%.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Aprendizado Profundo , Imagens de Satélites/métodos , Tabaco/classificação , Verduras/classificação , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Humanos , Paquistão , Triticum/classificação
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239509, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986717

RESUMO

In the past few decades, there has been a rapid growth in the concentration of nitrogenous compounds such as nitrate-nitrogen and ammonia-nitrogen in rivers, primarily due to increasing agricultural and industrial activities. These nitrogenous compounds are mainly responsible for eutrophication when present in river water, and for 'blue baby syndrome' when present in drinking water. High concentrations of these compounds in rivers may eventually lead to the closure of treatment plants. This study presents a training and a selection approach to develop an optimum artificial neural network model for predicting monthly average nitrate-N and monthly average ammonia-N. Several studies have predicted these compounds, but most of the proposed procedures do not involve testing various model architectures in order to achieve the optimum predicting model. Additionally, none of the models have been trained for hydrological conditions such as the case of Malaysia. This study presents models trained on the hydrological data from 1981 to 2017 for the Langat River in Selangor, Malaysia. The model architectures used for training are General Regression Neural Network (GRNN), Multilayer Neural Network and Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBFNN). These models were trained for various combinations of internal parameters, input variables and model architectures. Post-training, the optimum performing model was selected based on the regression and error values and plot of predicted versus observed values. Optimum models provide promising results with a minimum overall regression value of 0.92.


Assuntos
Nitrogênio/química , Rios/química , Agricultura/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Hidrologia/métodos , Malásia , Redes Neurais de Computação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Qualidade da Água
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0232502, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970706

RESUMO

Potato spindle tuber viroid and other pospiviroids can cause serious diseases in potato and tomato crops. Consequently, pospiviroids are regulated in several countries. Since seed transmission is considered as a pathway for the introduction and spread of pospiviroids, some countries demand for the testing of seed lots of solanaceous crops for the presence of pospiviroids. A real-time RT-PCR test, named PospiSense, was developed for testing pepper (Capsicum annuum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seeds for seven pospiviroid species known to occur naturally in these crops. The test consists of two multiplex reactions running in parallel, PospiSense 1 and PospiSense 2, that target Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Columnea latent viroid (CLVd), pepper chat fruit viroid (PCFVd), potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd), tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) and tomato planta macho viroid (TPMVd, including the former Mexican papita viroid). Dahlia latent viroid (DLVd) is used as an internal isolation control. Validation of the test showed that for both pepper and tomato seeds the current requirements of a routine screening test are fulfilled, i.e. the ability to detect one infested seed in a sample of c.1000 seeds for each of these seven pospiviroids. Additionally, the PospiSense test performed well in an inter-laboratory comparison, which included two routine seed-testing laboratories, and as such provides a relatively easy alternative to the currently used tests.


Assuntos
Capsicum/virologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/virologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , RNA Viral/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Viroides/isolamento & purificação , Agricultura/métodos , Sementes/virologia , Verduras/virologia , Viroides/genética
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238227, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886691

RESUMO

Intensive management of C. oleifera has produced many pure C. oleifera plantations. The transmission of C. oleifera plantation will potentially affect soil C, N, and P pools as well as their stoichiometric characteristics both in top soil layer and vertical soil profile due to the intensive management. To understand changes in vertical pools and stoichiometric characteristics of soil C, N, and P as affected by intensive management of C. oleifera plantations, both mixed and pure C. oleifera plantations were studied. We conducted studies in five locations in Jiangxi, China with both pure and mixed C. oleifera plantations, to compare changes in vertical pools and stoichiometry of C, N, and P. Both C and N pools were significantly different between mixed and pure plantation types of C. oleifera. However, the ratio of C:N, C:P, and N:P was consistently higher in mixed plantations with C:P and N:P altered but C:N ratio did not change with soil depth. The intensive management significantly impact both C and N pools and the stoichiometry of C, N, and P. Intensive management of C. oleifera plantations decreased both C and N pools, especially at the depth of 30-50 cm soil layer. C. oleifera plantation alteration from mixed to pure should be considered in future forest management practice considering the substantial effects on soil element cycling and distribution along vertical soil profile.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Camellia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camellia/metabolismo , Carbono/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Fósforo/análise , Solo/química
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238237, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925932

