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1.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112141, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676136

RESUMO

Pesticides are a major tool for the intensification of agriculture, and helped to increase food, feed and biofuel production. Yet, there are persistent concerns about the negative effects of pesticides in human health and the environment, particularly in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Given the lack of information on pesticide exposure and hazard, Colombia exemplifies the need to narrow the information gap on pesticide risk in LMICs. We assessed pesticide hazard in Colombia based on the official toxicity categorization, compared it to more integral international standards, and identified main actions to narrow this information gap. Results showed that Colombia has been a relevant regional actor in pesticide production and trade, reaching almost 75 million kilogrammes and liters sold in 2016. Based on acute toxicity for humans, a quarter of the amount of pesticides sales and imports, and a third of the exports in 2016 ranged from moderately to extremenly toxic. The top-selling agrochemicals in 2016 (glyphosate with 14% of the total sales, chlorpyrifos 7.5% and mancozeb 6.9%) are also commonly used in other countries, reflecting a homogenized global industry. Compared to integral international categorizations, we found that for that year 63% of the pesticides sold with slightly acute toxicity are actually considered highly hazardous pesticides (HHP) for humans or the environment, evidencing the need to use a more integral hazard categorization in the country. Narrowing the information gap in pesticide use and associated risks demands a transparent process of knowledge creation and sharing, including funtional information and monitoring systems. This should be part of an integral assessment and regulation that better defines HHP, their production and trade to reduce pesticide risk while informing a transition towards sustainable food systems.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Agricultura , Agroquímicos , Colômbia , Comércio , Humanos , Praguicidas/toxicidade
2.
J Vis Exp ; (169)2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749672

RESUMO

Current risk assessment strategies for honey bees rely heavily upon laboratory tests performed on adult or immature worker bees, but these methods may not accurately capture the effects of agrochemical exposure on honey bee queens. As the sole producer of fertilized eggs inside a honeybee colony, the queen is arguably the most important single member of a functioning colony unit. Therefore, understanding how agrochemicals affect queen health and productivity should be considered a critical aspect of pesticide risk assessment. Here, an adapted method is presented to expose honey bee queens and worker queen attendants to agrochemical stressors administered through a worker diet, followed by tracking egg production in the laboratory and assessing first instar eclosion using a specialized cage, referred to as a Queen Monitoring Cage. To illustrate the method's intended use, results of an experiment in which worker queen attendants were fed diet containing sublethal doses of imidacloprid and effects on queens were monitored are described.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Abelhas/fisiologia , Hierarquia Social , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Abelhas/embriologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 775: 145588, 2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611176

RESUMO

Solitary bees provide essential pollination services for many arable crops, but are prone to global decline. Agricultural intensification, which is connected with pesticide usage, is among major threats to bees and, thus, to the food security and ecosystem stability. As it may not be possible to cease pesticide usage currently because of the growing demand for food, it is crucial to understand the pesticide toxicities to bees for better protection of pollinator populations. The majority of studies have focused on social bees, and those on solitary bees studied effects of adult exposure, whereas these bees are also likely to be exposed as larvae via the consumption of contaminated pollen. Here, the effects of three commonly used insecticide-based plant protection products on the development of the solitary bee, Osmia bicornis (red mason bee), were studied by exposing larvae to insecticide-contaminated multifloral pollen. The tested insecticides were: Dursban480EC, containing the organophosphate chlorpyrifos (CHP), Sherpa100EC, containing the pyrethroid cypermethrin (CYP), and Mospilan20SP with the neonicotinoid acetamiprid (ACT). When compared to the control larvae fed with uncontaminated-pollen, both CHP and CYP significantly reduced the O. bicornis larval survival and their body mass at all tested concentrations. In contrast, ACT did not affect either larval survival or body mass, but the length of larval stage to cocoon formation was significantly shortened compared to controls. None of studied insecticides affected the mass of cocooned individuals. However, at least 80% of individuals exposed to any of the tested insecticides died before reaching the adult stage, whereas 43% of the controls emerged successfully after overwintering. Although no clear monotonic dose-response relationships were found, our study showed that at least some insecticide formulations affect the development of O. bicornis even at concentrations actually found in pollen in the field, indicating an urgent need for revising current pesticide usage recommendations.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Agroquímicos , Animais , Abelhas , Ecossistema , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides , Polinização
4.
J Environ Manage ; 285: 112111, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578213

