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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 15951, 2022 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36153428

RESUMO

The development of functional protein production systems using transgenic plants as hosts has been rapidly progressing in recent years. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) has been studied as one such host, and it has been reported that the biomass of lettuce per area and target protein expression level can be increased by optimizing the cultivation conditions. Therefore, we investigated methods to minimize the input light energy per target protein to reduce production costs. Herein, we examined the yield of a nontoxic B subunit of Stx2e (Stx2eB) from transgenic lettuce under various cultivation conditions. Stx2eB acts as a vaccine against swine edema disease. The effects of photon flux densities (PPFDs), photoperiod, and light source on Stx2eB production were examined and the findings suggested that 400 µmol m-2 s-1, 24 h, and white LED lamps, respectively, contributed to energy-efficient Stx2eB production. In addition, Stx2eB was produced 1.4 times more efficiently per unit area time using a high plant density (228.5 plants m-2) than a common density (30.4 plants m-2). The findings of the present study can facilitate the development of energy-efficient and low-cost production processes for vaccine protein production, considering temporal and spatial perspectives.


Assuntos
Edematose Suína , Animais , Edema , Alface/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Suínos
2.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274319, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36170262

RESUMO

The ZIP protein (ZRT, the IRT-like protein) is an important metal transporter that transports Zn, Fe, and other divalent metal ions in plants. In this study, we identified 20 ZIP genes in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). We used bioinformatics methods and renamed them according to their E value in hmmsearch. We also analyzed their gene structure, chromosomal location, constructed a phylogenetic tree, conserved motifs, performed synonymous analysis and responses to abiotic stresses. The results show that these LsZIP genes have 3-11 exons and were distributed unequally on 8 of the 9 chromosomes in lettuce. Based on phylogenetic analyses, the LsZIP gene family can be divided into three subfamilies, and the LsZIP genes within the same subfamily shared similar gene structure. The LsZIP genes contain 12 Motifs, of which Motif1 to Motif8 are widely distributed in group Ⅰ. Furthermore, the LsZIP gene contains numerous hormones and anti-stress response elements. Real-time quantitative PCR demonstrated that most LsZIP genes is up-regulated under the elemental stress in this experiment, indicating that they are positively regulated. But different elemental stressors can induce the expression of LsZIP gene to varying degrees. The LsZIP genes also change in response to different elemental stresses. The present study serves as a basic foundation for future functional studies on the lettuce ZIP family.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Alface , Genoma de Planta , Hormônios , Alface/genética , Alface/metabolismo , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/genética
3.
Plant Sci ; 323: 111418, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35985414

RESUMO

Understanding the molecular mechanisms of plants in response to Cd stress is crucial for improving plants adaptation to Cd stress. Fulvic acid (FA) is an active humic substance that is often used as a soil conditioner. However, there are few reports on the role of FA against Cd stress. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Fulvic acid on alleviation of Cd toxicity in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) under hydroponic conditions. Our results showed that 20 µmol/L Cd stress significantly reduced photosynthetic pigment metabolism and the expression of photosynthetic apparatus-related proteins, thereby inhibiting photosynthetic electron transport, net photosynthetic rate and negatively affecting photosynthetic carbon assimilation and growth of lettuce. However, proteomic findings suggest that the application of FA can reduce the adverse effects of Cd contamination. Compared to Cd stress alone, FA significantly increased the expression of Light-harvesting proteins, reaction center and electron transport-related proteins. Further results showed that FA at 0.5 g/L reduced the uptake of Cd by the roots, resulting in a 23.5% reduction in total Cd content in lettuce. Moreover, FA enhanced S metabolism and rebuilt redox homeostasis in cells. Overall, these findings provide new insights into the mechanism of cadmium toxicity mitigation in lettuce by FA. Which is recommended as an eco-friendly tool for improving the photosynthesis performance and biomass of lettuce under Cd stress.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Alface , Benzopiranos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Alface/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Proteômica
4.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 186: 290-298, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932653

RESUMO

Environmental stimuli modulate plant metabolite accumulation, facilitating adaptation to stressful conditions. In this study, the effects of blue and red light, photoperiod, CO2 concentration, and air temperature on the chlorogenic acid (CGA) and rutin contents of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were evaluated. Under continuous blue light and a high CO2 concentration (1000 ppm), the CGA level increased. The increased expression of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and activity of its product were correlated with high expression of cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (C4H) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H). Furthermore, changes in PAL activity altered the CGA content in lettuce exposed to the three environmental factors, blue light, continuous lighting and high CO2 concentration. In addition, the expression levels of genes related to flavonoid biosynthesis increased in accordance with the promotion of CGA accumulation by the environmental factors. Under continuous blue light, 400 ppm CO2 promoted rutin accumulation to a greater degree compared to 1000 ppm CO2, by downregulating DFR expression. Low air temperature induced CGA accumulation in lettuce grown under continuous blue light and 1000 ppm CO2. Therefore, light quality, photoperiod, CO2 concentration, and air temperature exert synergistic effects on the CGA and rutin contents of lettuce by modulating activity in the corresponding biosynthesis pathways.


