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1.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 47-53, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914569

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the health literacy and relevant factors of cancer prevention consciousness in Chinese urban residents from 2015 to 2017. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The self-designed questionnaire was used to collect the information of demographic characteristics and cancer prevention consciousness focusing on nine common risk factors, including smoking, alcohol, fiber food, food in hot temperature or pickled food, chewing betel nut, helicobacter pylori, moldy food, hepatitis B infection, estrogen, and exercise. The logistic regression model was adopted to identify the influencing factors. Results: The overall health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness was 77.4% (24 980 participants), with 77.4% (12 018 participants), 79.9% (6 406 participants), 77.2% (1 766 participants) and 74.5% (4 709 participants) in each group (P<0.001). The correct response rates for nine risk factors ranged from 55.2% to 93.0%. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that compared with community residents, people with primary school level education or below, and the number of people living together in the family <3, the cancer risk assessment/screening intervention population, cancer patients, those with junior high school level educationor above and the number of people living in the family ≥3 had better health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness (all P values <0.05). Compared with females, 39 years old and below, government-affiliated institutions or civil servants, from the eastern region, males, older than 40 years, company or enterprise employees, and from the middle or western region had worse health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness (all P values <0.05). Conclusion: The health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness in Chinese urban residents should be improved. The cancer screening intervention, gender, age, education, occupation, the number of people co-living in the family, and residential region were associated with the health literacy of the cancer prevention consciousness.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(1): 76-83, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914573

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment among urban residents of China, and explore the related factors. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 16 provinces covered by the Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC) from 2015 to 2017. A total of 32 257 local residents aged ≥18 years old who could understand the investigation procedure were included in the study by using the cluster sampling method and convenient sampling method. All local residents were categorized into four groups, which contained 15 524 community residents, 8 016 cancer risk assessment/screening population, 2 289 cancer patients and 6 428 occupational population, respectively. The health literacy of the cancer prevention, early discovery, early diagnosis, early treatment and the demands of cancer prevention and treatment knowledge was analyzed. The level of health literacy among different groups were calculated and compared. The binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment. Results: The level of health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment was 56.97% among all study population; in each group it was 55.01% for community residents, 59.08% for cancer risk assessment/screening population, 61.99% for cancer patients and 57.31% for occupational population, respectively (P<0.001). The level of health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment of residents aged 50 to 69 years old, other occupational groups, unmarried, the central and western region residents and the group with unclear self-assessment of cancer risk was significantly lower than that of residents younger than 40 years old, personnel of public institutions/civil servants, married, the eastern region residents and the group whose self-assessment without cancer risk (P<0.05) . The level of health literacy of cancer prevention and treatment of females, people who went to high school or over, cancer risk assessment/screening population, cancer patients and occupational population was significantly higher than that of males, people who had an education level of primary school or below and community residents (P<0.05) . Conclusion: The health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment of urban residents in China was relatively high, but there was still room for improvement. Gender, age, educational level, occupation, region, marital status, self-assessment of cancer risk, and type of respondents were the key influencing factors of the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment. Male, 50-69 years old, lower educational level, central and western regions, unclear cancer risk self-assessment, and without specific environmental exposure to cancer prevention and treatment knowledge or related risk factors were the characteristics of the key intervention group of the health literacy of the cancer prevention and treatment.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , População Urbana , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(12): 1265-1270, 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795584

