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1.
Oecologia ; 192(2): 311-321, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006182

RESUMO

Prevalence of a parasite may be influenced by age of the habitat (= time available for hosts and parasites to colonize habitats), assemblage composition of host and non-host species, or biotic and abiotic habitat features. For a trophically transmitted parasite, the intermediate host may be consumed by both final hosts and 'dead-end' predators that are incompetent to host the parasite. We tested biotic and abiotic factors that might influence parasite prevalence in a freshwater host-parasite system using a dataset collected from 36 water bodies in the vicinity of Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. In this system, eggs of thorny-headed worms (Acanthocephala: Polymorphus spp.) are eaten by intermediate-host amphipods (Gammarus lacustris Sars), which are then consumed by final vertebrate hosts (certain aquatic birds and muskrats) and various non-host waterbird species. We found that acanthocephalan prevalence in amphipods was positively correlated with waterbody age and with abundance of final-host species. In contrast, abundance of the intermediate host G. lacustris was less important and was negatively correlated with parasite prevalence ('encounter-dilution effect'). Similarly, parasite prevalence showed a marginally significant and negative correlation with abundance of 'dead-end' Gammarus-eating birds. We conclude that in our study system, time available for colonization and abundance of final hosts are more important for parasite prevalence in intermediate hosts than is abundance of intermediate and dead-end hosts.


Assuntos
Acantocéfalos , Anfípodes , Parasitos , Alberta , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Prevalência
2.
Am J Forensic Med Pathol ; 41(1): 11-17, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977347

RESUMO

Errors in death certification can directly affect the decedent's survivors and the public register. We assessed the effectiveness of an educational seminar targeting frequent and important errors identified by local death certificate (DC) evaluation. Retrospective review of 1500 DCs categorized errors and physician specialty. A 60-minute didactic/case-based seminar was subsequently designed for family medicine physician (FAM) participants, with administration of presurvey, immediate post, and 2-month postsurveys. Most DCs were completed by FAM (73%), followed by internists (18%) and surgeons (3%). Error occurrence (EO) rate ranged between 32 and 75% across all specialities. Family medicine physician experienced in palliative care had the lowest EO rate (32%), significantly lower (P < 0.001) than FAM without interest in palliative care (62%), internal medicine (62%), and surgery (75%). Common errors were use of abbreviations (26%), mechanism as underlying cause of death (23%), and no underlying cause of death recorded (22%). Presurvey participants (n = 72) had an overall EO rate of 72% (64% excluding formatting errors). Immediate postsurvey (n = 75) and 2-month postsurvey (n = 24) participants demonstrated significantly lower overall EO (34% and 24%, respectively), compared with the Pre-S (P < 0.05). A 60-minute seminar on death certification reduced EO rate with perceived long-term effects.


Assuntos
Atestado de Óbito , Documentação/normas , Capacitação em Serviço , Médicos de Família/educação , Alberta , Causas de Morte , Avaliação Educacional , Docentes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113945, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952100

RESUMO

Bitumen recovery from oil sands in northeastern Alberta, Canada produces large volumes of tailings, which are deposited in mining areas that must be reclaimed upon mine closure. A new technology of non-segregated tailings (NST) developed by Canadian Natural Resources Limited (CNRL) was designed to accelerate the process of oil sands fine tailings consolidation. However, effects of these novel tailings on plants used for the reclamation of oil sands mining areas remain to be determined. In the present study, we investigated the effects of NST on seedlings of three species of plants commonly planted in oil sands reclamation sites including paper birch (Betula papyrifera), white spruce (Picea glauca) and green alder (Alnus viridis). In the controlled-environment study, we grew seedlings directly in NST and in the two types of reclamation soils with and without added NST and we measured seedling growth, gas exchange parameters, as well as tissue concentrations of selected elements and foliar chlorophyll. White spruce seedlings suffered from severe mortality when grown directly in NST and their needles contained high concentrations of Na. The growth and physiological processes were also inhibited by NST in green alder and paper birch. However, the addition of top soil and peat mineral soil mix to NST significantly improved the growth of plants, possibly due to a more balanced nutrient uptake. It appears that NST may offer some advantages in terms of site revegetation compared with the traditional oil sands tailings that were used in the past. The results also suggest that, white spruce may be less suitable for planting at reclamation sites containing NST compared with the two studied deciduous tree species.


