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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e35224, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1096015

RESUMO

Objetivo: investigar a atuação dos enfermeiros frente à amamentação cruzada e correlacionar com a atual questão da precarização do trabalho. Método: estudo qualitativo do tipo descritivo com base metodológica de análise do discurso, realizado com seis enfermeiras da Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF) por meio de um grupo focal. Resultados: o tema amamentação cruzada é apresentado como um indicador de conflitos ético-profissionais no processo de trabalho, expressando-se nos seguintes aspectos: conhecimento das prescrições de contraindicação, sensação de dificuldade em intervir e transferência à nutriz por qualquer dano à saúde da criança. Considerações finais: no cotejo entre esses resultados e uma organização de trabalho com normas e rotinas institucionalizadas, discutem-se como efeitos da não utilização de técnicas de aconselhamento, a fragilização da autonomia da nutriz, de forma imperceptível, reproduzidas por enfermeiros na assistência.


Objective: to investigate nurses' role related to cross-breastfeeding and to correlate with the current issue of precarious work.Method: descriptive andqualitative study based on methodological discourse analysis, carried out with six nurses from Estratégia de Saúde da Família (ESF) Program through a focus group. Results: cross-breastfeeding topic is presented as an indicator of ethical-professional conflicts in the work process, expressing itself in the following aspects: knowledge of prescriptions of contraindication, feeling of difficulty in intervening and transference to the nursing mother for any harm to the child's health. Final considerations: in the comparison between these results and a work organization with institutionalized norms and routines, we discuss the effects of not using counseling techniques, the fragility of nurses' autonomy, imperceptibly reproduced by nurses in care.


Objetivo: investigar el papel de las enfermeras relacionadas con la lactancia cruzada y su correlación con el tema actual del trabajo precario. Método: estudio descriptivo y cualitativo basado en el análisis metodológico del discurso, realizado con seis enfermeras del Programa Estratégia de Saúse da Familia (ESF) através de un grupo focal. Resultados: el tema de la lactancia cruzada se presenta como un indicador de conflictos ético-profesionales en el proceso de trabajo, expresándose en los siguientes aspectos: conocimiento de prescripciones de contraindicación, sensación de dificultad para intervenir y transferencia a la madre lactante por cualquier daño a la salud del niño Consideraciones finales: en la comparación entre estos resultados y una organización de trabajo con normas y rutinas institucionalizadas, discutimos los efectos de no utilizar técnicas de asesoramiento, la fragilidad de la autonomía de las enfermeras, reproducida imperceptiblemente por las enfermeras bajo cuidado.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/ética , Condições de Trabalho , Aleitamento Materno , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Estratégia Saúde da Família , Contraindicações , Relações Trabalhistas , Brasil , Competência Clínica , Grupos Focais , Pesquisa Qualitativa
2.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47923

RESUMO

A amamentação, além de ser um grande ato de amor, traz vários benefícios para a mãe e o bebê e ainda pode prevenir o surgimento de um câncer


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Aleitamento Materno
3.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47930

RESUMO

A Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP) promoveu a live “Amamentação e uso de medicamentos e cosméticos”. A transmissão, que foi aberta aos pediatras e público em geral no site, página do Facebook e canal do Youtube da instituição.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Uso de Medicamentos , Cosméticos
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 580, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008308

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the ongoing global outbreak of COVID-19, pregnant women who are susceptible to COVID-19 should be highly concerned. The issue of vertical transmission and the possibility of neonatal infection is a major concern. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1: A 35-year-old pregnant woman with a gestational age of 37 weeks and 6 days was admitted to our hospital at the point of giving birth. Except for the abnormalities in her chest CT image, she was asymptomatic. She had an uncomplicated spontaneous vaginal delivery, and her infant was discharged home for isolation. Because of the positive result of the maternal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 obtained on the 2nd day after sampling, we transferred the mother to the designated hospital and followed up with her by telephone interviews. Luckily, it was confirmed on February 23 that the newborn did not develop any COVID-19 symptoms after observation for 14 days after birth. Case 2: Another pregnant woman, with a gestational age of 38 weeks and 2 days, was also admitted to our hospital because of spontaneous labor with cervical dilation of 5 cm. Since she had the typical manifestations of COVID-19, including cough, lymphopenia, and abnormal chest CT images, she was highly suspected of having COVID-19. Based on the experience from case 1, we helped the mother deliver a healthy baby by vaginal delivery. On the 2nd day after delivery, the maternal nasopharyngeal swab result was positive, while the infant's result was negative. CONCLUSION: There is still insufficient evidence supporting maternal-fetal vertical transmission for COVID-19-infected mothers in late pregnancy, and vaginal delivery may not increase the possibility of neonatal infection.


