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1.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 435, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417441

RESUMO

Crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic are known to exacerbate depression and anxiety, though their temporal trajectories remain under-investigated. The present study aims to investigate fluctuations in depression and anxiety using the COVID-19 pandemic as a model crisis. A total of 1512 adults living in the United States enrolled in this online study beginning April 2, 2020 and were assessed weekly for 10 weeks (until June 4, 2020). We measured depression and anxiety using the Zung Self-Rating Depression scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (state subscale), respectively, along with demographic and COVID-related surveys. Linear mixed-effects models were used to examine factors contributing to longitudinal changes in depression and anxiety. We found that depression and anxiety levels were high in early April, but declined over time. Being female, younger age, lower-income, and previous psychiatric diagnosis correlated with higher overall levels of anxiety and depression; being married additionally correlated with lower overall levels of depression, but not anxiety. Importantly, worsening of COVID-related economic impact and increase in projected pandemic duration exacerbated both depression and anxiety over time. Finally, increasing levels of informedness correlated with decreasing levels of depression, while increased COVID-19 severity (i.e., 7-day change in cases) and social media use were positively associated with anxiety over time. These findings not only provide evidence for overall emotional adaptation during the initial weeks of the pandemic, but also provide insight into overlapping, yet distinct, factors contributing to depression and anxiety throughout the first wave of the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Depressão , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371825

RESUMO

The coronavirus pandemic enforced social restrictions with abrupt impacts on mental health and changes to health behaviors. From a randomized clinical trial, we assessed the impact of culinary education on home cooking practices, coping strategies and resiliency during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (March/April 2020). Participants (n = 28) were aged 25-70 years with a BMI of 27.5-35 kg/m2. The intervention consisted of 12 weekly 30-min one-on-one telemedicine culinary coaching sessions. Coping strategies were assessed through the Brief Coping with Problems Experienced Inventory, and resiliency using the Brief Resilient Coping Scale. Home cooking practices were assessed through qualitative analysis. The average use of self-care as a coping strategy by the intervention group was 6.14 (1.66), compared to the control with 4.64 (1.69); p = 0.03. While more intervention participants had high (n = 5) and medium (n = 8) resiliency compared to controls (n = 4, n = 6, respectively), this difference was not significant (p = 0.33). Intervention participants reported using home cooking skills such as meal planning and time saving techniques during the pandemic. The key findings were that culinary coaching via telemedicine may be an effective intervention for teaching home cooking skills and promoting the use of self-care as a coping strategy during times of stress, including the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19/psicologia , Culinária , Educação à Distância/métodos , Ajustamento Emocional , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Culinária/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/terapia , Testes Psicológicos , Resiliência Psicológica , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
Soc Sci Med ; 284: 114243, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315121

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Substantial health behavior change (e.g., social distancing, mask-wearing) is needed to slow COVID-19. Yet, adherence to these guidelines varies, and avoiding social contact may contribute to declines in emotional adjustment. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: Drawing on prior research linking social motives to health behavior and well-being, we investigated the associations among social motives (prosocial motivation, gratitude) and resilience to social distancing (health behavior adherence, emotional adjustment) in a US nationally representative sample (N = 1007) collected in April 2020. RESULTS: Prosocial motivation, but not gratitude, correlated with health behavior adherence and social distancing practice. Conversely, gratitude, but not prosocial motivation, correlated with emotional adjustment (daily accomplishments, meaning in life, thriving, psychological distress, positive and negative affect). Analyses controlled for gratitude/prosocial motivation, self-focused motivation, COVID-19 worries, work arrangement, stay-at-home order, likelihood of COVID-19 diagnosis, and demographics. CONCLUSION: Public health campaigns focusing on the benefits of health behaviors for others, rather than just oneself, may promote adherence and emotional adjustment.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Teste para COVID-19 , Ajustamento Emocional , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Motivação , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12254, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has forced many employees to alter both their work style and lifestyle. This study aimed to examine how the combination of changes in overtime working hours and social interaction affects the full-time employees' mental well-being, focusing on the difference in household composition. METHODS: In November 2020, we conducted a cross-sectional Internet survey that included 4388 Japanese men and women aged 25-64 years, who continued the same full-time job during the pandemic. We performed a logistic regression analysis using a combination of the changes in overtime working hours and social interaction as an independent variable, and the presence/absence of deterioration of mental well-being as the dependent variable. RESULTS: Overall, 44% of participants reported the deterioration of mental well-being compared to before the outbreak. The multivariate analysis revealed that the participants coded as "increased overtime/decreased interaction" were significantly associated with the deterioration of mental well-being compared to those with "unchanged overtime/unchanged interaction" (odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59-2.89). Moreover, this association was relatively stronger among single-person households (OR 2.66, 95% CI 1.50-4.69). CONCLUSIONS: The negative combination of increasing overtime working hours and decreasing social interaction may have an impact on the deterioration of mental well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic, and this association was comparably strong among single-person households. In the pandemic, it is necessary to pay close attention to both overtime working hours and the presence of social interaction to address the mental well-being among employees.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Interação Social , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado/psicologia , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Admissão e Escalonamento de Pessoal/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa Solteira/psicologia , Pessoa Solteira/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255149, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324579