RESUMO

Global population growth is creating severe pressure on wastewater treatment plants, and specifically on sludge management. Meanwhile, the global challenge of achieving food-security requires the development of green pest control practices that maximize crop productivity. The hydrothermal technology, using subcritical water as the conversion media has been intensively studied, mostly for energy recovery purposes. Here, we focused on the aqueous phase by-product of this process and studied the subcritical water extraction of sewage sludge to recover valuable agrochemicals, with high potential of pre-emergent herbicidal activity. Full characterization of hydrothermal extracts from different reaction temperatures (200-300 °C) and times (30-120 min) highlighted the formation of pyrazine derivatives. Seed germination bioassays with three different species suggested a positive correlation between reaction temperature and extract herbicidal activity. Moreover, differences in seed viability and final root elongation between the tested crop (Trriticum aestivum) and weeds (Lapidium sativum and Amaranthus palmeri) may indicate the competitive abilities that can play a key role in weed management. Our results suggest that subcritical water can be applied as a green solvent for extracting a valuable agrochemical from sewage sludge and improving the circular economy for wastewater treatment.


Assuntos
Esgotos , Purificação da Água , Agroquímicos , Temperatura , Água
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(7): 7997-8005, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33577306

RESUMO

Application of natural products as new green agrochemicals with low average lifetime, low concentration doses, and safety is both complex and expensive due to chemical modification required to obtain desirable physicochemical properties. Transport, aqueous solubility, and bioavailability are some of the properties that have been improved using functionalized metal-organic frameworks based on zinc for the encapsulation of bioherbicides (ortho-disulfides). An in situ method has been applied to achieve encapsulation, which, in turn, led to an improvement in water solubility by more than 8 times after 2-hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin HP-ß-CD surface functionalization. High-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR HAADF-STEM) and integrated differential phase contrast (iDPC) imaging techniques were employed to verify the success of the encapsulation procedure and crystallinity of the sample. Inhibition studies on principal weeds that infect rice, corn, and potato crops gave results that exceed those obtained with the commercial herbicide Logran. This finding, along with a short synthesis period, i.e., 2 h at 25 °C, make the product an example of a new generation of natural-product-based herbicides with direct applications in agriculture.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/farmacologia , Amaranthus/efeitos dos fármacos , Echinochloa/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Lolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/farmacologia , Agroquímicos/síntese química , Agroquímicos/química , Cápsulas/química , Cápsulas/farmacologia , Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Herbicidas/síntese química , Herbicidas/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/síntese química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Estrutura Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula , Solubilidade , Propriedades de Superfície , Zinco/química , Zinco/farmacologia
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(2): 1290-1300, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404222

RESUMO

While the need to reduce the impacts of pesticide use on the environment is increasingly acknowledged, the existing data on the use of agricultural chemicals are hardly adequate to support this goal. This study presents a novel, spatially explicit, national-scale baseline analysis of pesticide toxicity hazard (the potential for chemicals to do harm). The results show an uneven contribution of land uses and growing regions toward the national aggregate toxicity hazard. A hectare of horticultural crops generates on average ten times more aquatic ecotoxicity hazard and five times more human toxicity hazard than a hectare of broadacre crops, but the higher yields and incomes in horticulture mean that both sectors are similar in terms of environmental efficiency. Livestock is the sector with the least contribution to overall hazard, even when the indirect hazard associated with feed is considered. Metrics such as pesticide use (kg/ha) or spray frequency (sprays/ha), commonly reported in highly aggregated forms, are not linearly related to toxicity hazard and are therefore less informative in driving reductions in impact. We propose toxicity hazard as a more suitable indicator for real-world risk than quantity of pesticide used, especially because actual risk can often be difficult to quantify. Our results will help broaden the discussion around pathways toward sustainability in the land-use sector and identify targeted priorities for action.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Praguicidas , Agroquímicos , Austrália , Produtos Agrícolas , Humanos , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/toxicidade
7.
Environ Res ; 194: 110680, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385389