RESUMO

The objective of this paper is to assess foodstuff storage throughout Recent Prehistory (5600-50 BCE) from the standpoint of the three different types (household, surplus and supra-household) identified in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula. The volumetric data of the underground silos serves as a proxy to evaluate the link between them and the agricultural systems and technological changes. The study also assesses the ability, and specifically, the will of the ancient communities of the northeastern Iberia to generate domestic and extra-domestic surpluses.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Características da Família/história , Armazenamento de Alimentos/história , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas , História Antiga , História Medieval , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238222, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936803

RESUMO

The expansion of agriculture is a major driver of biodiversity loss worldwide, through changes generated in the landscape. Despite this, very little is still known about the complex relationships between landscape composition and heterogeneity and plant taxonomical and functional diversity in Mediterranean ecosystems that have been extensively managed during millennia. Although according to the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis (IDH) plant richness might peak at intermediate disturbance levels, functional diversity might increase with landscape heterogeneity and decrease with the intensity of disturbance. Here, we evaluated the associations of landscape composition (percentage of crops) and heterogeneity (diversity of land-cover classes) with plant taxonomical diversity (richness, diversity, evenness), local contribution to beta diversity, and functional diversity (functional richness, evenness, divergence and dispersion) in 20 wild Olea europaea communities appearing within agricultural landscapes of Mallorca Island (Western Mediterranean Basin). In accordance with the IDH, we found that overall plant richness peaked at intermediate levels of crops in the landscape, whereas plant evenness showed the opposite pattern, because richness peak was mainly related to an increase in scarce ruderal species. Plant communities surrounded by very heterogeneous landscapes were those contributing the most to beta diversity and showing the highest functional richness and evenness, likely because diverse landscapes favour the colonization of new species and traits into the communities. In addition, landscape heterogeneity decreased functional divergence (i.e., increased trait overlap of dominant species) which may enhance community resilience against disturbances through a higher functional redundancy. However, a large extent of agriculture in the landscape might reduce such resilience, as this disturbance acted as an environmental filter that decreased functional dispersion (i.e, remaining species shared similar traits). Overall, our study highlights the importance of considering several indices of taxonomical and functional diversity to deeply understand the complex relationships between ecosystems functions and landscape context.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Plantas/classificação , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237460, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911506

RESUMO

Infection of wheat by Fusarium species can lead to Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) and mycotoxin contamination, thereby reducing food quality and food safety, and leading to economic losses. Agronomic management through the implementation of various pre-harvest measures can reduce the probability of Fusarium spp. infection in the wheat field. To design interventions that could stimulate wheat farmers to (further) improve their agronomic management to reduce FHB, it is key to understand farmers' behaviour towards adapting their management. The aim of this paper was to understand the intention, underlying behavioural constructs, and beliefs of Dutch wheat farmers to adapt their agronomic management to reduce FHB and mycotoxin contamination in wheat, applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Data were collected from 100 Dutch wheat farmers via a questionnaire. The standard TPB analysis was extended with an assessment of the robustness of the belief results to account for the statistical validity of the analysis on TPB beliefs (i.e. to address the so-called expectancy-value muddle). Forty-six percent of the farmers had a positive intention to change their management in the next 5 years. The two behavioural constructs significantly related to this intention were attitude and social norm, whereas association with the perceived behavioural control construct was insignificant indicating that farmers did not perceive any barriers to change their behaviour. Relevant attitudinal beliefs indicated specific attributes of wheat, namely yield, quality and safety (lower mycotoxin contamination). This indicates that strengthening these beliefs-by demonstrating that a change in management will result in a higher yield and quality and lower mycotoxin levels-will result in a stronger attitude and, subsequently, a higher intention to change management. Interventions to strengthen these beliefs should preferably go by the most important referents for social norms, which were the buyers and the farmer cooperatives in this study.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Triticum/microbiologia , Agricultura/métodos , Controle Comportamental , Fazendeiros , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Normas Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Chemosphere ; 254: 126881, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957288

