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3.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(8): 708-725, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a lay provider-delivered, brief intervention to reduce problem drinking and related family consequences among men in Kenya. The 5-session intervention combines behavioral activation (BA) and motivational interviewing (MI). It integrates family-related material explicitly and addresses central cultural factors through gender transformative strategies. METHOD: A nonconcurrent multiple-baseline design was used. We initiated treatment with 9 men ages 30 to 48 who were fathers and screened positive for problem drinking; the median Alcohol Use Identification Test score was 17 (harmful range). Participants were randomized to staggered start dates. We measured the primary outcome of weekly alcohol consumption 4 weeks before treatment, during treatment, and 4 weeks posttreatment using the Timeline Followback measure. Secondary outcomes were assessed using a pre-post assessment (1-month) of men's depression symptoms, drinking- and family-related problem behavior, involvement with child, time with family, family functioning, relationship quality (child and partner), and harsh treatment of child and partner. Men, partners, and children (ages 8-17) reported on family outcomes. RESULTS: Eight men completed treatment. Mixed-effects hurdle model analysis showed that alcohol use, both number of days drinking and amount consumed, significantly decreased during and after treatment. Odds of not drinking were 5.1 times higher posttreatment (95% CI [3.3, 7.9]). When men did drink posttreatment, they drank 50% less (95% CI [0.39, 0.65]). Wilcoxon signed-ranks test demonstrated pre-post improvements in depression symptoms and family related outcomes. CONCLUSION: Results provide preliminary evidence that a BA-MI intervention developed for lay providers may reduce alcohol use and improve family outcomes among men in Kenya. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/prevenção & controle , Alcoolismo/terapia , Terapia Comportamental , Relações Familiares , Pai , Entrevista Motivacional , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Alcoolismo/etnologia , Criança , Relações Familiares/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Quênia/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos
4.
Indian J Med Ethics ; V(2): 105-106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-253676

RESUMO

The lockdown declared to prevent the spread of Covid 19 in India created unforeseen problems, including severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms and the need to manage them. The state of Kerala in India saw suicide deaths by six affected individuals, prompting the state government to instruct government doctors to prescribe alcohol to addicts. The local medical association approached the courts against this. These events raise interesting ethical issues discussed here. Keywords: alcohol withdrawal, prescribing alcohol, Covid 19, ethics of alcohol prescription.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Alcoolismo/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Humanos , Índia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/terapia
5.
Indian J Med Ethics ; V(2): 105-106, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393446

RESUMO

The lockdown declared to prevent the spread of Covid 19 in India created unforeseen problems, including severe alcohol withdrawal symptoms and the need to manage them. The state of Kerala in India saw suicide deaths by six affected individuals, prompting the state government to instruct government doctors to prescribe alcohol to addicts. The local medical association approached the courts against this. These events raise interesting ethical issues discussed here. Keywords: alcohol withdrawal, prescribing alcohol, Covid 19, ethics of alcohol prescription.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Alcoolismo/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Humanos , Índia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/terapia
6.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(7): 613-630, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437174

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To remedy the notable gap in evidence-based treatments for sexual minority women, this study tested the efficacy of a minority-stress-focused cognitive-behavioral treatment intended to improve this population's mental and behavioral health. METHOD: The intervention, EQuIP (Empowering Queer Identities in Psychotherapy), was adapted from a transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral treatment as also recently adapted for sexual minority men. Sexual minority women at risk of mental and behavioral health problems (n = 19) and expert providers with this population (n = 12) shaped the treatment's development, including by supporting its primary focus on universal and minority-stress-focused processes underlying this population's disproportionately poor mental and behavioral health. The resulting treatment was then delivered to young adult sexual minority women (n = 60; M age = 25.58; 41.67% racial/ethnic minority; 43.33% transgender/nonbinary) experiencing depression/anxiety and past 90-day heavy alcohol use. RESULTS: Compared to waitlist (n = 30), participants randomized to immediately receive EQuIP (n = 30) experienced significantly reduced depression and anxiety (d = 0.85, 0.86, respectively); effects for alcohol use problems were smaller (d = 0.29) and marginally significant. In pre- to post-intervention pooled analyses, effect sizes for minority stress processes (mean d = .25) and universal risk factors (mean d = .48), through which the treatment was expected to work, were small and moderate, respectively, and in the expected direction. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides initial support for a minority-stress-focused transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral treatment for sexual minority women. These first results can launch exploration of other mechanisms and modalities through which to equip this population with evidence-based support. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/terapia , Ansiedade/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Depressão/terapia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adulto , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(2): 152-163, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359044