RESUMO

Penthiopyrad is a chiral carboxamide fungicide with a broad spectrum of fungicidal activity. However, there is no report on the analysis of the enantiomers of penthiopyrad and their environmental behavior. Soil is an important carrier for pesticides to affect the environment. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the absolute configuration, stereoselective degradation, configuration stability and potential metabolites of this agrochemical in soil under different laboratory conditions. R-(-)-penthiopyrad and S-(+)-penthiopyrad were identified by the electronic circular dichroism method. Regarding the racemic analyte, the degradation half-lives of the stereoisomers ranged from 38.9 to 97.6 days, the S-(+)-stereoisomer degraded preferentially in four types of Chinese soil. However, enantiopure R-(-)-penthiopyrad degraded faster than its antipode, a finding that might be related to the microbial activity in soil. The organic matter (OM) content influenced the stereoselective degradation of rac-penthiopyrad. No configuration conversion was observed in both enantiopure analyte degradation processes. One possible metabolite, 753-A-OH, was detected in the treated soil samples, and the degradation pathway might be a hydroxylation reaction. This is the first report of the absolute configuration of penthiopyrad stereoisomers and the first comprehensive evaluation of the stereoselective degradation of penthiopyrad in Chinese soil. Stereoselective degradation of rac-penthiopyrad was observed in the four types of soil. And the stereoselectivity might be inhibited by OM. This study provides more accurate data to investigate the environmental behavior of penthiopyrad at the stereoisomer level.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Poluentes do Solo , Agroquímicos , Antifúngicos , Pirazóis , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Tiofenos
8.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(2): 213-239, 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33447834

RESUMO

Modern agricultural practices have triggered the process of agricultural pollution. This process can cause the degradation of eco-systems, land, and environment owing to the modern-day by-products of agriculture. The substantial use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and, contaminated water for irrigation cause further damage to agriculture. The current scenario of the agriculture and food sector has therefore become unsustainable. Nanotechnology has provided innovative and resourceful frontiers to the agriculture sector by contributing practical applications in conventional agricultural ways and practices. There is a large possibility that agri-nanotechnology can have a significant impact on the sustainable agriculture and crop growth. Recent research has shown the potential of nanotechnology in improving the agriculture sector by enhancing the efficiency of agricultural inputs and providing solutions to agricultural problems for improving food productivity and security. The prospective use of nanoscale agrochemicals such as nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, nanosensors, and nanoformulations in agriculture has transformed traditional agro-practices, making them more sustainable and efficient. However, the application of these nano-products in real field situations raises concern about nanomaterial safety, exposure levels, and toxicological repercussions to the environment and human health. The present review gives an insight into recent advancements in nanotechnology-based agrochemicals that have revolutionized the agriculture sector. Further, the implementation barriers related to the nanomaterial use in agriculture, their commercialization potential, and the need for policy regulations to assess possible nano-agricultural risks are also discussed.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Agroquímicos , Fertilizantes , Humanos , Nanotecnologia , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
West Afr J Med ; 38(1): 48-53, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu) is assuming an epidemic proportion, especially in farming communities worldwide. We explored the relationship between CKD markers and agrochemical exposure among rural farmers in South Western Nigeria. METHODS: We studied selected farming communities in Southwestern Nigeria where the use of agrochemicals was widespread. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to participants. Anthropometric data, information on use of agro-chemicals; urine and blood samples were obtained. Informed consent was obtained from participants. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics committee and complied with 1975 Helsinki declaration, as revised in 2000. RESULTS: A total of 438 farmers made up of 202 males (46.1%) and 236 females (53.9%) were studied. The mean microalbuminuria was 30.2 ±11.7 mg/dl. Majority of the farmers had CKD stage 2(42.0%) and CKD stage 3 (37.7%). The type of farming engaged in had a positive, but not significant, correlation with eGFR (r=0.012, p=0.832). There was positive correlation between type of farming and GFR category (r=0.24, p=0.000). Frequency of use of hexachlorocyclohexane had a positive and significant correlation with eGFR (r=0.111, p=0.045). Annual crop farming had a correlation with UACR (r=0.149, p=0.024). CONCLUSION: Annual crop farming had a positive correlation with UACR, eGFR and GFR category. The prolonged use of agrochemicals on an annual basis can cause kidney damage.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos , Fazendeiros , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Rim , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , População Rural
10.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 9-11, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289934

