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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444062

RESUMO

This study classified leisure activity types into active, passive, and social leisure activities based on theory, and focused on determining the type that has a significant influence on the self-efficacy and social adjustment of immigrants staying in South Korea. The results of multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), including post-hoc analysis using SPSS 23.0, were as follows: in principle, immigrants who participate in active or social leisure activities perceive their self-efficacy and social adjustment to be high. Differing slightly from this, the passive leisure activity type, which includes activities such as reading alone, listening to music, and surfing the web, may relieve their stress or provide them with psychological stability, but it was not found to be helpful in their adjustment to the new culture. The significance of this study lies in the finding that leisure activities help immigrants with social adjustment, in addition to physical and psychological aids that are already well known. We hope that the findings of the present study can be used as basic data for helping immigrants with smooth social adjustment and increasing their quality of life.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Ajustamento Social , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Qualidade de Vida , República da Coreia , Autoeficácia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203340

RESUMO

The participation of women with young children in the Japanese labor force has increased dramatically in recent years, bringing growing potential for conflict between work and family roles amid inadequate social systems, such as childcare support. Thus, work-life balance (WLB) of mothers may influence their children's mental health and lifestyle. This study aims to clarify the relationship between parents' WLB and children's mental health, as well as the underlying factors of parental stress and nurturing attitude. The study is based on a questionnaire survey administered in 2019 to fifth-grade elementary school students and their caregivers in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. The regression results indicated that the higher the work-family negative spillover, the higher the child's externalizing and internalizing problems, and the higher the positive spillover, the lower the problems and the higher the prosocial behaviors. Path analysis indicates that maternal WLB is negatively and positively related to children's behavior through maternal stress and parenting practices. The study suggests that maternal WLB is related to children's emotional and behavioral problems. WLB may impact children's emotional and behavioral problems through parents' mental health and involvement with their children, particularly because of work arrangements changing with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ajustamento Social , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Mães , Pandemias , Poder Familiar , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207626

RESUMO

Commensality (the act of eating together) is studied in a range of disciplines and often considered important for social communion, order, health and well-being, while simultaneously being understood as in decline (especially the family meal). However, such claims are also contested in various ways. In this paper, we discuss the expanding field of commensality research and critically reflect on the debates surrounding its social functions, including its role in public health. We illuminate the deep social and cultural significance of commensality, through time and space, and conclude that whether or not commensality is the preferred social form of eating for any given individual, it is difficult to escape its sociocultural desirability and idealization. As a cross-cultural phenomenon in both past, present, and future, we suggest that commensality deserves further research. This includes commensality as a research topic in itself and as an entry point to unveil different dimensions of social relations between people, as well as interactions between humans and material objects.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Refeições , Humanos , Ajustamento Social , Simbiose
4.
Riv Psichiatr ; 56(4): 189-197, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34310576