Assuntos
Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Petróleo/toxicidade , Plântula/fisiologia , Árvores/efeitos dos fármacos , Alberta , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Solo
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 76, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following migration from Schistosoma and Strongyloides endemic to non-endemic regions, people remain at high risk for adverse sequelae from these chronic infections. HIV co-infected persons are particularly vulnerable to the serious and potentially fatal consequences of untreated helminth infection. While general screening guidelines exist for parasitic infection screening in immigrant populations, they remain silent on HIV positive populations. This study assessed the seroprevalence, epidemiology and laboratory characteristics of these two parasitic infections in a non-endemic setting in an immigrant/refugee HIV positive community. METHODS: Between February 2015 and 2018 individuals born outside of Canada receiving care at the centralized HIV clinic serving southern Alberta, Canada were screened by serology and direct stool analysis for schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis. Canadian born persons with travel-based exposure risk factors were also screened. Epidemiologic and laboratory values were analyzed using bivariate logistic regression. We assessed the screening utility of serology, direct stool analysis, eosinophilia and hematuria. RESULTS: 253 HIV positive participants were screened. The prevalence of positive serology for Schistosoma and Strongyloides was 19.9 and 4.4%, respectively. Age between 40 and 50 years (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.13-5.50), refugee status (3.55, 1.72-7.33), country of origin within Africa (6.15, 2.44-18.60), eosinophilia (3.56, 1.25-10.16) and CD4 count < 200 cells/mm3 (2.46, 1.02-5.92) were associated with positive Schistosoma serology. Eosinophilia (11.31, 2.03-58.94) was associated with positive Strongyloides serology. No Schistosoma or Strongyloides parasites were identified by direct stool microscopy. Eosinophilia had poor sensitivity for identification of positive serology. Hematuria was not associated with positive Schistosoma serology. CONCLUSION: Positive Schistosoma and Strongyloides serology was common in this migrant HIV positive population receiving HIV care in Southern Alberta. This supports the value of routine parasitic screening as part of standard HIV care in non-endemic areas. Given the high morbidity and mortality in this relatively immunosuppressed population, especially for Strongyloides infection, screening should include both serologic and direct parasitological tests. Eosinophilia and hematuria should not be used for Schistosoma and Strongyloides serologic screening in HIV positive migrants in non-endemic settings.


Assuntos
Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Adulto , Alberta/epidemiologia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos Transversais , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/parasitologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Viagem
5.
Clin Biochem ; 77: 32-35, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891680

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The avoidance of repeat chemistry testing such as Complete Blood Count (CBC) and Electrolyte Panel (EP) on clinically stable patients was identified as important utilization goals by Choosing Wisely Canada. The purpose of this study was to assess the volume of overutilization of CBC and EP in an inpatient setting in Alberta, Canada, and provide an estimated cost assessment of unnecessary testing. METHODS: The total laboratory testing volumes of two common test panels were collected retrospectively for one-year from January to December 2018. Data was collected on test panels performed in an emergency room (ER) and inpatient setting from three separate Laboratory Information Systems covering the provincial population in Alberta, Canada. Total initial test panel instances, total repeated panels, repeated panels that were previously normal or abnormal, and estimated costs were examined. Cost assessment was completed based on Reference Median Cost (RMC) analysis for each of these two common test panels. RESULTS: During the study period, 2,020,467 (CBC) and 1,455,983 (EP) initial test panel instances were recorded, of which 67.7% and 73.5% were repeated for the CBC and EP, respectively. There was a higher proportion of EP repeated inappropriately (previously normal; 35.6%) compared to CBCs (5.4%). The cost to the province for inappropriately repeating CBC and EP were estimated to be RMC $0.52 million and RMC $1.90 million CAD, respectively. CONCLUSION: Results from this study can assist policy makers in implementing utilization management initiatives and update clinical practice guidelines to reduce costs to healthcare without compromising patient care.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas/normas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletrólitos/normas , Alberta , Humanos
6.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 3, 2020 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The biodiversity and distributions of terrestrial snails at local and regional scales are influenced by their low vagility and microhabitat specificity. The accessibility of large-bodied species and their characteristically high levels of genetic polymorphism make them excellent ecological and evolutionary models for studies on the phylogeography, phylogenetics, and conservation of organisms in fragmented populations. This study aims to elucidate the biodiversity, systematics, and distributions of genetic lineages within the genus Oreohelix at the northern and western periphery of their range. RESULTS: We found four mitochondrial clades, three of which are putative subspecies of Oreohelix subrudis. One clade was geographically widespread, occurring within numerous sites in Cypress Hills and in the Rocky Mountains, a second was geographically restricted to the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, and a third was restricted to the Cypress Hills region. A fourth clade was the small-bodied species, O. cooperi. ITS2 sequence and screening data revealed three genetic clusters, of which one was O. cooperi. Cluster 1 contained most individuals in COI clade X and some from clade B and cluster 2 was predominantly made up of individuals from COI clades B and B' and a few from clade X. ITS2 alleles were shared in a narrow contact zone between two COI clades, suggestive of hybridization between the two. CONCLUSIONS: A sky island known as Cypress Hills, in southeastern Alberta, Canada, is a biodiversity hotspot for terrestrial land snails in the genus Oreohelix. The observed phylogeographic patterns likely reflect reproductive isolation during the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by secondary contact due to passive, long-range dispersal resulting from low vagility, local adaptation, and complex glacial history.


