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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1047, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Beliefs about causes and responsibility for chronic diseases can affect personal behaviour and support for healthy policies. In this research we examined relationships between socio-demographics (sex, age, education, employment, political alignment, perceived health, household income, household size) and perceptions of causes and responsibility for health behaviour, chronic disease correlates, and attitudes about cancer prevention and causes. METHODS: Using data from the 2016 Chronic Disease Prevention survey in which participants (N = 1200) from Alberta, Canada responded to items regarding how much they believed personal health behaviours, prevention beliefs, and environmental factors (i.e., healthy eating, physical activity, alcohol, smoking, and where a person lives or works) are linked to getting cancer. Participants also responded to questions about causes and responsibility for obesity, alcohol, and tobacco (i.e., individual or societal). Relationships were examined using multinomial logistic regression on socio-demographics and survey items of interest. RESULTS: Men (compared to women) were less likely to link regular exercise, or drinking excessive alcohol, to reducing or increasing cancer risk. Similarly, men were less likely to link environmental factors to cancer risk, and more likely to agree that cancer was not preventable, and that treatment is more important than prevention. Finally, men were more likely to believe that alcohol problems are an individual's fault. Left and central voters were more likely to believe that society was responsible for addressing alcohol, tobacco, and obesity problems compared to right voters. Those with less than post-secondary education were less likely to believe that regular exercise, maintaining a healthy body weight, or eating sufficient fruits and vegetables were linked to cancer - or that society should address obesity - compared to those with more education. Households making above the median income (versus below) were more likely to link a balanced diet with cancer and were less likely to think that tobacco problems were caused by external circumstances. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide insight into the importance of health literacy, message framing, and how socio-demographic factors may impact healthy policy. Men, those with less education, and those with less income are important target groups when promoting health literacy and chronic disease prevention initiatives.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Neoplasias , Alberta/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1062, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore whether the way youth perceive their weight and their experiences of bullying victimization account for the increased risk of depression and anxiety symptoms, and poor psychosocial well-being, associated with overweight/obesity in a large sample of Canadian secondary school students. We also explored if associations differed by gender. METHODS: We used cross-sectional survey data from year 7 (2018-19) of the COMPASS study. The sample included 57,059 students in grades 9-12 (Secondary III-V in Quebec) at 134 Canadian secondary schools (Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec). First, multiple regression models tested associations between body mass index (BMI) classification and mental health outcomes (anxiety [GAD-7] and depression [CESD-10] symptoms, and psychosocial well-being [Diener's Flourishing Scale]). Second, weight perception and bullying victimization were added to the models. Models were stratified by gender and controlled for sociodemographic covariates and school clustering. RESULTS: When weight perception and bullying victimization were added to the models, obesity BMI status no longer predicted internalizing symptoms and flourishing scores relative to normal-weight BMIs. Students with 'overweight' or 'underweight' perceptions, and experiences of bullying victimization in the past month, reported higher anxiety and depressive symptomatology, and lower flourishing levels, in comparison to students with 'about right' weight perceptions and without experiences of bullying victimization, respectively, controlling for BMI status. Results were largely consistent across boys and girls. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest perceptions of weight and experiences of bullying independently contribute to differences in mental health outcomes by weight status among youth. Continued efforts targeting weight-based bullying and weight bias, and the promotion of body size acceptance and positive body image, may help reduce the risk of mental illness and poor mental health among adolescents.


Assuntos
Bullying , Vítimas de Crime , Percepção de Peso , Adolescente , Alberta , Colúmbia Britânica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Ontário/epidemiologia , Quebeque
3.
CMAJ Open ; 9(2): E592-E601, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in unique pressures on the emergency services system. This study describes changes in the presentation, presenting severity and disposition of patients accessing emergency services in Calgary, Alberta, during the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS: In this descriptive study, we constructed a population cohort of all patients who accessed emergency services by calling emergency medical services (EMS) (ambulance service that provides prehospital treatment and transport to medical facilities) or presenting directly to an emergency department (4 adult and 1 pediatric) or 2 urgent care centres in Calgary during the exposure period (December 2019 to June 2020) compared to 2 historical control periods (December to June, 2017-2018 and 2018-2019) combined. Outcomes included frequency of presentation, system flow indicators, patient severity, disposition and mortality. We used a locally estimated scatterplot smoothing function to visualize trends. We described differences at the maximum and minimum point of the exposure period compared to the control period. RESULTS: A total of 1 127 014 patient encounters were included. Compared to the control period, there was a 61% increase in the number of patients accessing EMS and a 35% decrease in the number of those presenting to an adult emergency department or urgent care centre in the COVID-19 period. The proportion of EMS calls for the highest-priority patients remained stable, whereas the proportion of patients presenting to an emergency department or urgent care centre with the highest-priority triage classification increased transiently by 0.9 percentage points (increase of 89%). A smaller proportion of patients were transported by EMS (decrease of 21%), and a greater proportion of emergency department patients were admitted to hospital (increase of 25%). After the first case was reported, the mortality rate among EMS patients increased by 265% (3.4 v. 12.4 per 1000 patient encounters). INTERPRETATION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with substantial changes in the frequency and disposition of patients accessing emergency services. Further research examining the mechanism of these observations is important for mitigating the impact of future pandemics.