Assuntos
Peste , Agroquímicos , Humanos
11.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 64-76, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926594

RESUMO

To guarantee sustainability and progress, the agrochemical industry is faced with several major challenges. Currently, loss of active ingredients due to consumer perception, changing grower needs and ever-changing regulatory requirements is far higher than the number being introduced into the market. Therefore, there is a need to develop new products that can provide improved efficacy, selectivity and favorable environmental profiles. Strategies to achieve these goals are the search for acaricides and insecticides with new modes of action, or the discovery of novel molecules with activity on the most attractive target sites having resistance breaking properties against pest species. In this context, the introduction of halogen atoms or asymmetric centers into an active ingredient remains an important tool to modulate their properties, but so too is the pro-pesticide concept. This review gives an overview of agrochemicals launched over the past 8 years, reflects new insights into known mechanisms of action, and describes the status and outlook for acaricide and insecticide discovery.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Inseticidas , Praguicidas , Acaricidas/farmacologia , Agroquímicos , Halogênios , Resistência a Inseticidas
12.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127921, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841874

RESUMO

This work shows the potential of using photochemical modelling to assess the river-water ability to photodegrade agrochemicals on a geographic and temporal scale. The case of flowing water requires different data treatment compared to more stationary water bodies (e.g., lakes), but it could allow for the identification of particularly vulnerable environments. Five pesticides were considered here, and the photodegradation rate followed the order bentazon > isoproturon > dimethomorph âˆ¼ chlortoluron > atrazine. The modelled photodegradation kinetics was particularly fast in the river Po, which receives significant input of agricultural nitrate from groundwater and features higher steady-state [•OH] than most other rivers in the region. The fact that the Po eventually collects all river waters in Piedmont is positive, from the point of view of comprehensive photodegradation of pesticides. However, this paradoxical situation of agricultural pollution (nitrate) helping fight pollution from the same source (pesticides) has two important limitations: (i) when compared to the parent compounds, some intermediates deriving from •OH reactions are either more harmful (N-formyl derivatives of phenylureas), or about as harmful (desethyl atrazine); (ii) banned atrazine is no longer sprayed over fields during the plant growth season, but it reaches surface waters from legacy groundwater inputs. The latter are operational also during winter, when photochemistry is least active. Therefore, photochemistry might not ensure considerable attenuation of atrazine during wintertime. Overall, bentazon would be the safest among the studied pesticides because of fast degradation by direct photolysis, and of low ecotoxicological impact of its phototransformation intermediates.


Assuntos
Água Doce/química , Processos Fotoquímicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Agroquímicos , Atrazina , Benzotiadiazinas , Descontaminação , Itália , Cinética , Nitratos , Praguicidas/análise , Fotoquímica , Fotólise , Rios/química , Purificação da Água
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111766, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348257

RESUMO

The management of agrochemicals in Brazilian agriculture impacts global environmental sustainability and food security, since this country is one of the major agro-food exporters in the world. Acephate, carbendazim, and dithiocarbamates (DTCs) such as mancozeb, are among the most detected agrochemicals in Brazilian agro-food products, occurring in combination in several crops, especially in fruit cultures. The present study evaluated the impact of the exposure to isolated agrochemicals and all the combined possible mixtures (binary and ternary forms) on the reproductive parameters of male juvenile rats, known to be a vulnerable biological system and developmental window. Data were analyzed using Generalized Linear Models (GzLM), considering each agrochemical as an independent factor. The study revealed higher reproductive toxicity exerted by isolated agrochemicals when compared to the combined treatments, which exhibited mostly an antagonistic effect. Results suggest endocrine disruptive effects of each one separately on the weight of reproductive organs and testicular histomorphometry, besides changes in testicular SOD activity. The full factorial experimental design employed here allowed us to conclude that it is not possible to scale-up the effects of the isolated treatments to the mixtures, showing how difficult it is to know beforehand the response and cross-talk among the multiple physiological mechanisms disturbed by complex mixtures. Considering that food products are shared on a global scale and that some of these three agrochemicals have already been prohibited in EU countries, the consumption of some Brazilian products puts global human health at risk, that of children.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Animais , Brasil , Misturas Complexas , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Ratos , Testes de Toxicidade
14.
Acta amaz ; 50(4)out. - dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146382