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the costs and cost-effectiveness of two treatments for 101 alcohol use disorder patients and their intimate partners--group behavioral couples' therapy plus individual-based treatment (G-BCT), or standard behavioral couples' therapy plus individual-based treatment (S-BCT). METHOD: We estimated the per-patient cost of each intervention using a microcosting approach that allowed us to estimate costs of specific components in each intervention as well as the overall total costs. Using simple means analysis and multiple regression models, we estimated the incremental effectiveness of G-BCT relative to S-BCT. Immediately after treatment and 12 months after treatment, we computed incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves for percentage days abstinent, adverse consequences of alcohol and drugs, and overall relationship functioning. RESULTS: The average per-patient cost of delivering G-BCT was $674, significantly less than the cost of S-BCT ($831). However, 12 months after treatment, S-BCT participants performed better on all outcomes compared with those in G-BCT, and the calculated ICER moving from G-BCT to S-BCT ranged from $10 to $12 across these outcomes. The current findings indicated that, except at very low willingness-to-pay values, S-BCT is a cost-effective option relative to G-BCT when considering 12-month posttreatment outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: As expected, G-BCT was delivered at a lower cost per patient than S-BCT; however, S-BCT performed better over time on the clinical outcomes studied. These economic findings indicate that alcohol use disorder treatment providers should seriously consider S-BCT over G-BCT when deciding what format to use in behavioral couples' therapy.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/economia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Terapia Comportamental/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Terapia de Casal/economia , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Terapia de Casal/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicoterapia de Grupo/economia , Psicoterapia de Grupo/métodos , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia
8.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(5): 507-514, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277903

RESUMO

The survival of patients with alcohol-related liver disease who receive a liver transplant has steadily improved to reach 80-85% at 1 year post-transplantation. The standard requirement for liver transplant-abstinence from alcohol for 6 months before transplantation-has been applied widely, but few data support the use of this rule as the sole criterion for selecting candidates for liver transplantation. When determining the suitability of a patient for transplantation, many liver transplant programmes now try to balance the period of abstinence against the risk of death associated with the severity of liver damage. Data accumulated since 2011 suggest that early liver transplantation (ie, transplantation without a specific period of abstinence) in patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis who do not respond to medical therapy is an effective therapeutic strategy. Further studies are needed to help refine the selection of patients with alcohol-related liver disease who have been abstinent for less than 6 months as suitable liver transplant candidates, and to improve the treatment of alcohol use disorder in those patients who have received a liver transplant.