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence highlights healthcare workers (HCWs) facing outbreaks, particularly the ongoing covid-19 pandemic, are at increased risk of negative mental health outcomes, particularly post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), anxiety and depression. Data from previous outbreaks highlighted the risk for a negative impact on HCWs' social and occupational functioning, but scant data have investigated this issue in the framework of the covid-19 pandemic. A number of effective interventions have been proposed to support mental health and well-being of HCWs in emerging infectious outbreaks, but it is important to acknowledge the differential impact of mental disorders on different dimensions of functioning. METHODS: The study explored the associations between work and social functioning and PTSS, depression and anxiety in a sample of 265 frontline HCWs employed at a major university hospital in Italy (Pisa), facing the first period of the covid-19 pandemic. Individuals were assessed by means of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) for PTSS, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) for depressive symptoms, the General Anxiety Disorder-7 Item (GAD-7) for anxiety symptoms and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) to assess work and social functioning. RESULTS: Higher levels of functioning impairment were found among individuals with moderate to severe acute PTSS, depressive and anxiety symptoms with respect to those without. Acute PTSS and depressive symptoms were predictive factors of impairment in each domain of functioning analyzed. Anxiety symptoms were associated with impairment in both work and home management activities. Frontline activity was associated with impairment in both private and social leisure activities. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term perspective studies are warranted to better investigate the psychopathological burden on HCWs' work and social functioning and to promote adequate intervention strategies.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/complicações , Depressão/epidemiologia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Relações Familiares , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ocupações , Pandemias , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Ajustamento Social , Mudança Social , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Incerteza , Carga de Trabalho
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 593, 2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is one of the key factors contributing to difficulties in one's ability to work, and serves as one of the major reasons why employees apply for psychotherapy and receive insurance subsidization of treatments. Hence, an increasing and growing number of studies rely on workability assessment scales as their primary outcome measure. The Work and Social Assessment Scale (WSAS) has been documented as one of the most psychometrically reliable and valid tools especially developed to assess workability and social functioning in patients with mental health problems. Yet, the application of the WSAS in Germany has been limited due to the paucity of a valid questionnaire in the German language. The objective of the present study was to translate the WSAS, as a brief and easy administrable tool into German and test its psychometric properties in a sample of adults with depression. METHODS: Two hundred seventy-seven patients (M = 48.3 years, SD = 11.1) with mild to moderately severe depression were recruited. A multistep translation from English into the German language was performed and the factorial validity, criterion validity, convergent validity, discriminant validity, internal consistency, and floor and ceiling effects were examined. RESULTS: The confirmatory factor analysis results confirmed the one-factor structure of the WSAS. Significant correlations with the WHODAS 2-0 questionnaire, a measure of functionality, demonstrated good convergent validity. Significant correlations with depression and quality of life demonstrated good criterion validity. The WSAS also demonstrated strong internal consistency (α = .89), and the absence of floor and ceiling effects indicated good sensitivity of the instrument. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study demonstrated that the German version of the WSAS has good psychometric properties comparable to other international versions of this scale. The findings recommend a global assessment of psychosocial functioning with the sum score of the WSAS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN identifier: ISRCTN28972230 . Date of registration June 26th 2018.


Assuntos
Idioma , Ajustamento Social , Adulto , Alemanha , Humanos , Psicometria , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 240, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim was to explore the associations between clinical symptoms, demographic variables, social and neurocognitive functioning in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (BD) stratified by subgroups of DSM-IV BD (type I (BD-I) and type II (BD-II)) and occupational status (employed/unemployed), and to highlight the significance of occupational status when assessing social and neurocognitive functioning in euthymic BD patients. METHODS: A total of 81 euthymic BD patients were participated in the study. The severity of the depressive and manic/hypomanic symptoms was measured using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), respectively. Social functioning and neurocognitive functioning were evaluated by the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) and neurocognitive measures, respectively. RESULTS: Employed BD patients displayed greater social functioning (autonomy, occupational functioning, interpersonal relationship domain) and better verbal learning performance and speed of processing than unemployed BD patients. The correlation between neurocognitive functioning and social functioning was stronger in the employed group than in the unemployed group. There were no significant differences in neurocognitive and social functioning between the BD-I and BD-II groups, and the correlation between neurocognitive functioning and social functioning was similar between the BD-I and BD-II groups. CONCLUSION: Employed BD patients may present greater occupational functioning and interpersonal relationships, as well as better verbal learning performance and speed of processing.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtornos Cognitivos , Transtorno Bipolar/complicações , Cognição , Transtorno Ciclotímico , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Ajustamento Social
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2718, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976160

RESUMO

A key function of morality is to regulate social behavior. Research suggests moral values may be divided into two types: binding values, which govern behavior in groups, and individualizing values, which promote personal rights and freedoms. Because people tend to mentally activate concepts in situations in which they may prove useful, the importance they afford moral values may vary according to whom they are with in the moment. In particular, because binding values help regulate communal behavior, people may afford these values more importance when in the presence of close (versus distant) others. Five studies test and support this hypothesis. First, we use a custom smartphone application to repeatedly record participants' (n = 1166) current social context and the importance they afforded moral values. Results show people rate moral values as more important when in the presence of close others, and this effect is stronger for binding than individualizing values-an effect that replicates in a large preregistered online sample (n = 2016). A lab study (n = 390) and two preregistered online experiments (n = 580 and n = 752) provide convergent evidence that people afford binding, but not individualizing, values more importance when in the real or imagined presence of close others. Our results suggest people selectively activate different moral values according to the demands of the situation, and show how the mere presence of others can affect moral thinking.


