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2.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 53, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Dentistry (BREALD-30) administered to adolescents. METHODS: The study included 750 adolescents: 375 aged 12 years and 375 aged 15-19 years, attending public and private schools in Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, Brazil, in 2017. Reliability was measured based on internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Convergent validity was measured based on correlations between BREALD-30 and Functional Literacy Indicator scores. Divergent validity was measured by comparing BREALD-30 scores with sociodemographic variables. For predictive validity, the association between BREALD-30 scores and the presence of cavitated carious lesions was tested using a multiple logistic regression model. All statistical tests were performed with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: BREALD-30 showed good internal consistency for the 12 year olds and 15 to19 year olds (Cronbach's alpha = 0.871 and 0.834, respectively) and good test-retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.898 and 0.974; kappa = 0.804 and 0.808, respectively]. Moreover, item-total correlation was satisfactory for all items. BREALD-30 had convergent validity with the Functional Literacy Indicator for 12 year olds (rs = 0.558, p < 0.001) and for 15 to 19 year olds (rs = 0.652, p < 0.001). Participants with higher oral health literacy levels who attended private schools (p < 0.001), belonged to economic classes A and B2 (p < 0.001), and who had parents with higher education levels (p < 0.001) were included, indicating the divergent validity of the BREALD-30. Participants with lower BREALD-30 scores were more likely to have cavitated carious lesions [12 year olds: odds ratio (OR) = 2.37; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.48-3.80; 15 to 19 year olds: OR = 1.96; 95%CI 1.24-3.11]. CONCLUSIONS: BREALD-30 shows satisfactory psychometric properties for use on Brazilian adolescents and can be applied as a fast, simple, and reliable measure of oral health literacy.


Assuntos
Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/instrumentação , Inquéritos de Saúde Bucal/normas , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Saúde Bucal/educação , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil , Criança , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Setor Privado , Psicometria , Setor Público , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto Jovem
4.
Work ; 63(3): 447-456, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256101

RESUMO

Mobile technology has revolutionised how we work. It is now relatively easy to work anywhere and anytime, but this has placed the onus is on mobile (or flexible) workers to set up their own work environment for comfort and ease of use. Vision is an important driver of posture, and hence visual ergonomics principles are integral for setting up digital devices. If mobile workers do not have visual ergonomics knowledge, or are unable to apply visual ergonomics knowledge to appropriately set up their work environment, then they are at risk of developing visual-related occupational health issues due to exposure to adverse physical work environments. To address this potential health care issue, we propose the introduction of Visual Ergonomics Health Literacy. This would provide mobile workers (including school children) with the knowledge and skills to set up their work environment for comfort and ease of use, wherever they work. It is important to address this issue now before we have a widespread epidemic of discomfort and injury from not applying sound visual ergonomics principles to work environments.


Assuntos
Ergonomia/normas , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Interface Usuário-Computador , Ergonomia/métodos , Humanos , Local de Trabalho/normas
5.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 72(3): 700-706, 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of educational intervention in the adherence to self-care activities and functional health literacy and numeracy in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted in two units of the Brazilian Family Health Strategy, involving people with diabetes. Educational interventions occurred in three meetings, weekly, lasting 60 minutes on average. Data were collected using the Questionário de Autocuidado com o Diabetes, before and after the interventions. RESULTS: 55 people participated in the study. After the interventions, the greatest difference for a better adherence to self-care was the item "inspecting the inside of the shoes before putting them on", with 3.29 days in the week delta at analytical level. The worst was "taking insulin shots as recommended", with 0.00 days a week delta at basic level. CONCLUSION: Educational interventions had a positive effect on adherence to self-care and functional literacy in health.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Autocuidado/métodos , Idoso , Brasil , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Insulina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 8(1): 61, 2019 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health literacy is important for patients' comprehension of the health and medical messages conveyed to them and their meaning for them so that they can better manage their health. The aim of the study was to examine the level of health literacy within the elderly population. The hypothesis was that health literacy would be inadequate, and related to demographic variables. METHOD: Sixty men and women over the age of 65 who volunteered to participate in the study completed a 13-item health literacy questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall, the level of health literacy among the participants was mostly inadequate. They reported difficulty in reading medical material in Hebrew and understanding the doctor, thus requiring assistance (20%); difficulty in reading medical documents, completing medical forms and understanding medical terms; difficulty in reading the leaflet attached to medications (33%), test results (40%) and medical information written in English (66%) and difficulty searching the internet for information (53.3%). The level of health literacy was associated with education while the best profile for adequate health literacy was for those who spoke Hebrew and completed secondary education. CONCLUSIONS: Medical teams have an obligation to be alert and attentive to the level of health literacy of elderly patients and to modify communication and information to an accommodating degree, so that elderly patients can better manage their health.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 128(11): 1013-1018, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31195809

