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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 88-92, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study reports preliminary results from the multicentre project on the approbation of the Russian language version of the "The Communication Checklist-Self Report" (RL-CC-SR) and its first use in schizophrenia (SZ), aiming to evaluate the contribution of language disturbances in the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous disorder. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study evaluated patients' clinical state with the Diagnostic Interview for Psychoses (DIP), and assessed language and communication disturbances (LCD) with the RL-CC-SR in all participants (213 healthy controls (HC), 83 SZ patients, 31 SZ first-degree relatives). Data from the current sample of SZ (n=50), and HC (n=213) was analysed to calculate the relationships between LCD, social and clinical variables using descriptive statistics methods, T-test and Pearson's correlations (SPSS-26, 2019). RESULTS: The quotient scores (<6) and raw scores on all three CC-SR subscales demonstrated prominent LCD in SZ: (i) language structure (LS) (SZ:11.92±8.01, HC:7.54±5.91; p<0.001), (ii) pragmatic skills (PS) (SZ:11.30±10.07, HC:8.71±7.39; p=0.040), (iii) social engagement (SE) (SZ:31.94±11.76, HC:19.42±10.35; p<0.001). In SZ, Pearson correlations of LS scores were significant for the DIP-items Odd Speech (p=0.033), and Social Engagement - Blunted Affect (p=0.042). PS was related to early disease onset (p=0.027), poor premorbid work adjustment (p=0.003), along with LS (p=0.005), and was also linked to poor premorbid social adjustment (p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: SZ patients are aware of their LCD at all levels of language structure, pragmatics, and nonverbal communication, but are unable to compensate. Disturbances of LS and PS in SZ patients relate to their poor social adjustment and functioning, and may prove to be associated with the primary negative symptoms domain of the disorder and its generally poor outcome.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Esquizofrenia , Autorrelato , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/etiologia , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Ajustamento Social
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22344, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991449

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression is a disease with a high incidence and easy to relapse. It not only affects the work and life of patients, but also brings a heavy economic burden. University is the peak of depression, and the prevalence of depression among college students is much higher than that of ordinary people. The purpose of this research is to evaluate depression symptoms, life satisfaction, self-confidence, substance use, social adjustment, and dropout rates of the use of psychological intervention for college students. METHODS: We will identify relevant trials from systematic searches in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library. We will also search Clinical Trials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for unpublished data. Additional relevant studies will be searched through search engines (such as Google), and references included in the literature will be tracked. All relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) will be included. There are no date restrictions. Use Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of bias tool to conduct risk of bias analysis. Use the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation to assess the quality of evidence. All statistical analysis will be performed using Stata (V.15.0.) and Review Manager (V.5.2.0). RESULTS: A total of 6238 records were obtained by searching the database and 27 records were obtained by other sources. After removing duplicate records, there are 4225 records remaining. We excluded 3945 records through abstract and title, leaving 280 full-text articles. CONCLUSION: This will be the first study to compare the effects of different psychological treatments on depression in college students. We hope that this study will guide clinical decision-making of psychotherapy to better treat depression in college students. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: INPLASY202070134.


Assuntos
Depressão/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Carga Global da Doença/economia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Metanálise em Rede , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , Prevalência , Psicoterapia/tendências , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Autoimagem , Ajustamento Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
3.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 283-294, mayo 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192065