Assuntos
Princípios Morais , Infuência dos Pares , Ajustamento Social , Conformidade Social , Adulto , Cultura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo Associado , Política , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Schizophr Res ; 232: 87-94, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029946

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood interpersonal trauma (CIT) and premorbid adjustment are both associated with poor outcome in psychosis. In this study we investigate the relative impact of CIT and premorbid adjustment on symptom remission in first episode psychosis (FEP) over two years. METHOD: A total of 232 participants with FEP were recruited through the early detection program of the The early detection and Intervention in Psychosis (TIPS)-2 study and followed up after two years. Symptom remission was according to consensus criteria. CIT was assessed with the semi-structured interview Freyd Goldberg Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey, and premorbid adjustment with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale. Generalized estimating equations and multivariate models were used to analyze the associations between remission, symptom levels over time, CIT and premorbid adjustment; and a path analysis of mediation effects of CIT through premorbid adjustment on remission. RESULTS: In this sample with 57% males and a mean age of 26.6 years (SD 10.2), a third of participants had experienced CIT. The participants with CIT had poorer premorbid adjustment compared to those without. Statistical analyses found independent effects of CIT and an interaction effect of CIT with premorbid adjustment on remission after two years, suggesting that CIT moderates the effect of premorbid adjustment. However contrary to expectations, premorbid adjustment did not mediate the effect of CIT. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate a complex interplay between effects of interpersonal trauma and premorbid social adjustment on remission in psychosis. CIT appeared to moderate the effect of premorbid adjustment such that individuals with CIT and who had poor social functioning in childhood are at greater risk of non-remission. Findings indicate that better premorbid social relations could provide a buffer for the effects of trauma on symptom course.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Ajustamento Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
J Psychiatr Res ; 138: 500-506, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971484

RESUMO

Researchers have measured social functioning in schizophrenia using many different strategies. Recent technological advances have made it possible to passively measure behaviors in real-world social situations-allowing for more objective, ecologically valid assessments. Yet, research testing the convergent validity among real-world and laboratory-based social functioning assessment is sparse. The purpose of this study was to test the convergent validity among four social functioning measures: two interview-based rating scales, a self-reported ecological momentary assessment (EMA), and a passive, ambulatory ecological assessment. Data was collected from 36 people with schizophrenia and 33 control participants. Across the entire sample, relationships between interview-based ratings and real-world measures of social functioning only demonstrated small correlations (r's = 0.17-0.19), whereas real-world measures exhibited moderate correlations with one another (r = 0.36). Within groups, real-world measures showed moderate, significant relationships in the control group (r = 0.44) but not in the schizophrenia group (r = 0.27). For those with schizophrenia, the interview-based measures of social functioning were moderately associated with ambulatory ecological assessment (r's = 0.38 and 0.47), but only small associations were observed with self-reported EMA (r's = 0.15 and 0.17). Results suggest social functioning assessments are not highly convergent and likely target different aspects of social functioning. Laboratory-based measures offer global impressions of social functioning whereas real-world measures represent a more nuanced approach. Moreover, ambulatory ecological assessment may most accurately gauge frequency of daily social interactions for those with schizophrenia as it circumvents common pitfalls of self-report and offers a less-biased, in-depth evaluation of social behavior.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Humanos , Laboratórios , Ajustamento Social , Interação Social
10.
J Pain ; 22(8): 926-939, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677112