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the association between the health literacy (HL) and smoking behaviors in middle school students. Methods: From November 2015 to January 2016, middle school students in Shenyang City of Liaoning Province, Bengbu City of Anhui Province, Xinxiang City of Henan Province, Ulanqab City of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Chongqing City and Yangjiang City of Guangdong Province were enrolled by using a multistage stratified cluster sampling method. A total of 23 137 questionnaires were issued and 22 628 questionnaires were valid. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect demographic information, HL and smoking behaviors. The low, middle, and high-level group were classified according to the tertile of HL score. A multiple logistic regression model was conducted to explore the association between the HL and smoking behaviors. Results: The age of subjects was (15.4±1.8) years old, and HL score was (104.1±18.7) points. The proportion of former smoking, recent smoking and passive smoking was 9.2% (2 071), 2.8% (635) and 27.9% (6 304), respectively. The proportion of former smokers who tried to quit smoking was 50.1% (1 037/2 071). Compared to the high-level HL, the low-level HL increased the risk of former smoking [OR (95%CI): 1.85 (1.61-2.13)], recent smoking [OR (95%CI): 1.68 (1.33-2.14)] and passive smoking [OR (95%CI): 1.34 (1.23-1.46)], and decreased the likelihood of smoking cessation [OR (95%CI): 0.70 (0.53-0.92)], after adjusting for the gender, school type, registered residence, household structure, accommodation type, educational level of patients, and self-reported family economic status. Conclusion: The HL of middle school students was related to their smoking behaviors.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde , Fumar , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , China , Cidades , Estudos Transversais , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1401, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664973

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health literacy is a multidimensional concept that is considered a primary public health concern. This concept is often neglected in research, and the evidence regarding health literacy in college students is limited. The aim of this study was two-fold: to determine the needs and limitations of health literacy among college students and to explore the relationships among the nine dimensions of health literacy and sociodemographic factors, including age, gender, nationality, year of study, field of study, smoking status, history of chronic diseases, use of on-campus gym, and the intention to exercise on-campus. METHODS: This study was conducted using a cross-sectional approach. A total of 520 college students participated in this study. The average age was 21.03 years (SD = 2.29), with 47.5% males and 52.5% females. Data were collected using a demographics questionnaire and the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ). In addition to descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and follow-up analyses were performed to explore any statistically significant mean differences among levels of health literacy and sociodemographic factors. RESULTS: The levels of health literacy on the nine HLQ scales were lower than the levels reported in the literature. Multivariate analysis showed a significant effect of age, gender, smoking status, year of study, and field of study on the level of health literacy. Follow-up analyses revealed that female students, students from the health-related faculties, and those who do not smoke have higher levels of health literacy compared to their counterparts. A detailed comparison between the levels of the HLQ scales was made based on students' demographic characteristics. The field of study had the most prominent effect on the level of college students' health literacy; mean differences were statistically significant (p < .001), and effect sizes were large (ranging from .66 to 1.35 for the nine scales of the HLQ). CONCLUSION: College students' health literacy is influenced by demographic characteristics. Such variations could amplify some of the existing health disparities. The implications of the findings on health, health promotion, and interprofessional education are discussed.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 754, 2019 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655598