RESUMO

Identificar factores instruccionales específicos relacionados con progresos en comprensión lectora es esencial para optimizar el aprendizaje y orientar la intervención, especialmente en contextos de desventaja socio-cultural o dificultades de aprendizaje. Este estudio pretende identificar patrones instruccionales de mediación eficaces en la explicación del progreso en comprensión. Se grabaron, transcribieron y analizaron sistemáticamente 82 sesiones-clase, y se registraron pautas de mediación relativas a diferentes procesos lectores. Los patrones de mediación fueron analizados mediante codificación y categorización del contenido con el programa Maxqdea-7. Fueron consideradas 19 categorías, que aglutinaron 178 unidades de información significativas (pautas/conductas de mediación). La muestra estuvo compuesta por 21 docentes y 821 estudiantes de tercero a octavo grado de Educación Básica de escuelas públicas de Chile ubicadas en contextos de-privados socialmente. El progreso lector se midió con la prueba estandarizada CL-PT, aplicada al principio y al final del curso escolar. Los resultados permitieron identificar pautas específicas de mediación significativas en la explicación del progreso, especialmente el patrón M_17 (Mediación del uso de estrategias para la activación e integración de conocimientos previos) explicaba el 26% de la varianza (r = .55, p < .01; R2ajustado = .26, F (1, 19) = 8.19, p = .01). Se discuten las implicaciones educativas de estos resultados


Identifying specific instructional factors related to progress in reading comprehension is essential to optimize learning and guide intervention, especially in contexts of sociocultural disadvantage or learning difficulties. This study aims to identify effective mediational instructional patterns in the explanation of progress in reading comprehension. Teaching guidelines were systematically recorded in relation to different reading processes. Eighty-two sessions were recorded, transcribed and analyzed by coding and categorizing the content of the sessions through the Maxqdea-7 program. Nineteen categories were considered, which comprised 178 significant units of information (mediation guidelines). The sample consisted of 21 teachers and 821 students from third to the eighth grade of public schools of Chile located in deprived contexts. Reading progress was measured with the standardized CL-PT test, which was applied at the beginning and end of the school year. The results have allowed identifying mediation patterns with a significant relevance in the explanation of reading progress, especially the pattern M_P17 (Mediation of the use of strategies for the activation and integration of previous knowledge) managed to explain 26% of the variance in the progress (r = .55, p < .01; R2adjusted = .26, F(1, 19) = 8.19, p = .01). The educational implications of these results are discussed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Compreensão , Populações Vulneráveis , Leitura , Aprendizagem , Docentes/normas , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Metacognição/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , 25783 , Recursos Audiovisuais/normas , Ajustamento Social , Análise de Regressão , Desempenho Acadêmico/normas
4.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 320-329, mayo 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192069

RESUMO

In accordance with the goal of the positive psychology approach, this study was designed to build an understanding of the relationships among optimism, cognitive flexibility, adjustment to university life and happiness by proposing a multiple mediation model. A total of 386 undergraduates (64% female and 36% male) between 18-22 years participated in the study. The participants were recruited from a small university in Turkey. The Life Orientation Test, Cognitive Flexibility Inventory, University Life Scale, and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire Short Form were utilized as measures. The results showed that optimism, cognitive flexibility, adjustment to university life, and happiness positively correlated. The findings from the mediational analyses also indicated that the serial multiple mediation of cognitive flexibility and adjustment to university life in the hypothetical model was statistically significant and explained approximately 50% of the variance in happiness


De acuerdo con el objetivo del enfoque de psicología positiva, este estudio fue diseñado para construir una comprensión de las relaciones entre optimismo, flexibilidad cognitiva, ajuste a la vida universitaria y felicidad mediante la propuesta de un modelo de mediación múltiple. Un total de 386 estudiantes universitarios (64% mujeres y 36% hombres) entre 18-22 años participaron en el estudio. Los participantes fueron reclutados de una pequeña universidad en Turquía. El Test de Orientación de Vida, el Inventario de Flexibilidad Cognitiva, la Escala de Vida Universitaria y el Formulario Corto del Cuestionario de Felicidad de Oxford fueron utilizados como medidas. Los resultados mostraron que el optimismo, la flexibilidad cognitiva, el ajuste a la vida universitaria y la felicidad se correlacionan positivamente. Los resultados de los análisis mediacionales también indicaron que la mediación serial múltiple de la flexibilidad cognitiva y el ajuste a la vida universitaria en el modelo hipotetizado fue estadísticamente significativa y explicaron aproximadamente el 50% de la varianza en la felicidad