RESUMO

AIMS: People with chronic pain may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of the pandemic COVID-19, and psychological flexibility may protect them. This study investigates psychological functioning in the context of COVID-19, including fear and avoidance in the context of COVID-19, specifically its association with daily functioning, and the role of psychological flexibility, among people with chronic pain. METHODS: Responses from 555 adults with chronic pain were collected through a cross-sectional online survey and analyzed. RESULTS: Eight out of 10 participants reported significant depression and nearly 9 out of 10 reported significant functional impairment. COVID-19-related fear and avoidance significantly correlated with pain, pain-related disability, depression, and work and social adjustment (r = 18-.32), as well as psychological flexibility processes, including pain acceptance, self-as-context, and committed action, |r|=.13-.30. COVID-19-related fear and avoidance and COVID-19-related interference were significant predictors of some measures of daily functioning beyond demographics and pain, ß = .09-.14. However, these associations weakened when psychological flexibility processes were factored into the models, with fear of COVID-19 no longer being a significant predictor of pain-related disability or depression, and COVID-19 avoidance no longer a significant predictor of depression. CONCLUSIONS: The psychological functioning in the context of COVID-19 appears to be negatively associated with daily functioning in people with chronic pain, and is statistically significant in this regard. Psychological flexibility may have a role in these associations for people with chronic pain in the pandemic. PERSPECTIVE: This article demonstrates the psychological implication of COVID-19 and its association with broader emotional and daily functioning in people with chronic pain. It also demonstrates that Psychological flexibility may have a role in these associations for people with chronic pain in the pandemic.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , COVID-19 , Dor Crônica/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Ajustamento Social , Adulto , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
11.
Int J Psychol ; 56(4): 512-521, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33739446

RESUMO

Using data collected from two provinces in China through an online survey, the current study aimed to investigate left-behind children's emotional and academic adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. The participants included 1780 left-behind (960 boys) and 1500 non-left-behind (811 boys) children in elementary and junior high school with a mean age of 11.23. Self-reported questionnaires concerning children's depression, loneliness, anxiety, and academic adjustment, and parents' coping with children's negative emotions were completed. The results suggested that compared with non-left-behind children, left-behind children's depression and anxiety symptoms were more severe and their academic adjustment was poorer. However, left-behind children had lower levels of loneliness than non-left-behind children. Additionally, supportive coping types, especially emotion-focused and problem-focused reactions, were significantly negatively correlated with children's depression and anxiety. Unsupportive coping types, especially distress and punitive reactions, were significantly positively correlated with children's depression and anxiety symptoms. Moreover, the relationships between punitive reactions and depression, ignoring and loneliness and problem-focused reactions and academic adjustment were significantly stronger in left-behind children. Hence, during the pandemic, left-behind children were still at a disadvantage even with their parents' company. However, parents' coping style towards left-behind children's negative emotions played a significant role in their adjustment.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão/psicologia , Masculino , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 35(2): 162-167, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781394

RESUMO

AIM: This study was conducted to determine the effect of the illness management and recovery program in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: This study was conducted using a pretest, posttest and follow up experimental design with randomized controlled. The sample of this study consisted of patients with schizophrenia (n = 50). The patients were assigned to intervention (n = 25) and control (n = 25) groups using the randomisation method. The intervention group consisted of 10 modules and 20 sessions of Illness Management and Recovery Program, while in the control group, a face-to-face interview. Data were collected by the Illness Management and Recovery Scale-Patient Form (IMRS-P) and Social Functioning Scale-Patient Form (SFS-P). RESULTS: There were significant differences in posttest and 1-month follow-up IMRS-P points between the intervention and control groups. There was no significant difference in post-test and 1-month follow-up SFS-P total points between the intervention and control groups. There were only significant differences for the pro-social activities' subscale of SFS-P. CONCLUSION: The Illness Management and Recovery Program have a positive effect on illness management and social functionality in patients with schizophrenia. In the light of this study, it was suggested that this structured program should be used by mental health and psychiatric nurses.


Assuntos
Gerenciamento Clínico , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Ajustamento Social
13.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656310

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Currently, people leaving prisons face concurrent risks from the COVID-19 pandemic and the overdose public health emergency. The closure or reduction of community services people rely on after release such as treatment centres and shelters has exacerbated the risks of poor health outcomes and harms. This paper aims to learn from peer health mentors (PHM) about changes to their work during overlapping health emergencies, as well as barriers and opportunities to support people leaving prison in this context. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The Unlocking the Gates (UTG) Peer Health Mentoring Program supports people leaving prison in British Columbia during the first three days after release. The authors conducted two focus groups with PHM over video conference in May 2020. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed, and themes were iteratively developed using narrative thematic analysis. FINDINGS: The findings highlighted the importance of peer health mentorship for people leaving prisons. PHM discussed increased opportunities for collaboration, ways the pandemic has changed how they are able to provide support, and how PHM are able to remain responsive and flexible to meet client needs. Additionally, PHM illuminated ways that COVID-19 has exacerbated existing barriers and identified specific actions needed to support client health, including increased housing and recovery beds, and tools for social and emotional well-being. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This study contributes to our understanding of peer health mentorship during the COVID-19 pandemic from the perspective of mentors. PHM expertise can support release planning, improved health and well-being of people leaving prison and facilitate policy-supported pandemic responses.