Assuntos
COVID-19/diagnóstico , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/tendências , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Alberta , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 785: 147333, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933759

RESUMO

Beaver (Castor canadensis and Castor fiber) are regarded widely as ecosystem engineers and the dams they create are well-known for their ability to drastically alter the hydrology of rivers. As a result, beaver are increasingly being included in green infrastructure practices to combat the effects of climate change and enhance ecosystem resilience. Both drought and flood mitigation capabilities have been observed in watersheds with beaver dam structures; however, how dams possess contrasting mitigation abilities is not fully understood since most studies neglect to acknowledge variation in beaver dam structures. In this study, an extensive cross-site survey of the physical and hydrologic properties of beaver dams was conducted in the Canadian Rocky Mountains in Alberta. This research aimed to improve the understanding of the hydrology of beaver dams by categorizing dams using their intrinsic properties and landscape settings to identify fundamental patterns that may be applicable across landscape types. The dam flow type classification from Woo and Waddington (1990) was evaluated in this new context and adapted to include two new flow types. The survey of intrinsic beaver dam properties revealed significant differences in dam structure across different sites. Physical differences in dam structure altered the dynamics and variance of pond storage and certain dam attributes related to the landscape setting. For instance, dam material influenced dam height and water source influenced dam length. However, a closer analysis of large rain events showed that the physical structure of dams alters seasonal dynamics of pond storage but not the response to rain events. Overall, this research shows that beaver dams can be both structurally and hydrologically very different from each other. Establishing broadly applicable classifications is vital to understanding the ecosystem resilience and mitigation services beaver dams provide.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Roedores , Alberta , Animais , Rios , Água
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e043964, 2021 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34039572

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop machine learning models employing administrative health data that can estimate risk of adverse outcomes within 30 days of an opioid dispensation for use by health departments or prescription monitoring programmes. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This prognostic study was conducted in Alberta, Canada between 2017 and 2018. Participants included all patients 18 years of age and older who received at least one opioid dispensation. Pregnant and cancer patients were excluded. EXPOSURE: Each opioid dispensation served as an exposure. MAIN OUTCOMES/MEASURES: Opioid-related adverse outcomes were identified from linked administrative health data. Machine learning algorithms were trained using 2017 data to predict risk of hospitalisation, emergency department visit and mortality within 30 days of an opioid dispensation. Two validation sets, using 2017 and 2018 data, were used to evaluate model performance. Model discrimination and calibration performance were assessed for all patients and those at higher risk. Machine learning discrimination was compared with current opioid guidelines. RESULTS: Participants in the 2017 training set (n=275 150) and validation set (n=117 829) had similar baseline characteristics. In the 2017 validation set, c-statistics for the XGBoost, logistic regression and neural network classifiers were 0.87, 0.87 and 0.80, respectively. In the 2018 validation set (n=393 023), the corresponding c-statistics were 0.88, 0.88 and 0.82. C-statistics from the Canadian guidelines ranged from 0.54 to 0.69 while the US guidelines ranged from 0.50 to 0.62. The top five percentile of predicted risk for the XGBoost and logistic regression classifiers captured 42% of all events and translated into post-test probabilities of 13.38% and 13.45%, respectively, up from the pretest probability of 1.6%. CONCLUSION: Machine learning classifiers, especially incorporating hospitalisation/physician claims data, have better predictive performance compared with guideline or prescription history only approaches when predicting 30-day risk of adverse outcomes. Prescription monitoring programmes and health departments with access to administrative data can use machine learning classifiers to effectively identify those at higher risk compared with current guideline-based approaches.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides , Padrões de Prática Médica , Adolescente , Adulto , Alberta , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Prognóstico
6.
Virol J ; 18(1): 93, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933115