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare eHealth literacy-one's perception of one's ability to use the Internet for health care-among otolaryngology patients in 3 geographic settings of the same department. SETTING: An academic otolaryngology department. METHOD: Patients' opinions and perceptions of their eHealth literacy were assessed with a validated paper survey administered in the summer of 2017. RESULTS: Of 381 asked, 351 people completed the survey, 149 at a university town teaching hospital clinic (group A), 101 at a nearby rural clinic (group B), and 101 at a remote rural clinic (group C). Mean scores were 30.80, 28.97, and 29.03 for groups A, B, and C, respectively. The overall mean was 29.76 ± 5.97. Three surveys reported the minimum score of 8, and 26 reported the maximum score of 40. Results were statistically significantly different among all sites (P = .001), between groups A and B (P = .027), and between groups A and C (P = .0175). Women reported higher eHealth literacy (30.13 ± 6.27) than men (28.87 ± 5.11) (P = .045). Participant age and role (patient or parent of a patient) were statistically insignificant. Mean scores were similar to those previously reported in other patient populations. CONCLUSIONS: Otolaryngology patients in a university town had better eHealth literacy than patients in more rural settings, suggesting that online medical resources and access points are less likely to be useful in rural populations.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Internet/normas , Otolaringologia/métodos , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(7)2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248007

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Oral anticoagulation (OAC) is widely used in daily clinical practice worldwide for various indications. We aimed to explore the perception of Bulgarian clinicians about their patients' attitude and knowledge of long-term OAC, prescribed for atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or known deep venous thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary embolism (PE). Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study that involved 226 specialists: 187 (82.7%) cardiologists, 23 (10.2%) neurologists, and 16 (7.1%) vascular surgeons. They filled in a questionnaire, specially designed for our study, answering various questions regarding OAC treatment in their daily clinical practice. Results: The mean prescription rate of OACs in AF patients was 80.3% and in DVT/PE-88.6%. One hundred and eighty-seven (82.7%) of the participants stated they see their patients on OAC at least once per month. According to more than one-third of the inquired clinicians, the patients did not understand well enough the provided information concerning net clinical benefit of OAC treatment. About 68% of the clinicians declared that their patients would prefer a "mutual" approach, discussing with the physician the OAC options and taking together the final decision, whereas according to 43 (19.0%), the patients preferred the physician to take a decision for them. Patients' OAC treatment had been interrupted at least once within the last year due to a physician's decision by 178 (78.8%) of the participants and the most common reason was elective surgery. The most influential factors for a patient's choice of OAC were the need of a specific diet to be kept, intake frequency, and possible adverse reactions. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a clinician's continuous medical education, shared decision-making, and appropriate local strategies for improved awareness of AF/DVT/PE patients are key factors for improvement of OAC management.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/normas , Alfabetização em Saúde/normas , Pacientes/psicologia , Percepção , Médicos/psicologia , Administração Oral , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Bulgária , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 545, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of health literacy on tuberculosis patients has not been evaluated in China, in part because few special health literacy measurements exist. METHODS: A three-step design process was used: (1) Scale construction: Based on the model of revised Bloom's taxonomy, the item-pool was drafted from a literature review, focus group discussion, and in-depth interviews. In addition, a Delphi survey was used in order to select items for inclusion in the scales; (2) Pilot study: Acceptability and clarity were tested with 60 tuberculosis patients; and (3) Psychometric testing: Validity analysis includes content validity, construct validity, and discriminative validity. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient, split-half reliability, and test-retest method were used to assess reliability. Finally, a receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted to generate a cut-off point. RESULTS: The final scale had 29 items with four domains. The item level Content Validity Index ranged from 0.70 to 1.0, and the scale level Content Validity Index was 0.95. The mean score among the lowest 27% group was significantly lower than that those of the highest 27% group (p < 0.01), which supports adequate discriminant validity. Explanatory factor analysis produced a clear four-factor construct, explaining 47.254% of the total variance. Factor 1 and Factor 2 were consistent with read and memorize TB-related words; Factor 3 was associated with understand the meaning of the health education leaflets and examine if TB patients can apply the correct approach to correct context; Factor 4 was related to the ability of TB patient to calculate and identify what unspecified assumptions are included in known conditions. The confirmatory factory analysis results confirmed that a four-factor model was an acceptable fit to the data, with a goodness-of-fit index = 0.930, adjusted goodness of fit index = 0.970, root mean square error of approximation = 0.069, and χ2/df = 2.153. The scale had good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Additionally, the receiver operating characteristic analysis indicated that the cut-off point for the instrument was set at 45 and 35. CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese Health Literacy scale for Tuberculosis has good reliability and validity, and it could be used for measuring the health literacy of Chinese patients with tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Psicometria , Tuberculose/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , China , Feminino , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Curva ROC , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
10.
J Athl Train ; 54(5): 541-549, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31058540