RESUMO

Os anfíbios são ótimos bioindicadores porque são sensíveis à poluição química, indicando alterações ecossistêmicas pela presença de ou pela exposição a compostos químicos. Aqui nós relatamos evidências do impacto de herbicidas, incluindo glifosato, em anfíbios em uma localidade na Amazônia central brasileira e as comparamos com dados de outros biomas no Brasil. Nós observamos malformações em três espécies de Leptodactylus e extinção local de Scinax ruber e Rhinella marina em sítios reprodutivos próximos a uma área onde herbicidas haviam sido aplicados. Os resultados observados na Amazônia são semelhantes aos observados na Mata Atlântica do Brasil, com alterações morfológicas e mortalidade em anfíbios expostos a herbicidas. Alertamos para a ameaça de expansão de culturas para a produção de biocombustíveis na Amazônia, devido ao fato de o cultivo estar associado a agroquímicos, incluindo o glifosato, representando uma ameaça à biodiversidade do bioma Amazônia. (AU)


Assuntos
Agroquímicos , Ecossistema Amazônico , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Meio Ambiente , Ecotoxicologia
16.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (35): 58-81, maio-ago. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1139643

RESUMO

Resumen El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las vinculaciones entre las identidades de género y las lógicas de la organización social del cuidado, relacionadas con los riesgos ambientales-sanitarios a partir de los significados y prácticas relativas a la producción agrícola basada en plaguicidas en la pampa húmeda argentina. Realizamos dos trabajos de campo etnográficos de largo alcance y analizamos, por una parte, el proceso de identificación y denuncia de los riesgos relativos a los plaguicidas por mujeres y su relación con la construcción social de femineidades y con la organización generizada del cuidado. En segundo lugar, indagamos un posible vínculo entre la exposición a los plaguicidas y una estrategia de reafirmación de la virilidad.


Abstract This paper analyzes the connections between gender identities and the logics surrounding the social organization of care related to the environmental and health risks that stem from meanings and practices of pesticide-based agricultural production in the Argentine Pampas. After conducting two long-reach ethnographic field-work, we explore the process of women's identifying and denouncing of pesticides related risks and its relationship both with the social construction of femininities and with the gendered organization of care. Furthermore, we study a possible link between the exposure to pesticides and a strategy of reaffirmation of virility.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar as vinculações entre as identidades de gênero e as lógicas da organização social do cuidado, em relação com os riscos ambientais-sanitáriosa partir dos significados e práticas relativas à produção agrícola baseada em pesticidas nos pampas da Argentina. Realizamos dois trabalhos de campo etnográficos de amplo alcance e analisamos, por um lado, o processo de identificação e denúncia dos riscos relacionados coma construção social de feminilidades e com a organização generificada do cuidado. Por outro lado, indagamos sobre um vínculo possível entre a exposição aos pesticidas e uma estratégia de reafirmação da virilidade.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Praguicidas , Envenenamento/prevenção & controle , Riscos Ocupacionais , Doenças dos Trabalhadores Agrícolas/prevenção & controle , Agricultura , Identidade de Gênero , Argentina , Mulheres Trabalhadoras , Fatores de Risco , Agroquímicos , Impactos na Saúde , Fatores Culturais , Homens , Antropologia Cultural
17.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(2): e531, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1149918

