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1.
J Vis Exp ; (169)2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33749672

RESUMO

Current risk assessment strategies for honey bees rely heavily upon laboratory tests performed on adult or immature worker bees, but these methods may not accurately capture the effects of agrochemical exposure on honey bee queens. As the sole producer of fertilized eggs inside a honeybee colony, the queen is arguably the most important single member of a functioning colony unit. Therefore, understanding how agrochemicals affect queen health and productivity should be considered a critical aspect of pesticide risk assessment. Here, an adapted method is presented to expose honey bee queens and worker queen attendants to agrochemical stressors administered through a worker diet, followed by tracking egg production in the laboratory and assessing first instar eclosion using a specialized cage, referred to as a Queen Monitoring Cage. To illustrate the method's intended use, results of an experiment in which worker queen attendants were fed diet containing sublethal doses of imidacloprid and effects on queens were monitored are described.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Abelhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Abelhas/fisiologia , Hierarquia Social , Medição de Risco , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Abelhas/embriologia , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos
2.
West Afr J Med ; 38(1): 48-53, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463707

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu) is assuming an epidemic proportion, especially in farming communities worldwide. We explored the relationship between CKD markers and agrochemical exposure among rural farmers in South Western Nigeria. METHODS: We studied selected farming communities in Southwestern Nigeria where the use of agrochemicals was widespread. A pre-tested questionnaire was administered to participants. Anthropometric data, information on use of agro-chemicals; urine and blood samples were obtained. Informed consent was obtained from participants. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics committee and complied with 1975 Helsinki declaration, as revised in 2000. RESULTS: A total of 438 farmers made up of 202 males (46.1%) and 236 females (53.9%) were studied. The mean microalbuminuria was 30.2 ±11.7 mg/dl. Majority of the farmers had CKD stage 2(42.0%) and CKD stage 3 (37.7%). The type of farming engaged in had a positive, but not significant, correlation with eGFR (r=0.012, p=0.832). There was positive correlation between type of farming and GFR category (r=0.24, p=0.000). Frequency of use of hexachlorocyclohexane had a positive and significant correlation with eGFR (r=0.111, p=0.045). Annual crop farming had a correlation with UACR (r=0.149, p=0.024). CONCLUSION: Annual crop farming had a positive correlation with UACR, eGFR and GFR category. The prolonged use of agrochemicals on an annual basis can cause kidney damage.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos , Fazendeiros , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Rim , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , População Rural
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 209: 111766, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348257

RESUMO

The management of agrochemicals in Brazilian agriculture impacts global environmental sustainability and food security, since this country is one of the major agro-food exporters in the world. Acephate, carbendazim, and dithiocarbamates (DTCs) such as mancozeb, are among the most detected agrochemicals in Brazilian agro-food products, occurring in combination in several crops, especially in fruit cultures. The present study evaluated the impact of the exposure to isolated agrochemicals and all the combined possible mixtures (binary and ternary forms) on the reproductive parameters of male juvenile rats, known to be a vulnerable biological system and developmental window. Data were analyzed using Generalized Linear Models (GzLM), considering each agrochemical as an independent factor. The study revealed higher reproductive toxicity exerted by isolated agrochemicals when compared to the combined treatments, which exhibited mostly an antagonistic effect. Results suggest endocrine disruptive effects of each one separately on the weight of reproductive organs and testicular histomorphometry, besides changes in testicular SOD activity. The full factorial experimental design employed here allowed us to conclude that it is not possible to scale-up the effects of the isolated treatments to the mixtures, showing how difficult it is to know beforehand the response and cross-talk among the multiple physiological mechanisms disturbed by complex mixtures. Considering that food products are shared on a global scale and that some of these three agrochemicals have already been prohibited in EU countries, the consumption of some Brazilian products puts global human health at risk, that of children.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Animais , Brasil , Misturas Complexas , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Ratos , Testes de Toxicidade
5.
Ecotoxicology ; 29(3): 327-339, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107697