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer patients experience psychological and social distress due to their medical treatment and social issues. However, continuous and specialized social support is still lacking. In Germany, a group of company health insurance funds has developed an approach to support cancer patients with monthly structured interviews conducted by specially trained Social Care Nurses. The nurses will identify patient needs in order to provide help with medical, personal, and social matters. One aim of the scientific evaluation is to analyze the effect of the consultations on various patient-reported outcomes, especially quality of life. The evaluation concept will be described in this study protocol. METHODS/DESIGN: The evaluation is a non-randomized, controlled, multi-center intervention study with a mixed-method design. It consists of three research modules which include primary data from questionnaires, and claims data from the health insurance funds. In Module 1, cancer patients will be recruited to form an intervention group (OSCAR, n = 150) and a control group (n = 200) in four study centers for a period of 1 year. One baseline and three follow-up questionnaires will be conducted to survey the patient-reported outcomes. Relevant secondary outcomes are health literacy, participation, and physician-patient communication. In Module 2, claims data will be used to analyze cost effects and thereby assess effectivity and hospitalization. Module 3 will involve a qualitative analysis of project diaries kept by the Social Care Nurses. The diaries will record the nurses' practical experiences and the benefits of deploying OSCAR across the German healthcare system. DISCUSSION: OSCAR is an innovative way of providing cancer patients with continuous support to improve their quality of life. The evaluation concept aims to assess the effects of the monthly consultations by the Social Care Nurses on the patients, and will use a mixed-method design. The results are important for assessing the transferability of OSCAR to the healthcare system as a whole. TRIAL REGISTRATION: German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS-ID: DRKS00013640 ). Registered 29 December 2017.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/terapia , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Apoio Social , Alemanha , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias/psicologia , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Projetos de Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1259, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower health literacy (HL) has been known to be involved in a range of common mental and physical disorders among adolescent students. Ample studies indicated low HL is associated with a series of chronic diseases even psychological diseases, nevertheless, little is known about this relationship among adolescents. In this context, the study aimed to examine associations between psychosomatic symptoms (physical and psychological symptoms) and HL in junior and senior high school students in China, and to provide guidance for improving the physical and mental health in Chinese adolescents. METHODS: A total of 22,628 junior and high school students in China were enrolled in this study. HL and psychosomatic symptoms were measured by self-report validated questionnaires. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations between six sub-scales of HL and physical / psychological symptoms. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the sub-scales of HL showed a significantly negative association with physical symptoms and psychological symptoms (P <  0.05 for each). Physical symptoms was most strongly associated with IR (ß = - 0.134), followed by SM (ß = - 0.093), DB (ß = - 0.059), SA (ß = - 0.058) and PA (ß = - 0.054). No statistically significant difference was found between HA and physical symptoms (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, psychological symptoms were most strongly associated with IR (ß = - 0.160), followed by SA (ß = - 0.129), SM (ß = - 0.069), DB (ß = - 0.031), HA (ß = - 0.026) and PA (ß = - 0.021). CONCLUSION: These results indicated the importance of identifying the association of HL with physical and psychological symptoms, and provided the evidence that lower HL may serve as a critical and independent risk factor for poor health outcomes. Meanwhile, to maintain students' desirable healthy status public health efforts for enhancing their HL level are urgently needed in adolescents.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Psicofisiológicos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514271

RESUMO

Background: Health literacy (HL) is an important factor in improving health inequalities in poor and marginalized groups. Assessing comprehensive HL is critical. In this study, we validated the use of a comprehensive short-form HL survey tool (HLS-SF12) and examined the determinants of HL among people in rural areas. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in July 2019 on 440 people residing in mountainous areas in Vietnam. Health literacy was measured using the HLS-SF12. Personal characteristics were also collected. We analyzed data using confirmatory factor analysis, internal consistency analysis, and regression analysis. Results: The questionnaire demonstrated a good construct validity with satisfactory goodness-of-fit indices and item-scale convergent validity. The tool was reliable and homogeneous with Cronbach's alpha = 0.79, with no floor/ceiling effects. People who were married had lower HL (regression coefficient B = -3.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -5.69, -0.56; p = 0.017) compared with those who never married. Higher education attainment (B = 3.41 to 10.44; p < 0.001), a better ability to pay for medication (B = 4.17 to 9.89; p < 0.001), and a tendency to view health-related TV/radio more often (B = 5.23 to 6.15; p < 0.001) were associated with higher HL. Conclusions: The HLS-SF12 is a valid survey tool for the evaluation of HL in rural populations. A number of personal characteristics were strongly associated with HL.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1220, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health literacy is defined as the cognitive and social skills that determine the motivation and ability of individuals to gain access to, understand and use information in ways that promote and maintain good health. A Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) is a toolkit with good reliability and validity. Accordingly, this study administered HLQ among older adults in China to examine its factor structure, reliability, homogeneity, and discriminant validity for use in understanding better the health literacy of older adults and determining corresponding measures. METHODS: Psychometric properties were examined based on the data collected via face-to-face interviews (N = 343). Tests included the difficulty level, composite scale reliability, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and Bayesian structural equation modeling (BSEM). RESULTS: The easiest scale to obtain a high score was "Social support for health" and the hardest, "Navigating the health care system" and "Appraisal of health information." Two one-factor models fitted well with no correlated residuals allowed. After model modification, the CFA fit statistics of the other seven scales were good. All HLQ scales were found to be homogenous, with a composite reliability ranging from 0.74 to 0.85. The nine-factor Bayesian structural equation model fitted the data well (Posterior-Predictive-P value = 0.670; 95% Confidence Interval for the difference between the observed and replicated Chi-square values = - 163.320, 102.750). CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese version of the HLQ has strong construct and content validity and high composite reliability when applied to older adults in Changsha City, China. Therefore, the nine-scale HLQ can now be administered to Chinese older adults, thereby providing a powerful approach to understanding the multidimensional area of health literacy.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , China , Estudos Transversais , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
9.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 174, 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395040