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Otimismo , Felicidade , Estudantes/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Universidades , Cognição , Inventário de Personalidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Testes Psicológicos
5.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(6. Vyp. 2): 105-112, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between the indicators of quality of life (QOL) and social functioning (SF) of patients with schizophrenia with clinical and socio-demographic characteristics, indicators of cognitive functions and the severity of disease symptoms, using mathematical modeling methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 300 patients with paranoid schizophrenia (aged 18-50 years, disease duration at least 5 years; total PANSS score <120). Clinical-psychopathological, psychometric and mathematical methods were used. A mathematical model based on the construct developed by the authors called the «Disease Burden Factor¼ (Factor «B¼) was utilized. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Statistically significant correlations of factor "B" with age, the time of disease onset, seeking psychiatric help and diagnosis, the length of hospital admissions in the past 12 months and PANSS and BACS scores were established. Factor «B¼ clusters of «prosperous¼ and «dysfunctional¼ patients, significantly differing in the frequency of exacerbations of the disease, its total duration, and indicators of QOL-SM, PSP, PANSS, BACS, were distinguished. The conclusion about the reliability and sensitivity of a new toolbox - Factor «B¼ for exploring the mutual influence of heterogeneous factors affecting the trajectory of patients with schizophrenia was made.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Psicologia do Esquizofrênico , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Lactente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ajustamento Social , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychopathology ; 53(2): 95-102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623434

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Within the psychosis continuum that includes schizophrenia (SZ) at the severe end and the general population at the mild end, anxiety may negatively impact social functioning more than psychosis or psychotic-like experiences (PLE). This claim is supported by previous reports that show anxiety mediates the relationship between psychosis and social functioning in SZ, suggesting anxiety is critical to social functioning in SZ. Yet no studies have examined a similar relationship in the general population, and this is important because people with PLE are at a significantly higher risk for developing full-blown psychosis. METHODS: Similar to those with SZ, we predicted heightened anxiety would mediate the relationship between PLE, as measured by The -Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences, and social functioning, as measured by Social Adjustment Scale - Self-Report, in the general population. RESULTS: Indeed, the current study showed that the relationship between PLE and social functioning was mediated by anxiety (z = 7.81, p < 0.001) within an unselected crowdsourcing sample representative of the general population (Amazon M-Turk; n = 197, mean age 32.38 years). CONCLUSION: Taken together with previous reports, the current findings suggest that anxiety is a functionally relevant dimension across the psychosis continuum and improving anxiety may improve social functioning across this continuum.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Ajustamento Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia
7.
Am J Occup Ther ; 74(4): 7404205110p1-7404205110p10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602450