Assuntos
Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/cirurgia , Transplante de Fígado , Seleção de Pacientes , Abstinência de Álcool , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/terapia , Aloenxertos/patologia , Hepatite Alcoólica/cirurgia , Humanos , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/etiologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/psicologia , Período Pós-Operatório
9.
PLoS Med ; 17(4): e1003056, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol misuse are highly prevalent, and partner alcohol misuse is a significant contributor to women's risk for IPV. There are few evidence-based interventions to address these problems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We evaluated the effectiveness of an evidence-based, multi-problem, flexible, transdiagnostic intervention, the Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) in reducing (a) women's experience of IPV and (b) their male partner's alcohol misuse among couples in urban Zambia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This was a single-blind, parallel-assignment randomized controlled trial in Lusaka, Zambia. Women who reported moderate or higher levels of IPV and their male partners with hazardous alcohol use were enrolled as a couple and randomized to CETA or treatment as usual plus safety checks (TAU-Plus). The primary outcome, IPV, was assessed by the Severity of Violence Against Women Scale (SVAWS) physical/sexual violence subscale, and the secondary outcome, male alcohol misuse, by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Assessors were blinded. Analyses were intent-to-treat. Primary outcome assessments were planned at post-treatment, 12 months post-baseline, and 24 months post-baseline. Enrollment was conducted between May 23, 2016, and December 17, 2016. In total, 123 couples were randomized to CETA, 125 to TAU-Plus. The majority of female (66%) and a plurality of male (48%) participants were between 18 and 35 years of age. Mean reduction in IPV (via SVAWS subscale score) at 12 months post-baseline was statistically significantly greater among women who received CETA compared to women who received TAU-Plus (-8.2, 95% CI -14.9 to -1.5, p = 0.02, Cohen's d effect size = 0.49). Similarly, mean reduction in AUDIT score at 12 months post-baseline was statistically significantly greater among men who received CETA compared to men who received TAU (-4.5, 95% CI -6.9 to -2.2, p < 0.001, Cohen's d effect size = 0.43). The Data and Safety Monitoring Board recommended the trial be stopped early due to treatment effectiveness following the 12-month post-baseline assessment, and CETA was offered to control participants. Limitations of the trial included the lack of a true control condition (i.e., that received no intervention), self-reported outcomes that may be subject to social desirability bias, and low statistical power for secondary IPV outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Results showed that CETA was more effective than TAU-Plus in reducing IPV and hazardous alcohol use among high-risk couples in Zambia. Future research and programming should include tertiary prevention approaches to IPV, such as CETA, rather than offering only community mobilization and primary prevention. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02790827).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/prevenção & controle , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Método Simples-Cego , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231158, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32255802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Large scale efforts to expand access to mental healthcare in low- and middle-income countries have focused on integrating mental health services into primary care settings using a task sharing approach delivered by non-specialist health workers. Given the link between mental disorders and risk of suicide mortality, treating common mental disorders using this approach may be a key strategy to reducing suicidality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Programme for Improving Mental Health Care (PRIME) evaluated mental health services for common mental disorders delivered by non-specialist health workers at ten primary care facilities in Chitwan, Nepal from 2014 to 2016. In this paper, we present the indirect impact of treatment on suicidality, as measured by suicidal ideation, among treatment and comparison cohorts for depression and AUD using multilevel logistic regression. Patients in the treatment cohort for depression had a greater reduction in ideation relative to those in the comparison cohort from baseline to three months (OR = 0.16, 95% CI: 0.05-0.59; p = 0.01) and twelve months (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.08-1.12; p = 0.07), with a significant effect of treatment over time (p = 0.02). Among the AUD cohorts, there were no significant differences between treatment and comparison cohorts in the change in ideation from baseline to three months (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.07-6.26; p = 0.70) or twelve months (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.06-3.27; p = 0.44), and there was no effect of treatment over time (p = 0.72). CONCLUSION: The results provide evidence integrated mental health services for depression benefit patients by accelerating the rate at which suicidal ideation naturally abates over time. Integrated services do not appear to impact ideation among people with AUD, though baseline levels of ideation were much lower than for those with depression and may have led to floor effects. The findings highlight the importance of addressing suicidality as a specific target-rather than an indirect effect-of treatment in community-based mental healthcare programs.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/terapia , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Depressão/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Participação da Comunidade , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Suicídio/prevenção & controle
11.
Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 5(5): 494-506, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32277902

RESUMO

Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute, inflammatory liver disease associated with high morbidity and mortality both in the short term and long term. Alcoholic hepatitis often arises in patients with a background of chronic liver disease and it is characterised by the rapid onset of jaundice and the development of myriad complications. Medical therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis relies on corticosteroids, which have modest effectiveness. Abstinence from alcohol is critically important in patients with alcoholic hepatitis, but recidivism is high. Because of the absence of effective medical treatments for alcoholic hepatitis and alcohol dependency, there is a pressing need to develop new and effective therapeutics. Supported by promising preliminary and preclinical studies, many ongoing clinical trials of new therapies for alcoholic hepatitis are currently underway and are discussed further in this Series paper.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Alcoolismo/terapia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Hepatite Alcoólica/terapia , Abstinência de Álcool , Alcoolismo/complicações , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hepatite Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Hepatite Alcoólica/etiologia , Humanos , Ácidos Pentanoicos/uso terapêutico , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Receptores de Interleucina-1/antagonistas & inibidores , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230712