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Little is known about how educating runners may correct common misconceptions surrounding heat safety and hydration strategies. OBJECTIVE: To investigate (1) beliefs and knowledge about heat safety and hydration strategies among recreational runners and (2) the effectiveness of an educational video in optimizing performance in the heat. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Survey. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 2091 (25.1%) of 8319 runners registered for the 2017 Falmouth Road Race completed at least 1 of the 3 administered surveys. INTERVENTION(S): A 5.3-minute video and an 11-question survey regarding heat safety and hydration strategies were developed, validated, and implemented. The survey was e-mailed to registrants 9 weeks before the race (PRERACE), after they viewed the video (POSTEDU), and the afternoon of the race (POSTRACE). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The total score for responses to 2 multiple choice questions and nine 5-point (response range = strongly agree to strongly disagree) Likert-scale questions. RESULTS: The PRERACE results showed that more than 90% of respondents recognized the importance of staying hydrated beginning the day before the planned activity, correctly identified that dark color urine is not a sign of euhydration, and believed that dehydration may increase the risk for heat syncope. Conversely, fewer than 50% of respondents knew the number of days required to achieve heat acclimatization, the role of sweat-rate calculation in optimizing one's hydration strategy, or the risk of water intoxication from drinking too much water. An improvement in survey score from PRERACE to POSTEDU was observed (mean difference = 2.00; 95% confidence interval = 1.68, 2.33; P < .001) among runners who watched the video, and 73% of the improvement in their scores was retained from POSTEDU to POSTRACE (mean difference = -0.54; 95% confidence interval = -0.86, -0.21; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The video successfully shifted runners' beliefs and knowledge to enable them to better optimize their performance in the heat.


Assuntos
Desidratação , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Corrida , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Cultura , Desidratação/etiologia , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Desidratação/psicologia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Corrida/educação , Corrida/fisiologia , Corrida/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Água
11.
Nutrients ; 11(4)2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959958