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection can present with a broad clinical differential that includes many other respiratory viruses; therefore, accurate tests are crucial to distinguish true COVID-19 cases from pathogens that do not require urgent public health interventions. Co-circulation of other respiratory viruses is largely unknown during the COVID-19 pandemic but would inform strategies to rapidly and accurately test patients with respiratory symptoms. METHODS: This study retrospectively examined 298,415 respiratory specimens collected from symptomatic patients for SARS-CoV-2 testing in the three months since COVID-19 was initially documented in the province of Alberta, Canada (March-May, 2020). By focusing on 52,285 specimens that were also tested with the Luminex Respiratory Pathogen Panel for 17 other pathogens, this study examines the prevalence of 18 potentially co-circulating pathogens and their relative rates in prior years versus since COVID-19 emerged, including four endemic coronaviruses. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 was identified in 2.2% of all specimens. Parallel broad multiplex testing detected additional pathogens in only 3.4% of these SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens: significantly less than in SARS-CoV-2-negative specimens (p < 0.0001), suggesting very low rates of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. Furthermore, the overall co-infection rate was significantly lower among specimens with SARS-CoV-2 detected (p < 0.0001). Finally, less than 0.005% of all specimens tested positive for both SARS-CoV-2 and any of the four endemic coronaviruses tested, strongly suggesting neither co-infection nor cross-reactivity between these coronaviruses. CONCLUSIONS: Broad respiratory pathogen testing rarely detected additional pathogens in SARS-CoV-2-positive specimens. While helpful to understand co-circulation of respiratory viruses causing similar symptoms as COVID-19, ultimately these broad tests were resource-intensive and inflexible in a time when clinical laboratories face unprecedented demand for respiratory virus testing, with further increases expected during influenza season. A transition from broad, multiplex tests toward streamlined diagnostic algorithms targeting respiratory pathogens of public health concern could simultaneously reduce the overall burden on clinical laboratories while prioritizing testing of pathogens of public health importance. This is particularly valuable with ongoing strains on testing resources, exacerbated during influenza seasons.


Assuntos
Teste para COVID-19/métodos , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Alberta/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus Humano 229E/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus Humano NL63/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus Humano OC43/isolamento & purificação , Reações Cruzadas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Orthomyxoviridae/isolamento & purificação , Pandemias , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 415, 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941176

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes care remains suboptimal in First Nations populations. Innovative and culturally relevant approaches are needed to promote systematic and proactive organization of diabetes care for people living with diabetes on-reserve in Canada. The RADAR model is one strategy to improve care: an integrated disease registry paired with an electronic health record for local community healthcare providers with remote care coordination. We qualitatively assessed adoption and implementation of RADAR in First Nations communities in Alberta to inform its potential spread in the province. METHODS: We used the RE-AIM framework to evaluate adoption and implementation of RADAR in 6 First Nations communities. Using purposeful sampling, we recruited local healthcare providers and remote care coordinators involved in delivering RADAR to participate in telephone or in-person interviews at 6- and 24-months post-implementation. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and verified for accuracy. Data was analyzed using content analysis and managed using ATLAS.ti 8. RESULTS: In total, we conducted 21 semi-structured interviews (6 at 6-months; 15 at 24-months) with 11 participants. Participants included 3 care coordinators and 8 local healthcare providers, including registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, and registered dietitians. We found that adoption of RADAR was influenced by leadership as well as appropriateness, acceptability, and perceived value of the model. In addition, we found that implementation of RADAR was variable across communities regardless of implementation supports and appropriate community-specific adaptations. CONCLUSIONS: The variable adoption and implementation of RADAR has implications for how likely it will achieve its anticipated outcomes. RADAR is well positioned for spread through continued appropriate community-based adaptations and by expanding the existing implementation supports, including dedicated human resources to support the delivery of RADAR and the provision of levels of RADAR based on existing or developed capacity among local HCPs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Not applicable to this qualitative assessment.  ISRCTN14359671 .