RESUMO

Previous literature on the psychological impact of COVID-19 has shown a direct relationship between family conflicts and psychological distress among parents and their children during the domestic lockdown and social isolation; but there are also opportunities to enhance family bonding, encourage collective problem-solving and improve personal relationships. This study aimed to explore psychological adjustment processes of Spanish adolescents and their parents during the first month of lockdown by analyzing their narratives, perceived outcomes, protection and risk factors. A total of 142 people agreed to participate in this study. Of all participants, 61 were adolescents (M = 13.57; SD = 1.74; 57% women) and 81 were parents (M = 46.09; SD = 4.72; 91% mothers). All were Spanish residents and completed an online survey during the domestic lockdown in March 2020. From a qualitative design, methodology followed a mixed approach to analyze data. The results showed three different types of adaptation to lockdown and social isolation in both adolescents and their parents: 1) positive adjustment, 2) moderate adjustment, and 3) maladjustment. Most participants reported a good adjustment and only a 20% of parents and a 16% of adolescents stated that they had not been able to achieve a positive psychological adjustment. There are few significant quantitative differences between adolescents and their parents. The qualitative analysis of data showed that adolescents reported less psychological distress than their parents. The two most important protective factors were social support and keeping busy during lockdown. The most significant risk factors were loss of mobility and social isolation. The conclusions stressed that regarding psychological maladjustment, parents experienced feelings of uncertainty whereas adolescents experienced a kind of mourning process. These findings can be used to design and implement effective intervention measures for mental health and psychological well-being in such a difficult situation as domestic lockdown.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional/fisiologia , Pais/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Angústia Psicológica , Espanha , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
J Sex Med ; 18(7): 1191-1197, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Past research has revealed the detrimental effects of social isolation and physical distancing measures in health related outcomes. However, only recently COVID-19 confinement measures provided a context to test whether such detrimental effects exist in the human sexuality domain. AIM: This study was aimed at testing the relationship between COVID-19 confinement levels and sexual functioning domains in men and women, while accounting for the mediating role of psychological adjustment during lockdown. METHODS: Two hundred and forty five men and 417 women completed a web survey on the effects of COVID-19 in sexual health. The reference period includes the first confinement in Portugal (March 19-June 1, 2020). Data were handled under Hays' procedures for simple mediation analysis. OUTCOMES: Measurement outcomes included self-reported levels of confinement, IIEF and FSFI scores, and psychological adjustment during lockdown. RESULTS: Psychological adjustment during lockdown mediated the relationship between confinement levels and most sexual functioning domains in men but not in women. Also, while confinement levels were not directly related with most sexual functioning domains, psychological adjustment during lockdown did predict lower sexual functioning in both genders. CLINICAL TRANSLATION: Findings support that human sexual functioning should be framed within a contextual perspective, emphasizing how psychological adjustment and situational life stressors, such as lockdown situations, shape individuals' sexuality. Such perspective should be considered in treatment protocols implemented during current pandemic. STRENGTHS & LIMITATIONS: Data add to the literature on the effects of lockdown in the sexuality domain. However, the study precludes inference of causality and targets only a little proportion of all the dynamics involved in sexuality during the current historical moment. CONCLUSION: Psychological adjustment during COVID-19 seems to have a role on human sexual functioning, over the single effects of confinement. Carvalho J, Campos P, Carrito M, et al. The Relationship Between COVID-19 Confinement, Psychological Adjustment, and Sexual Functioning, in a Sample of Portuguese Men and Women. J Sex Med 2021;18:1191-1197.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ajustamento Emocional , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Portugal , SARS-CoV-2 , Comportamento Sexual , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Health Psychol ; 40(5): 295-304, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152783