Assuntos
Ácido Clorogênico , Alface , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Ácido Clorogênico/metabolismo , Alface/metabolismo , Fenilalanina Amônia-Liase/metabolismo , Fotoperíodo , Rutina/metabolismo , Temperatura
5.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 580, 2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35953780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High temperature induces early bolting in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), which affects both quality and production. However, the molecular mechanism underlying high temperature-induced bolting is still limited. RESULTS: We performed systematical analysis of morphology, transcriptome, miRNAs and methylome in lettuce under high temperature treatment. Through a comparison of RNA-Seq data between the control and the high temperature treated lettuces at different time points totally identified 2944 up-regulated genes and 2203 down-regulated genes, which cover three floral pathways including photoperiod, age and gibberellin (GA) pathways. Genome wide analysis of miRNAs and methylome during high temperature treatment indicated miRNAs and DNA methylation might play a role controlling gene expression during high temperature-induced bolting. miRNA targets included some protein kinase family proteins, which potentially play crucial roles in this process. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our results propose a possible regulation network involved in high temperature-induced bolting.


Assuntos
Alface , MicroRNAs , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Alface/genética , Alface/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Temperatura
6.
Plant Physiol ; 190(2): 1440-1456, 2022 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35809069

RESUMO

Karrikins (KARs) are chemicals in smoke that can enhance germination of many plants. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cv. Grand Rapids germinates in response to nanomolar karrikinolide (KAR1). Lettuce is much less responsive to KAR2 or a mixture of synthetic strigolactone analogs, rac-GR24. We investigated the molecular basis of selective and sensitive KAR1 perception in lettuce. The lettuce genome contains two copies of KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2), which in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) encodes a receptor that is required for KAR responses. LsKAI2b is more highly expressed than LsKAI2a in dry achenes and during early stages of imbibition. Through cross-species complementation assays in Arabidopsis, we found that an LsKAI2b transgene confers robust responses to KAR1, but LsKAI2a does not. Therefore, LsKAI2b likely mediates KAR1 responses in lettuce. We compared homology models of KAI2 proteins from lettuce and a fire-follower, whispering bells (Emmenanthe penduliflora). This identified pocket residues 96, 124, 139, and 161 as candidates that influence the ligand specificity of KAI2. Further support for the importance of these residues was found through a broader comparison of pocket residues among 281 KAI2 proteins from 184 asterid species. Almost all KAI2 proteins had either Tyr or Phe identity at position 124. Genes encoding Y124-type KAI2 are more broadly distributed in asterids than in F124-type KAI2. Substitutions at residues 96, 124, 139, and 161 in Arabidopsis KAI2 produced a broad array of responses to KAR1, KAR2, and rac-GR24. This suggests that the diverse ligand preferences observed among KAI2 proteins in plants could have evolved through relatively few mutations.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis , Arabidopsis/genética , Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/genética , Proteínas de Arabidopsis/metabolismo , Furanos/metabolismo , Furanos/farmacologia , Germinação/genética , Hidrolases/genética , Alface/genética , Alface/metabolismo , Ligantes , Piranos , Fumaça
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806343

RESUMO

Water deficit causes substantial yield losses that climate change is going to make even more problematic. Sustainable agricultural practices are increasingly developed to improve plant tolerance to abiotic stresses. One innovative solution amongst others is the integration of plant biostimulants in agriculture. In this work, we investigate for the first time the effects of the biostimulant -Leafamine®-a protein hydrolysate on greenhouse lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown under well-watered and water-deficit conditions. We examined the physiological and metabolomic water deficit responses of lettuce treated with Leafamine® (0.585 g/pot) or not. Root application of Leafamine® increased the shoot fresh biomass of both well-watered (+40%) and deficit-irrigated (+20%) lettuce plants because the projected leaf area increased. Our results also indicate that Leafamine® application could adjust the nitrogen metabolism by enhancing the total nitrogen content, amino acid (proline) contents and the total protein level in lettuce leaves, irrespective of the water condition. Osmolytes such as soluble sugars and polyols, also increased in Leafamine®-treated lettuce. Our findings suggest that the protective effect of Leafamine is a widespread change in plant metabolism and could involve ABA, putrescine and raffinose.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos , Alface , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Alface/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Água/química
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 56(15): 10699-10709, 2022 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849551