Assuntos
Caramujos/classificação , Caramujos/genética , Alberta , Animais , Biodiversidade , Evolução Biológica , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Isolamento Reprodutivo
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(3): 1522-1532, 2020 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906621

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to advance analytical methods for detecting oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) seepage from mining containments and discriminating any such seepage from the natural bitumen background in groundwaters influenced by the Alberta McMurray formation. Improved sampling methods and quantitative analyses of two groups of monoaromatic acids were employed to analyze OSPW and bitumen-affected natural background groundwaters for source discrimination. Both groups of monoaromatic acids showed significant enrichment in OSPW, while ratios of O2/O4 containing heteroatomic ion classes of acid extractable organics (AEOs) did not exhibit diagnostic differences. Evaluating the monoaromatic acids to track a known plume of OSPW-affected groundwater confirmed their diagnostic abilities. A secondary objective was to assess anthropogenically derived artificial sweeteners and per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) as potential tracers for OSPW. Despite the discovery of acesulfame and PFAS in most OSPW samples, trace levels in groundwaters influenced by general anthropogenic activities preclude them as individual robust tracers. However, their inclusion with the other metrics employed in this study served to augment the tiered, weight of evidence methodology developed. This methodology was then used to confirm earlier findings of OSPW migrations into groundwater reaching the Athabasca River system adjacent to the reclaimed pond at Tar Island Dyke.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Alberta , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Hidrocarbonetos , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Areia
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 106, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925547

RESUMO

Well-designed monitoring approaches are needed to assess effects of industrial development on downstream aquatic environments and guide environmental stewardship. Here, we develop and apply a monitoring approach to detect potential enrichment of metals concentrations in surficial lake sediments of the Peace-Athabasca Delta (PAD), northern Alberta, Canada. Since the ecological integrity of the PAD is strongly tied to river floodwaters that replenish lakes in the delta, and the PAD is located downstream of the Alberta oil sands, concerns have been raised over the potential transport of industry-supplied metals to the PAD via the Athabasca River. Surface sediment samples were collected in September 2017 from 61 lakes across the delta, and again in July 2018 from 20 of the same lakes that had received river floodwaters 2 months earlier, to provide snapshots of metals concentrations (Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) that have recently accumulated in these lakes. To assess for anthropogenic enrichment, surficial sediment metals concentrations were normalized to aluminum and compared to pre-industrial baseline (i.e., reference) metal-aluminum linear relations for the Athabasca and Peace sectors of the PAD developed from pre-1920 measurements in lake sediment cores. Numerical analysis demonstrates no marked enrichment of these metals concentrations above pre-1920 baselines despite strong ability (> 99% power) to detect enrichment of 10%. Measurements of river sediment collected by the Regional Aquatics- and Oil Sands-Monitoring Programs (RAMP/OSM) also did not exceed pre-1920 concentrations. Thus, results presented here show no evidence of substantial oil sands-derived metals enrichment of sediment supplied by the Athabasca River to lakes in the PAD and demonstrate the usefulness of these methods as a monitoring framework.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Alberta , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Lagos , Metais , Metais Pesados/análise , Campos de Petróleo e Gás , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Environ Pollut ; 259: 113889, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927274