Assuntos
Integração Comunitária/psicologia , Criminosos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Mentores/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Colúmbia Britânica , COVID-19/psicologia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572993

RESUMO

Adolescents with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD) are at risk for increased feelings of anxiety and depression compared to their typically developing (TD) peers. However, the underlying pathways involved in this relationship are unclear. In this initial study of the 'social mediation hypothesis', we examine social functioning as a mediator of emotional problems in a cross-sectional sample of adolescents with DLD and age- and sex-matched controls. Preliminary data from twenty-six participants with DLD and 27 participants with typical language development (TLD, 11-17 years) were compared on self- and parent-reported measures of social functioning and emotional outcomes. There was little evidence of group differences in self-reported social functioning and emotional outcomes, but parent-report of SDQ Peer Problems and Emotional Problems in the DLD group was significantly higher than in the TLD group. Parent-reported peer problems mediated parent-reported emotional problems, accounting for 69% of the relationship between DLD status and emotional problems. Parents of adolescents with DLD, but not adolescents themselves, report significantly higher peer and emotional problems compared to TLD peers. The hypotheses generated from these novel data suggest further investigation into adolescents' perceptions of socioemotional difficulties and friendships should be examined.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Interação Social , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Emoções , Humanos , Ajustamento Social
16.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 87(5): 556-566, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and burnout are severe and frequent conditions among emergency healthcare workers exposed to repeated work-related traumatic experiences. The aim of the present study was to investigate PTSD, burnout and global functioning in a sample of emergency healthcare workers (HCWs) of a major university hospital in Italy, exploring possible correlations between the two constructs. METHODS: The study sample included 137 medical and nursing Emergency Room and Intensive Care Unit staff members of a major University Hospital in Italy (Pisa), all assessed by means of the Trauma and Loss Spectrum - Self Report (TALS-SR), for post-traumatic stress spectrum, the Professional Quality of Life Scale - Revision IV (ProQOL R-IV), for burnout related to work activities, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), for global functioning. RESULTS: Forty-nine subjects reported a full (18, 14.3%) or partial (31, 24.6%) symptomatological DSM-5 PTSD. HCWs with PTSD reported significantly higher burnout scores and global functioning impairment compared to those without PTSD. Mean to good significant correlations emerged between the TALS-SR total and domains scores, the ProQOL subscales and the WSAS scores. CONCLUSIONS: This work, conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic, underlines a positive correlation between burnout and post-traumatic stress spectrum symptoms in emergency HCWs, showing the need for a deeper assessment of work-related post-traumatic stress symptoms in such population in order to improve the well-being and to prevent burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , COVID-19 , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Pessoal de Saúde , Pandemias , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Autorrelato , Ajustamento Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia
17.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245099, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503038

RESUMO

Emotion regulation is a central task of daily life. Difficulty regulating emotions is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD), one of the most common and impairing personality disorder diagnoses. While anger and symptoms of depression are instantiated in the criteria for BPD, anxiety is not, despite being among the most common psychiatric symptoms. In a sample of online respondents (N = 471), we explored the interactions between anxiety symptoms and BPD traits in predicting well-being (WHO-5) as well as poorer work and social adjustment (WSAS), while controlling for anger and depression. We hypothesized that anxiety would lead to more impairment (i.e., lower well-being and poorer work and more difficulties with work and social adjustment) as BPD traits increased. BPD traits and symptoms of anxiety both contributed to overall lower levels well-being and higher levels of psychosocial dysfunction. However, contrary to our expectations, at higher (vs. lower) levels of BPD traits, symptoms of anxiety were less conducive to lower well-being on the WHO-5. For the WSAS, there was no consistent evidence for an interaction between BPD traits and anxiety in predicting functioning. By and large, our results do not support the idea that anxiety contributes to more impairment at higher levels of BPD traits.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/complicações , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/complicações , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/patologia , Depressão/complicações , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Ajustamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Desempenho Profissional
19.
Schizophr Res ; 228: 249-255, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486392