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of stress on caregiver psychological adjustment during the first year of pediatric cancer. METHOD: Caregivers (N = 159) of children with cancer completed monthly questionnaires assessing domains of caregiver psychological adjustment (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress symptoms) and stress (general life stress, treatment-related stress, caregiver perceptions of treatment intensity and life threat). Effects of stress were assessed at two levels to examine whether within-person changes in stress predicted concurrent changes in caregiver adjustment and whether average stress was associated with between-person differences in caregiver adjustment trajectories. RESULTS: Overall, higher levels of stress factors were associated with poorer caregiver adjustment at both the between- and within-person levels, with high average levels of treatment-related stress and general life stress emerging as leading predictors of worse adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Both types of stressors, those directly related as well as unrelated to a child's cancer, contribute uniquely to caregiver distress. Caregiver distress is impacted by both overall levels of stress over time as well as month-to-month changes in stress. Implications for informing care for at-risk caregivers are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Neoplasias/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/terapia , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Health Psychol ; 40(5): 326-336, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34152786

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prior research has linked illness identity-or the extent to which the illness is integrated into one's identity-to diabetes-specific functioning. Four illness identity dimensions have been identified: rejection, acceptance, engulfment, and enrichment. As longitudinal research on this topic is scarce, this study examined developmental trajectories of illness identity and prospective associations between illness identity and diabetes-specific functioning. METHOD: Adolescents and emerging adults with Type I diabetes, aged 14 to 25 (Mage = 19; 54% girls), participated in a four-wave longitudinal study spanning 3 years (N = 559 at Time 1). Participants filled out questionnaires on illness identity, treatment adherence, and diabetes-specific distress. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) values were obtained from participants' medical records. To chart the development of illness identity over time, we performed latent growth curve modeling. Cross-lagged analysis was used to examine prospective associations between illness identity and diabetes-specific functioning. RESULTS: We observed small linear increases in acceptance (Mslope = .05, p < .01) and engulfment (Mslope = .03, p < .05) and a small linear decrease in rejection (Mslope = -.08, p < .001) across waves (with scale scores ranging between 1 and 5). Rejection negatively predicted and enrichment positively predicted treatment adherence 1 year later, which, in turn, positively predicted enrichment and negatively predicted engulfment over time. Furthermore, rejection and engulfment positively predicted diabetes-specific distress 1 year later. Finally, diabetes-specific distress and HbA1c positively predicted engulfment 1 year later. Standardized cross-lagged coefficients ranged between |.05| and |.11|. CONCLUSIONS: We identified small but interesting changes in three out of four illness identity dimensions. Prospective associations between illness identity and diabetes-specific functioning were bidirectional in nature. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(7): 1333-1352, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34085185

RESUMO

Ethnic-racial identity (i.e., individuals' beliefs about their ethnic-racial group membership and the processes through which they develop those beliefs) is a developmental competency that can promote adolescents' adjustment; however, the extant literature has largely focused on how distinct dimensions of ethnic-racial identity are associated with adjustment (i.e., variable-centered approaches), potentially obscuring a more holistic understanding of this developmental competency. The current study utilized latent profile analysis, a person-centered approach, to examine profiles of ethnic-racial identity among Black (n = 325; Mage = 15.94, SD = 1.14) and Latinx (n = 370; Mage = 16.13, SD = 1.10) adolescents as well as links between profile membership and adjustment. Three ethnic-racial identity profiles emerged: Diffuse & Low Regard (n = 55; lower development, lower self-concept); Diffuse & High Regard (n = 160; lower development, higher self-concept); and Developed & Idealized (n = 477; higher development, higher self-concept). The profile highest in ethnic-racial identity across all indicators reported the highest levels of adjustment. The findings highlight the synergistic benefits of ethnic-racial identity development and positive self-concept for adolescents' psychosocial and academic adjustment.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Ajustamento Emocional , Adolescente , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Identificação Social
10.
J Appl Psychol ; 106(5): 643-656, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34096739