RESUMO

Hydraulic fracturing of horizontal wells is a cost effective means for extracting oil and gas from low permeability formations. Hydraulic fracturing often produces considerable volumes of flowback and produced water (FPW). FPW associated with hydraulic fracturing has been shown to be a complex, often brackish mixture containing a variety of anthropogenic and geogenic compounds. In the present study, the risk of FPW releases to aquatic systems was studied using the model benthic invertebrate, Lumbriculus variegatus and field-collected FPW from a fractured well in Alberta. Acute, chronic, and pulse toxicity were evaluated to better understand the implications of accidental FPW releases to aquatic environments. Although L.variegatus is thought to have a high tolerance to many stressors, acute toxicity was significant at low concentrations (i.e. high dilutions) of FPW (48 h LC50: 4-5%). Chronic toxicity (28 d)of FPW in this species was even more pronounced with LC50s (survival/reproduction) and EC50s (total mass) at dilutions as low as 0.22% FPW. Investigations evaluating pulse toxicity (6 h and 48 h exposure) showed a significant amount of latent mortality occurring when compared to the acute results. Additionally, causality in acute and chronic bioassays differed as acute toxicity appeared to be primarily driven by salinity, which was not the case for chronic toxicity, as other stressors appear to be important as well. The findings of this study show the importance of evaluating multiple exposure regimes, the complexity of FPW, and also shows the potential aquatic risk posed by FPW releases.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental , Fraturamento Hidráulico , Oligoquetos , Águas Residuárias/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Alberta , Animais , Oligoquetos/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Ground Water ; 58(1): 56-69, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001811

RESUMO

Contaminated groundwater in fractured bedrock can expose ecosystems to undesired levels of risk for extended periods due to prolonged back-diffusion from rock matrix to permeable fractures. Therefore, it is key to characterize the diffusive mass loading (intrusion) of contaminants into the rock matrix for successful management of contaminated bedrock sites. Even the most detailed site characterization techniques often fail to delineate contamination in rock matrix. This study presents a set of analytical solutions to estimate diffusive mass intrusion into matrix blocks, it is recovered by pumping and concentration rebound when pumping ceases. The analytical models were validated by comparing the results with (1) numerical model results using the same model parameters and (2) observed chloride mass recovery, rebound concentration, and concentration in pumped groundwater at a highly fractured bedrock site in Alberta, Canada. It is also demonstrated that the analytical solutions can be used to estimate the total mass stored in the fractured bedrock prior to any remediation thereby providing insights into site contamination history. The predictive results of the analytical models clearly show that successful remediation by pumping depends largely on diffusive intrusion period. The results of initial mass from the analytical model was used to successfully calibrate a three-dimensional discrete fracture network numerical model further highlighting the utility of the simple analytical solutions in supplementing the more detailed site numerical modeling. Overall, the study shows the utility of simple analytical methods to support long-term management of a contaminated fractured bedrock site including site investigations and complex numerical modeling.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Alberta , Difusão , Ecossistema , Modelos Teóricos , Movimentos da Água
11.
Int J Cancer ; 146(5): 1219-1229, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31087647

RESUMO

We previously identified a novel breast cancer susceptibility variant on chromosome 4q31.22 locus (rs1429142) conferring risk among women of European ancestry. Here, we report replication of findings, validation of the variant in diverse populations and fine-mapping of the associated locus in Caucasian population. The SNP rs1429142 (C/T, minor allele frequency 18%) showed association for the overall breast cancer risk in Stages 1-4 (n = 4,331 cases/4271 controls; p = 4.35 × 10-8 ; odds ratio, ORC-allele ,1.25), and an elevated risk among premenopausal women (n = 1,503 cases/4271 controls; p = 5.81 × 10-10 ; ORC-allele 1.40) in European populations. SNP rs1429142 was associated with premenopausal breast cancer risk in women of African (T/C; p-value 1.45 × 10-02 ; ORC-allele 1.2) but not from Chinese ancestry. Fine-mapping of the locus revealed several potential causal variants which are present within a single association signal, revealed from the conditional regression analysis. Functional annotation of the potential causal variants revealed three putative SNPs rs1366691, rs1429139 and rs7667633 with active enhancer functions inferred based on histone marks, DNase hypersensitive sites in breast cell line data. These putative variants were bound by transcription factors (C-FOS, STAT1/3 and POL2/3) with known roles in inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, Hi-C data revealed several short-range interactions in the fine-mapped locus harboring the putative variants. The fine mapped locus was predicted to be within a single topologically associated domain, potentially facilitating enhancer-promoter interactions possibly leading to the regulation of nearby genes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Pré-Menopausa , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alberta/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pós-Menopausa , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Adulto Jovem
12.
Clin Biochem ; 76: 1-4, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672645

