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1.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 12, 2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Through their support of local agriculture, relationships, and healthy diets, farmers markets can contribute to a sustainable food system. Markets like the Yellowknife Farmers Market (YKFM) are social spaces that support local food, yet the COVID-19 pandemic has forced changes to their current model. We explore the potential of online marketplaces to contribute to a resilient, sustainable food system through a case study of the YKFM. METHODS: In 2019, a collaborative mixed-method evaluation was initiated by the YKFM and university partners in the Northwest Territories (NWT), Canada. The evaluation included an in-person Rapid Market Assessment dot survey and questionnaire of market patrons from two YKFM dates prior to the pandemic. Due to COVID-19, a vendor survey and interviews were deferred. Data collected from the two patron surveys, alongside researcher observations, available literature, public announcements, and informal email and phone discussions, inform the discussion. RESULTS: For the patron surveys, 59 dot survey and 31 questionnaire participants were recruited. The top motivators for attendance were eating dinner, atmosphere, and supporting local businesses, and most patrons attended as couples and spent over half of their time talking to others. The YKFM did not move online; instead, they proposed and implemented a "Shop, don't stop" market. Informal conversations suggested the small scale of the market and technology challenges were perceived barriers to moving online. The physically-distanced market was well-attended and featured in local media. CONCLUSIONS: NWT food strategies rely on farmers markets to nurture a local food system. Data suggest a potential incongruence between an online model and important market characteristics such as the event-like atmosphere. Available literature suggests online markets can support local food by facilitating purchasing and knowledge-sharing, yet they do not replicate the open-air or social experience. The decision not to move online for the YKFM reflects market patron characteristics and current food context in Yellowknife and the NWT. While online adaptation does not fit into the YKFM plan today, online markets may prove useful as a complementary strategy for future emerging stressors to enhance the resiliency of local systems.


Assuntos
Agricultura/organização & administração , Comércio/organização & administração , Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Internet , Canadá , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0220349, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320393

RESUMO

This article proposes a conceptual and methodological framework for analyzing agroecosystem resilience, in which aspects such as agrarian structure and peasant community agency are included as determining factors. The methodology is applied to a comparison of two peasant communities in Latin America (Brazil and Colombia), emphasizing the capacity to transform unsustainable power structures in place of adapting to them. We find that when agrarian structure is more equitable and peasant agency is strongly developed through political formation, organization and women's participation, then there is a greater construction of resilience that improves peasant livelihoods and dignity. This application demonstrates that when agency is strongly developed, as in the case of Brazil, it is possible to transform structural conditions that restrict resilience. The inclusion and consideration of biophysical variables, management practices, agrarian structure and agency, through a participatory approach, allows for the identification of factors that inhibit or potentiate the resilience of agroecosystems.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Agricultura/organização & administração , Brasil , Colômbia , Ecossistema , Emprego , Fazendeiros , Humanos , Política , População Rural , Planejamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 68(1): 1-8, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843361

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Work and related exposures may play a role in suicide and there has been evidence in the literature that some occupational factors may be associated with suicide. The identification of occupational risk factors of suicide mortality among employees affiliated to the French special agricultural social security scheme (MSA), an understudied population, appears important. The objective of this study was to identify the occupational factors associated with suicide mortality among French employees from the MSA working between 2007 and 2013. METHODS: The study population included all the employees affiliated to the MSA working between 1st January 2007 and 31st December 2013, i.e. 1,699,929 men and 1,201,017 women. The studied occupational factors included: economic activity, skill level, and work contract. Survival analyses (Cox models) stratified on gender were performed using age as time scale and region and year of contract as adjustment variables. RESULTS: Among men, the factors associated with an elevated suicide risk were: economic activities of forestry, agriculture and related activities, and manufacture of food products and beverages (e.g. meat, wine), low-skilled level and working in the regions of Brittany, Burgundy Franche-Comté, Pays de la Loire, Normandy, Grand Est and Centre-Val-de-Loire. No association was observed among women. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that economic activity and low-skilled level may be associated with suicide among men affiliated to the MSA and may contribute to the implementation of prevention interventions. Further studies are needed to confirm and better understand these associations.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Agricultura Florestal , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Previdência Social , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Agricultura/organização & administração , Agricultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/mortalidade , Emprego/classificação , Emprego/organização & administração , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Agricultura Florestal/economia , Agricultura Florestal/organização & administração , Agricultura Florestal/estatística & dados numéricos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Previdência Social/organização & administração , Previdência Social/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Public Health ; 110(1): 119-126, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725311