RESUMO

Highly conscientious workers are more motivated and productive than their less conscientious colleagues. Moreover, conscientious employees tend to be more satisfied and less stressed from their work. One consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic, however, is that many workers have transitioned to working remotely, often under conditions of less direct supervision and less clarity about expected work activities and outcomes. We proposed that this significant change in work context constitutes a weakening of situational strength that can change the relationship of conscientiousness with job strain, job satisfaction, and job performance. Using Meyer et al.'s (2010) conceptualization of situational strength, we tested the moderating effect of situational strength by surveying 474 white-collar employees in a Fortune-1000 firm in 2019 and again in 2020 after they had all transitioned to working remotely. We found that the changes in work context due to COVID-19 significantly lowered scores on situational strength and this was accompanied by a stronger positive effect of conscientiousness on performance. Importantly, during COVID-19, the relationships of conscientiousness with strain and satisfaction showed a reversal of sign, with more conscientious workers reporting higher strain and lower satisfaction. These effects were partially mediated by job demands and were replicated with work hours. The results provide a test of situational strength theory and suggest that changes in situational strength due to COVID-19 may cause an organization's most conscientious employees to be at elevated risk for burnout and dissatisfaction, and consequently, turnover, if not managed appropriately. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Teletrabalho , Desempenho Profissional , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Estresse Ocupacional/psicologia , Recompensa , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Athl Train ; 56(5): 518-528, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000016

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Spiritual well-being is the expression of one's spirituality as measured in the dimensions of existential and religious well-being. The Smith Cognitive Affective Model of Athletic Burnout suggests that personality factors such as spiritual well-being and the use of religious coping methods may affect burnout as well as its causes and outcomes. This has not been examined in collegiate athletic trainers (ATs). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between spiritual well-being and burnout in collegiate ATs. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Web-based survey. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 783 certified ATs employed full time in the collegiate setting participated. Part-time employees (eg, graduate assistants, interns) were excluded. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): A 100-item online questionnaire was created for this study. It used items from previously developed scales, including the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, the Brief RCOPE, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and substance-use questions from the Monitoring the Future study. Participants were able to complete the survey in approximately 10-15 minutes. Multiple regression analyses were used to analyze survey data. We mapped all independent (existential well-being, religious well-being, positive and negative religious coping) and dependent variables (situational variables, Maslach Burnout Inventory burnout subscales, substance use, and intention to leave) onto the Smith Cognitive-Affective Model of Athletic Burnout to determine which variables altered burnout levels, substance use, and intention to leave. Tests of mediation or moderation were conducted when appropriate. RESULTS: Existential well-being was a significant positive predictor of social support and a significant negative predictor of work-family conflict, decreased sense of personal accomplishment, emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, intention to leave the profession, and binge drinking. Existential well-being also served as a mediator or moderator in several components of the model. CONCLUSIONS: Existential well-being was a protective factor against burnout as well as some of the causes and effects of burnout in collegiate ATs.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Atletas/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional , Saúde Mental , Espiritualidade , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Ajustamento Emocional , Emprego/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Proteção , Apoio Social , Universidades
12.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E53, 2021 05 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34043502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The disproportionate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Latino communities has resulted in greater reports of depression, anxiety, and stress. We present a community-led intervention in Latino communities that integrated social services in mental health service delivery for an equity-based response. METHODS: We used tracking sheets to identify 1,436 unique participants (aged 5-86) enrolled in Latino Health Access's Emotional Wellness program, of whom 346 enrolled in the pre-COVID-19 period (March 2019-February 2020) and 1,090 in the COVID-19 period (March-June 2020). Demographic characteristics and types of services were aggregated to assess monthly trends using Pearson χ2 tests. Regression models were developed to compare factors associated with referrals in the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. RESULTS: During the pandemic, service volume (P < .001) and participant volume (P < .001) increased significantly compared with the prepandemic period. Participant characteristics were similar during both periods, the only differences being age distribution, expanded geographic range, and increased male participation during the pandemic. Nonreferred services, such as peer support, increased during the pandemic period. Type of referrals significantly changed from primarily mental health services and disease management in the prepandemic period to affordable housing support, food assistance, and supplemental income. CONCLUSION: An effective mental health program in response to the pandemic must incorporate direct mental health services and address social needs that exacerbate mental health risk for Latino communities. This study presents a model of how to integrate both factors by leveraging promotor-led programs.