RESUMO

Chrysoperla externa and Coleomegilla quadrifasciata are important biological control agents in peach orchards. However, orchard management with these predatory insects is viable only by using selective agrochemicals. The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of nine agrochemicals used in peach orchards in larval and adult stages of the C. externa and C. quadrifasciata in laboratory conditions. The bioassays followed the methodologies proposed by the International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control (IOBC). Larvae and adults of C. externa and C. quadrifasciata were exposed to the dry residues of these products. Lethal and sublethal effects were evaluated in bioassays with the larval and adult stages of both predators. The agrochemicals were classified according to the IOBC guidelines. The insecticide chlorantraniliprole was harmless (class 1) to the larval stage of C. externa and C. quadrifasciata. Azadirachtin, copper 25% + calcium 10%, and deltamethrin were harmless to the adult stage of both insect species. The organophosphates fenitrothion and malathion were harmful (class 4) to both species in the larval and adult stages and should not be used in peach orchards. Therefore, this study demonstrates the importance of toxicity and the lethal and sublethal effects of these agrochemicals to better determine their compatibility with IPM in peach production.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Insetos/fisiologia , Prunus persica , Agricultura , Animais , Besouros , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva , Limoninas , Malation , Nitrilos , Piretrinas , ortoaminobenzoatos
6.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 110: 104552, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836537

RESUMO

Following adoption of the new OECD test guideline (TG) 474 for the in vivo mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus (MN) test (29 July 2016), demonstration of exposure of target tissue (bone marrow) is required, if the test result is negative i.e. no cytogenetic damage. It implies that for many active ingredients, relevant metabolites or significant impurities with existing in vivo MN tests resulting in negative genotoxicity findings, evidence of target tissue exposure may be lacking and is considered a data gap in regulatory reviews. We present here toxicokinetic (TK) testing strategies for the design and conduct of studies that would demonstrate evidence of delivery of the test substance to the bone marrow. To illustrate this, three examples are presented with methods utilized under each scenario. We also propose a decision tree that may help design suitable TK studies to establish evidence of bone marrow exposure.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/farmacocinética , Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Árvores de Decisões , Testes para Micronúcleos , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Toxicocinética
7.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 78(1): 137-148, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31646361

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to describe changes in the gene expression in the Chilean catfish, Trichomycterus areolatus, based on their geographic location within the Choapa River. Genes of choice included those that are biomarkers of exposure to metals, oxidative stress, and endocrine disruption. Male and female T. areolatus were sampled from four sites in January 2015 differently impacted by human activities. In males, but not females, hepatic gene expression of heat shock protein (HSP70) and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) were significantly elevated at the site adjacent to the small city of Salamanca, relative to the other sites. In females, hepatic HSP70, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the estrogen responsive genes, vitellogenin (VTG) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), were significantly lower at the site located furthest downstream. A similar downstream pattern of lower expression levels also was found in ovarian tissue for the genes, HSP70 and ERα. Gill gene expression showed a unique pattern in females as levels of metallothionein were elevated at the site furthest downstream. While analytical chemistry of water samples provided limited evidence of agrichemical contamination, the gene expression data are consistent with an exposure to agrichemicals and metals. T. areolatus may be a valuable sentinel organism and its use as a bioindicator species in some rivers within Chile can provide considerable insight, particularly in situations analytical chemistry is limited by environmental constraints.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Agroquímicos/análise , Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Peixes-Gato/metabolismo , Chile , Disruptores Endócrinos/análise , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Feminino , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1319-1325, out.-dez. 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1022203

RESUMO

Objective: The study's goal has been to analyze if environmental or occupational exposure to pesticides can produce changes in pregnant women living in a countryside municipality. Methods: The participants of this study were twenty-three pregnant women, who both answered a questionnaire and donated biological material in order to perform Micronucleus (MN) Tests in lymphocytes, oral epithelial cells, and also for measuring the enzyme activity of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase. Results: Considering the total analyzed samples, the following was found: an average of 8 ± 2.92 MN/1000 oral epithelial cells from urban participants; an average of 6.82 ± 3.43 MN/1000 oral epithelial cells from rural participants; and 100% of the microscope slides contained cells with two MN, which shows high intensity lesions to the DNA. There was found a high frequency of spontaneous abortions (34.8%), greater than in Brazil. Conclusion: The exposure of pregnant women living in a countryside municipality to pesticides may increase the rate of spontaneous abortions, as well as the chances of mutagenic effects