RESUMO

Objectives. To estimate the population-level effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a subsidized community-supported agriculture (CSA) intervention in the United States.Methods. In 2019, we developed a microsimulation model from nationally representative demographic, biomedical, and dietary data (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2013-2016) and a community-based randomized trial (conducted in Massachusetts from 2017 to 2018). We modeled 2 interventions: unconditional cash transfer ($300/year) and subsidized CSA ($300/year subsidy).Results. The total discounted disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) accumulated over the life course to cardiovascular disease and diabetes complications would be reduced from 24 797 per 10 000 people (95% confidence interval [CI] = 24 584, 25 001) at baseline to 23 463 per 10 000 (95% CI = 23 241, 23 666) under the cash intervention and 22 304 per 10 000 (95% CI = 22 084, 22 510) under the CSA intervention. From a societal perspective and over a life-course time horizon, the interventions had negative incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, implying cost savings to society of -$191 100 per DALY averted (95% CI = -$191 767, -$188 919) for the cash intervention and -$93 182 per DALY averted (95% CI = -$93 707, -$92 503) for the CSA intervention.Conclusions. Both the cash transfer and subsidized CSA may be important public health interventions for low-income persons in the United States.


Assuntos
Agricultura/organização & administração , Participação da Comunidade/métodos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/métodos , Nível de Saúde , Pobreza , Assistência Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Agricultura/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Participação da Comunidade/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Complicações do Diabetes/economia , Complicações do Diabetes/prevenção & controle , Dieta , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Assistência Pública/economia , Meio Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 189: 110016, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801098

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Pesticides are organic compounds widely used in modern agriculture, being relevant for helping plantations and increasing food production. The banana, a fruit with oriental origin, stands out for being widely produced in tropical and subtropical regions which, like other matrices, is susceptible to pest action. This review aims to evaluate the presence of pesticides in bananas according to Brazilian, European and Codex legislation. METHODS: Four databases, ScienceDirect, SciELO, PubMed and Springer, were used to find relevant articles in the literature addressing methods for the determination of pesticide residues in bananas using the terms "banana", "chromatography", "pesticides" and "determination". The search stages included reading abstracts and titles, reading the full text, extracting data and analyzing data from eligible articles. The search was restricted to original research articles published in English from 2008 to 2018. RESULTS: 404 articles were found from the initial research, with only 15 studies being considered eligible for this review. Mass spectrometry is the most widely used detection technique. 5 articles were seen to use a multiresidue method to analyze only bananas (pulp), and from these, only 2 studies used methods to analyze the pulp and peel. The articles analyzed 172 samples, with 59.3% of these being conducted in Europe, 32.5% being conducted in Asia and only 8.1% in South America. A total of 79.1%, 32.4% and 42.6% of samples were unsatisfactory according to the Brazilian, European and Codex legislation, respectively, with these samples being contaminated with pesticide residues. CONCLUSION: This review presents the scarcity of articles aimed at identifying pesticide residues in bananas and the urgency of checking the quality of the fruit that reaches the population. The MRLs allowed by different legislations have clear divergences that do not ensure the lowest concentration values that guarantee consumer safety.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Musa/química , Praguicidas/análise , Agricultura/legislação & jurisprudência , Agricultura/organização & administração , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/normas
14.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 65(Supplement): S4-S8, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619643

RESUMO

New evidence shows that the number of hungry people in the world is growing, reaching more than 820 million in 2018 (one in every nine people), up from 812 million in 2017. There are three main causes of food insecurity: high exposure and vulnerability to climate extremes, conflicts, and economic slowdown. Paradoxically, every year, roughly one third of the food produced in the world for human consumption-approximately 1.3 billion tonnes-is lost or wasted. It is estimated that, if the food lost or wasted globally could be reduced by just one quarter, this would be sufficient to feed the people suffering from chronic hunger in the world. Rice, an important staple food for over half the world's population, is also affected. At the same time, evidence shows that the food lost or wasted is a major cause of greenhouse gas emission, which itself feeds into climate change and extreme weather, resulting in further food insecurity and malnutrition. This paper briefly introduces the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), presents the recent findings on the current situation of food security and nutrition in the world, and highlights the issue of food loss and waste and its impact on food security, with particular emphasis on the constraints it poses to the achievement of key Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).