Assuntos
Infecções Assintomáticas , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Adulto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Aleitamento Materno , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Tosse , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Linfopenia , Máscaras , Oxigenoterapia , Pandemias , Isolamento de Pacientes , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Testes Sorológicos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
5.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3335, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027400

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to assess the effect of a breastfeeding educational intervention on the counseling provided to postpartum women. METHOD: this is a randomized controlled trial including 104 postpartum women (intervention group = 52 and control group = 52) from a private hospital, whose educational intervention was based on the pragmatic theory and on the use of a soft-hard technology called Breastfeeding Educational Kit (Kit Educativo para Aleitamento Materno, KEAM). Women were followed-up for up to 60 days after childbirth. Chi-Squared Test, Fischer's Exact Test, and Generalized Estimating Equation were used, with a significance level of 5% (p-value <0.05). The analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 24. RESULTS: the postpartum women in the intervention group had fewer breastfeeding difficulties and a higher percentage of exclusive breastfeeding at all time points compared with those in the control group. CONCLUSION: the educational intervention based on active methodologies and stimulating instructional resources was effective in developing greater practical mastery among postpartum women with regard to adherence and maintenance of exclusive breastfeeding. Registry REBEC RBR - 8p9v7v.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Período Pós-Parto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Parto Obstétrico , Feminino , Humanos , Parto , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Gravidez
6.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 28: e3364, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to analyze the relationship between maternal self-efficacy to breastfeed and sociodemographic, obstetric, and neonatal variables; between the duration of exclusive breastfeeding and sociodemographic variables; and between the breastfeeding self-efficacy and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding at the intervals of 30, 60, and 180 days postpartum. METHOD: a longitudinal and prospective study conducted with 224 women. A sociodemographic questionnaire, the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale - Short Form, and a questionnaire on breastfeeding and child feeding were used for collecting the data. Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were used for analysis. RESULTS: there was no association between breastfeeding self-efficacy and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding identified at 30, 60, and 180 days. Self-efficacy was associated with the type of delivery and complications in the postpartum period. There was also an association between religion and exclusive breastfeeding 30 and 60 days postpartum, and assistance with baby care and exclusive breastfeeding at 60 days. CONCLUSION: It was identified that the type of delivery, complications in the postpartum period, religion, and assistance with baby care corroborate to increase maternal confidence in the ability to breastfeed.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Autoeficácia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
9.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1199-1206, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999198

RESUMO

Potential risks to the fetus or infant should be considered prior to medication during pregnancy and lactation. It is essential to evaluate the exposure levels of drugs and their related factors in addition to toxicological effects. Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological complications in pregnancy; some women continue to use antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to control seizures. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are widely prescribed for several women who experience symptoms such as anxiety and insomnia during the postpartum period. In this review, we describe the 1) transport mechanisms of AEDs across the placenta and the effects of these drugs on placental transporters, and 2) the transfer of BZDs into breast milk. Our findings indicated that carrier systems were involved in the uptake of gabapentin (GBP) and lamotrigine (LTG) in placental trophoblast cell lines. SLC7A5 was the main contributor to GBP transport in placental cells. LTG was transported by a carrier that was sensitive to chloroquine, imipramine, quinidine, and verapamil. Short-term exposure to 16 AEDs had no effect on folic acid uptake in placental cells. However, long-term exposure to valproic acid (VPA) affected the expression of folate carriers (FOLR1, SLC46A1). Furthermore, VPA administration changed the expression levels of various transporters in rat placenta, suggesting that sensitivity to VPA differed across gestational stages. Lastly, we developed a method for quantifying eight BZDs in human breast milk and plasma using LC/MS/MS, and successfully applied it to quantify alprazolam in breast milk and plasma donated by a lactating woman.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/metabolismo , Benzodiazepinas/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico/genética , Aleitamento Materno , Gabapentina/metabolismo , Lactação/metabolismo , Lamotrigina/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Aminoácidos Neutros Grandes/fisiologia , Troca Materno-Fetal , Leite Humano/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Ácido Valproico/metabolismo , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas/efeitos adversos , Benzodiazepinas/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Receptor 1 de Folato/genética , Receptor 1 de Folato/metabolismo , Gabapentina/efeitos adversos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Lamotrigina/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Transportador de Folato Acoplado a Próton/genética , Transportador de Folato Acoplado a Próton/metabolismo , Ácido Valproico/efeitos adversos
10.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47889