RESUMO

Nutrition education programs aim to improve food literacy domains covering the planning and management, selection, preparation and cooking and eating of healthy food. Reviews indicate programs are effective but acknowledge challenges with evaluation of community focused delivery. Food Sensations® for Adults (FSA) is a free four-week nutrition and cooking program targeted at low-to-middle income Western Australians who would like to improve their food literacy. The aim of this research was assess how effective FSA is in changing food literacy and selected dietary behaviours. Statistical analysis identified a significant increase in postprogram scores for domains of planning and management, selection and preparation using factor scores (n = 1092). The proportion of the score increase in the postprogram scores compared to the preprogram scores was 10⁻25%. There was also a significant increase in self-reported fruit and vegetable serve intake, equating to an average increase of » serve/day of fruit and ½ serve/day of vegetables. Of those classified as low food literacy, 61⁻74% improved postprogram scores in the three domains. FSA is effective in improving food literacy and dietary behaviours and the results add to the evidence base as to how effective these programs can be and for whom they should be targeted for future success.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Comportamento Alimentar , Educação em Saúde/métodos , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Palliat Care ; 18(1): 37, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Person-centred palliative care poses high demands on professionals and patients regarding appropriate and effective communication and informed decision-making. This is even more so for patients with limited health literacy, as they lack the necessary skills to find, understand and apply information about their health and healthcare. Recognizing patients with limited health literacy and adapting the communication, information provision and decision-making process to their skills and needs is essential to achieve desired person-centred palliative care. The aim of this study is to summarize available strategies and tools for healthcare providers towards successful communication, information provision and/or shared decision-making in supporting patients with limited health literacy in hospital-based palliative care in Western countries. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted. First, databases PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched. Next, grey literature was examined using several online databases and by contacting national experts. In addition, all references of included studies were checked. RESULTS: Five studies were included that showed that there are face-to-face, written as well as online strategies available for healthcare providers to support communication, information provision and, to a lesser extent, (shared) decision-making in palliative care for patients with limited health literacy. Strategies that were mentioned several times were: teach-back method, jargon-free communication and developing and testing materials with patients with limited health literacy, among others. Two supporting tools were found: patient decision aids and question prompt lists. CONCLUSIONS: To guarantee high quality person-centred palliative care, the role of health literacy should be considered. Although there are several strategies available for healthcare providers to facilitate such communication, only few tools are offered. Moreover, the strategies and tools appear not specific for the setting of palliative care, but seem helpful for providers to support the communication, information provision and decision making with patients with limited health literacy in general. Future research should focus on which strategies or tools are (most) effective in supporting patients with limited health literacy in palliative care, and the implementation of these strategies and tools in practice.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Alfabetização em Saúde/normas , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Comunicação , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Relações Profissional-Paciente
13.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 17(2): eAO4405, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30970045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To prepare an instrument to evaluate health literacy with regard to adherence to drug treatment among diabetics, identify the validity of its content, and estimate its reliability. METHODS: Pilot study, with the following stages of instrument construction: literature review, content validation, reliability estimation (internal consistency/Cronbach's alpha and reproducibility/Kappa). RESULTS: The validity of content was completed and presented alpha=0.77 and Kappa values ranged from 0.31 to 1.00. CONCLUSION: The instrument was approved regarding content validity, presented acceptable internal consistency and reproducibility. However, when applied, measurement errors it can produce must be considered.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Alfabetização em Saúde/normas , Adesão à Medicação , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Psicometria , Valores de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Complement Ther Med ; 43: 176-180, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of Complementary Medicines (CMs) in community women; to identify which CM approaches people perceived as the most beneficial; and the impact of Eating Disorder (ED) symptoms on one's perception of treatment. DESIGN & SETTING: Electronic and paper-based surveys were distributed to a pre-existing cohort of community women (n = 100) aged 18 years and over. The survey included questions about the perception of CMs' benefits in EDs regarding a vignette of a women with Anorexia Nervosa (AN), and whether CMs helped the participant's own personal health. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The mental health literacy of women with regards to the recognition, evidence-based and CM treatment, and outcomes of a fictional person with AN. RESULTS: Exercise, yoga, meditation, relaxation, vitamins and minerals, massage and creative therapy were perceived as very helpful for someone with AN and for general health. Excluding meditation, there was no significant relationship between the levels of ED symptoms and perceived helpfulness of the therapies. Positive benefits were perceived for the use of CMs for AN. CONCLUSION: Considering the positive regard for these approaches, empirical studies are required to test their efficacy in the treatment of EDs.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Anorexia Nervosa/tratamento farmacológico , Anorexia Nervosa/fisiopatologia , Anorexia Nervosa/psicologia , Anorexia Nervosa/terapia , Terapias Complementares/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Exercício/fisiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Massagem/psicologia , Meditação/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/administração & dosagem , Percepção/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Ioga/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
AIDS Behav ; 23(11): 3152-3164, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929150