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Alberta/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Humanos , Grupos Minoritários
8.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 423, 2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947385

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worse health outcomes are consistently reported for First Nations people in Canada. Social, political and economic inequities as well as inequities in health care are major contributing factors to these health disparities. Emergency care is an important health services resource for First Nations people. First Nations partners, academic researchers, and health authority staff are collaborating to examine emergency care visit characteristics for First Nations and non-First Nations people in the province of Alberta. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study examining all Alberta emergency care visits from April 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017 by linking administrative data. Patient demographics and emergency care visit characteristics for status First Nations persons in Alberta, and non-First Nations persons, are reported. Frequencies and percentages (%) describe patients and visits by categorical variables (e.g., Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale). Means, medians, standard deviations and interquartile ranges describe continuous variables (e.g., age). RESULTS: The dataset contains 11,686,288 emergency care visits by 3,024,491 unique persons. First Nations people make up 4% of the provincial population and 9.4% of provincial emergency visits. The population rate of emergency visits is nearly 3 times higher for First Nations persons than non-First Nations persons. First Nations women utilize emergency care more than non-First Nations women (54.2% of First Nations visits are by women compared to 50.9% of non-First Nations visits). More First Nations visits end in leaving without completing treatment (6.7% v. 3.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Further research is needed on the impact of First Nations identity on emergency care drivers and outcomes, and on emergency care for First Nations women.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Tratamento de Emergência , Alberta/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 655357, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017813

RESUMO

Background: The 2016 wildfires in Fort McMurray (Alberta, Canada) led to a massive displacement of 88,000 people and destroyed 2,400 homes. Although no direct human fatality resulted, many individuals feared for their lives or those of their loved ones. Objectives: (1) To estimate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress, major depressive, insomnia, generalized anxiety, and substance use disorders in the adult population of Fort McMurray 1 year after the evacuation; (2) To identify pre-, peri-, and post-disaster correlates of mental health disorders. Methods: A phone survey using random digit sampling was used to survey evacuees. A total of 1,510 evacuees (response rate = 40.2%, 55.5% women, mean age = 44.11, SD = 12.69) were interviewed between May 9th and July 28th, 2017. Five validated scales were administered: the PTSD Symptoms Checklist (PCL-5), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the depression and anxiety subscales of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9, GAD-7), and the CAGE Substance Abuse Screening Tool. Results: One year after the wildfires, 38% had a probable diagnosis of either post-traumatic stress, major depressive, insomnia, generalized anxiety, or substance use disorder, or a combination of these. Insomnia disorder was the most common, with an estimated prevalence of 28.5%. Post-traumatic stress, major depressive and generalized anxiety disorders were almost equally prevalent, with ~15% each. The estimated prevalence of substance use disorder was 7.9%. For all five mental health disorders, having a mental health condition prior to the fires was a significant risk factor, as well as having experienced financial stress or strain due to the economic decline already present in Fort McMurray. Five post-disaster consequences were significant predictors of four of the five disorders: decrease in work, decrease in social life, poorer current health status, increase in drug and alcohol use, and higher level of stress experienced since the fires. Conclusion: One year after the fires, more than one third of the evacuees had clinically significant psychological symptoms, including those of insomnia, post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and substance use. This study helped identify individuals more at risk for mental health issues after a natural disaster and could guide post-disaster psychosocial support strategies.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Incêndios Florestais , Adulto , Alberta , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 780: 146638, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030337

RESUMO

In this study, we used bi-temporal airborne lidar data to compare changes in vegetation height proximal to anthropogenic disturbances in the Oil Sands Region of Alberta, Canada. We hypothesize that relatively low-impact disturbances such as seismic lines will increase the fragmentation of wetlands, resulting in shrub growth. Bi-temporal lidar data collected circa 2008 and 2018 were used to identify correspondence between the density of anthropogenic disturbances, wetland shape complexity and changes in vegetation height within >1800 wetlands near Fort McKay, Alberta, Canada. We found that up to 50% of wetlands were disturbed by anthropogenic disturbance in some parts of the region, with the highest proportional disturbance occurring within fens. Areas of dense anthropogenic disturbance in bogs resulted in increased growth and expansion of shrubs, while we found the opposite to occur in fens and swamps during the 10-year period. Up to 30% of bogs had increased shrubification, while shrub changes in fens and swamps varied depending on density of disturbance and did not necessarily correspond with shrub growth. As wetland shapes became increasingly elongated, the prevalence of shrubs declined between the two time periods, which may be associated with hydrological drivers (e.g. elongated may indicate surface and ground-water discharge influences). The results of this study indicate that linear disturbances such as seismic lines, considered to have relatively minimal impacts on ecosystems, can impact proximal wetland shape, fragmentation and vegetation community changes, especially in bogs.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Áreas Alagadas , Alberta , Ecossistema , Campos de Petróleo e Gás
12.
Can Vet J ; 62(5): 469-476, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967285