RESUMO

The absorption, translocation, and biotransformation behaviors of organophosphate esters (OPEs) and diesters (OPdEs) in a hydroponic system were investigated. The lateral root was found as the main accumulation and biotransformation place of OPEs and OPdEs in lettuce. The nontarget analysis using high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed five hydroxylated metabolites and five conjugating metabolites in the OPE exposure group, among which methylation, acetylation, and palmitoyl conjugating OPEs were reported as metabolites for the first time. Particularly, methylation on phosphate can be a significant process for plant metabolism, and methyl diphenyl phosphate (MDPP) accounted for the majority of metabolites. The translocation factor values of most identified OPE metabolites are negatively associated with their predicted logarithmic octanol-water partitioning coefficient (log Kow) values (0.75-2.45), indicating that hydrophilicity is a dominant factor in the translocation of OPE metabolites in lettuce. In contrast, palmitoyl conjugation may lead to an enhanced acropetal translocation and those with log Kow values < 0 may have limited translocation potential. Additionally, OPE diesters produced from the biotransformation of OPEs in lettuce showed a higher acropetal translocation potential than those exposed directly. These results further emphasize the necessity to consider biotransformation as an utmost important factor in the accumulation and acropetal translocation potential of OPEs in plants.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama , Alface , Biotransformação , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ésteres , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Hidroponia , Alface/metabolismo , Organofosfatos/análise , Fosfatos/análise
9.
Environ Pollut ; 308: 119651, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35752396

RESUMO

Nanoplastic pollution has become an increasing problem due to over-consumption and degradation in ecosystems. A little is known about ecological toxicity and the potential risks of nanoplastics on plants. To better comprehend the hormetic effects of nanoplastics, the experimental design was conducted on the impacts of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) on water status, growth, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence transient, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content (both content and fluorescence visualization), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity (comparatively between leaves and roots). For this purpose, PMMA (10, 20, 50 and 100 mg L-1) was hydroponically applied to Lactuca sativa for 15 days(d). PMMA exposure resulted a decline in the growth, water content and osmotic potential. As based on assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs), and intercellular CO2 concentrations (Ci), the decreased stomatal limitation (Ls) and, A/Ci and increased intrinsic mesophyll efficiency proved low carboxylation efficiency showing impaired photosynthesis as a non-stomatal limitation. PMMA toxicity increased the trapping fluxes and absorption with a decrease in electron transport fluxes caused the disruption in reaction centers of photosystems. The leaves and roots had a similar effect against PMMA toxicity, with increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Although, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) of leaves increased under 10 mg L-1 PMMA, these defense activities failed to prevent radicals from attacking. Compared to the leaves, the lettuce roots showed an intriguing result for AsA-GSH cycle against PMMA exposure. In the roots, the lowest PMMA application provided the high ascorbate/dehydroascorbate (AsA/DHA), GSH/GSSG and the pool of AsA/glutathione (GSH) and non-suppressed GSH redox state. Also, 10 mg L-1 PMMA helped remove high hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by both glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). Since this improvement in the antioxidant system could not be continued in roots after higher applications than 20 mg L-1 PMMA, TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), indicating the level of lipid peroxidation, and H2O2 increased. Our findings obtained from PMMA-applied lettuce provide new information to advance the tolerance mechanism against nanoplastic pollution.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Alface , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Clorofila/metabolismo , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Fluorescência , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Alface/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Lipídeos , Microplásticos , Estresse Oxidativo , Folhas de Planta , Polimetil Metacrilato/toxicidade , Água/metabolismo
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9852, 2022 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701518