RESUMO

This study evaluated a computer-delivered HIV and antiretroviral treatment education program in adults (N = 102) living with detectable HIV viral loads (> 200 copies/mL). The self-paced program provided immediate feedback for responses and financial incentives for responding correctly. The program was divided into three courses and a test of content from all three courses was delivered before and after participants completed each course. Test scores on the content delivered in Courses 1, 2 and 3 improved only after participants completed training on the relevant course. Initial test scores were positively correlated with health literacy and academic achievement; were negatively correlated with viral load; and were lowest for participants living in poverty. Education, academic achievement, and health literacy were related to how much participants learned following each course. Computer-based education is a convenient, effective approach to promoting an understanding of HIV and its treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Adesão à Medicação , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Compreensão , Computadores , Tecnologia Educacional , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Pobreza , Carga Viral
16.
HEC Forum ; 31(3): 177-199, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895409

RESUMO

A significant proportion of the U.S. population exhibits low health literacy. Evidence suggests that low health literacy is correlated with higher medical costs and poorer health outcomes. Even more concerning, evidence suggests that low health literacy threatens patients' and families' autonomy and exacerbates injustices in patients who are already vulnerable to difficulties navigating the health care system. There is also, however, increasing evidence that health literacy interventions-including initiatives such as plain language practices and teach-back-improve comprehension and usefulness of health care information. I show how health literacy best practices can enhance the work of clinical ethicists in their primary roles of policy, consultation, and education. In the final section, I suggest ways health literacy initiatives may be enhanced with insights from clinical ethicists.


Assuntos
Ética Médica/educação , Alfabetização em Saúde/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Assistência à Saúde/normas , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Humanos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925706

RESUMO

Health literacy (HL) is an essential component of various literacies mentioned in the field of health and education, including cultural, technological, media and scientific literacies. It is important for motivating higher consumer engagement. We aimed to review previous studies of HL in Australia to inform future studies, extend current knowledge and further enhance HL. Using search strings, a systematic search of four databases (i.e., MEDLINE; Embase; CINAHL and Eric) was carried out. A Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) based search strategy led to identification of a total of N = 9696 records, that were further screened for inclusion in the review. The review findings were categorized into three major themes: (1) HL and health numeracy; (2) contrast of: knowledge deficiency, knowledge gained, problems of current health care system and (3) HL measurement methods and its domains. The findings from this scoping review show a dearth of measurement tools with sound psychometric properties for assessing HL. The findings also reveal low levels of HL in consumers which is in turn affecting health-related behaviors, utilization of health services and navigation of the health system. More recent developments have tried to integrate vital aspects, including introduction of applications to increase HL and exploring HL in Aboriginal communities.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Alfabetização em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Grupos Populacionais , Psicometria
18.
Br J Gen Pract ; 69(681): e279-e286, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cellulitis is a painful infection of the skin and underlying tissues, commonly affecting the lower leg. Approximately one-third of people experience recurrence. Patients' ability to recover from cellulitis or prevent recurrence is likely to be influenced by their understanding of the condition. AIM: To explore patients' perceptions of cellulitis, and their information needs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Mixed-methods study comprising semi-structured, face-to-face interviews and a cross-sectional survey, recruiting through primary and secondary care, and advertising. METHOD: Adults aged ≥18 years with a history of cellulitis were invited to take part in a survey, qualitative interview, or both. RESULTS: In all, 30 interviews were conducted between August 2016 and July 2017. Qualitative data highlighted a low awareness of cellulitis before the first episode, uncertainty about when it had been diagnosed, concern/surprise at the severity of cellulitis, and a perceived insufficient information provision. People were surprised that they had never heard of cellulitis and that they had not received advice or leaflets giving self-care information. Some sought information from the internet and found this confusing.A total of 240 surveys were completed (response rate 17%). These showed that, although many participants had received information on the treatment of cellulitis (60.0%, n = 144), they often reported receiving no information about causes (60.8%, n = 146) or prevention of recurrence (73.3%, n = 176). CONCLUSION: There is a need to provide information for people with cellulitis, particularly in regard to naming their condition, the management of acute episodes, and how to reduce the risk of recurrences.