RESUMO

The objectives of the study were to describe the regional and provincial incidence rates and the weekly distribution of 842 reported West Nile virus (WNV) cases in horses in Canada between 2003 and 2019. This study also investigated characteristics of cases reported to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) between 2015 and 2019. The western region (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) had higher incidence rates than the eastern region (Ontario, Quebec, and Atlantic provinces) and overall, Saskatchewan registered the highest incidence. Over the study period, an earlier weekly preliminary onset of WNV cases was observed in the western region. The vast majority of cases were unvaccinated (96%), most cases were Quarter Horses (68%) and the risk of mortality was 31.9%. The findings of this study may be useful in informing veterinary equine practitioners about measures to prevent WNV disease in horses in Canada.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos , Vírus do Nilo Ocidental , Alberta , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Inspeção de Alimentos , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos , Manitoba , Ontário , Quebeque , Estudos Retrospectivos , Saskatchewan/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 843, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The opioid overdose epidemic in Canada and the United States has become a public health crisis - with exponential increases in opioid-related morbidity and mortality. Recently, there has been an increasing body of evidence focusing on the opioid-sparing effects of medical cannabis use (reduction of opioid use and reliance), and medical cannabis as a potential alternative treatment for chronic pain. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of medical cannabis authorization on opioid use (oral morphine equivalent; OME) between 2013 and 2018 in Alberta, Canada. METHODS: All adult patients defined as chronic opioid users who were authorized medical cannabis by their health care provider in Alberta, Canada from 2013 to 2018 were propensity score matched to non-authorized chronic opioid using controls. A total of 5373 medical cannabis patients were matched to controls, who were all chronic opioid users. The change in the weekly average OME of opioid drugs for medical cannabis patients relative to controls was measured. Interrupted time series (ITS) analyses was used to assess the trend change in OME during the 26 weeks (6 months) before and 52 weeks (1 year) after the authorization of medical cannabis among adult chronic opioid users. RESULTS: Average age was 52 years and 54% were female. Patients on low dose opioids (< 50 OME) had an increase in their weekly OME per week (absolute increase of 112.1 OME, 95% CI: 104.1 to 120.3); whereas higher dose users (OME > 100), showed a significant decrease over 6 months (- 435.5, 95% CI: - 596.8 to - 274.2) compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: This short-term study found that medical cannabis authorization showed intermediate effects on opioid use, which was dependent on initial opioid use. Greater observations of changes in OME appear to be in those patients who were on a high dosage of opioids (OME > 100); however, continued surveillance of patients utilizing both opioids and medical cannabis is warranted by clinicians to understand the long-term potential benefits and any harms of ongoing use.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Maconha Medicinal , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adulto , Alberta/epidemiologia , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
14.
Environ Pollut ; 282: 117014, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823311

RESUMO

Summer intensive air measurements of alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (Alk-PACs), nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs), and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OPAHs) was conducted during the summer of 2013 at an air monitoring site near the community of Fort McKay in the Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR). This study uses the ambient air measurements in conjunction with supplementary meteorological and air quality data from coordinated ground- and aircraft-based sampling over the same period to characterize diurnal variations and changes in the organic air pollutant profiles associated with the plume episodes. Principal component analysis showed a distinct PAC profile during plume episodes, driven mainly by higher fluorenone (FLO) and 9,10-anthraquinone (ANQ) concentrations. During the plume episodes (August 23-24), means of NPAHs and OPAHs concentrations were 120 and 2020 pg/m3, respectively, which were 2.7 and 2.5 times higher than those measured on the other days, while Alk-PACs did not reach maxima. The relative constancy of Alk-PACs during the plume episodes and baseline air quality periods likely reflects a continuous and broad emission of Alk-PACs from the oil sands mining activities. Only four OPAHs, including FLO, ANQ, benzo(a)fluorenone, and benzanthrone, exhibited higher average daytime than nighttime concentrations (p-value < 0.05). Categorizing air samples into clean and polluted conditions demonstrated that the polluted condition air samples were characterized by higher percent composition of alkylated fluorenes, FLO, MANQ, and photochemically-derived 1M4NN. A comparison of PAC profiles in air samples and oil sand ore samples suggests that the NPAHs were likely influenced by atmospheric formation while the OPAHs were impacted by a combination of primary sources and atmospheric formation. The strong correlations found between a number of NPAHs and OPAHs, and PM2.5 and NOx in this study could support the modelling of ambient air burdens of these compounds across the region.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Alberta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
15.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 5887-5897, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856192