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Most recovery programs have been developed in Western countries. This study explores the cultural adaptation of a recovery program to a non-Western country. OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility of a recovery group developed for people with mental illness in Taiwan. DESIGN: Mixed-methods feasibility study. SETTING: Community psychiatric rehabilitation center in southern Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four people with mental illness living in the community. INTERVENTION: The authors designed a recovery group based on the Pathways to Recovery program and the mental health recovery literature. The curriculum included two phases: recovery profile and recovery plan. The group gathered for a 1-hr session once a week for 18 wk. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Outcomes were assessed preintervention, mid-intervention, and postintervention. Data collected included Stages of Recovery Scale (SRS) scores, course assessments, and course discussions. RESULTS: Most participants were satisfied with the recovery program and its implementation. Scores on the Social Functioning/Role Performance subscale of the SRS showed a medium to large effect size (r = .36) for the Recovery Stage 1-3 subsample (n = 16). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: This study affirmed the feasibility of a recovery group for people with mental illness in Taiwan. Prospective randomized controlled trials should be used to verify recovery groups' effectiveness. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: Recovery programs tailored to people with mental illness in non-Western countries may need more examples and longer sessions to enable participants to fully understand and implement the concepts of recovery.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Ajustamento Social , Taiwan
8.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013305, 2020 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Behavioural activation is a brief psychotherapeutic approach that seeks to change the way a person interacts with their environment. Behavioural activation is increasingly receiving attention as a potentially cost-effective intervention for depression, which may require less resources and may be easier to deliver and implement than other types of psychotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with other psychological therapies for depression in adults. To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with medication for depression in adults. To examine the effects of behavioural activation compared with treatment as usual/waiting list/placebo no treatment for depression in adults. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CCMD-CTR (all available years), CENTRAL (current issue), Ovid MEDLINE (1946 onwards), Ovid EMBASE (1980 onwards), and Ovid PsycINFO (1806 onwards) on the 17 January 2020 to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of 'behavioural activation', or the main elements of behavioural activation for depression in participants with clinically diagnosed depression or subthreshold depression. We did not apply any restrictions on date, language or publication status to the searches. We searched international trials registries via the World Health Organization's trials portal (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify unpublished or ongoing trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of behavioural activation for the treatment of depression or symptoms of depression in adults aged 18 or over. We excluded RCTs conducted in inpatient settings and with trial participants selected because of a physical comorbidity. Studies were included regardless of reported outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened all titles/abstracts and full-text manuscripts for inclusion. Data extraction and 'Risk of bias' assessments were also performed by two review authors in duplicate. Where necessary, we contacted study authors for more information. MAIN RESULTS: Fifty-three studies with 5495 participants were included; 51 parallel group RCTs and two cluster-RCTs. We found moderate-certainty evidence that behavioural activation had greater short-term efficacy than treatment as usual (risk ratio (RR) 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10 to 1.78; 7 RCTs, 1533 participants), although this difference was no longer evident in sensitivity analyses using a worst-case or intention-to-treat scenario. Compared with waiting list, behavioural activation may be more effective, but there were fewer data in this comparison and evidence was of low certainty (RR 2.14, 95% CI 0.90 to 5.09; 1 RCT, 26 participants). No evidence on treatment efficacy was available for behavioural activation versus placebo and behavioural activation versus no treatment. We found moderate-certainty evidence suggesting no evidence of a difference in short-term treatment efficacy between behavioural activation and CBT (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.07; 5 RCTs, 601 participants). Fewer data were available for other comparators. No evidence of a difference in short term-efficacy was found between behavioural activation and third-wave CBT (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.33; 2 RCTs, 98 participants; low certainty), and psychodynamic therapy (RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.99; 1 RCT,60 participants; very low certainty). Behavioural activation was more effective than humanistic therapy (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.95; 2 RCTs, 46 participants; low certainty) and medication (RR 1.77, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.76; 1 RCT; 141 participants; moderate certainty), but both of these results were based on a small number of trials and participants. No evidence on treatment efficacy was available for comparisons between behavioural activation versus interpersonal, cognitive analytic, and integrative therapies. There was moderate-certainty evidence that behavioural activation might have lower treatment acceptability (based on dropout rate) than treatment as usual in the short term, although the data did not confirm a difference and results lacked precision (RR 1.64, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.31; 14 RCTs, 2518 participants). Moderate-certainty evidence did not suggest any difference in short-term acceptability between behavioural activation and waiting list (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.93; 8 RCTs. 359 participants), no treatment (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.45 to 2.09; 3 RCTs, 187 participants), medication (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.16; 2 RCTs, 243 participants), or placebo (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.31 to 1.67; 1 RCT; 96 participants; low-certainty evidence). No evidence on treatment acceptability was available comparing behavioural activation versus psychodynamic therapy. Low-certainty evidence did not show a difference in short-term treatment acceptability (dropout rate) between behavioural activation and CBT (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.25; 12 RCTs, 1195 participants), third-wave CBT (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.33 to 2.10; 3 RCTs, 147 participants); humanistic therapy (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.20 to 5.55; 2 RCTs, 96 participants) (very low certainty), and interpersonal, cognitive analytic, and integrative therapy (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.32 to 2.20; 4 RCTs, 123 participants). Results from medium- and long-term primary outcomes, secondary outcomes, subgroup analyses, and sensitivity analyses are summarised in the text. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review suggests that behavioural activation may be more effective than humanistic therapy, medication, and treatment as usual, and that it may be no less effective than CBT, psychodynamic therapy, or being placed on a waiting list. However, our confidence in these findings is limited due to concerns about the certainty of the evidence. We found no evidence of a difference in short-term treatment acceptability (based on dropouts) between behavioural activation and most comparison groups (CBT, humanistic therapy, waiting list, placebo, medication, no treatment or treatment as usual). Again, our confidence in all these findings is limited due to concerns about the certainty of the evidence. No data were available about the efficacy of behaioural activation compared with placebo, or about treatment acceptability comparing behavioural activation and psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal, cognitive analytic and integrative therapies. The evidence could be strengthened by better reporting and better quality RCTs of behavioural activation and by assessing working mechanisms of behavioural activation.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Depressão/terapia , Adulto , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Intervalos de Confiança , Humanos , Placebos/uso terapêutico , Psicoterapia Psicodinâmica , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ajustamento Social , Listas de Espera
9.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S22-S24, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32551753

RESUMO

As the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is spreading worldwide in 2020, there is a growing concern about the impact of the pandemic on mental health. Multiple stressors associated with the pandemic, such as health-related stressors, job loss, and work-related stressors, could increase the prevalence of adjustment disorders worldwide. The present article acknowledges adjustment disorder as a highly relevant mental health outcome of the pandemic that should be addressed by mental health professionals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtornos de Adaptação/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Saúde Global , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Transtornos de Adaptação/etiologia , Adulto , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 218-224, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic shocked the world, overwhelming the health systems of even high-income countries. Predictably, the situation has elicited social and medical responses from the public and governments, respectively. Nigeria recorded an imported case from Italy on February 27, 2020. Hence, this paper assesses the early socio-medical response to COVID-19 in Nigeria in the first 100 days after the index case. The paper employs analytical methods and collates data from various media reports and official sources. FINDINGS: The incidence of COVID-19 grew steadily in Nigeria, moving from an imported case and elitist pattern to community transmission. The case fatality stood at 2.8%. The country recorded an upsurge (52% of total cases) in the transmission of COVID-19 during the short period the lockdown was relaxed. This paper presents a concise response framework to highlight some specific multisectoral responses to the pandemic. A combination of social and medical responses to a large extent helped Nigeria curtail the spread of the virus. CONCLUSION: The potential of overwhelming COVID-19 is still imminent in Nigeria as the country is attempting to hurriedly open the economy, which could sacrifice public health gains for temporary economic gains.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Ajustamento Social
11.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(1): 21-36, jan.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos técnico-científicos | ID: biblio-1092170

RESUMO

A adolescência é um período do desenvolvimento social, psicológico e biológico com vivências, transformações corporais e fisiológicas e relações interpessoais mais complexas, inclusive por situações de violência em contexto escolar. As modificações dos pensamentos dos adolescentes sobre eles mesmos e o contexto social que partilham são explícitas por selecionarem, interpretarem, evocarem e utilizarem informações sociais e familiares na formação de conceitos, julgamentos, expressões emocionais e tomada de decisões. Trata-se de estudo de correlação entre violência escolar-VE e suportes familiar e social em amostra de 1178 estudantes de ambos os sexos entre 12 e 17 anos. Constataram-se correlações negativas entre vitimização por VE e suporte familiar (r=-0,37), nos fatores que mensuram ultraje psicológico e danos morais; e, injúria, ameaça e violação física e sexual (r=-0,27). Isso indica manutenção do relacionamento e interação sociais agressivos e/ou frágeis do contexto familiar no ambiente escolar. Sugere-se programas de intervenção com ênfase em tais indicadores.


Adolescence is a period of social, psychological and biological development with experiences, body and physiological transformations and more complex interpersonal relationships, including situations of violence in the school context. The changes in adolescents' thoughts about themselves and the social context they share are explicit because they select, interpret, evoke and use social and family information in the formation of concepts, judgments, emotional expressions and decision-making. This is a correlation study between school violence-SV and family and social supports in a sample of 1.178 students of both sexes between 12 and 17 years. Negative correlations were observed between SV victimization and family support (r=-0.37), in the factors that measure psychological outrage and moral damage; and, injury, threat and physical and sexual abuse (r=-0.27). This indicates maintenance the relationship and aggressive and/or fragile social interaction of the family context in the school environment. Intervention programs with emphasis on such indicators are suggested.


La adolescencia es un período de desarrollo social, psicológico y biológico con experiencias, transformaciones corporales y fisiológicas, y relaciones interpersonales más complejas, incluyendo situaciones de violencia en el contexto escolar. Los cambios en los pensamientos de los adolescentes sobre sí mismos y el contexto social que comparten son explícitos porque seleccionan, interpretan, evocan y utilizan la información social y familiar en la formación de conceptos, juicios, expresiones emocionales y toma de decisiones. Este es un estudio de correlación entre la violencia escolar-VE y los apoyos familiares y sociales en una muestra de 1.178 estudiantes de ambos sexos entre 12 y 17 años. Se observaron correlaciones negativas entre la victimización del VE y el apoyo familiar (r=-0,37), en los factores que miden la indignación psicológica y el daño moral; y, lesiones, amenazas y violaciones físicas y sexuales (r=-0,27). Esto indica mantener la relación y la interacción social agresiva y/o frágil del contexto familiar en el entorno escolar. Se sugieren programas de intervención con énfasis en dichos indicadores.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Instituições Acadêmicas , Delitos Sexuais , Ajustamento Social , Apoio Social , Estudantes , Violência , Cognição , Vítimas de Crime , Ameaças , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Difamação , Relações Interpessoais
12.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(2): 149-154, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32592561

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Since the beginning of the civil war in Syria, over 3.5 million Syrians have fled to Turkey. Considering the massive burden of healthcare service needs of this population, the Turkish government has launched an initiative as employing Syrian doctors to provide health services to their citizens in Refugee Health Centres. In this study, we aimed to explore the social adaptation status of Syrian physicians living in Turkey using a structured questionnaire and the Social Adaptation Self Evaluation Scale (SASS). METHODS: Between November 2016 and April 2018, 799 physicians who participated in "Syrian Physicians' Adaptation Training" were enrolled in the study and underwent a structured questionnaire that questioned socio-demographic data and the SASS. The participants were divided into two groups as having poor and normal/high SASS scores. The binary SASS groups were compared with some demographic data. RESULTS: The median SASS score of the respondents was found as 43 (min. 10, max. 60, IQR 10) which can be accepted as normal. In the binary grouping, it was seen that 107 (13.39%) participants had poor social adaptation, whereas 692 (86.61%) participants had normal or high social adaptation scores. The physicians who were certain about not going back to Syria had significantly higher SASS scores. CONCLUSION: The social adaptation scores of the Syrian physicians were considerably high. The adaptation status was found to be associated with some characteristics like living in Turkey for a long time and having pre-knowledge about the Turkish healthcare system.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Serviços de Saúde/provisão & distribução , Médicos/psicologia , Refugiados/psicologia , Ajustamento Social , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Competência Cultural , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Campos de Refugiados , Síria/etnologia , Turquia/epidemiologia
13.
Ansiedad estrés ; 26(1): 1-8, ene.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-192294

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: Este estudio analiza la relación entre los estilos parentales (indulgente, autorizativo, autoritario y negligente) con el patrón de ajuste personal y social, a corto y largo plazo, en hijos adolescentes y adultos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La muestra fue de 2,119 hijos españoles (59.2% mujeres), 623 adolescentes (12-18 años), 591 jóvenes adultos (19-35 años), 509 adultos de mediana edad (36-59 años) y 396 adultos mayores (60 años o más). Las familias se clasificaron en una de las cuatro tipologías parentales (indulgente, autorizativa, autoritaria y negligente) según sus puntuaciones en las dos dimensiones principales (aceptación/implicación y severidad/imposición). El ajuste personal y social de los hijos se midió con autoconcepto familiar, autoestima, agresividad, prejuicio sexista e internalización de valores sociales de universalismo. RESULTADOS: Los resultados mostraron un patrón común a corto y largo plazo entre los estilos parentales y el ajuste personal y social. El estilo indulgente se relacionó con iguales o incluso mejores puntuaciones en ajuste personal y social que el estilo autorizativo, mientras que las puntuaciones más bajas correspondieron a los estilos parentales autoritario y negligente. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados de este estudio se discuten considerando la relevancia del contexto cultural donde se produce la socialización parental


INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: This study analyzes the relationship between parental styles (indulgent, authoritative, authoritarian, and neglectful) with the short- and long-term pattern of personal and social adjustment in children, teenagers and adults. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 2,119 Spanish children (59.2% female), 623 adolescents (12-18 years), 591 young adults (19-35 years), 509 middle-aged adults (36-59 years) and 396 older adults (60 years or more). Families were classified into one of four parental typologies (indulgent, authoritative, authoritarian and neglectful) based on their scores in the two main dimensions (acceptance/implication and severity/imposition). Children's personal and social adjustment was measured with family self-concept, self-esteem, aggressiveness, sexist prejudice, and internalization of social values of universalism. RESULTS: The results showed a common short- and long-term pattern between parental styles and personal and social adjustment. The indulgent style was associated with equal or even better scores on personal and social adjustment than the authoritative style, while the lower scores corresponded to the authoritarian and neglectful parental styles. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are discussed considering the relevance of the cultural context in which parental socialization occurs


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Ajustamento Social , Autoimagem
16.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32323950

RESUMO

The analysis of the clinical efficacy and safety of ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (mexidol) in the complex of rehabilitation measures in patients after ischemic stroke (IS) shows that course treatment with mexidol improves the recovery of neurological functions, decreases neurological deficit, cognitive disorders, including memory impairment, and manifestations of asthenic syndrome, increases the level of social adaptation and improves the psycho-emotional state of patients, reduces spasticity, increases motor and speech activity, praxis, reliably eliminates the ignoring syndrome. There is a decrease in the level of total cholesterol and low-density b-lipoproteins in the blood, and decrease in the severity of hypercoagulation. The results of the studies have convincingly shown the efficacy of mexidol at all stages of rehabilitation treatment of patients with IS.


Assuntos
Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Ajustamento Social , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Youth Adolesc ; 49(5): 959-972, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297173

RESUMO

Despite decades of increased research and funding, youth mentoring programs, overall, yield small effects on youth outcomes. As a result, there are growing calls for programs to utilize the mentoring relationship as context for intentional, targeted skills development, in which mentors employ targeted skills designed to match the presenting concerns of mentees. This targeted approach contrasts with the historically dominant, non-specific friendship model, which holds that a supportive relational bond-alone-promotes positive developmental change. The current study is a follow-up meta-analysis using a comprehensive dataset of all intergenerational, one-on-one mentoring program evaluations published between 1975 and 2018, investigating the comparative impact of targeted, skills-based versus non-specific, relational approaches to mentoring. Analyses of 48 mentoring studies of youth outcomes (average youth age of 12.25 years old) revealed the overall effect size of targeted programs to be more than double that of non-specific relational approaches, with significant moderator effects on academic, psychological, and social functioning. Findings suggest that youth mentoring programs can promote positive outcomes, particularly when mentors employ targeted approaches matched to the needs of their mentees.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Desenvolvimento do Adolescente , Tutoria/estatística & dados numéricos , Mentores/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Psicologia do Adolescente , Ajustamento Social , Comportamento Social
18.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306577

RESUMO

The article presents the results of research and practical social pedagogical activities carried out jointly by Laboratory of Social Projects of Belgorod State University, Borisovka Psycho-Neurological Boarding School and the non-governmental public organization of social initiatives "Faith". The project was implemented during March - November 2018 in the Belgorod Oblast of the Russian Federation. The study implemented such methods of collecting primary sociological data as monitoring of educational and social activities of individuals with mental health problems residing in psycho-neurological boarding school; half-structured interview of experts - employees of psycho-neurological boarding school and teachers. Actually, social adaptation of individuals with mental health problems is an acute social problem. They belong to the most vulnerable population group wrapped with complex of social stereotypes and various signs of social deadaptation. The social adaptation of such personalities is achieved by involvement into social educational activities. The study results demonstrated that there are a number of psychological and pedagogical difficulties in face-to-face training for individuals with mental health problems. Among them are serious emotional reactions in response to actions of teacher or other students; behavior disorders, decreasing of education motivation, inadequate self-assessment. The remote education permits to avoid these and other difficulties. The individual with mental health problems while in appropriate comfortable conditions can receive effective education, support themselves materially and be useful member of society. The study established such most effective methods of remote education for individuals with mental health problems as information-receptive method; reproductive method; method of cognitive visualization of case studies from practice and research method.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Humanos , Federação Russa , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ajustamento Social
19.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20200400. 4 p.
Monografia em Espanhol | LILACS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1095556

RESUMO

El documento contiene la conformación del Grupo de Trabajo de naturaleza temporal, con el objeto de asesorar sobre la prospectiva de la pandemia COVID-19 para la adopción de medidas gubernamentales y de comportamiento social para el control de la misma.


Assuntos
Ajustamento Social , Estratégias Nacionais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Coronavirus
20.
Wiad Lek ; 73(2): 352-354, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32248173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim is to study the psychosocial aspects of adjustment disorders in women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: 54 women with diagnosed adjustment disorders (F43.2) who applied for advisory support were examined. The analysis of their anamnestic data with the help of a special questionnaire was performed, a clinical and psychopathological examination was conducted. To study various aspects of psychosocial maladjustment in this contingent of patients "The Stress Scale" by T.H. Holmes and R.H. Rahe (1967), "The Scale of Psychosocial Maladjustment" by L.O. Herasymenko, A. M. Skrypnikov and M.Rokeach methodology of studying of the value orientations (Fantalova O.B. modification, 1992) were used. RESULTS: Results: In 77.8% of cases a mixed type of maladjustment with dominance in the internal structure of factors of family and industrial maladjustment and in 29.6% a family maladjustment monovariant were identified. In most cases, the family and production variants were combined and a mixed variant of maladjustment was diagnosed. At the same time the most serious forms of maladjustment related to the sexual sphere. Analysis of the structure of psychosocial maladjustment of patients with adjustment disorders showedthat the most typical manifestations of this disorder were the following: dissatisfaction with a sense of comfort (75,95 %), dissatisfaction with the psychological climate in thefamily (62,03 %) and with the period of marriage (62,03 %), dissatisfaction with psychological relationships with colleagues (60,76 %) and with the psychological relationship of the spouse (60,76 %) and a high multiplicity of irritation (54,43 %). CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The leading factors of maladjustment among the examined women were the stress in subjectively significant areas of activity and the conflictual nature of thedesirability and accessibility of basic life values.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Adaptação , Ajustamento Social , Adaptação Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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