RESUMO

Edição número 26/2020 do SBP AmamentAÇÃO – informativo anual da Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria (SBP) – disponível para leitura no site instituição e traz um resumo das ações da SBP e suas filiadas em prol da promoção, proteção e apoio ao aleitamento materno durante a Semana Mundial de Aleitamento Materno (SMAM) e Agosto Dourado. O editorial aborda a manutenção da amamentação em tempos de pandemia de Covid-19. No texto, ela esclarece a dúvida comum entre as mães que testam positivo para a doença e se há risco de contaminação da criança pelo leite materno. Na sessão, Pergunte ao Especialista, profissionais da SBP esclarecem dúvidas frequentes sobre o aleitamento materno.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Promoção da Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Leite Humano
11.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47829

RESUMO

Divulgação do podcast da revista Residência Pediátrica (RP). Nesta edição, o dr. Roberto Issler, do Departamento de Aleitamento Materno da SBP, é o convidado do último programa da série “RP Convida - especial Agosto Dourado" o especialista apresenta o tema “Você é um pediatra amigo da amamentação?”, ressaltando a importância do engajamento contínuo dos pediatras para o sucesso da amamentação no Brasil.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Promoção da Saúde , Pediatria
12.
Recurso na Internet em Português | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde | ID: lis-47831

RESUMO

Uma revisão sistemática das evidências científicas disponíveis feita pela Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) e pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) revela que as recomendações sobre o contato mãe-bebê e aleitamento materno devem se basear em uma consideração ampla, não apenas nos riscos potenciais da COVID-19 para o bebê, mas também dos riscos de morbidade e mortalidade associados ao não aleitamento e uso inapropriado de fórmulas infantis.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Promoção da Saúde
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957434

RESUMO

COVID-19 also affects pregnant and breastfeeding women. Hence, clinicians and policymakers require reliable evidence on COVID-19 epidemiology and consequences in this population. We aimed to assess the susceptibility of pregnant women to SARS-CoV-2 and women's perceived impact of the pandemic on their breastfeeding practices, medical counseling and social support. We performed a cross-sectional study using an online survey in primary care in Belgium. Pregnant and breastfeeding women and women who breastfed in the preceding four weeks were eligible to participate. The survey was distributed through social media in April 2020. In total, 6470 women participated (i.e., 2647 pregnant and 3823 breastfeeding women). Overall, 0.3% of all respondents reported to have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, not indicating a higher susceptibility of pregnant women to contracting COVID-19. More than 90% refuted that the pandemic affected their breastfeeding practices, nor indicated that the coronavirus was responsible for breastfeeding cessation. Half of the women even considered giving longer breastmilk because of the coronavirus. In contrast, women's medical counseling and social support were negatively affected by the lockdown. Women without previous breastfeeding experience and in the early postpartum period experienced a higher burden in terms of reduced medical counseling and support. In the future, more consideration and alternative supportive measures such as tele-visits by midwives or perinatal organizations are required for these women.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia
15.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(9): e25622, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32996705

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted global health service delivery, including provision of HIV services. Countries with high HIV burden are balancing the need to minimize interactions with health facilities to reduce the risk of COVID-19 transmission, while delivering uninterrupted essential HIV prevention, testing and treatment services. Many of these adaptations in resource-constrained settings have not adequately accounted for the needs of pregnant and breastfeeding women, infants, children and adolescents. We propose whole-family, tailored programme adaptations along the HIV clinical continuum to protect the programmatic gains made in services. DISCUSSION: Essential HIV case-finding services for pregnant and breastfeeding women and children should be maintained and include maternal testing, diagnostic testing for infants exposed to HIV, index testing for children whose biological parents or siblings are living with HIV, as well as for children/adolescents presenting with symptoms concerning for HIV and comorbidities. HIV self-testing for children two years of age and older should be supported with caregiver and provider education. Adaptations include bundling services in the same visit and providing testing outside of facilities to the extent possible to reduce exposure risk to COVID-19. Virtual platforms can be used to identify vulnerable children at risk of HIV infection, abuse, harm or violence, and link them to necessary clinical and psychosocial support services. HIV treatment service adaptations for families should focus on family based differentiated service delivery models, including community-based ART initiation and multi-month ART dispensing. Viral load monitoring should not be a barrier to transitioning children and adolescents experiencing treatment failure to more effective ART regimens, and viral load monitoring for pregnant and breastfeeding women and children should be prioritized and bundled with other essential services. CONCLUSIONS: Protecting pregnant and breastfeeding women, infants, children and adolescents from acquiring SARS-CoV-2 while sustaining essential HIV services is an immense global health challenge. Tailored, family friendly programme adaptations for case-finding, ART delivery and viral load monitoring for these populations have the potential to limit SARS-CoV-2 transmission while ensuring the continuity of life-saving HIV case identification and treatment efforts.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Família , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Carga Viral
16.
FP Essent ; 496: 11-15, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902241