RESUMO

Fugitive dust associated with surface mining activities is one of the principal vectors for transport of airborne contaminants in Canada's Athabasca oil sands region (AOSR). Effective environmental management requires quantitative identification of the sources of this dust. Using natural abundance radiocarbon (Δ14C) and dual (δ13C, δ2H) compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA), this study investigated the sources of dust and particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) deposited in AOSR lake snowpack. Lower Δ14C values, higher particulate and PAC loadings, and lower δ13C values for phenanthrene and C1-alkylated phenanthrenes/anthracenes (C1-Phen) at sites closer to the mining operations indicated unprocessed oil sand and/or petroleum coke (petcoke-a byproduct of bitumen upgrading) as major sources of anthropogenic fugitive dust. However, a Bayesian isotopic mixing model that incorporated both δ13C and δ2H could discriminate petcoke from oil sand, and determined that petcoke comprised between 44 and 95% (95% credibility intervals) of a C1-Phen isomer at lakes <25 km from the heart of the mining operations, making it by far the most abundant source. This study is the first to demonstrate the potential of CSIA to provide accurate PAC source apportionment in snowpack and reveals that petcoke rather than oil sand is the main source of mining-related particulate PACs deposited directly to AOSR lakes.


Assuntos
Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Alberta , Teorema de Bayes , Poeira/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805249

RESUMO

COVID-19 restrictions led to reduced levels of physical activity, increased screen usage, and declines in mental health in youth; however, in-depth understandings of the experiences of high school student-athletes have yet to be explored. To describe the experiences of the COVID-19 pandemic on student-athletes' physical activity, social connection, and mental health, 20 high school student-athletes living in Calgary, Alberta participated in semi-structured interviews, designed using phenomenography. Participants reported variations in physical activity, social connections, and mental health which were influenced by stay-at-home restrictions and weather. Access to resources, changes to routines, online classes, and social support all influenced engagement in physical activity. School and sports provided opportunities for in-person social connections, impacted by the onset of the pandemic. Participants reported their mental health was influenced by social connections, online classes, and physical activity. Findings from this study will inform the development of resources for high school student-athletes amidst COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Alberta/epidemiologia , Atletas , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802728

RESUMO

(1) Background: The Healthy Kids Community Challenge (HKCC) was a community-based obesity prevention intervention funded by the Government of Ontario (Canada). (2) Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to examine the impact of the HKCC on physical activity (PA) outcomes using both repeat cross-sectional (T1 2014-2015, n = 31,548; T2 2015-2016, n = 31,457; and T3 2016-2017, n = 30,454) and longitudinal data (n = 3906) from the COMPASS study. Grade 9-12 students in HKCC communities were placed into one of three intervention groups [T2 data collection post-HKCC finishing (IG1), T2 data collection during HKCC (IG2), and T2 data collection pre-HKCC starting (IG3)], Ontario students in non-HKCC communities were Control Group 1 (CG1) and Alberta students were Control Group 2 (CG2). (3) Results: Repeat cross-sectional results show over time the HKCC had no significant impact on PA outcomes in any of the intervention groups. Longitudinal results show a significant decrease in time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (IG2: -3.15 min/day) between T1 and T3 in IG2. (4) Conclusions: These results suggest the HKCC did not have an impact on improving PA outcomes among older youth in HKCC communities. Moving forward, there is a need to provide effective and sustainable interventions to promote PA among older youth.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico , Nível de Saúde , Adolescente , Alberta , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Ontário
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802896