Objetivo: Analisar se a exposição ambiental ou ocupacional aos agrotóxicos causa alterações em gestantes residentes em um município rural. Métodos: Compuseram a amostra 23 gestantes, que responderam a um questionário e doaram amostras biológicas para a realização dos testes de micronúcleos (MN) em linfócitos, em células do epitélio oral, e para a dosagem da atividade da enzima acetilcolinesterase eritrocitária. Resultados: Obteve-se uma média de 8 ± 2,92 MN/1000 células do epitélio oral analisadas em amostras de participantes da zona urbana, 6,82 ± 3,43 MN/1000 de participantes da zona rural, e 100% das lâminas continham células com dois MN, o que demonstra lesões ao DNA de maior intensidade. Encontrou-se uma frequência elevada de casos de abortos espontâneos (34,8%), superior à encontrada no Brasil. Conclusão: A exposição de gestantes residentes em um município rural aos agrotóxicos eleva a taxa de abortos espontâneos, bem como as chances de ocorrência de efeitos mutagênicos


Objetivo: Analizar si la exposición ambiental o ocupacional a los agrotóxicos causa cambios en gestantes residentes en un municipio rural. Métodos: Compusieron la muestra 23 gestantes, que respondieron a un cuestionario y donaron muestras biológicas para la realización de las pruebas de micronúcleos (MN) en linfocitos, en células del epitelio oral, y para la dosificación de la actividad de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa eritrocitaria. Resultados: Se obtuvieron una media de 8 ± 2,92 MN / 1000 células del epitelio oral analizadas en muestras de participantes de la zona urbana, 6,82 ± 3,43 MN / 1000 de participantes de la zona rural, y el 100% de las láminas contenían células con dos MN, lo que demuestra lesiones al ADN de mayor intensidad. Se encontró una frecuencia elevada de casos de abortos espontáneos (34,8%), superior a la encontrada en Brasil. Conclusión: La exposición de gestantes residentes en un municipio rural a los agrotóxicos eleva la tasa de abortos espontáneos, así como las posibilidades de ocurrencia de efectos mutagênicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Gravidez , Adolescente , Adulto , Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Aborto , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Acetilcolinesterase/farmacologia , Saúde da População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
9.
Chemosphere ; 226: 945-955, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509924

RESUMO

Threats to wetland water quality and aquatic insect secondary production in agricultural landscapes are multifaceted and are known to vary spatially and temporally. We designed this study with the aim to disentangle the effects of multiple stressors on emerging aquatic insects from wetlands impacted by intensive agricultural practices and receiving runoff from neonicotinoid-treated canola. A total of 22 semi-permanent wetlands were monitored over two growing seasons (11 different wetlands per year) in central Saskatchewan, Canada. Over the two sampling years, dipterans from the families Chironomidae (60-67%), Muscidae (13-15%) and Ceratopogonidae (7-13%) made up the majority of emergent taxa, representing 80-95% of the total emergence. Multivariate ordination analyses of eight water quality and nine wetland habitat variables revealed that neonicotinoid concentration, turbidity, vegetation disturbance, and continuity of a vegetative grass buffer zone were significant factors influencing the aquatic insect taxa composition. Generalized linear mixed effects models indicated that total insect emergence over time was significantly predicted by neonicotinoid concentrations (imidacloprid toxic equivalency, TEQ) and vegetation disturbance. Higher neonicotinoid concentrations negatively affected insect emergence over time, whereas vegetation disturbance increased total emergence, likely due to the abundance of disturbance-tolerant taxa. Overall, we observed community-level responses driven by multiple indicators of wetland degradation (insecticides, turbidity, and vegetation disturbance). Collectively, these multivariate field data provide an in-depth understanding of how agricultural management practices, including neonicotinoid use, interact to shape wetland aquatic insect communities.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Agroquímicos/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Inseticidas/análise , Neonicotinoides/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Qualidade da Água
10.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 38(12): 2629-2636, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31397915