Assuntos
Ansiedade , COVID-19 , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Depressão , Hispano-Americanos , Estresse Psicológico , Adulto , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Ajustamento Emocional , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental/etnologia , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , SARS-CoV-2 , Serviço Social/métodos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Fam Psychol ; 35(2): 128-137, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33871274

RESUMO

Triangulation is a process in which a child is drawn into conflict between two parents, and is linked to adolescent psychological maladjustment. Although harmful, families may engage in triangulation due to its promotion of diverging realities in which youth become more attuned to interparental conflict (IPC), yet parents are distracted from tension within their interparental relationship. Although central to theoretical depictions of triangulation and carrying robust implications for family science and prevention, the phenomenon of diverging realities in triangulating families has received inadequate empirical evaluation. This study utilized data collected from 150 families in which 1 parent and 1 adolescent completed baseline surveys and 21 daily diary questionnaires on triangulation, IPC, and family cohesion. Multilevel models were applied, nesting days within families, to evaluate within-family associations between triangulation and divergent perspectives of family functioning. Results from multilevel models indicated that on days when adolescents experienced elevated triangulation, discrepancies between adolescent and parent reports of IPC and family cohesion increased, with adolescents reporting significantly higher levels of IPC and lower levels of family cohesion relative to their parents. Further probing of the trends driving these discrepancies yielded a distinct pattern of results for IPC and family cohesion. Adolescent involvement in IPC is associated with more negative perspectives of family functioning relative to parents. These findings imply a mechanism through which triangulation confers risk to adolescents, and highlight that divergence in parent and adolescent perspectives of family functioning fluctuates depending on daily processes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Conflito Familiar/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799661

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to generate greater understanding of social-emotional difficulties in infants and toddlers in an Irish context. This study compared rates of reported social-emotional difficulties in young children in clinical and non-clinical samples and probed a predictive model of social-emotional adjustment. Data were collected from a cross-sectional sample of 72 mothers of young children aged between 12 and 48 months. Mothers were recruited from waiting lists for child Early Intervention services (clinical sample) and community mother-toddler groups (non-clinical sample). Mothers completed a questionnaire battery which assessed parenting self-efficacy, parenting behaviour, psychological distress and child social-emotional adjustment. The results indicated that 55.5% of young children in the clinical sample and 15% in the non-clinical sample had significant social-emotional problems. Similarly, 55.5% of young children in the clinical sample and 30% in the non-clinical sample had significant delays in the acquisition of social-emotional competencies. Two hierarchical multiple regressions were carried out with social-emotional problems and social-emotional competencies as the respective criterion variables. Clinical or non-clinical group membership, parenting satisfaction and maternal psychological distress were found to be significant predictors of child social-emotional problems in a model which explained 59% of the variance. Task-specific self-efficacy was the only significant predictor of child social-emotional competencies in a model which explained 21% of the variance. The significant rates of social-emotional problems in young children in the current study and the potential negative impact on child health and wellbeing, suggest that the early assessment of social-emotional adjustment should be incorporated into routine clinical assessment for young children. For services to effectively meet the needs of children with social-emotional difficulties and their families, consideration of maternal factors is also necessary.