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We describe the implementation of an Alberta-wide intervention aimed at educating clinicians about redundant vitamin B12 testing. We hypothesized that the introduction of an educational comment outlining recommended vitamin B12 test intervals would reduce the annual number of vitamin B12 tests performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional observational study that included all vitamin B12 tests ordered in Alberta between May 1, 2017 and April 30, 2018. An educational comment was appended to all vitamin B12 test results in Alberta beginning May 2, 2017. Using a simple seasonal model, we compared predicted versus observed vitamin B12 test volumes for the 12-month period following the introduction of the educational comment. The sole outcome measured was the monthly change in volume of vitamin B12 testing. A cost-analysis of the effects of the intervention on test volumes was also performed. RESULTS: Over the sum of the first 12 months of the intervention, 18,000 more vitamin B12 tests were ordered compared to the predicted value in Alberta. With an estimated cost of $7 per test, this resulted in a $126,000 increase in costs for vitamin B12 testing provincially. CONCLUSIONS: An educational intervention aimed at limiting inappropriate vitamin B12 testing in Alberta did not alter testing as desired. Multiple utilization management strategies and a longer observation period may be needed to reduce redundant vitamin B12 testing.


Assuntos
Educação Médica Continuada/organização & administração , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Alberta , Estudos Transversais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Plant Dis ; 104(1): 116-120, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644392

RESUMO

Clubroot, caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, is an important disease on canola in Alberta, Canada. The pathogen is grouped into pathotypes according to their virulence reaction on differential hosts. Multiple pathotypes or strains are known exist in one field, one plant, or even one gall. This study was conducted with the objective of testing the prevalence of the coexistence of multiple strains in a single gall. In all, 79 canola clubroot galls were collected from 22 fields across Northern Alberta in 2018. Genomic DNA extracted from these single galls was analyzed using RNase H-dependent PCR (rhPCR). The rhPCR primers were designed to amplify a partial sequence of a dimorphic gene, with one primer pair specific to one sequence and the other primer pair specific to the alternative sequence. The amplification of both sequences from DNA obtained from a single gall would indicate that it contains two different P. brassicae strains. The rhPCR analyses indicated that the P. brassicae populations in 50 of the 79 galls consisted of more than one strain. This result emphasizes the need for cautious interpretation of results when a single-gall population is subject to pathotyping or being used as inoculum in plant pathology research. It also confirms that the maintenance of pathotype diversity within single root galls is a common occurrence which has implications for the durability, and stewardship, of single-gene host resistance.


Assuntos
Brassica napus , Plasmodioforídeos , Alberta , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Tumores de Planta/microbiologia , Plasmodioforídeos/classificação , Plasmodioforídeos/genética , Plasmodioforídeos/patogenicidade , Virulência
14.
Med Care ; 58(1): 38-44, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688552

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency and type of adverse events (AEs) among critically ill patients and identify patient and hospital factors associated with AEs and clinical and health care utilization consequences of AEs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study includes patients admitted to 30 intensive care units (ICUs) in Alberta, Canada from May 2014 to April 2017. The main outcome was AEs derived from validated ICD-10, Canadian code algorithms for 18 AEs. Estimates of the proportion and rate of AEs are presented. The association between documented AEs and patient (eg, age, sex, comorbidities) and hospital (eg, ICU site and type, length of stay, readmission) variables are described using regression methods. RESULTS: Of 49,447 hospital admissions with admission to ICU, ≥1 AEs were documented in 12,549 (25%) admissions. The most common AEs were respiratory complications (10%) and hospital-acquired infections (9%). AEs were associated with having ≥2 comorbidities [odds ratio (OR)=1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.3-1.4], being admitted to the ICU from the operating room or another hospital ward (OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.7-2.0 and OR=2.7, 95% CI=2.5-3.0, respectively) and being readmitted to ICU during their hospital stay (OR=4.8, 95% CI=4.7-5.6). Patients with an AE stayed 5.4 days longer in ICU (95% CI=5.2-5.6 d, P<0.001), 18.2 days longer in hospital (95% CI=17.7-18.8 d, P<0.001) and had increased odds of hospital mortality (OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.4-1.6) than those without an AE. CONCLUSIONS: AEs are common among critically ill patients and certain factors are associated with AEs. Documented AEs are associated with longer stays and increased mortality.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Alberta/epidemiologia , Resultados de Cuidados Críticos , Infecção Hospitalar/mortalidade , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Análise de Regressão , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 702: 134562, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31731122