RESUMO

Young women in South Africa remain most at risk for HIV infection. Several factors contribute to the high incidence rate in this population, including hazardous drinking and depression. Addressing common mental disorders (CMDs) such as depression and alcohol use disorders is key to effective HIV treatment. We explored the experiences and perceptions of young South African women on antiretroviral therapy (ART) of a lay health worker (LHW)-delivered psychosocial intervention based on motivational interviewing (MI) and problem-solving therapy (PST) to reduce heavy drinking and depression. We conducted 27 in-depth interviews with young women (aged 18-35) recruited from 16 primary care clinics in the Western Cape province of South Africa. Discussion topics included young women's life experiences leading to their enrollment in the program, their perceptions of the counselling sessions and the quality of their interaction with the counsellor. Qualitative data were analyzed using a framework approach. The findings highlighted the impact adverse life experiences and stressful life circumstances have on young women's use of alcohol and symptoms of depression and the effect this has on ART adherence. The findings suggest that women found the intervention components that helped them develop strategies for coping with their past experiences, managing current life stressors, and regulating negative thoughts and emotions most beneficial. Taken together, these findings confirm the acceptability of LHW-delivered MI-PST counselling for this population, but suggest that the relevance of the MI-PST intervention for this highly vulnerable population could be further enhanced by including a focus on psychological trauma.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Aconselhamento , Depressão , Infecções por HIV , Adolescente , Adulto , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/terapia , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Depressão/complicações , Depressão/terapia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD012880, 2020 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) confers a prodigious burden of disease, disability, premature mortality, and high economic costs from lost productivity, accidents, violence, incarceration, and increased healthcare utilization. For over 80 years, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) has been a widespread AUD recovery organization, with millions of members and treatment free at the point of access, but it is only recently that rigorous research on its effectiveness has been conducted. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether peer-led AA and professionally-delivered treatments that facilitate AA involvement (Twelve-Step Facilitation (TSF) interventions) achieve important outcomes, specifically: abstinence, reduced drinking intensity, reduced alcohol-related consequences, alcohol addiction severity, and healthcare cost offsets. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO from inception to 2 August 2019. We searched for ongoing and unpublished studies via ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) on 15 November 2018. All searches included non-English language literature. We handsearched references of topic-related systematic reviews and bibliographies of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-RCTs and non-randomized studies that compared AA or TSF (AA/TSF) with other interventions, such as motivational enhancement therapy (MET) or cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), TSF treatment variants, or no treatment. We also included healthcare cost offset studies. Participants were non-coerced adults with AUD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We categorized studies by: study design (RCT/quasi-RCT; non-randomized; economic); degree of standardized manualization (all interventions manualized versus some/none); and comparison intervention type (i.e. whether AA/TSF was compared to an intervention with a different theoretical orientation or an AA/TSF intervention that varied in style or intensity). For analyses, we followed Cochrane methodology calculating the standard mean difference (SMD) for continuous variables (e.g. percent days abstinent (PDA)) or the relative risk (risk ratios (RRs)) for dichotomous variables. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses to pool effects wherever possible. MAIN RESULTS: We included 27 studies containing 10,565 participants (21 RCTs/quasi-RCTs, 5 non-randomized, and 1 purely economic study). The average age of participants within studies ranged from 34.2 to 51.0 years. AA/TSF was compared with psychological clinical interventions, such as MET and CBT, and other 12-step program variants. We rated selection bias as being at high risk in 11 of the 27 included studies, unclear in three, and as low risk in 13. We rated risk of attrition bias as high risk in nine studies, unclear in 14, and low in four, due to moderate (> 20%) attrition rates in the study overall (8 studies), or in study treatment group (1 study). Risk of bias due to inadequate researcher blinding was high in one study, unclear in 22, and low in four. Risks of bias arising from the remaining domains were predominantly low or unclear. AA/TSF (manualized) compared to treatments with a different theoretical orientation (e.g. CBT) (randomized/quasi-randomized evidence) RCTs comparing manualized AA/TSF to other clinical interventions (e.g. CBT), showed AA/TSF improves rates of continuous abstinence at 12 months (risk ratio (RR) 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03 to 1.42; 2 studies, 1936 participants; high-certainty evidence). This effect remained consistent at both 24 and 36 months. For percentage days abstinent (PDA), AA/TSF appears to perform as well as other clinical interventions at 12 months (mean difference (MD) 3.03, 95% CI -4.36 to 10.43; 4 studies, 1999 participants; very low-certainty evidence), and better at 24 months (MD 12.91, 95% CI 7.55 to 18.29; 2 studies, 302 participants; low-certainty evidence) and 36 months (MD 6.64, 95% CI 1.54 to 11.75; 1 study, 806 participants; low-certainty evidence). For longest period of abstinence (LPA), AA/TSF may perform as well as comparison interventions at six months (MD 0.60, 95% CI -0.30 to 1.50; 2 studies, 136 participants; low-certainty evidence). For drinking intensity, AA/TSF may perform as well as other clinical interventions at 12 months, as measured by drinks per drinking day (DDD) (MD -0.17, 95% CI -1.11 to 0.77; 1 study, 1516 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and percentage days heavy drinking (PDHD) (MD -5.51, 95% CI -14.15 to 3.13; 1 study, 91 participants; low-certainty evidence). For alcohol-related consequences, AA/TSF probably performs as well as other clinical interventions at 12 months (MD -2.88, 95% CI -6.81 to 1.04; 3 studies, 1762 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). For alcohol addiction severity, one study found evidence of a difference in favor of AA/TSF at 12 months (P < 0.05; low-certainty evidence). AA/TSF (non-manualized) compared to treatments with a different theoretical orientation (e.g. CBT) (randomized/quasi-randomized evidence) For the proportion of participants completely abstinent, non-manualized AA/TSF may perform as well as other clinical interventions at three to nine months follow-up (RR 1.71, 95% CI 0.70 to 4.18; 1 study, 93 participants; low-certainty evidence). Non-manualized AA/TSF may also perform slightly better than other clinical interventions for PDA (MD 3.00, 95% CI 0.31 to 5.69; 1 study, 93 participants; low-certainty evidence). For drinking intensity, AA/TSF may perform as well as other clinical interventions at nine months, as measured by DDD (MD -1.76, 95% CI -2.23 to -1.29; 1 study, 93 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and PDHD (MD 2.09, 95% CI -1.24 to 5.42; 1 study, 286 participants; low-certainty evidence). None of the RCTs comparing non-manualized AA/TSF to other clinical interventions assessed LPA, alcohol-related consequences, or alcohol addiction severity. Cost-effectiveness studies In three studies, AA/TSF had higher healthcare cost savings than outpatient treatment, CBT, and no AA/TSF treatment. The fourth study found that total medical care costs decreased for participants attending CBT, MET, and AA/TSF treatment, but that among participants with worse prognostic characteristics AA/TSF had higher potential cost savings than MET (moderate-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is high quality evidence that manualized AA/TSF interventions are more effective than other established treatments, such as CBT, for increasing abstinence. Non-manualized AA/TSF may perform as well as these other established treatments. AA/TSF interventions, both manualized and non-manualized, may be at least as effective as other treatments for other alcohol-related outcomes. AA/TSF probably produces substantial healthcare cost savings among people with alcohol use disorder.