Assuntos
Mães , Angústia Psicológica , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Ajustamento Emocional , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Relações Mãe-Filho , Poder Familiar , Autoeficácia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800178

RESUMO

At present, there is a lack of longitudinal studies on the psychological adjustment of both children and adolescents with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and their primary caregivers. To fill this gap, we performed a four-year follow-up study. Mothers filled out the Child Behavior Checklist 4-18, the Social Orientation of Parents with Handicapped Children questionnaire to assess maternal stress and coping strategies, and the Freiburger Personality Inventory-Revised-subscales strain and life satisfaction. Fifty-five subjects with 22q11.2DS (26 males and 29 females; age: M = 10.79 years, SD = 3.56 years) and their biological mothers (age: M = 40.84 years, SD = 4.68 years) were included in this study. Significantly higher levels of behavior problems than in the general population and an increase in these problems, especially internalizing ones, over time could be found. In contrast, maternal stress did not change significantly over time, but mothers demonstrated increased levels of strain and reduced life satisfaction at T2. Thus, careful monitoring as well as early and adequate interventions, if indicated, should be offered to families with a child with 22q11.2DS, not only for somatic complaints but also for problems with psychological adjustment.


Assuntos
Síndrome de DiGeorge , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Síndrome de DiGeorge/genética , Ajustamento Emocional , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães
16.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 52: 101928, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756420

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The present study aims to explore whether the association between previous displacement to mainland Portugal to perform cancer therapy and current psychological adaptation is mediated by cancer survivors' unmet needs in terms of their emotional experience, financial concerns, access and continuity of care, and relations with others. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included a sample of 173 cancer survivors from the Azores archipelago (Portugal) recruited from a local oncological health unit. Participants completed a sociodemographic and clinical questionnaire and self-report measures assessing their unmet needs and psychological adaptation. Two parallel multiple mediation models were tested. RESULTS: Azorean cancer survivors live with unmet needs, especially emotional needs (M = 16.68, SD = 10.78). Displacement was indirectly associated with both anxious (indirect effect = 0.58, SE = 0.27, 95% Bias Corrected and accelerated Confidence Interval = [0.05, 1.15]) and depressive symptomatology (indirect effect = 0.36, SE = 0.17, 95% Bias Corrected and accelerated Confidence Interval = [0.03, 0.84]) through unmet emotional needs. CONCLUSION: Previous displacements seem to play an important role in the way cancer survivors adapt to survivorship by contributing to higher levels of unmet emotional needs. These findings can provide a scientific and clinical contribution to other isolated or island regions in the world where survivors face similar constraints.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Neoplasias/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Açores , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Ajustamento Emocional , Emoções , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Portugal , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(3): 889-898, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Youth with perinatal HIV exposure have demonstrated high rates of emotional-behavioral problems. Few studies have longitudinally examined racial/ethnic disparities in such functioning across adolescence, a critical time for targeting prevention/intervention efforts. SETTING: The Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study Adolescent Master Protocol is one of the largest US-based cohort studies of youth with perinatal HIV (YPHIV) infection or HIV exposed but uninfected (YPHEU). METHODS: Youth and caregivers individually completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, second edition, every 2 years between ages 7 and 19 years. We used adjusted mixed-effects models to evaluate whether mean youth-reported emotional concerns and caregiver-reported behavioral concerns differed by race/ethnicity. We used group-based trajectory models to identify groups having similar emotional-behavioral trajectories, followed by multinomial models to determine which factors predicted group membership. RESULTS: Three hundred ninety-one YPHIV and 209 YPHEU (7% White non-Hispanic, 21% White Hispanic, 66% Black non-Hispanic, and 6% Black Hispanic) completed a median of 4 assessments over follow-up. Adjusted models showed more caregiver-reported behavioral concerns for Black non-Hispanic YPHEU than for Black non-Hispanic YPHIV, White Hispanic YPHIV, and White Hispanic YPHEU, particularly later in adolescence. Race/ethnicity did not predict membership in subgroups of youth-reported emotional or caregiver-reported behavioral functioning identified using group-based trajectory models. However, factors predicting membership in vulnerable youth-reported emotional and caregiver-reported behavioral groups included experiencing a stressful life event and living with a caregiver who was married or screened positive for a psychiatric condition. CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that Black non-Hispanic YPHEU are a vulnerable subgroup. Contributing factors that could inform interventions include the caregiver's health, household characteristics, and psychiatric status.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Comportamento Infantil , Ajustamento Emocional , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , HIV-1 , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Populações Vulneráveis , Adulto Jovem
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(10): e25026, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33725884