RESUMO

In the Southern High Plains of the United States, beef cattle feed yards and row crop agriculture are predominant sources of agrochemical usage. Beef cattle feed yards use large quantities of veterinary pharmaceuticals to promote cattle growth and health, along with insecticides to control insect pests, whereas row crop-based agriculture relies on herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides to increase yields. Previous studies have documented the occurrence of agrochemicals beyond feed yard and row crop agriculture boundaries in uncultivated, marginal areas, raising concern that migratory pollinators and pollinators indigenous to the Southern High Plains frequenting these remaining habitat corridors may become exposed to toxic agrochemicals. Larvae of the painted lady butterfly (Vanessa cardui) were used to investigate the potential toxicity of agrochemicals used on feed yards and in row crop agriculture among pollinators. Moxidectin, an antiparasiticide used on beef cattle feed yards, was determined to be extremely toxic to V. cardui larvae, with a lethal dose at which 50% of larvae died of 2.1 ± 0.1 ng/g. Pyraclostrobin, clothianidin, and permethrin all delayed V. cardui development. However, moxidectin was the only chemical that produced significant toxic effects at environmentally relevant concentrations. These results indicate that agrochemicals originating from feed yards have the potential to adversely impact the development of pollinator larvae occurring in the Southern High Plains. Environ Toxicol Chem 2019;38:2629-2636. © 2019 SETAC.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Borboletas/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Borboletas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Drogas Veterinárias/toxicidade
11.
Chemosphere ; 235: 70-75, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255767

RESUMO

Some agrochemicals are genotoxic to several organisms. Nevertheless, few protocols are currently available for measuring the toxicogenetic effects of these compounds in target and non-target field-collected species of insects important to agriculture. Herein, we used the species Ceraeochrysa claveri (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), a non-target predator insect, to investigate the ability of an azadirachtin-based biopesticide (Azamax™) to induce DNA damage. The alkaline version of the comet assay was standardized to evaluate genetic instability caused by the toxicant in somatic (gut) and germ (nurse cells and oocytes) cells of C. claveri. For this, C. claveri larvae were distributed into three groups (10/each) and treated with Azamax™ at 0, 0.3% or 0.5% throughout the larval stage. DNA damage (tail intensity) was measured in adult insects, four days after emerged. The data showed that both doses of Azamax™ (0.3% and 0.5%) were able to significantly (p < 0.05) increase DNA damage in somatic and germ cells of C. claveri. In conclusion, C. claveri (intestinal and ovarian cells) was a sensitive bioindicator for identifying Azamax™ genotoxic potential, whereas the comet assay was a useful tool for detecting the genotoxic hazard of the pesticide in the field-collected insect species. Given that estimation of adverse effects of pollutants on ecosystems is an essential component of environmental risk assessment, the approach used can be recommended to estimate the ecotoxicity of agricultural chemicals.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/farmacologia , Insetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Mutagenicidade/métodos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Animais , Ensaio Cometa/métodos , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecossistema , Células Germinativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Limoninas , Praguicidas/química
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 690: 181-188, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288109

RESUMO

Agricultural chemicals are normally used as mixtures of several isomers, e.g., enantiomers. In theory, in order to minimize the pesticides dose, it is desirable to use the most target-active isomer. Metolachlor is a typical multichiral herbicide belonging to amide herbicides. An asymmetric carbon atom and a chiral axis yield four stereoisomers. In this study, a novel laboratory method was developed to prepare the S-metolachlor and the four stereoisomers using high performance liquid chromatography. The separated isomers had a purity of >99%, with their absolute configurations assigned by electronic circular dichroism. The enantioseparation by ultra performance convergence chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was also performed for the rapid and sensitive detection of metolachlor stereoisomers. The enantioselective herbicidal activity toward the target weed (Echinochloa crusgalli) was systematically assessed for the first time by measuring the morphology of the weed after treatment with rac-, S-metolachlor and the four stereoisomers, respectively. Among the commercial pesticides, S-metolachlor was more effective in weed inhibition than rac-metolachlor, and to the four stereoisomers, the herbicidal activities were ranked as: SS > SR ≫ RS > RR, and the RR-isomer even had some stimulative effect to the weed growth at lower concentration (1 ppm). Thus, we concluded that in these cases, the chiral carbon feature played a major role in herbicidal activity rather than the chiral axis feature, and the higher bioactivity of the S-isomers was confirmed by more effective uptake and stronger interaction with target enzymes that were involved in the gibberellic acid biosynthesis. Although the SS-isomer shows the highest herbicidal activity, controlling the major chiral feature is still much easier and more economical than controlling two chiral features.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/toxicidade , Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Echinochloa/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Acetamidas/química , Agroquímicos/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Herbicidas/química , Estereoisomerismo
13.
Mar Environ Res ; 151: 104765, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353171