RESUMO

Application of biochar (BC) derived from rice straw has generated increasing interest in long-term storage of soil organic carbon (SOC), however its carbon (C) sequestration potential vary widely among agricultural soils despite the same BC dose used. These discrepancies in the ability of soils to sequester C after BC application are poorly understood. Metabolic quotient (qCO2) is a reflection of "microbial efficiency" and linked to SOC turnover across ecosystems. Therefore, we investigated the SOC sequestration and qCO2 in a Yellow River alluvium paddy soil (YP) and a quaternary red clay paddy soil (QP) under rice-wheat annual rotation following 4-year of BC application rate of 11.3 Mg ha-1 per cropping season. BC application consistently brought 65.3 Mg C ha-1 into the soils over 4-year experimental period but increased SOC by 57.6 Mg C ha-1 in YP and 64.5 Mg C ha-1 in QP. Calculating SOC mass balance showed 11.7% of BC-C losses from YP and only 1.16% from QP. BC application stimulated the G+ bacterial, fungi, and actinomycetes by increasing O-alkyl C content in YP, while decreased the same microorganisms by decreasing anomeric C-H content in QP. Importantly, higher clay and amorphous Fe (Feo) contents in QP after BC application protected SOC from further decomposition, which in turn decreased microorganisms and resulted in higher SOC sequestration than YP. Our results indicated that soil properties controlled the extent of SOC sequestration after BC application and site-specific soil properties must be carefully considered to maximize long-term SOC sequestration after BC application.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Sequestro de Carbono , Carvão Vegetal/química , Carbono/metabolismo , Argila , Ecossistema , Oryza/metabolismo , Solo/química
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4488, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901040

RESUMO

Sustainable food production in the context of climate change necessitates diversification of agriculture and a more efficient utilization of plant genetic resources. Fonio millet (Digitaria exilis) is an orphan African cereal crop with a great potential for dryland agriculture. Here, we establish high-quality genomic resources to facilitate fonio improvement through molecular breeding. These include a chromosome-scale reference assembly and deep re-sequencing of 183 cultivated and wild Digitaria accessions, enabling insights into genetic diversity, population structure, and domestication. Fonio diversity is shaped by climatic, geographic, and ethnolinguistic factors. Two genes associated with seed size and shattering showed signatures of selection. Most known domestication genes from other cereal models however have not experienced strong selection in fonio, providing direct targets to rapidly improve this crop for agriculture in hot and dry environments.


Assuntos
Digitaria/genética , Grão Comestível/genética , África , Agricultura/métodos , Mudança Climática , Digitaria/classificação , Domesticação , Grão Comestível/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Seleção Genética , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238396, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866180

RESUMO

The effect of different management techniques for plant control in the vineyard were compared in the present work, focusing on plant diversity preservation and management efficacy in a two-year experiment on vineyard row weed community. Biomass-fueled flame weeding (with two intensities) was applied as an innovative plant control technique in contrast to tillage and mowing practices. The results showed that flaming was comparable to tillage regarding weed control effectiveness, and was more efficient than mowing. However, species number and functional evenness were not substantially modified by changing the applied management technique. Functional trait analysis demonstrated that row management significantly affected the frequency of annual plants, plant height, root depth index, and the occurrence of plants with storage organs. As for species composition, meaningful differences were found: only the two flaming treatments (i.e. gentle vs intense) and the gentle flaming vs mowing had consistent species composition. Flame wedding showed some potential benefits in plant control in the vineyard by favouring small plant and controlling overall weed abundance. On the other hand, flaming favoured plant species with asexual reproduction, with a potential negative impact on weed-vine competition and species persistence in the vineyard. Further studies are required to investigate such contrasting aspects, also considering other weed control techniques (e.g. cover-crops), considering a sustainable perspective of an herbicide-free environment.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Daninhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Plantas Daninhas/métodos , Agricultura/métodos , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Produtos Agrícolas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fazendas , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Poaceae/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(4): 559-564, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32974765