RESUMO

Introduction: An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of devastating consequences has been taking place in El Salvador over the last few decades. In a significant portion of affected subjects, no other common cause of chronic kidney disease is present, such as diabetes and hypertension. This illness is usually called Chronic Kidney Disease from Non-Traditional Causes (CKDnT). Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of exposure to agrochemicals in affected populations, particularly in rural areas. In addition to sustained exposure to agrochemicals, the other leading hypothesis to explain this epidemic is prolonged exposure to high temperatures and dehydration in a context of exhausting agricultural work. Objectives: To assess the possible causal effect of exposure to agrochemicals in the emergence of the CKD epidemic in the adult population of El Salvador. Methods: We conducted a case-control analysis based on the 2015 survey of Chronic Diseases in Adults in El Salvador, a national probabilistic sample that covered 4,817 adults ;20 years old. Those suffering from CKD were considered cases; the rest were managed as controls. Self-reported agrochemical exposures, other risk factors and health conditions were recorded. For binary exposures, the odds ratio (OR) of CKD and CKDnT was estimated. For variables measuring length of exposure, the average valu 8203; 8203;for cases and for controls were compared. In all cases, the corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between exposure to agrochemicals and CKD while controlling for potential confounding variables. Results: Regardless of how past exposure to agrochemicals was characterized (e.g., contact with paraquat or aerial fumigation) the OR of both CKD and CKDnT was always greater than 1.0 (range, 1.36 to 3.75). Similarly, the average number of years of exposure was consistently higher for cases than for controls for all continuous variables examined (greater than 2 years in most cases). Conclusions: The results of this study are consistent with previous epidemiologic and toxicological evidence and support the hypothesis that exposure to agrochemicals may be causally implicated in the ongoing CKD epidemics in El Salvador(AU)


Introducción: Durante las últimas décadas, una epidemia de enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) de consecuencias devastadoras ha tenido lugar en El Salvador. Una parte importante de los sujetos afectados, no padece de una causa frecuente para padecer enfermedad renal crónica, tal como como diabetes e hipertensión. En tal caso, suele distinguirse la dolencia mediante el nombre de Enfermedad Renal Crónica de Causas no Tradicionales (ERCnT). Estudios previos muestran una alta prevalencia de exposición a agroquímicos en las poblaciones afectadas, particularmente en las zonas rurales. Además de la exposición sostenida a agroquímicos, la otra hipótesis principal para explicar esta epidemia es la exposición prolongada a altas temperaturas y deshidratación, en un contexto de trabajo agrícola agotador. Objetivos: Evaluar el posible efecto causal de la exposición a agroquímicos en la irrupción de la epidemia de ERC en la población adulta de El Salvador. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de casos y controles, a partir de la Encuesta de Enfermedades Crónicas no Transmisibles en Adultos en El Salvador, basada en una muestra probabilística nacional que abarcó 4,817 adultos de 20 o más años de edad, concluida en 2015. Fueron considerados casos todos aquellos que padecían ERC; el resto dos restantes participantes se manejaron como controles. Se registraron las exposiciones a agroquímicos, así como a otros factores de riesgo y condiciones de salud según testimonio de los participantes. Para las exposiciones binarias, se estimó la razón de odds (OR) con respecto a padecer ERC y ERCnT. Para las variables que medían la duración de la exposición, se compararon los valores medios para casos y controles. En todos los casos, se calcularon los respectivos intervalos de confianza al 95 por ciento. Se utilizó la regresión logística multivariada para examinar la asociación entre la exposición a agroquímicos y la ERC, controlando las posibles variables confusoras. Resultados: Independientemente de cómo fuera caracterizada la exposición pasada a agroquímicos (por ejemplo, contacto con paraquat o fumigación aérea), el OR de ERC y ERCnT siempre fue mayor que 1.0 (rango, 1.36 a 3.75). Del mismo modo, la media de años de exposición fue consistentemente más alta para los casos que para los controles, para todas las variables continuas examinadas (más de 2 años en la mayoría de los casos). Conclusiones: Los resultados de este estudio son consistentes con la evidencia epidemiológica y toxicológica previa y respaldan la hipótesis de que la exposición a agroquímicos puede estar causalmente implicada en la epidemia de ERC que se registra en El Salvador(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Agroquímicos/efeitos adversos , Exposição a Praguicidas , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Epidemias , Estudos de Casos e Controles , El Salvador/epidemiologia
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 38559-38567, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623676