RESUMO

The use of imidacloprid (IMI) and its formulated products in agriculture is a risk to aquatic organisms due to deposition into waterways from runoff and aerial spraying. However, there is limited information on the potential effects of this pesticide on commercially important shellfish, such as oysters. We investigated the impacts of IMI and Spectrum 200SC (IMI formulation) on the activity of the enzymes Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), Catalase (CAT) and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), in different oyster tissues including the gill, adductor muscle and digestive gland. We also investigated the condition index and fatty acid composition of the flesh of oysters after 2 weeks exposure. The concentrations of IMI in the different tissues was assessed using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) after QuEChERS extraction. Higher concentrations of IMI residues were detected in the adductor muscle of the oysters, followed by the gills and with the lowest amounts recovered from the digestive gland across all the concentrations tested. IMI and Spectrum 200SC significantly affected the gill AChE activity at 2 mg/L, but digestive gland CAT, and gill and digestive gland GST were impacted at environmentally relevant concentrations (0.01 and 0.05 mg/L). In the whole oyster, 2 weeks exposure to IMI (≥0.01 mg/L) resulted in a proportional increase in saturated fatty acids (SFA), altered the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) to SFA ratio and altered the omega 3 fatty acids (n-3) to omega 6 fatty acids (n-6) ratio, but there were no effects on the condition index of the oyster. Although the oysters responded differently to the formulated product, there was no consistent difference in the sublethal effects of analytical IMI and Spectrum 200SC. This study showed that exposure to IMI and Spectrum 200SC can significantly affect the biochemical processes and metabolites in oysters, with implications for food quality and safety.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Nitrocompostos/toxicidade , Ostreidae , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ostreidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Ostreidae/fisiologia
15.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 106: 105-110, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028798

RESUMO

Compared to oral toxicity tests, dermal toxicity tests offer little or no additional scientific information or public health protection for agrochemical-formulated products (US EPA, 2016). Based on that, a retrospective analysis of the results of acute oral and dermal LD50 studies of agrochemical products registered in Brazil was carried out by the Technical Group on Toxicological Risk Assessment (GT-ART) of the Brazilian Crop Protection Association (ANDEF). The data were obtained from 6 agrochemical industries that are associated to ANDEF, following these considerations: only rat studies were selected; only paired studies were chosen; only studies performed with top doses ≥2,000 mg/kg were selected; biological products were excluded. The dataset includes 342 formulated products in 21 formulation types. Among these 342 formulated products, 228 have a single active ingredient, 107 have 2 and 7 have 3 or more. The comparison of acute oral to dermal toxicity studies of agrochemical-formulated products registered in Brazil corroborates the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) conclusion on waiving acute dermal toxicity tests, which will result in avoiding unnecessary use of time and resources, data generation costs and animal testing.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Tomada de Decisões , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Administração Cutânea , Administração Oral , Agroquímicos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Brasil , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Ratos , Medição de Risco , Estados Unidos , United States Environmental Protection Agency
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013861

RESUMO

The current literature acknowledges that occupational exposures can adversely affect mental health. This review seeks to elucidate the current understanding of the effect of agrichemical exposure on mental health in the agricultural sector, including low-dose, chronic pesticide exposure. This scoping review adopted a snowballing and saturation approach. The review highlights inconsistencies in linking poor mental health and pesticide use. While some studies specifically showed that both high- and low-dose pesticide exposure were associated with poor mental health, consistent and rigorous research methods are lacking. The review also proposes terms to delineate exposure types described in the literature. The review outcomes direct efforts to protect the health, wellbeing and safety of farming communities across the globe.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Fazendeiros , Transtornos Mentais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Agricultura , Humanos
17.
Chemosphere ; 224: 470-479, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831498

RESUMO

Over the past few years, the ecotoxicological hazard potential of agrochemicals has received much attention in the industries and regulatory agencies. In the current work, we have developed quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models for Daphnia magna toxicities of different classes of agrochemicals (fungicides, herbicides, insecticides and microbiocides) individually as well as for the combined set with the application of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) recommended guidelines. The models for the individual data sets as well as for the combined set were generated employing only simple and interpretable two-dimensional descriptors, and subsequently strictly validated using test set compounds. The validated individual models were used to generate consensus models, with the objective to improve the prediction quality and reduced prediction errors. All the individual models of different classes of agrochemicals as well as the global set of agrochemicals showed encouraging statistical quality and prediction ability. The general observations from the derived models suggest that the toxicity increases with lipophilicity and decreases with polarity. The generated models of different classes of agrochemicals and also for the combined set should be applicable for data gap filling for new or untested agrochemical compounds falling within the applicability domain of the developed models.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Modelos Químicos , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda/métodos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecotoxicologia , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade
18.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 338-344, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903833