Assuntos
Celulite (Flegmão) , Gerenciamento Clínico , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Prevenção Secundária/métodos , Adulto , Celulite (Flegmão)/diagnóstico , Celulite (Flegmão)/terapia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/métodos
19.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0209222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753195

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the local levels of vulnerability among patients with Type-II diabetes (T2DM) in Tianjin. The study was aimed at curbing the rise of T2DM in cities. METHODS: 229 participants living with T2DM were purposively sampled from hospitals in Tianjin. Collected data were coded and analysed following well-established thematic analysis principles. RESULTS: Twelve themes involving 29 factors were associated with diabetes patients' vulnerability: 1. Financial constraints (Low Income, Unemployment, No Medical Insurance/Low ratio reimbursement); 2. Severity of disease (Appearance of symptoms, complications, co-morbidities, high BMI, poor disease control); 3. Health literacy (No/Low/Wrong knowledge of health literacy); 4. Health beliefs (Perceived diabetes indifferently, Passively Acquire Health Knowledge, Distrust of primary health services); 5. Medical environment (Needs not met by Medical Services); 6. Life restrictions (Daily Life, Occupational Restriction); 7. Lifestyle change (Adhering to traditional or unhealthy diet, Lack of exercise, Low-quality sleep); 8. Time poverty (Healthcare-seeking behaviours were limited by work, Healthcare-seeking behaviours were limited by family issues); 9. Mental Condition (Negative emotions towards diabetes, Negative emotions towards life); 10. Levels of Support (Lack of community support, Lack of support from Friends and Family, Lack of Social Support); 11. Social integration (Low Degree of Integration, Belief in Suffering Alone); 12. Experience of transitions (Diet, Dwelling Environment). CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, specific interventions targeting individual patients, family, community and society are needed to improve diabetes control, as well as patients' mental health care and general living conditions.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , China , Cidades , Feminino , Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Serviços de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Apoio Social
20.
J Med Internet Res ; 21(2): e12525, 2019 02 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30794206

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A plethora of health literacy instruments was developed over the decades. They usually start with experts curating passages of text or word lists, followed by psychometric validation and revision based on test results obtained from a sample population. This process is costly and it is difficult to customize for new usage scenarios. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop and evaluate a framework for dynamically creating test instruments that can provide a focused assessment of patients' health literacy. METHODS: A health literacy framework and scoring method were extended from the vocabulary knowledge test to accommodate a wide range of item difficulties and various degrees of uncertainty in the participant's answer. Web-based tests from Amazon Mechanical Turk users were used to assess reliability and validity. RESULTS: Parallel forms of our tests showed high reliability (correlation=.78; 95% CI 0.69-0.85). Validity measured as correlation with an electronic health record comprehension instrument was higher (.47-.61 among 3 groups) than 2 existing tools (Short Assessment of Health Literacy-English, .38-.43; Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, .34-.46). Our framework is able to distinguish higher literacy levels that are often not measured by other instruments. It is also flexible, allowing customizations to the test the designer's focus on a particular interest in a subject matter or domain. The framework is among the fastest health literacy instrument to administer. CONCLUSIONS: We proposed a valid and highly reliable framework to dynamically create health literacy instruments, alleviating the need to repeat a time-consuming process when a new use scenario arises. This framework can be customized to a specific need on demand and can measure skills beyond the basic level.


Assuntos
Alfabetização em Saúde/métodos , Psicometria/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
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