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A patient's health literacy is fundamental for navigating the health system and managing disease. This study aimed to compare the health literacy levels of patients with chronic retinal disease in Denmark. METHODS: This cross-sectional questionnaire study used the validated HLS-EU-Q16 questionnaire to determine the health literacy of 225 patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic macular edema (DME) or retinal vein occlusion (RVO), receiving intravitreal treatment at the retinal clinic, Zealand University Hospital, Denmark. Patients were consecutively included as participants for the study. All patients had the option of having the survey read aloud to them. RESULTS: Health literacy levels between the patient groups did not differ significantly, however, the proportion of patients with poor health literacy was high-65% of AMD patients, 73% of DME patients, and 63% of patients with RVO. CONCLUSIONS: Low health literacy of patients with retinal disease signify a need for more health literacy research in the field of retinal diseases, to secure that patients have the timely and appropriate knowledge and competencies to manage their condition.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/normas , Doenças Retinianas/psicologia , Acuidade Visual , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1151, 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Samoa is suffering from alarming rates of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). To address this epidemic, tackling health literacy is important. A qualitative study was conducted with the aim to explore health literacy in Samoa in relation to NCDs. METHODS: Six focus groups were conducted, with a total sample size of 73 participants aged over 18 years. The semi-structured interview guide was based on the conceptual model of the European Health Literacy project (HLS-EU). Data was translated, transcribed, coded, and categorized as part of the qualitative analysis. RESULTS: The analysis resulted in one overarching category and seven sub-categories based on 19 themes. It revealed that health literacy in Samoa is strongly influenced by the culture. Personal responsibility is lacking. The family circle is central to health in a community where support is provided through the church and local groupings. Basic knowledge of NCDs was present in the population, but a deeper understanding of chronic disease implications was lacking. Difficulties with regards to medication adherence for chronic diseases arose as a topic, and traditional healers are still strongly embedded in the local society. Finally, the health system's performance, especially primary care services at the local level, is suffering from the high burden of NCDs and has been challenged to respond to the needs of the community it serves. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study show how health literacy in Samoa is influenced by culture and suggest employing participatory, culture-sensitive, public health interventions which address the family as a whole, building on health literacy to address major public health problems like NCDs and remove barriers in the health system.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Características Culturais , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Samoa/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1122, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health Literacy (HL) is the knowledge and competence to access, understand, appraise, and apply health information for health judgment. We analyze for the first time HL level of Catalonia's population. Our objective was to assess HL of population in our area and to identify social determinants of HL in order to improve the strategies of the Healthcare Plan, aimed at establishing a person-centered system and reducing social inequalities in health. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study based on the Health Survey for Catalonia (ESCA, Enquesta de Salut de Catalunya), which included the 16 items of the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q16). The statements in the questionnaire cover three different health literacy domains: Health Care, Disease Prevention, and Health Promotion. HL was categorized in three levels: Sufficient, Problematic and Inadequate. Chi-square tests were performed to compare the percentages of subjects with adequate or inadequate HL across sociodemographic and health-related variables. Variables showing significant differences were included in a stepwise logistic regression to predict inadequate HL level. RESULTS: The questionnaire was administered to 2433 subjects aged between 15 and 98 years old (mean of 45.9 years, SD 18.0). Overall, 2059 subjects (84.6%) showed sufficient HL, 250 (10.3%) inadequate HL, and 124 (5.1%) problematic HL, with no significant differences between men and women (p = 0.070). A logistic regression analysis showed that low health literacy is associated with a lower level of education (OR 2.08, CI 95% 1.32-3.28, p = 0.002), low socioeconomic status (OR 2.11, CI 95% 1.42-3.15, p <  0.001) and a physical limitation to perform everyday activities (OR 2.50, CI 95% 1.34-4.66, p = 0.004). We also found a more modest association with low physical activity, having a self-perceived chronic disorder and performing preventive activities. CONCLUSIONS: Catalonia has a high percentage of subjects with sufficient HL. Education level, socioeconomic status and physical limitations were the factors with the strongest contribution to inadequate or problematic health literacy. Although these results are likely to be country-specific, the factors identified will allow policymakers of areas with similar socioeconomic profiles to identify groups with high risk of problematic or inadequate HL, which is essential for a successful patient-centered model of care.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Adulto Jovem
12.
Public Health ; 174: 74-82, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323600