RESUMO

Long-term livestock grazing (here after 'grazing') affects carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in grassland ecosystems, in part by altering the quantity and quality of litter inputs. Despite their spatial extent and size of carbon and nutrient stocks, the effect of grazing on grassland biogeochemical cycling through the mediation of microbial activity remains poorly understood. To better understand the relationship between grazing and C and nutrient cycling in litter, we conducted an 18-month long study in paired grasslands previously grazed and nongrazed by cattle for 25 years, measuring extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) in various plant litter samples. Litter sources, including seven grass species dominant in one or more subregions and possessing divergent responses to grazing, as well as a community mix of litter sourced from each site, were tested at 15 sites spanning three grassland subregions in Alberta, Canada. We quantified EEAs associated with C cycling (ß-glucosidase, ß-Cellobiosidase and ß-xylosidase), nitrogen (N) cycling (N-acetyl-glucosaminidase) and phosphorus (P) cycling (phosphatase). In general, litter in grasslands exposed to grazing had greater activity of C-liberating and P-liberating enzyme (ß-xylosidase and phosphatase) in the mesic grasslands of the Foothills Fescue subregion (P ≤ 0.10). Observed EEAs were strongly mediated by litter type, with greater EEAs in litter of grass species known to increase in abundance under long-term grazing, including Poa pratensis in the Foothills Fescue subregion, and Bouteloua gracilis in arid grasslands of the Mixedgrass Prairie. In contrast, Pascopyrum smithii litter had the lowest enzyme activities in all subregions. We also found that EEAs changed through time (0-18 months) with consistently high levels detected at 1 (June 2014), 6 (October 2014) and 18 months (October 2015) after placement. Overall, these findings indicate grazing enhances EEA, and thus C and N-cycling, in northern temperate grasslands.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Pradaria , Microbiologia do Solo , Alberta , Animais , Ecossistema , Herbivoria , Nitrogênio , Fósforo , Poaceae
16.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(2): 161-171, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence regarding the role of endogenous sex hormones in endometrial cancer etiology remains inconsistent. The objective of this study was to investigate if circulating levels of endogenous estrone, estradiol, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, and androstenedione are associated with endometrial cancer risk. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of 522 incident endometrial cancer cases and 976 population controls, in Alberta, Canada from 2002 to 2006. Study participants completed in-person interviews and provided fasting blood samples. Sex hormone levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. RESULTS: Higher levels of androstenedione were associated with increased endometrial cancer risk (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.04-2.02). Endometrial cancer risk in pre- and peri-menopausal women was reduced for the highest versus lowest quartiles of estrone (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.22-0.88) and estradiol (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.14-0.65), but in post-menopausal women, the endometrial cancer risk was increased for the highest versus lowest quartile of androstenedione (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.25-2.65). In addition, endometrial cancer risk in normal/underweight women was decreased for the highest versus lowest quartile of serum SHBG (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.19-0.84). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, positive associations were found for androstenedione concentrations, while sub-group analyses revealed = inverse associations with estrogens and SHBG. Results of this study provide empirical evidence for the role of circulating sex hormones in endometrial cancer etiology and highlight the importance of modifiable factors that contribute to changes in sex hormone concentration levels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Idoso , Alberta/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
17.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113816, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864930