RESUMO

Glyphosate-based herbicides are the world's most consumed agrochemicals, and they are commonly used in various agroecosystems, including forests, as well as in urban zones and gardens. These herbicides are sold as formulations containing adjuvants. Other tank-mixing adjuvants (most often surfactants) are commonly added to these formulations prior to application. According to the manufacturers of agrochemicals, such tank mixes (as these are known in agronomic and horticultural practice) have modified properties and perform better than do the herbicides as used alone. The effects of these tank mixes on the environment and on beneficial arthropods are almost unknown. Therefore, we studied whether a herbicide formulation mixed with adjuvant has modified effects on one of the most common genera of ground-dwelling wolf spiders vis-à-vis the herbicide formulation and adjuvants themselves. Specifically, we studied the synergistic effect in the laboratory on the predatory activity (represented by the number of killed flies) of wolf spiders in the genus Pardosa after direct treatment using the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup klasik Pro®, Roundup klasik Pro® in a mixture with the surfactant Wetcit®, Roundup klasik Pro® in a mixture with the surfactant Agrovital®, and the surfactants alone. We found that pure surfactants as well as herbicide-and-surfactants tank mixes significantly decrease the predatory activity of Pardosa spiders in the short term even as Roundup klasik Pro® did not itself have any such effect. Our results support the hypothesis that plant protection tank mixes may have modified effect on beneficial arthropods as compared to herbicide formulations alone. Therefore, testing of pesticide tank mixes is highly important, because it is these tank mixes that are actually applied to the environment.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Aranhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tensoativos/toxicidade , Animais , Artrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/toxicidade , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Testes de Toxicidade
19.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 128(1): 80-87, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30782422

RESUMO

This study explored the characteristics of a newly isolated glyphosate (GLYP)-degrading bacterium Providencia rettgeri GDB 1, for GLYP bioremediation. Due to the serial selection pressure of high GLYP concentrations for enriched isolation, this highly tolerant GLYP biodegrader shows very promising capabilities for GLYP removal (approximately 71.4% degradation efficiency) compared to previously reported strains. High performance liquid chromatography analyses showed aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) rather than sarcosine (SAR) to be the sole intermediate of GLYP decomposition via the AMPA formation pathway. Moreover, GLYP biodegradation was biochemically favorable in aerobic cultures due to its strong growth-associated characteristics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to indicate that bacterial strains in the Providencia genus could demonstrate highly promising GLYP-degrading characteristics in environments with high GLYP contents.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/farmacocinética , Providencia/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Adaptação Biológica , Agricultura/métodos , Agroquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Agroquímicos/farmacocinética , Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Glicina/isolamento & purificação , Glicina/farmacocinética , Glicina/toxicidade , Herbicidas/isolamento & purificação , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Humanos , Isoxazóis/química , Isoxazóis/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Providencia/efeitos dos fármacos , Providencia/enzimologia , Providencia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sarcosina/química , Sarcosina/metabolismo , Tetrazóis/química , Tetrazóis/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Purificação da Água/métodos
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(8): 8039-8049, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30684186

RESUMO

Eudrilus eugeniae, the vermicomposing worm, is found in considerable numbers in agricultural fields in India due to their eventual transfer through vermimanure. These worms are very often exposed to pesticides, herbicides, chemical fertilisers and other soil amendments. This paper reports the effects of variable concentrations of urea, phosphogypsum (PG), paper mill sludge (PMS) and two organophosphorus agrochemicals, monocrotophos and glyphosate, on certain morphological, histological and biochemical parameters of E. eugeniae. Results indicated setal anomalies, epidermal lesions, clitellar swelling and constriction of the body. Disintegration of connective tissue, vacuolation of dermis and significant alterations in protein, lipid peroxidation levels and activities of lactate dehydrogenase, acetylcholinesterase and catalase have also been observed in the treated worms. It is proposed that setae, connective tissue, protein and enzymes in E. eugeniae could be useful markers to evaluate toxicity due to the test chemicals.


Assuntos
Agroquímicos/toxicidade , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoquetos , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Solo/química , Animais , Sulfato de Cálcio/toxicidade , Fertilizantes/toxicidade , Índia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oligoquetos/enzimologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Fósforo/toxicidade
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