RESUMO

Pregnancy-associated cancer-that is diagnosed in pregnancy or within 365 days after delivery-is increasingly common as cancer therapy evolves and survivorship increases. This study assessed the incidence and temporal trends of pregnancy-associated cancer in Alberta and Ontario-together accounting for 50% of Canada's entire population. Linked data from the two provincial cancer registries and health administrative data were used to ascertain new diagnoses of cancer, livebirths, stillbirths and induced abortions among women aged 18-50 years, from 2003 to 2015. The annual crude incidence rate (IR) was calculated as the number of women with a pregnancy-associated cancer per 100,000 deliveries. A nonparametric test for trend assessed for any temporal trends. In Alberta, the crude IR of pregnancy-associated cancer was 156.2 per 100,000 deliveries (95% CI 145.8-166.7), and in Ontario, the IR was 149.4 per 100,000 deliveries (95% CI 143.3-155.4). While no statistically significant temporal trend in the IR of pregnancy-associated cancer was seen in Alberta, there was a rise in Ontario (p = 0.01). Pregnancy-associated cancer is common enough to warrant more detailed research on maternal, pregnancy and child outcomes, especially as cancer therapies continue to evolve.


Assuntos
Neoplasias , Adolescente , Adulto , Alberta/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Ontário/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Sobrevivência , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 765, 2021 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public support of public health measures including physical distancing, masking, staying home while sick, avoiding crowded indoor spaces and contact tracing/exposure notification applications remains critical for reducing spread of COVID-19. The aim of our work was to understand current behaviours and attitudes towards public health measures as well as barriers individuals face in following public health measures. We also sought to identify attitudes persons have regarding a COVID-19 vaccine and reasons why they may not accept a vaccine. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in August 2020, in Alberta, Canada in persons 18 years and older. This survey evaluated current behaviours, barriers and attitudes towards public health measures and a COVID-19 vaccine. Cluster analysis was used to identify key patterns that summarize data variations among observations. RESULTS: Of the 60 total respondents, the majority of persons were always or often physically distancing (73%), masking (65%) and staying home while sick (67%). Bars/pubs/lounges or nightclubs were visited rarely or never by 63% of respondents. Persons identified staying home while sick to provide the highest benefit (83%) in reducing spread of COVID-19. There were a large proportion of persons who had not downloaded or used a contact tracing/exposure notification app (77%) and who would not receive a COVID-19 vaccine when available (20%) or were unsure (12%). Reporting health authorities as most trusted sources of health information was associated with greater percentage of potential uptake of vaccine but not related to contact tracing app download and use. Individuals with lower concern of getting and spreading COVID-19 showed the least uptake of public health measures except for avoiding public places such as bars. Lower concern regarding COVID-19 was also associated with more negative responses to taking a potential COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSION: These results suggest informational frames and themes focusing on individual risks, highlighting concern for COVID-19 and targeting improving trust for health authorities may be most effective in increasing public health measures. With the ultimate goal of preventing spread of COVID-19, understanding persons' attitudes towards both public health measures and a COVID-19 vaccine remains critical to addressing barriers and implementing targeted interventions and messaging to improve uptake.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Alberta , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Comunicação , Busca de Comunicante , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vacinação/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917414

RESUMO

(1) Objective: To longitudinally assess food and beverages sold in vending machines in secondary schools (grades 9-12) participating in the COMPASS study (2015/2016 and 2018/2019) and (2) to examine if patterns and trends observed in previous years (2012/2013 to 2014/2015) are consistent with lack of policy compliance in Ontario and Alberta, Canada. (2) Methods: Policy compliance was assessed through comparing nutritional information on drink (e.g., sports drinks) and snack (e.g., chocolate bars) products in vending machines to Policy and Program Memorandum (P/PM) 150 in Ontario (required policy) and the Alberta Nutrition Guidelines for Children and Youth (recommended policy). Longitudinal results and descriptive statistics were calculated. (3) Results: Longitudinal results indicate that between Y4 (2015/2016) and Y7 (2018/2019), snack and drink vending machines remained mostly non-compliant in Ontario and Alberta, with a small proportion of Ontario drink machines changing from non-compliant to compliant. At the school level, descriptive results indicate the proportion of Ontario schools with policy-compliant snack and drink machines decreased between Y4 and Y7. Alberta schools were non-compliant for drink and snack machines. (4) Conclusions: Secondary schools continue to be non-compliant with provincial policies. School nutrition policies need to be simplified in order to make it easier for schools to be compliant. Enforcement of compliancy is also an area that deserves consideration.


Assuntos
Distribuidores Automáticos de Alimentos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes , Adolescente , Alberta , Bebidas , Criança , Seguimentos , Humanos , Política Nutricional , Ontário , Instituições Acadêmicas
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