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tobacco use and alcohol use have their origin in adolescence, and risky use of these substances is amongst the leading preventable causes of morbidity and mortality. Health literacy (HL) encompasses the skills that are decisive to make appropriate health decisions in this context. Given the paucity of evidence on the link between HL and adolescents' health behaviors, the present study examined overall HL and different components of HL and their associations with smoking and alcohol use among 13 to 17-year-old Austrian students. STUDY DESIGN: Data were obtained from a national survey carried out in Austria (N = 4219; 56% females) as part of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative cross-national study. METHODS: We tested two structural equation models, one including the overall HL scale as the predictor and one with the three subscales of HL 'finding,' 'understanding and appraising,' and 'applying' health-related information as predictors of smoking and alcohol use. RESULTS: Although overall HL was related to all indicators of adolescents' smoking and drinking, the three HL components had differential effects on these behaviors. The easier it was for the participants to 'understand and appraise' and 'apply' health-related information, the less frequently they had smoked and drunk alcohol and the less was the amount of alcohol they had consumed. Contrarily, the easier it was for the participants to 'find' information, the more they had smoked and drunk alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that availability of health-related information may be insufficient on its own to prevent or reduce risky substance use. This is of particular importance for the development and improvement of primary prevention programs targeting adolescent populations.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Áustria/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 504, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global burden of cardiovascular diseases is alarming which is intricately linked with health literacy. To what extent improvement in health literacy can lower down cardiovascular diseases occurrence has not yet properly documented. This study focused on assessing the knowledge and existing lifestyle behavior about cardiac diseases among university students. We further aimed to improve this awareness after imparting an educational intervention among undergraduate non-medical students to sensitize them about risk factors. METHOD: A pre and post approaches with cross sectional study design was conducted in University of Gujrat during April-September 2017. Using structured questionnaire comprising of response items about hypertension, heart attack, stroke and preventive practices, data was randomly collected from students (n = 100). Survey respondents were also given a lecture regarding cardiovascular diseases awareness and a post test evaluation was also conducted on same group of students. RESULTS: With response rate of 86.95%, mean age of participating students was 21.2 (SD ± 1.34) years. Female students comprised of 53% out of which 57% were from rural background. Assessment of cardiovascular disease knowledge revealed maximum mean pre test score 30.53 (SD ± 7.61) and for post test 40.65 (SD ± 4.34) (p < 0.00). Mean score for using preventive practices was 13.02 (SD ± 2.97) for pre test whereas for post test it was 14.09 (SD ± 2.90) (p < 0.00). Intervention impact was significant on hypertension related complications (p < 0.000), symptoms of heart attack (p < 0.000), symptoms of stroke (p < 0.000) and preventive practices (p < 0.00). CONCLUSION: Findings presented here show a fair degree of awareness among university students about study title prior to any educational intervention. However, by attending educational session, a significant increase in the positive lifestyle behavior and knowledge was noticed. We conclude that health promotion activities in educational institutes to sensitize students can bring rational changes in Pakistani society to promote healthy behavior and minimize cardiovascular disease risks.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Paquistão , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 523, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349842