RESUMO

In this work, we propose to evaluate the effect of agriculture intensification under greenhouses on the biochemical and transcriptomic responses of the earthworms Eisenia andrei. This work was conducted on two sites in Téboulba and Sahline (Monastir governorate) and a control site in an experimental plot that is undergoing organic farming. For this purpose, the earthworms Eisenia andrei were exposed to the soils during 7 and 14 days. The physicochemical properties of the soils were analyzed. The biochemical biomarkers of metallothioneins (MTs) and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulations were also assessed. Moreover, the gene expression level of the MTs was analyzed. The results of our study revealed a significant trace element accumulation accompanied by a high level of MDA and MT proteins. Moreover, a significant expression of the MT gene was observed in earthworms exposed to the soils from Sahline and Téboulba. Hence, this work reveals that intensive agriculture can affect the biological responses of earthworms and consequently, the soil's biofertility.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Biomarcadores Ambientais/fisiologia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Solo/química , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/genética , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Tunísia
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4876, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978378

RESUMO

In most crops, genetic and environmental factors interact in complex ways giving rise to substantial genotype-by-environment interactions (G×E). We propose that computer simulations leveraging field trial data, DNA sequences, and historical weather records can be used to tackle the longstanding problem of predicting cultivars' future performances under largely uncertain weather conditions. We present a computer simulation platform that uses Monte Carlo methods to integrate uncertainty about future weather conditions and model parameters. We use extensive experimental wheat yield data (n = 25,841) to learn G×E patterns and validate, using left-trial-out cross-validation, the predictive performance of the model. Subsequently, we use the fitted model to generate circa 143 million grain yield data points for 28 wheat genotypes in 16 locations in France, over 16 years of historical weather records. The phenotypes generated by the simulation platform have multiple downstream uses; we illustrate this by predicting the distribution of expected yield at 448 cultivar-location combinations and performing means-stability analyses.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Genótipo , Incerteza , Tempo (Meteorologia) , Agricultura/métodos , DNA de Plantas , Grão Comestível/genética , França , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Triticum/genética
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238469, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877469

RESUMO

The spatial arrangement and pore size distribution play an important role in accumulation and protection of exogenous organic matter (EOM) in the soil, but how different organic materials contribute to modify pore structure is poorly understood. We aimed at exploring possible changes in the complexity of the soil phase during fertilization with different doses of digestate and sludges sourced from the agro-food industry. For this purpose, the short-term effects-one year, of soil fertilization, were investigated in several sampling periods and within two depths (0-25 cm and 25-40 cm). Changes in the specific surface area (SSA), total pore volume (VMIP), total pore area (SMIP), average pore radius (RMIP) and pore size distribution (PSD) were monitored using N2 adsorption/desorption (NAD) and mercury porosimetry (MIP) methods. Our results showed that the intensity of observed changes depended on the type and dose of organic material, soil depth and sampling date. Accumulation of EOM increased with soil depth, masking a large proportion of SSA. Deeper soil layer was more susceptible to changes in the pore size distributions due to the formation of new elongated pores. We concluded that this specific structural porosity was related to the decomposition of organic matter during the formation of soil aggregates.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Fertilizantes/análise , Solo/química , Adsorção , Indústria Alimentícia , Mercúrio/química , Nitrogênio/química , Porosidade , Esgotos/química
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(3): 976-985, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748773

RESUMO

Gene drive technologies represent powerful tools to develop vector control strategies that will complement the current approaches to mitigate arthropod-borne infectious diseases. The characteristics of gene drive technologies have raised additional concerns to those for standard genetically engineered organisms. This generates a need for adaptive governance that has not been met yet because of the rapid rate of progress in gene drive research. For the eventual release of gene drive insects into wild populations, an international governance network would be helpful in guiding scientists, stakeholders, public opinion, and affected communities in its use. We examined the current institutions and governing bodies among various continents that could have an impact on gene drive governance or the potential to adapt to its future use. Possible governance strategies also are proposed that seek to bridge gaps and promote an ethically sound policy framework. Ideally, governance strategies should be developed before or at the same pace as gene drive research to anticipate field releases and maximize their impact as a public health tool. However, this is not likely to happen as it takes years to develop global accords, and some countries may choose to move ahead independently on the new technology.


Assuntos
Culicidae/genética , Tecnologia de Impulso Genético/legislação & jurisprudência , Cooperação Internacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Mosquitos/legislação & jurisprudência , Mosquitos Vetores/genética , Agricultura/ética , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Pesquisa Biomédica/ética , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Tecnologia de Impulso Genético/ética , Humanos , Controle de Mosquitos/organização & administração , Saúde Pública , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA