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1.
Infez Med ; 28(suppl 1): 52-56, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32532939

RESUMO

In spite of many ongoing attempts to repurpose existing antivirals, no drugs have emerged yet with the desirable activity against SARS-CoV-2. Hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, remdesivir, umifenovir, favipiravir, ribavirin and beta-interferon-1 gave rise to variable but still inconsistent proof of clinical efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19. Pathogenetic studies have shown significant differences between commonly defined viral pneumonia and COVID-19 pulmonary disease. In severe forms, immune/inflammatory alterations reminiscent of disease forms like Macrophage Activation Syndrome (MAS) have been described, and therapeutic options other than anti-infective have been proposed and implemented, such as anti-inflammatory and anticoagulative agents. The thrombotic phenomena described in the pulmonary vascular bed of patients with severe COVID-19 suggest the administration of low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) as standard measure in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Trombofilia/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Embolia/epidemiologia , Embolia/prevenção & controle , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Interferon beta-1b/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Ativação de Macrófagos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Tromboembolia/epidemiologia , Tromboembolia/prevenção & controle , Trombofilia/sangue , Trombofilia/etiologia , Trombose/epidemiologia , Trombose/prevenção & controle
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(10): 5819-5829, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32495921

RESUMO

In the 21st century, human civilization has witnessed three major epidemics caused by Coronaviruses namely severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS CoV) in 2003, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS CoV) in 2012 and 2019 novel coronavirus (2019 nCoV) or coronavirus disease (COVID 19) in 2019. Among these, COVID-19 has greater transmission and mortality rate. 2019 nCoV belongs to a large family of positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses (+ssRNA) that can be isolated in different animal species. The most communal symptoms of COVID-19 include fever, cough, and shortness of breath during the incubation period (2-14 days) of infection. COVID-19 transmission is occurring from infected humans to close contact with one another through respiratory droplets, coughs, and sneezes of infected person. Moreover, the virus containing surfaces may also transmit the infection. Diagnosis is being carried out by collecting a nasopharyngeal swab or sputum specimen for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Rapid diagnosing methods are also under development which can diagnose COVID 19 in few minutes to hours. Currently, there is no specific cure or preventive therapeutics available. Hence, based upon limited in-vitro and anecdotal data, Chloroquine, or Hydroxychloroquine, Remdesivir, Lopinavir and Ritonavir are being employed in the management. Search for new specific anti-viral drugs from natural/synthetic origins is under full swing and many of them are currently used as chemotherapeutic drugs under clinical investigation. Yet, there is a strong need for development of vaccine, which may take several months to few years for the development.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , RNA Viral/genética , RNA Viral/metabolismo , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório do Adulto/etiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(24): e231, 2020 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32567262

RESUMO

There have been controversies on the prophylactic effect of hydroxychloroquine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). We describe a patient, 60-year old Korean woman, with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who had been taking hydroxychloroquine for 6 months. Her serum and saliva concentrations of hydroxychloroquine were 280 µg/L and 4,890 µg/L, respectively. The present case raises concerns on hydroxychloroquine's role as a prophylactic agent for COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Primária/métodos
6.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (6): 90-97, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573538

RESUMO

The article provides a review of foreign literature for 2020 on existing methods of drug treatment of coronavirus disease COVID-19. To date, in the treatment of COVID-19 in different countries, a little more than 10 drugs are used. The largest number of studies on the testing of these drugs is carried out by scientists from China, the USA, and European countries. It should be noted that among these drugs there is not a single new drug developed specifically for the treatment of COVID-19, the recommended and used drugs have previously been used to treat, as a rule, diseases of the viral etiology, less often another pathology. These suggestions are often based on analogy, the hypothesis of their supposed effectiveness for COVID-19. It can be assumed that a brake on the development of a drug specific for coronavirus disease is a poor knowledge of the pathogenesis of virus invasion in the body's adhesives and the development of complications. The review provides detailed literature data on drugs such as hydroxychloroquine / chloroquine, lopinavir/natinavir, remdesivir, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin converting enzyme receptor blockers, tissue plasminogen activator, as well as plasma transfusion transfusions.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Combinação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Imunização Passiva , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Ativador de Plasminogênio Tecidual/uso terapêutico
7.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; 50(2): 133-137, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568282

RESUMO

Broadly speaking, pharmacological treatments for COVID-19 can be divided into those acting on upstream pathways early on in the disease process via suppression of viral replication or by inhibiting cell entry, and those acting on downstream pathways later on via selective attenuation of the adaptive immune cytokine-mediated inflammatory response. The antiviral drug remdesivir has been shown to shorten duration of disease while interferon beta-1b may speed up viral clearance. The results with hydroxychloroquine have thus far been rather disappointing. Trials with selective cytokine blockers including anti-interleukin-1 (anti-IL-1) and anti-interleukin-6 (anti-IL-6), have shown some promise in more severe cases, with further confirmation being required from large-scale phase-3 randomised controlled trials. The likelihood is that combination therapy addressing both upstream and downstream pathways may be required to prevent progression of severe COVID-19 infection in susceptible older patients with comorbidities and we believe further studies are now warranted to specifically target such at-risk groups who are more prone to worse outcomes.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Citocinas/fisiologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(25): e20620, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) is defined as an important precancerous disease with high risk of gastric cancer. Rebamipide is a mucosal protective agent widely used in the treatment of chronic gastritis. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy and safety of rebamipide for the treatment of patients with CAG. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a comprehensive retrieval in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library Central Register of Controlled Trials, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, Chinese Scientific Journals Database (VIP), Chinese Biomedical Literature Service System (SinoMed) and other sources. Two trained researchers will select the qualified studies for data extraction and assess the quality and risk of bias, independently. Then the meta-analyses will be conducted by using the RevMan 5.2 and stata 14.0. The heterogeneity of data will be investigated by Cochrane X and I tests. Sensitivity analysis will be conducted to evaluate the stability of the results. Funnel plot analysis and Egger test will be used to assess the publication bias. Finally, the quality of evidence will be assessed by the GRADE system. RESULTS: The results of our research will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. CONCLUSION: The conclusion of our systematic review will provide evidence to judge whether rebamipide is an effective intervention for patient with CAG. OSF REGISTRATION NUMBER: 10.17605/OSF.IO/BKC3E.


Assuntos
Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Gastrite Atrófica/tratamento farmacológico , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
10.
Mymensingh Med J ; 29(2): 481-487, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506110

RESUMO

The rapid progression of corona virus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become an unprecedented global concern. This systemic review aimed at evaluating the available evidence on efficacy, safety to identify any promising role for compassionate use of remdesivir in patient suffered for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) as re-purposeful use. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective case series studies and case reports that evaluated use of remdesivir in COVID-19. The outcomes were mortality, recovery rate, length of hospital stay and clinical outcome. Though the drug remdesivir (RDV) is not approved by the FDA, still the "Emergency Use Authorization" (EUA) for compassionate use in severe cases is endorsed. After vigorous searching, screening and sorting of completed and published scientific evidences in electronic database, there were only 2 randomized control trial (RCT), 2 uncontrolled trials found until April 2020. We also included 3 published case reports to analyze the validity use of RDV because of the scarcity of evidence based reports. Remdesivir was thought to be one of the promising options for treating the patients of COVID-19 based on few laboratory experiments and reports from some compassionate use and case reports. The safety and efficacy of this drug in COVID-19 cases require high-quality evidence from well-designed and adequately-powered clinical trials with proper sample size for precise decision.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
11.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1567-1588, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) a pandemic. Since then, thousands of people have suffered and died, making the need for a treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) more crucial than ever. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors carried out a search in PubMed, ClinicalTrials.gov and New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) for COVID-19 to provide information on the most promising treatments against SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Possible COVID-19 agents with promising efficacy and favorable safety profile were identified. The results support the combination of copper, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), colchicine and nitric oxide (NO) with candidate antiviral agents, remdesivir or EIDD-2801, as a treatment for patients positive for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: The authors propose to study the effects of the combination of copper, NAC, colchicine, NO and currently used experimental antiviral agents, remdesivir or EIDD-2801, as a potential treatment scheme for SARS-COV-2.


Assuntos
Acetilcisteína/uso terapêutico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Colchicina/uso terapêutico , Cobre/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ribonucleosídeos/uso terapêutico , Acetilcisteína/administração & dosagem , Acetilcisteína/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Alanina/administração & dosagem , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Colchicina/administração & dosagem , Colchicina/farmacologia , Cobre/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Inflamação , Óxido Nítrico/administração & dosagem , Óxido Nítrico/farmacologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pró-Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Pró-Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Ribonucleosídeos/administração & dosagem , Ribonucleosídeos/farmacologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1597-1602, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503817

RESUMO

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2), initially termed 2019-new CoV (2019-nCoV), is a novel coronavirus responsible for the severe respiratory illness currently ongoing worldwide from the beginning of December 2019. This beta gene virus, very close to bat coronaviruses (bat-CoV-RaTG13) and bat-SL-CoVZC45, causes a severe disease, similar to those caused by Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV and SARS-CoV viruses, featured by low to moderate mortality rate. Unfortunately, the antiviral drugs commonly used in clinical practice to treat viral infections, are not applicable to SARS-Cov-2 and no vaccine is available. Thus, it is extremely necessary to identify new drugs suitable for the treatment of the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Different preclinical studies conducted on other coronaviruses suggested that promising clinical outcomes for 2019-nCoV should be obtained by using alpha-interferon, chloroquine phosphate, arabinol, remdesivir, lopinavir/ritonavir, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Moreover, clinical trials with these suitable drugs should be performed on patients affected by SARS-Cov-2 to prove their efficacy and safety. Finally, a very promising therapeutic drug, tocilizumab, is discussed; it is currently used to treat patients presenting COVID-19 pneumonia. Herein, we recapitulate these experimental studies to highlight the use of antiviral drugs for the treatment of SARS-Cov-2 disease.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cloroquina/análogos & derivados , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Combinação de Medicamentos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Drogas em Investigação/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Primatas , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
NTM ; 28(2): 219-225, 2020 06.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399903

RESUMO

This paper is part of Forum COVID-19: Perspectives in the Humanities and Social Sciences. The novel coronavirus (Sars-CoV-2) poses a huge challenge to the world community. Knowledge about the virus and its properties is limited, but there is a great need to base political and medical decisions on scientific knowledge. This situation is leading to a dynamization of research. A prominent example of such a development is SOLIDARITY. The epistemological dimensions of this trial, which is coordinated by the WHO, and the resulting ethical implications are discussed in this article.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Temas Bioéticos , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/ética , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/organização & administração , Combinação de Medicamentos , Políticas Editoriais , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Cooperação Internacional , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Organização Mundial da Saúde
17.
Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd ; 1642020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Holandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391999

RESUMO

Since the outbreak of COVID-19, chloroquine has been mentioned as a possible treatment. In vitro studies have shown anti-viral activity of chloroquine against SARS-CoV-2. Recently, the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment published treatment options for antiviral treatment for COVID-19 where chloroquine was suggested as first choice for off-label treatment, beside remdesivir en lopinavir/ritonavir. In this commentary, we provide a background and history of chloroquine, the evidence for antiviral efficacy of chloroquine and the arguments for off-label use of chloroquine in COVID-19.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lopinavir/uso terapêutico , Uso Off-Label , Pandemias , Ritonavir/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Drug Discov Ther ; 14(2): 73-76, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32378648

RESUMO

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 rapidly spread across China and worldwide. Remdesivir had been proposed as a promising option for treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We provided a rapid review to critically assess the potential anti-coronavirus effect of remdesivir on COVID-19 and other coronaviruses based on the most up-to-date evidence. Even though remdesivir was proposed as a promising option for treating COVID-19 based on laboratory experiments and reports from compassionate use, its safety and effect in humans requires high-quality evidence from well-designed and adequately-powered clinical trials for further clarification.


Assuntos
Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Vírus da SARS/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Nature ; 581(7808): 252-255, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415276

Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Desenho de Fármacos , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Virais/química , Vacinas Virais , Monofosfato de Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Monofosfato de Adenosina/farmacologia , Monofosfato de Adenosina/uso terapêutico , Alanina/análogos & derivados , Alanina/farmacologia , Alanina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antivirais/química , Azóis/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/enzimologia , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalização , Cristalografia por Raios X , Cisteína Endopeptidases/química , Cisteína Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Alemanha , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Humanos , Camundongos , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/economia , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/organização & administração , Compostos Organosselênicos/farmacologia , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , RNA Replicase/antagonistas & inibidores , RNA Replicase/química , RNA Replicase/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Síncrotrons , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/química , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
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