RESUMO

the first 6 months of life to achieve optimal growth, development, and health. The World Health Organization recommends continuation of breastfeeding, with the addition of complementary foods, for at least 2 years. Despite this guidance, while most newborns and infants in the United States receive some breast milk, most are not exclusively breastfed, and breastfeeding frequently is discontinued earlier than recommended. The reasons for noninitiation or early cessation of breastfeeding are multifactorial. Commonly cited reasons for early discontinuation of breastfeeding include lactation and latching issues, concerns about infant nutrition and weight, concerns about taking drugs while breastfeeding, milk pumping, unsupportive work policies, and lack of social support. Racial and ethnic disparities exist regarding the initiation and duration of breastfeeding.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Apoio Social , Estados Unidos
17.
Mult Scler ; 26(10): 1137-1146, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924838

RESUMO

Concerns regarding infection with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 leading to COVID-19 are particularly marked for pregnant women with autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). There is currently a relative paucity of information to guide advice given to and the clinical management of these individuals. Much of the limited available data around COVID-19 and pregnancy derives from the obstetric literature, and as such, neurologists may not be familiar with the general principles underlying current advice. In this article, we discuss the impact of potential infection on the pregnant woman, the impact on her baby, the impact of the current pandemic on antenatal care, and the interaction between COVID-19, MS and pregnancy. This review provides a framework for neurologists to use to guide the individualised advice given to both pregnant women with MS, and those women with MS who are considering pregnancy. This includes evidence derived from previous novel coronavirus infections, and emerging evidence from the current pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus , Aleitamento Materno , Assistência à Saúde , Parto Obstétrico , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/imunologia , Pandemias , Cuidado Pré-Concepcional , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Nascimento Prematuro , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Recidiva
18.
Int Breastfeed J ; 15(1): 82, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is disrupting normal life globally, every area of life is touched. The pandemic demands quick action and as new information emerges, reliable synthesises and guidelines for care are urgently needed. Breastfeeding protects mother and child; its health benefits are undisputed and based on evidence. To plan and support breastfeeding within the current pandemic, two areas need to be understood: 1) the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 as it applies to breastfeeding and 2) the protective properties of breastfeeding, including the practice of skin-to-skin care. This review aims to summarise how to manage breastfeeding during COVID-19. The summary was used to create guidelines for healthcare professionals and mothers. METHODS: Current publications on breastfeeding during the COVID-19 pandemic were reviewed to inform guidelines for clinical practice. RESULTS: Current evidence states that the Coronavirus is not transmitted via breastmilk. Breastfeeding benefits outweigh possible risks during the COVID-19 pandemic and may even protect the infant and mother. General infection control measures should be in place and adhered to very strictly. CONCLUSIONS: Breastfeeding should be encouraged, mothers and infant dyads should be cared for together, and skin-to-skin contact ensured throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. If mothers are too ill to breastfeed, they should still be supported to express their milk, and the infant should be fed by a healthy individual. Guidelines, based on this current evidence, were produced and can be distributed to health care facilities where accessible information is needed.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus/fisiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leite Humano/química , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
20.
Am J Perinatol ; 37(S 02): S46-S53, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898882

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We aimed at reviewing the currently available guidelines and scientific recommendations regarding the neonatal in-hospital management and feeding in the light of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: We systematically searched the guideline databases, Medline, Embase, and nationale/international neonatal societies websites as of June 19, 2020, for guidelines on neonatal management and feeding during the COVID-19 pandemic, at the same time assessing the methodological quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II tool. RESULTS: Eleven guidelines were included. The Chinese and American recommendations suggest separation of the mother and her neonate, whereas in French, Italian, UK, Canadian, and World Health Organization consensus documents the rooming-in is suggested, with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines suggesting to decide on a case-by-case basis. All the guidelines recommend breastfeeding or feeding with expressed maternal milk; the only exception is the Chinese recommendations, these last suggesting to avoid breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: This review may provide a useful tool for clinicians and organizers, highlighting differences and similarities of the existing guidelines on the management and feeding strategies in the light of the COVID-19 pandemic. KEY POINTS: · This study compares guidelines on management and nutrition of a newborn born to a mother with SARS-CoV-2 infection.. · Existing guidelines on neonatal management and nutrition during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic show many differences.. · The majority of recommendations are mainly based on experts' opinion and are not evidence-based..


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Leite Humano , Pandemias , Organização Mundial da Saúde
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