Assuntos
Alcoólicos Anônimos , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Adulto , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Entrevista Motivacional/métodos , Psicoterapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Gerontol Soc Work ; 63(3): 174-188, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202232

RESUMO

As baby boomers continue to enter older adulthood in the coming decades, research suggests that this cohort is expected to exhibit changes in alcohol usage and treatment need patterns compared to previous older-adult cohorts. The literature suggests that unmet alcohol treatment need may be related to denial of treatment need among baby boomers who possess a diagnosable alcohol-use disorder (AUD). Therefore, this study explores potential risk and protective factors predicting alcohol-use among baby boomers who d\eny treatment need at two time periods. Data was obtained from the National Survey of Drug and Health (NSDUH). Variable selection procedures were performed at each time period, resulting in two predictive models for baby boomers who denied alcohol treatment need when treatment was indicated by a concurrent diagnosable alcohol-use disorder. The primary findings suggest that generalized, nonspecific alcohol treatment may be ineffective for treating AUD baby boomers who deny alcohol treatment need. Rather, as baby boomers continue to enter older adulthood, individualized specialty treatments may be needed in order to provide effective alcohol treatment for this unprecedentedly large birth cohort.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
15.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 126, 2020 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183769

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol misuse is a common, disabling, and costly issue worldwide, but the vast majority of people with alcohol misuse never access treatment for varying reasons. Internet-delivered cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) may be an attractive treatment alternative for individuals with alcohol misuse who are reluctant to seek help due to stigma, or who live in rural communities with little access to face-to-face treatment. With the growing development of ICBT treatment clinics, investigating ways to optimize its delivery within routine clinic settings becomes a crucial avenue of research. Some studies in the alcohol treatment literature suggest that assessment interviews conducted pre-treatment may improve short- and long-term drinking outcomes but no experimental evaluation of this has been conducted. Further, research on internet interventions for alcohol misuse suggests that guidance from a therapist or coach improves outcomes, but more research on the benefits of guidance in ICBT is still needed. METHODS: This study is a 2X2 factorial randomized controlled trial where all of the expected 300 participants receive access to the Alcohol Change Course, an eight-week ICBT program. A comprehensive pre-treatment assessment interview represents factor 1, and guidance from a health educator represents factor 2. All participants will be asked to respond to measures at screening, pre-treatment, mid-treatment, post-treatment and 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment completion. DISCUSSION: This study will provide valuable information on optimization of ICBT for alcohol misuse within routine clinic settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, registered June 13th 2019, NCT03984786.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Educadores em Saúde , Internet , Alcoolismo/terapia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(6): 541-553, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In a randomized trial for women with alcohol use disorders (AUD), the efficacy of Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (FS-CBT) was compared with Gender-Neutral CBT (GN-CBT; Epstein et al., 2018). The current study examined whether putative mechanisms of change differed between treatment conditions, using a novel statistical approach. Both treatments were hypothesized to work by increasing use of alcohol-related coping skills (coping) and confidence to abstain from drinking (confidence), but FS-CBT additionally targeted female-salient mechanisms: anxiety, depression, sociotropy (i.e., overinvestment in others' opinion of oneself), autonomy, and social networks supportive of abstinence. METHOD: Ninety-nine women with AUD (55 in GN-CBT, 44 in FS-CBT) completed self-report assessments at baseline and 0, 6, and 12 months posttreatment. Multilevel vector autoregression estimation was used to analyze associations between putative mechanisms of change, and network models of those associations were generated using network analysis. RESULTS: Across conditions, higher confidence and coping were directly associated with less drinking; autonomy was directly and indirectly associated with drinking. Additionally, network analysis indicated that although variation in depression was associated with change in other variables specifically for GN-CBT, sociotropy was associated with change specifically in FS-CBT. CONCLUSIONS: Women receiving CBT-AUD changed their drinking through increased confidence to abstain and greater use of coping skills. Autonomy played a central role in behavior change across treatment conditions. Participants receiving treatment tailored to women also changed through decreases in sociotropy and increases in social support for abstinence. For women who received standard CBT, changes in depression were important to clinical improvement. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Adulto , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autonomia Pessoal , Apoio Social , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 34(4): 506-511, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105112

RESUMO

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder commonly co-occur. Little is known about how symptoms of one affect subsequent week symptoms of the other during the course of integrated treatment for both disorders. The sample included 107 veterans who were randomized to receive either Concurrent Treatment of PTSD and Substance Use Disorder Using Prolonged Exposure (COPE; an exposure-based trauma focused treatment) or Seeking Safety (SS; a present-focused coping skills-based treatment) and completed measures of PTSD and alcohol use at every other session. Multilevel models estimated the prospective associations between PTSD and alcohol use during treatment. Results indicated that greater PTSD symptom severity was associated with greater future alcohol use (b = 0.20, p = .024), and greater alcohol use was associated with greater future PTSD symptom severity (b = 0.13, p = .003). The effect size for PTSD symptoms to future alcohol use was larger than the reciprocal relationship. When using lagged PTSD severity to predict future drinking, results revealed that clinically significant differences in PTSD severity levels were associated with comparably large differences in drinking. Treatment condition did not moderate the effect of PTSD symptom severity on alcohol use (or the reciprocal relationship). Findings lend support to the mutual maintenance model of addiction. Integrated treatments that treat both PTSD and alcohol use may be preferential to sequential model of care where individuals are expected to achieve abstinence or reduced use prior to receiving trauma-focused treatment. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Alcoolismo , Terapia Comportamental , Comorbidade , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Humanos , Terapia Implosiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia , Veteranos
19.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(2): 137-148, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31894995