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health literacy is strongly associated with health outcomes and is important for health policy and service delivery. Low health literacy was reported in 59% of Australian adults, however, there is no national data on the health literacy of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) peoples. The ATSI population in Australia experience a notable gap in health outcomes compared with non-Indigenous Australians which is due, in part to a higher prevalence of chronic diseases. The health outcome gap is more pronounced in rural and remote locations. This study aims to establish the health literacy profile of ATSI adults with chronic disease living in remote North-West Queensland Australia, and to investigate associations between the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) domains and self-reported chronic disease and demographic characteristics. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional design, 200 ATSI adults with a diagnosis of chronic disease/s (cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and/or chronic kidney disease) were recruited from two sites with the assistance of Aboriginal Health Workers. Data were collected using the HLQ, a multidimensional 44 item instrument to assess nine domains of health literacy. Demographic and health data were also collected. Analysis of variance using backwards modelling was used to determine predictors of health literacy. RESULTS: Participants were mostly male (53.5%) and aged between 19 and 89 years. The most prevalent chronic disease was cardiovascular disease (74%) followed by diabetes (67.5%). More than half (62%) had two or more chronic diseases. There was at least one independent predicator for each of the nine health literacy domains. Age, number of chronic diseases, gender, and level of education were all highly significant predictors of health literacy. CONCLUSION: Improved health literacy will enable individuals to take an active role in their health. Understanding the health literacy of ATSI adults is a crucial first step. Our findings can assist Australian healthcare organisations to review their health literacy responsiveness and examine ways to improve patients' needs and health capabilities to better support people to engage in effective self-management for chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/etnologia , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Queensland/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 484, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety are two of the leading causes of disease burden in low-to-middle income coutnries. The World Health Organisation has engaged in a programme of scaling-up mental health services, but significant challenges remain. Improving mental health literacy in children and young people, a core part of recent, global health strategies has the potential to address some of these challenges. The study aims to co-develop and feasibility test, a culturally-appropriate toolkit to promote depression and anxiety focused mental health literacy and self-management skills in Indonesia, for children aged 11-15 years. METHODS: A mixed methods study comprising four phases. Through a systematic review of existing evidence, phase 1 will review approaches to improve mental health literacy and self-management in South East Asia and critically review current evidence regarding intervention effect. Phase 2 will explore stakeholders' views on depression, anxiety and mental health more broadly and identify priorities for the intervention through the use of semi-structured interviews and/or focus groups with policy makers, clinicians, teachers, adolescent service users, carers and young people aged 11-15. Phase 3 will comprise iterative workshops with local stakeholders to present our findings and co-produce a testable, culturally appropriate toolkit to promote mental health literacy and depression/anxiety focused self-management in 11-15 year olds in Java, Indonesia. Phase 4 comprises feasibility evaluation of our developed intervention via nine in-depth case studies (Jakarta, Bogor and Magelang). We will examine the impact, acceptability and feasibility of our prototype intervention and produce evidence-based guidelines for wider implementation. DISCUSSION: Tools to support mental health literacy and self-management are a low cost way in which mental health services in LMICs can attempt to address the burden of anxiety and depression amongst children and young people. However, this is an underexplored area in Indonesia. Working closely with local stakeholders, this study will design and undertake feasibility evaluation of co-produced mental health literacy and anxiety and depression focussed interactive self-management tools. This abstract has also been published on the funders website (UK Research and Innovation. Improving Mental Health Literacy Among Young People aged 12-15 years in Indonesia 2019).