RESUMO

Anthropogenic activities can disrupt soil ecosystems, normally resulting in reduced soil microbial health. Regulatory agencies need to determine the effects of uncharacterized substances on soil microbial health to establish the safety of these chemicals if they end up in the environment. Previous work has focused on measuring traditional ecotoxicologial endpoints within the categories of microbial biomass, activity, and community structure/diversity. Because these tests can be labor intensive, lengthy to conduct, and cannot measure changes in individual gene functions, we wanted to establish whether metatranscriptomics could be used as a more sensitive endpoint and provide a perspective on community function that is more informative than taxonomic identification of microbes alone. We spiked a freshly collected sandy loam soil (Vulcan, Alberta, Canada) with 0, 60, 145, 347, 833, and 2000 mg kg-1 of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), a known antagonist of microorganisms due to its propensity for dissolution of toxic silver ions. Assessments performed in our previous work using traditional tests demonstrated the toxicity of AgNPs on soil microbial processes. We expanded this analysis with genomics-based tests by measuring changes in community taxonomic structure and function using 16S rDNA profiling and metatranscriptomics. In addition to identifying bacterial taxa affected by AgNPs, we found that genes involved in heavy metal resistance (e.g., the CzcA efflux pump) and other toxicity response pathways were highly upregulated in the presence of silver. Dose-response analysis using BMDExpress2 software successfully modeled many physiologically relevant genes responding to low concentrations of AgNPs. We found that the transcriptomic point of departure (BMD50) was lower than the IC50s calculated using the traditional tests in our previous work. These results suggest that dose-response modeling of metatranscriptomic gene expression is a useful tool in soil microbial health assessment. SUMMARY: Genomics-based endpoints for the assessment of soil microbial health can be used to perform quantitative dose-response modeling, and soil-based RNAseq adds functional insights.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Prata/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Alberta , Solo
18.
Healthc Q ; 22(3): 40-46, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845857

RESUMO

Attachment to a primary care physician (PCP) is a foundational component of the Patient's Medical Home. Yet how can attachment exist in a system that does not limit where patients seek care? This article describes a top-down approach with the ideologies of a bottom-up collaborative to address attachment within an Alberta primary care network. The steps taken to reduce the number of patients listed on multiple PCP panels from 27% to 4% will be described. Learnings from this initiative suggest that direct involvement with providers, coupled with engaged physician leadership, can create a local system of information delivery that supports the attachment of patients to their most responsible PCP.


Assuntos
Assistência Centrada no Paciente , Relações Médico-Paciente , Médicos de Atenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Alberta , Humanos , Preferência do Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Healthc Q ; 22(3): 68-72, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845862

RESUMO

This study evaluated the benefits of formal coaching within a mentorship program in a Canadian academic medical department. Between April 2016 and September 2018, an executive coach was made available to members of the Department of Oncology at the University of Calgary. Thirty-seven individuals sought and received formal coaching during this period, using up an average of four hourly sessions; of these individuals, 13% (20/150) are full-time faculty. Issues that facilitated interest in coaching included the following: needing to develop an individual life plan, wanting to improve work-life balance/time management and seeking advice about promotion or job application. This study found that coaching enabled participants to address their concerns 70% of the time and describes the elements of a coaching function within academic medical departments. We strongly recommend that academic departments provide opportunities for interested individual academics to receive coaching.


Assuntos
Docentes de Medicina , Tutoria/organização & administração , Alberta , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência , Satisfação no Emprego , Liderança , Masculino , Desenvolvimento de Pessoal/organização & administração , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Gerenciamento do Tempo , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida
20.
BMC Ecol ; 19(1): 53, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31861996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pleistocene glaciations have had an important impact on the species distribution and community composition of the North American biota. Species survived these glacial cycles south of the ice sheets and/or in other refugia, such as Beringia. In this study, we assessed, using mitochondrial DNA from three Diptera species, whether flies currently found in Beringian grasslands (1) survived glaciation as disjunct populations in Beringia and in the southern refugium; (2) dispersed northward postglacially from the southern refugium; or (3) arose by a combination of the two. Samples were collected in grasslands in western Canada: Prairies in Alberta and Manitoba; the Peace River region (Alberta); and the southern Yukon Territory. We sequenced two gene regions (658 bp of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, 510 bp of cytochrome b) from three species of higher Diptera: one with a continuous distribution across grassland regions, and two with disjunct populations between the regions. We used a Bayesian approach to determine population groupings without a priori assumptions and performed analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and exact tests of population differentiation (ETPD) to examine their validity. Molecular dating was used to establish divergence times. RESULTS: Two geographically structured populations were found for all species: a southern Prairie and Peace River population, and a Yukon population. Although AMOVA did not show significant differentiation between populations, ETPD did. Divergence time between Yukon and southern populations predated the Holocene for two species; the species with an ambiguous divergence time had high haplotype diversity, which could suggest survival in a Beringian refugium. CONCLUSIONS: Populations of Diptera in Yukon grasslands could have persisted in steppe habitats in Beringia through Pleistocene glaciations. Current populations in the region appear to be a mix of Beringian relict populations and, to a lesser extent, postglacial dispersal northward from southern prairie grasslands.


Assuntos
Dípteros , Alberta , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial , Variação Genética , Haplótipos , Manitoba , América do Norte , Filogenia , Filogeografia
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