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Stroke survivors encounter various physical and psychosocial challenges after hospital discharge. Systematic reviews consistently suggest the importance of self-management in promoting post-stroke recovery. However, stroke survivors' performance of self-management behaviors after returning home is poorly understood. This study was conducted to explore how stroke survivors manage their life after returning home from the hospital. This was a qualitative study with individual, semi-structured interviews. We recruited a purposive sample of adults who had a first or recurrent ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke and currently lived at home. Participants were asked about their post-stroke experiences, challenges encountered, and strategies adopted for managing post-stroke conditions. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. A total of 30 stroke survivors (mean age = 61.97 years, SD = 10.20) were interviewed. Most were men (n = 18), married (n = 25), and retired (n = 21). Two-thirds had experienced an ischemic stroke. Five key themes emerged: pursuing lifelong learning to live well after a stroke; reinterpreting unpleasant experiences as new learning opportunities; engaging in life activities to better adapt to post-stroke challenges; being confident in oneself to persevere in self-management behaviors; and continuing to accept the current self and explore the new self. Participants regarded learning as a prerequisite for improving their affected functions and managing uncertainties in recovery. Learning requires self-participation, building self-efficacy and positive outcome expectations, testing and adapting strategies to one's own health conditions, and engaging in leisure or social activities. These findings will guide future development of interventions for enhancing stroke survivors' recovery outcomes.


Assuntos
Autogestão/métodos , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Idoso , Ajustamento Emocional , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Autoeficácia , Autogestão/psicologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia
19.
Fertil Steril ; 115(5): 1302-1311, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541691

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study differences by sperm donor type in the psychological adjustment of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS) offspring across three time periods from childhood to adulthood. DESIGN: U.S.-based prospective cohort study. SETTING: Paper-and-pencil questionnaires and protected online surveys. PATIENT(S): A cohort of 74 offspring conceived by lesbian parents using an anonymous (n = 26), a known (n = 26), or an open-identity (n = 22) sperm donor. Data were reported when offspring were ages 10 (wave 4), 17 (wave 5), and 25 (wave 6). INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist administered to lesbian parents when offspring were ages 10 and 17 and the Achenbach Adult Self-Report administered to offspring at age 25. RESULT(S): In both relative and absolute stability, no differences were found in internalizing, externalizing, and total problem behaviors by donor type over 15 years. However, both externalizing and total problem behaviors significantly declined from age 10 to 17 and then increased from age 17 to 25. Irrespective of donor type, among the 74 offspring, the large majority scored continuously within the normal range on internalizing (n = 62, 83.8%), externalizing (n = 62, 83.8%), and total problem behaviors (n = 60, 81.1%). CONCLUSION(S): The results reassure prospective lesbian parents and provide policy makers and reproductive medicine practitioners with empirical evidence that psychological adjustment in offspring raised by lesbian parents is unrelated to donor type in the long term.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Concepção de Doadores/psicologia , Relações Familiares , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Crianças Adultas/psicologia , Crianças Adultas/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Ajustamento Emocional/fisiologia , Relações Familiares/psicologia , Feminino , Homossexualidade Feminina/psicologia , Homossexualidade Feminina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Inseminação Artificial Heteróloga/psicologia , Inseminação Artificial Heteróloga/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Doadores de Tecidos/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Sch Psychol ; 84: 124-142, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581767

RESUMO

The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a Spanish language form of the Adjustment Scales for Preschool Intervention (ASPI) for use by early childhood teachers. A multi-step, mixed method adaptation and translation process of the English form was used to increase the cultural relevance, linguistic comparability, and metric equivalence of the measure in its Spanish language form. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in a diverse sample of preschool children from low-income families (N = 4077) revealed two higher order behavioral dimensions of Overactivity and Underactivity. ASPI dimension scores across Spanish and English language forms were horizontally equated through IRT. Criterion-related validity using multilevel models was established through concurrent associations with social, emotional, behavioral, and academic readiness skills. Policy and practice applications, and future directions for the use of scale scores are discussed.


Assuntos
Escala de Avaliação Comportamental , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Pré-Escolar/educação , Ajustamento Emocional , Hispano-Americanos/educação , Ajustamento Social , Traduções , Intervenção Educacional Precoce , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos/etnologia
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