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Saúde Mental , Adolescente , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Criança , Competência Cultural , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Indonésia , Masculino , Projetos de Pesquisa , Autogestão
16.
Public Health ; 174: 18-21, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301551

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe the health information preferences in middle-aged Japanese workers based on health literacy (HL) levels and presence of medications. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. METHODS: We performed a web-based questionnaire survey with Japanese workers aged below 60 years. HL was assessed using the total score of communicative skills (five items) and critical skills (four items) from the 14-item Health Literacy Scale. Regarding their health information preferences, participants were asked about the health information they wanted (four items), could easily understand (six items), or easily use (two items) and answered on a 4-point scale (strongly agree/agree/disagree/strongly disagree). The percentages of the affirmative responses (strongly agree or agree) were compared among tertiles based on the HL score. RESULTS: We obtained data from a total of 3387 volunteers, of whom 510 participants were on either antihypertensive, lipid-lowering, or antidiabetic drugs. Compared with the high HL and middle HL groups, low HL had fewer affirmative responses to most health information items. Health information items received 70% of affirmative responses even in the low HL level. They were visually shown by figures or pictures, highlighted by colors for important points, could be read in 1-2 min, and were accessed on the Internet, regardless of the presence of medications. Additionally, the explanation for mechanisms of medications or lifestyle to prevent or improve diseases showed high affinity in all HL levels, only for those on medications. CONCLUSIONS: This result generates a hypothesis that low HL individuals have a low interest in health information. Our data showed several possible forms of health information with high affinity based on HL levels that would help plan future population approaches.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(7): e13844, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the emerging era of digitalization and electronic health, skin cancer-related apps represent useful tools to support dermatologic consultation and examination. Yet, little is known about how patients perceive the value of such apps. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate patient attitudes and their awareness toward skin cancer-related apps. METHODS: A cross-sectional study including 200 patients from the oncological outpatient unit was conducted at the University Hospital (LMU Munich, Germany) between September and December 2018. Patients were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire on the popularity and usefulness of health-related and skin cancer-related apps. A descriptive analysis was performed with the expression of categorical variables as frequencies and percentages. For continuous variables, the median and range were indicated. Contingency tables and chi-square tests were performed to investigate associations between sociodemographic data and selected items of the questionnaire. RESULTS: A total of 98.9% (195/197) of patients had never used skin cancer-related apps or could not remember. In 49.7% (93/187) of cases, patients were unsure about the usefulness of skin cancer apps, whereas 42.6% (78/183) thought that skin cancer apps could supplement or support the professional skin examination performed by a physician. However, 47.9% (90/188) were interested in acquiring more information by their dermatologists about skin cancer apps. Young age (P=.002), male gender (P=.02), a previous history of melanoma (P=.004), and higher educational level (P=.002) were significantly associated with a positive attitude. Nevertheless, 55.9% (105/188) preferred a printed patient brochure on skin cancer to downloading and using an app. CONCLUSIONS: The experience and knowledge of skin cancer-related apps was surprisingly low in this population, although there was a high general interest in more information about such apps. Printed patient brochures were the preferred information source.