RESUMO

Due to human activities, there is an increasing presence of agrochemicals residues in water bodies, which could be attributed to an increased use of these chemicals, incorrect disposal of packaging materials, and crop leaching. The effects of these residues on prey-predator relationship of aquatic animals are poorly known. Here, we show that fish acutely exposed to glyphosate, 2,4-D, and methylbenzoate-based agrichemicals have their anti-predatory responses impaired. We exposed zebrafish to sub-lethal concentrations of agrichemicals and evaluated their behavioral reaction against a simulated bird predatory strike. We observed that agrichemical-exposed fish spent more time in a risky area, suggesting that the pesticides interfered with their ability of risk perception. Our results highlight the impairment and environmental consequences of agrochemical residues, which can affect aquatic life and crucial elements for life (food web) such as the prey-predator relationship.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra , Agroquímicos , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(28): 34862-34905, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656757

RESUMO

This review discusses a fresh pool of research findings reported on the multiple roles played by metal-based, magnetic, graphene-type, chitosan-derived, and sonicated nanoparticles in the treatment of pharmaceutical- and agrochemical-contaminated waters. Some main points from this review are as follows: (i) there is an extensive number of nanoparticles with diverse physicochemical and morphological properties which have been synthesized and then assessed in their respective roles in the degradation and mineralization of many pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, (ii) the exceptional removal efficiencies of graphene-based nanomaterials for different pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals molecules support arguably well a high potential of these nanomaterials for futuristic applications in remediating water pollution issues, (iii) the need for specific surface modifications and functionalization of parent nanostructures and the design of economically feasible production methods of such tunable nanomaterials tend to hinder their widespread applicability at this stage, (iv) supplementary research is also required to comprehensively elucidate the life cycle ecotoxicity characteristics and behaviors of each type of engineered nanostructures seeded for remediation of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals in real contaminated media, and last but not the least, (v) real wastewaters are extremely complex in composition due to the mix of inorganic and organic species in different concentrations, and the presence of such mixed species have different radical scavenging effects on the sonocatalytic degradation and mineralization of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals. Moreover, the formulation of viable full-scale implementation strategies and reactor configurations which can use multifunctional nanostructures for the effective remediation of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals remains a major area of further research.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais , Nanoestruturas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Agroquímicos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32586019

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in agricultural population is an increasing issue. This study aims to obtain a prevalence estimate of CKDu in male rice farmers in West Java, Indonesia; and analyze the relationship between CKDu and environmental and occupational factors. The study design was cross-sectional. This study included 354 healthy male farmers in two rice agriculture areas in West Java with different altitudes (low altitude and high-altitude location). This research included blood and urine sampling from the farmers for serum creatinine (SCr) level and proteinuria; questionnaire on demographic information, occupational factors and other risk factors for CKDu. We measured ambient temperature and humidity in both study locations for environmental factors. From SCr level and proteinuria, we categorized the farmers into five stages of CKD; then we distinguished CKDu from CKD if the farmers had stage 1-4 of CKD but without diabetes, hypertension and other traditional causes. Data were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression to get prevalence odd ratios of CKDu and its relationship with environmental and occupational factors, adjusted with other risk factors of CKDu. The overall prevalence of CKD was 24.9% and CKDu was 18.6%. For the environmental factors, farm location (high altitude versus low altitude location) was associated with CKDu (Prevalence Odds Ratio (POR): 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.5). For the occupational factors, although not significant, the risk of CKDu increased with the longer use of insecticide and with the more frequent of insecticide use. We suggested that there was a need to conduct future research to investigate more on the association of those environmental and occupational factors with CKDu.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Agroquímicos/efeitos adversos , Fazendeiros , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Oryza , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Creatinina/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Prevalência , Proteinúria/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
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