RESUMO

Large amounts of nitrogen fertilizers applied during lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production are lost due to leaching or volatilization, causing severe environmental pollution and increased costs of production. Developing lettuce varieties with high nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is the eco-friendly solution to reduce nitrogen pollution. Hence, in-depth knowledge of nitrogen metabolism and assimilation genes and their regulation is critical for developing high NUE varieties. In this study, we performed comparative transcriptomic analysis of the cultivated lettuce (L. sativa L.) and its wild progenitor (L. serriola) under high and low nitrogen conditions. A total of 2,704 differentially expressed genes were identified. Key enriched biological processes included photosynthesis, oxidation-reduction process, chlorophyll biosynthetic process, and cell redox homeostasis. The transcription factors (TFs) belonging to the ethylene responsive factor family and basic helix-loop-helix family were among the top differentially expressed TFs. Using weighted gene co-expression network analysis we constructed nine co-expression modules. Among these, two modules were further investigated because of their significant association with total nitrogen content and photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem II. Three highly correlated clusters were identified which included hub genes for nitrogen metabolism, secondary metabolites, and carbon assimilation, and were regulated by cluster specific TFs. We found that the expression of nitrogen transportation and assimilation genes varied significantly between the two lettuce species thereby providing the opportunity of introgressing wild alleles into the cultivated germplasm for developing lettuce cultivars with more efficient use of nitrogen.


Assuntos
Alface , Transcriptoma , Fertilizantes , Alface/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética
11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 10046, 2022 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35710561

RESUMO

In this study, we observed the effect of the application of soil dust enriched with risk elements (Cd, Pb, As and Zn) to leaf surfaces of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata) while it was grown under hydroponic conditions. This study aimed to determine how low soil dust particulate matter (PM) doses affected the activity of or damaged the photosynthetic apparatus and how the uptake of risk elements was associated with both epigenetic changes (5-methylcytosine content, i.e., 5mC) and stress metabolism. During the study, we obtained many results pertaining to risk element contents and biochemical (total phenolic content (TPC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the amount of free amino acids (AAs)) and physiological (photosynthesis parameters: net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, intercellular CO2 concentration, stomatal conductance, instantaneous water-use efficiency, maximum quantum yield of PSII, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, and leaf water potential (WP)) plant features. The results showed an increase in MDA and 5mC. However, the transpiration rate, WP and free AAs decreased. In conclusion, contamination by very low doses of soil dust PM had no direct or significant effect on plant fitness, as shown by the TPC and 5mC content, which indicates that plants can overcome the oxidative stress caused by the accumulation of risk elements. From the above, we propose the use of epigenetic changes as biomarkers of potential changes in the activation of plant metabolism under stress caused by environmental pollution.


Assuntos
Poeira , Material Particulado , Clorofila/metabolismo , Poluição Ambiental , Alface/metabolismo , Material Particulado/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Solo/química , Água/metabolismo
12.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 20(10): 1956-1967, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35748307

RESUMO

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is one of the most important vegetables worldwide and an ideal plant for producing protein drugs. Both well-functioning chloroplasts that perform robust photosynthesis and small leaf angles that enable dense planting are essential for high yields. In this study, we used an F2 population derived from a cross between a lettuce cultivar with pale-green leaves and large leaf angles to a cultivar with dark-green leaves and small leaf angles to clone LsNRL4, which encodes an NPH3/RPT2-Like (NRL) protein. Unlike other NRL proteins in lettuce, the LsNRL4 lacks the BTB domain. Knockout mutants engineered using CRISPR/Cas9 and transgenic lines overexpressing LsNRL4 verified that LsNRL4 contributes to chloroplast development, photosynthesis and leaf angle. The LsNRL4 gene was not present in the parent with pale-green leaves and enlarged leaf angles. Loss of LsNRL4 results in the enlargement of chloroplasts, decreases in the amount of cellular space allocated to chloroplasts and defects in secondary cell wall biosynthesis in lamina joints. Overexpressing LsNRL4 significantly improved photosynthesis and decreased leaf angles. Indeed, the plant architecture of the overexpressing lines is ideal for dense planting. In summary, we identified a novel NRL gene that enhances photosynthesis and influences plant architecture. Our study provides new approaches for the breeding of lettuce that can be grown in dense planting in the open field or in modern plant factories. LsNRL4 homologues may also be used in other crops to increase photosynthesis and improve plant architecture.