Assuntos
Aplicativos Móveis/normas , Pacientes/psicologia , Higiene da Pele/instrumentação , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alfabetização em Saúde/normas , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aplicativos Móveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene da Pele/métodos , Higiene da Pele/normas , Neoplasias Cutâneas/prevenção & controle , Neoplasias Cutâneas/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Sangyo Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 61(4): 123-132, 2019 Jul 25.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, health literacy is considered important for healthy ageing. However, to our knowledge, no study has investigated comprehensive health literacy in Japanese employees. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine comprehensive health literacy in employees of company A, a Japanese railway company, and to determine the association between health literacy and behavior regarding health checkups and health counseling in the employees. METHODS: A representative sample of company A with 541 employees was selected through random sampling. We divided the sample into 20 groups based on gender, age, night shift work, and administrative position. These groups were compared with the employee distribution of company A. The self-administered Japanese version of the 47-item European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire was distributed to the participants via mail from May 1, 2017, to May 30, 2017. This questionnaire consists of three domains, each with its own index: health care health literacy (health care health literacy index [HC-HL]), disease prevention health literacy (disease prevention health literacy index [DP-HL]), and health promotion health literacy (health promotion health literacy index [HP-HL]). Additionally, general health literacy (general health literacy index [GEN-HL]) was also assessed. Statistical analyses were performed to identify the association between health literacy and behavior regarding health checkups and health counseling in the employees in company A. Furthermore, we compared the health literacy of the present sample with that of samples in past studies by Nakayama et al. (2015) and Goto et al. (2018). RESULTS: A total of 417 questionnaires were returned. The health literacy scores were calculated based on the valid responses of 381 participants. The mean health literacy scores in company A for GEN-HL, HC-HL, DP-HL, and HP-HL were 25.1, 24.6, 27.9, and 22.8, respectively. The mean health literacy scores in the survey by Nakayama et al. for GEN-HL, HC-HL, DP-HL, and HP-HL were 25.3, 25.7, 22.7, and 25.5, respectively, and those in the survey by Goto et al. were 29.79, 29.23, 32.52, and 27.60, respectively. There was no significant difference between participant characteristics and GEN-HL scores. In contrast, there was a significant difference in the association between GEN-HL and health counseling in terms of the number of times health counseling was provided in the workplace. However, there was no significant difference between those who did not wish to receive health counseling and GEN -HL scores. CONCLUSION: The health literacy in railway company A was low. The results of this study and those of past studies did not demonstrate similar trends for health literacy. Additionally, GEN-HL scores were likely to increase if the number of people who wished to receive health counseling increased.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde do Trabalhador , Exame Físico/psicologia , Transportes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Alfabetização em Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110560, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31175914

RESUMO

The procedures of risk assessment related to substances consumed or used by consumers (e.g., food additives, cleaning products) are highly complex and there exists some controversy between experts in regards to the uncertainty linked to it. This contributes to the well documented divergence in experts and lay-people's judgments, particularly for synthetic or man-made chemicals. By investigating lay-people's knowledge gaps and misconceptions related to toxicology, we hope to contribute to facilitating the communication between experts and the lay public. For this, a large-scale survey measuring knowledge of toxicological principles, trust in regulators, the irrational fear of chemicals and health concern was distributed in eight European countries (Total: N = 5631). Results suggest that large gaps exist regarding people's knowledge of toxicological principles and that a lack of knowledge is significantly associated with higher levels of chemophobia. Particular attention for future communication efforts should be placed on the stigma associated with the terminology, principles of dose-response associations and the comparability of substances of natural and synthetic origin.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Toxicologia/educação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Análise de Componente Principal , Análise de Regressão , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Confiança , Adulto Jovem
20.
Health Serv Res ; 54(6): 1283-1294, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31172520

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To understand public attitudes about and recommendations to address antibiotic overuse by employing public deliberation (a method for eliciting informed input on value-laden issues). DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Participants in 24 Community Deliberation groups (CD; n = 263), four Citizens' Panel groups (CP; n = 96), and a control group (n = 348). Data were collected in 2012 in four U.S. STUDY DESIGN: Using mixed methods, we analyzed quantitative and qualitative data from a randomized control trial. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Using pre/postdeliberation surveys, we compared CD and CP participant attitude changes regarding antibiotic use to the control group. We analyzed deliberation transcripts using qualitative techniques to provide context for survey results. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Compared to control group participants, CD and CP participants had a larger postdeliberation shift in attitudes toward support of government limits on when doctors can prescribe antibiotics. Participants described unawareness about antibiotic overuse and called for education. When discussing prescription limits, participants debated tensions between preserving patient/doctor autonomy and protecting society from antibiotic-related harms. Participants saw patient, physician, and government roles in antibiotic stewardship policies/programs. CONCLUSION: When informed about individual and social consequences of antibiotic overuse, patients may be more receptive to antibiotic prescription limits. Community-physician-government partnerships are needed to create solutions.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos/psicologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Opinião Pública , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
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