Assuntos
Agricultura/organização & administração , Indústria Alimentícia/organização & administração , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Nações Unidas
16.
Eval Program Plann ; 77: 101695, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400655

RESUMO

Using agriculture to improve nutrition is an approach growing in popularity, with programs becoming increasingly complex and multisectoral. While there is an active line of research assessing the impacts of such programs, little has been written about the process of successfully implementing them. As such, this paper uses a multisectoral nutrition-sensitive agriculture program implemented in four African countries as a case study to address key challenges in and lessons learned from implementation. We highlight the overall flexibility of nutrition-sensitive agriculture but also the need to adapt certain aspects to the particular context, as well as the opportunities for cross-context learning (and the limits to this). Integrating rigorous evaluation into such complex programs and forging diverse cross-sectoral partnerships offer both rewards and challenges, upon which we reflect. Main lessons learned from the program include the importance of carefully sequencing interventions, retaining flexibility in implementation, allowing for considerable time for cross-sector integration and coordination, and considering community impacts when designing research.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/organização & administração , Burkina Faso , Costa do Marfim , Produção Agrícola , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Política Nutricional , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Senegal , Tanzânia
17.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0220343, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344136

RESUMO

The active phase of conventional static composting systems varies dramatically, ranging from several weeks to several months. Therefore, this study was to examine the effect of a combined continuous aeration-rotation process on shortening the active phase of composted material. A mixture of tomato plant residues with 20%-chicken manure (v/v) was composted in two identical pilot-scale bioreactors. One of them was static, and the other was continuously rotated at 3 rpm; each was supplied with continuous aeration. Compost temperatures (Tc) were measured throughout the composting process; the moisture content (MC) and carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N) were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment. The quality and stage of compost were evaluated at the end of the experiment using Dewar, Solvita, and visual tests. Continuous aeration-rotation significantly reduced the active phase period to 4.5 days, increased the compost temperature (Tc) to 60°C after 3 days of operation, and remained at 50-65°C for approximately 3 consecutive days (thermophilic stage). In contrast, compost in the static bioreactor remained in the mesophilic stage (Tc < 45°C). During the composting process, the C/N ratio was reduced from 30/1 to 23/1 in the rotating bioreactor, while it remained at 30/1 in the static bioreactor, indicating that the nitrogen content was not a limiting factor affecting the composting process. The MC was within the optimum range for microorganisms (58-61%) for both bioreactors. After the active phase had ended in the rotating bioreactor, the compost was inactive and ready for further maturation, while compost from the static bioreactor was still immature and active. These results show that the proposed method can be done on a commercial scale to significantly reduce the composting period and to enhance the compost stability and productivity.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Agricultura/organização & administração , Compostagem/métodos , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Gerenciamento do Tempo/métodos , Animais , Biomassa , Reatores Biológicos , Carbono/análise , Carbono/metabolismo , Galinhas , Compostagem/normas , Eficiência , Esterco , Oxigênio/análise , Solo/química , Desenvolvimento Sustentável
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185621

RESUMO

Large-scale food system practices have diminished soil and water quality and negatively impacted climate change. Yet, numerous opportunities exist to harness food system practices that will ensure better outcomes for human health and ecosystems. The objective of this study was to consider food Production, Processing, Access and Consumption domains, and for each determine the challenges and successes associated with progressing towards a sustainable food system. A workshop engaging 122 participants including producers, consultants, consumers, educators, funders, scientists, media, government and industry representatives, was conducted in Perth, Western Australia. A thematic analysis of statements (Successes (n = 170) or Challenges (n = 360)) captured, revealed issues of scale, knowledge and education, economics, consumerism, big food, environmental/sustainability, communication, policies and legislation, and technology and innovations. Policy recommendations included greater investment into research in sustainable agriculture (particularly the evidentiary basis for regenerative agriculture), land preservation, and supporting farmers to overcome high infrastructure costs and absorb labour costs. Policy, practice and research recommendations included focusing on an integrated food systems approach with multiple goals, food system actors working collaboratively to reduce challenges and undertaking more research to further the regenerative agriculture evidence.


Assuntos
Agricultura/organização & administração , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Agricultura/economia , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Governo , Humanos , Solo , Austrália Ocidental
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