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This research evaluates changes in perceived military and civilian drinking norms as mechanisms of the effects of a motivational enhancement therapy (MET) intervention on changes in alcohol consumption among active-duty military personnel with a substance use disorder. We also evaluate the value of providing tolerance and family history risk-related personalized feedback by testing whether those receiving feedback indicating higher risk reduce their drinking more than those receiving feedback indicating lower risk or receiving no feedback. METHOD: Participants (N = 242; Mage = 28 years; 92% male; 59% Caucasian) completed a baseline questionnaire and were randomly assigned to a MET or educational control condition. Both conditions were single session and took place over the telephone. Outcomes were assessed 3 and 6 months later. The study was preregistered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01128140). RESULTS: We found evidence that reductions in perceived norms for other military personnel, but not for civilians, mediated intervention efficacy on reductions in alcohol use. Further, the MET intervention was successful at reducing drinking among soldiers who reported higher levels of baseline tolerance and family history risk, but not succuessful at reducing drinking among those who reported low or medium levels of risk. CONCLUSIONS: Systematic evaluation of whether and how individual intervention components contribute to efficacy is a promising approach for refining and improving interventions. This research suggests that MET interventions may wish to target focal perceived norms and provides support for discussion of feedback indicating elevated risks due to tolerance and family history. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/terapia , Retroalimentação Psicológica , Militares/psicologia , Entrevista Motivacional , Adulto , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Normas Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telefone , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Lancet ; 395(10219): 226-239, 2020 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791690

RESUMO

This final report of the Lancet Commission into liver disease in the UK stresses the continuing increase in burden of liver disease from excess alcohol consumption and obesity, with high levels of hospital admissions which are worsening in deprived areas. Only with comprehensive food and alcohol strategies based on fiscal and regulatory measures (including a minimum unit price for alcohol, the alcohol duty escalator, and an extension of the sugar levy on food content) can the disease burden be curtailed. Following introduction of minimum unit pricing in Scotland, alcohol sales fell by 3%, with the greatest effect on heavy drinkers of low-cost alcohol products. We also discuss the major contribution of obesity and alcohol to the ten most common cancers as well as measures outlined by the departing Chief Medical Officer to combat rising levels of obesity-the highest of any country in the west. Mortality of severely ill patients with liver disease in district general hospitals is unacceptably high, indicating the need to develop a masterplan for improving hospital care. We propose a plan based around specialist hospital centres that are linked to district general hospitals by operational delivery networks. This plan has received strong backing from the British Association for Study of the Liver and British Society of Gastroenterology, but is held up at NHS England. The value of so-called day-case care bundles to reduce high hospital readmission rates with greater care in the community is described, along with examples of locally derived schemes for the early detection of disease and, in particular, schemes to allow general practitioners to refer patients directly for elastography assessment. New funding arrangements for general practitioners will be required if these proposals are to be taken up more widely around the country. Understanding of the harm to health from lifestyle causes among the general population is low, with a poor knowledge of alcohol consumption and dietary guidelines. The Lancet Commission has serious doubts about whether the initiatives described in the Prevention Green Paper, with the onus placed on the individual based on the use of information technology and the latest in behavioural science, will be effective. We call for greater coordination between official and non-official bodies that have highlighted the unacceptable disease burden from liver disease in England in order to present a single, strong voice to the higher echelons of government.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/epidemiologia , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/terapia , Comércio , Redes Comunitárias/organização & administração , Comorbidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Hepatopatias/diagnóstico , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Transplante de Fígado/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/complicações , Pacotes de Assistência ao Paciente , Escócia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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