RESUMO

There is a need to develop and refine psychosocial interventions to improve functioning in First Episode Psychosis (FEP). Social cognition and neurocognition are closely linked to functioning in psychosis; examinations of cognition pre- and post- psychosocial intervention may provide insights into the mechanisms of these interventions, and identify which individuals are most likely to benefit. METHOD: Cognition was assessed within a multi-site trial of Social Recovery Therapy (SRT) for individuals with FEP experiencing poor functioning (<30 h weekly structured activity). Fifty-nine participants were randomly allocated to the therapy group (SRT + Early intervention), and 64 were allocated to treatment as usual group (TAU - early intervention care). Social cognition and neurocognition were assessed at baseline and 9 months; assessors were blind to group allocation. It was hypothesized that social cognition would improve following therapy, and those with better social cognition prior to therapy would benefit the most from SRT. RESULTS: There was no significant impact of SRT on individual neurocognitive or social cognitive variables, however, joint models addressing patterns of missingness demonstrate improvement across a number of cognitive outcomes following SRT. Further, regression analyses showed those who had better social cognition at baseline were most likely to benefit from the therapy (ß = 0.350; 95% CI = 0.830 to 8.891; p = .019). CONCLUSION: It is not clear if SRT impacts on social cognitive or neurocognitive function, however, SRT may be beneficial in those with better social cognition at baseline.


Assuntos
Transtornos Psicóticos , Interação Social , Cognição , Humanos , Transtornos Psicóticos/terapia , Ajustamento Social , Cognição Social
20.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 92(3): 282-290, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify subgroups of former National Football League (NFL) players using latent profile analysis (LPA) and examine their associations with total years of participation (TYP) and self-reported lifetime sport-related concussion history (SR-CHx). METHODS: Former NFL players (N=686) aged 50-70 years, with an average 18.0 TYP (±4.5) completed a questionnaire. SR-CHx distributions included: low (0-3; n=221); intermediate (4-8; n=209) and high (9+; n=256). LPA measures included: Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders Emotional-Behavioral Dyscontrol, Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Cognitive Function, Emotional Support, Self-Efficacy, Meaning and Purpose, Physical Function, Pain Interference, Participation in Social Roles and Activities, Anxiety, Depression, Fatigue, and Sleep Disturbance. Demographic, medical/psychiatric history, current psychosocial stressors, TYP and SR-CHx were compared across latent profiles (LPs). RESULTS: A five profile solution emerged: (LP1) global higher functioning (GHF; 26.5%); (LP2) average functioning (10.2%); (LP3) mild somatic (pain and physical functioning) concerns (22.0%); (LP4) somatic and cognitive difficulties with mild anxiety (SCA; 27.5%); LP5) global impaired functioning (GIF; 13.8%). The GIF and SCA groups reported the largest number ofe- medical/psychiatric conditions and higher psychosocial stressor levels. SR-CHx was associated with profile group (χ2(8)=100.38, p<0.001); with a higher proportion of GIF (72.6%) and SCA (43.1%) groups reporting being in the high SR-CHx category, compared with GHF (23.1%), average (31.4%) and somatic (27.8%) groups. TYP was not significantly associated with group (p=0.06), with greater TYP reported by the GHF group. CONCLUSIONS: Five distinct profiles of self-reported functioning were identified among former NFL players. Several comorbid factors (ie, medical/psychiatric diagnoses and psychosocial stressors) and SR-CHx were associated with greater neurobehavioural and psychosocial dysfunction.


Assuntos
Concussão Encefálica/complicações , Concussão Encefálica/psicologia , Futebol Americano/lesões , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Idoso , Concussão Encefálica/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade de Vida , Ajustamento Social , Estados Unidos
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