Assuntos
Alface , Melhoramento Vegetal , Cloroplastos/genética , Cloroplastos/metabolismo , Alface/genética , Alface/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/genética , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
13.
Environ Pollut ; 304: 119240, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35367504

RESUMO

The fungal species Fusarium can cause devastating disease in agricultural crops. Phenamacril is an extremely specific cyanoacrylate fungicide and a strobilurine analog that has excellent efficacy against Fusarium. To date, information on the mechanisms involved in the uptake, accumulation, and metabolism of phenamacril in plants is scarce. In this study, lettuce and radish were chosen as model plants for a comparative analysis of the absorption, accumulation, and metabolic characteristics of phenamacril from a polluted environment. We determined the total amount of phenamacril in the plant-water system by measuring the concentrations in the solution and plant tissues at frequent intervals over the exposure period. Phenamacril was readily taken up by the plant roots with average root concentration factor ranges of 60.8-172.7 and 16.4-26.9 mL/g for lettuce and radish, respectively. However, it showed limited root-to-shoot translocation. The lettuce roots had a 2.8-12.4-fold higher phenamacril content than the shoots; whereas the radish plants demonstrated the opposite, with the shoots having 1.5 to 10.0 times more phenamacril than the roots. By the end of the exposure period, the mass losses from the plant-water systems reached 72.0% and 66.3% for phenamacril in lettuce and radish, respectively, suggesting evidence of phenamacril biotransformation. Further analysis confirmed that phenamacril was metabolized via hydroxylation, hydrolysis of esters, demethylation, and desaturation reactions, and formed multiple transformation products. This study furthers our understanding of the fate of phenamacril when it passes from the environment to plants and provides an important reference for its scientific use and risk assessment.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Raphanus , Produtos Agrícolas , Cianoacrilatos/metabolismo , Cianoacrilatos/farmacologia , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Alface/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raphanus/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
14.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 119(7): 1781-1791, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35394653

RESUMO

Concanavalin A (ConA), a mannose (Man)-specific leguminous lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) seed extracts, was discovered over a century ago. Although ConA has been extensively applied in various life science research, recombinant mature ConA expression has not been fully established. Here, we aimed to produce recombinant ConA (rConA) in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient expression system. rConA could be produced as a fully active form from soluble fractions of lettuce leaves and purified by affinity chromatography. From 12 g wet weight of lettuce leaves, 0.9 mg rConA could be purified. The glycan-binding properties of rConA were then compared with that of the native ConA isolated from jack bean using glycoconjugate microarray and frontal affinity chromatography. rConA demonstrated a glycan-binding specificity similar to nConA. Both molecules bound to N-glycans containing a terminal Man residue. Consistent with previous reports, terminal Manα1-6Man was found to be an essential unit for the high-affinity binding of rConA and nConA, while bisecting GlcNAc diminished the binding of rConA and nConA to Manα1-6Man-terminated N-glycans. These results demonstrate that the fully active rConA could be produced using the A. tumefaciens-mediated transient expression system and used as a recombinant substitute for nConA.


Assuntos
Alface , Polissacarídeos , Cromatografia de Afinidade , Concanavalina A/metabolismo , Humanos , Alface/genética , Alface/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/metabolismo
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270194

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) in leafy vegetables may harm humans. Herein, we assessed As accumulation in leafy vegetables and the associated physiological resistance mechanisms using soil pot and hydroponic experiments. Garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were tested, and the soil As safety threshold values of the tested leafy vegetables were 91.7, 76.2, and 80.7 mg kg-1, respectively, i.e., higher than the soil environmental quality standard of China. According to growth indicators and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione, and soluble protein), the order of As tolerance was: GC > SP > LE. The high tolerance of GC was due to the low transport factor of As from the roots to the shoots; the high activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase; and the high content of phytochelatin in the roots. Results of this work shed light on the use of As-contaminated soils and plant tolerance of As stress.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Poluentes do Solo , Arsênio/análise , Humanos , Alface/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Spinacia oleracea , Verduras/metabolismo
16.
Plant Sci ; 316: 111175, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35151458

RESUMO

Bolting, which is a serious problem during lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production, is responsible for substantial annual yield and quality losses. Gibberellin plays a critical role in the regulation of lettuce bolting. Additionally, DELLA proteins negatively regulate the gibberellin signaling pathway. However, it is unclear if DELLA proteins are involved in the regulation of lettuce bolting. Therefore, in this study, we identified four DELLA-encoding genes in lettuce, including LsRGL1, which was highly expressed in the stem and negatively correlated with bolting. Knocking down this gene in lettuce promoted bolting, whereas its overexpression inhibited bolting and the biosynthesis of gibberellin and auxin. A transcriptome analysis revealed that genes involved in gibberellin and auxin biosynthesis and flowering were affected in the LsRGL1-overexpressing lines. The yeast two-hybrid and yeast one-hybrid assay results indicated that LsRGL1 can interact with LsGA3ox and the LsYUC4 promoter region. Considered together, the results of this study suggest LsRGL1 negatively regulates lettuce bolting. Furthermore, its function may depend on modifications to gibberellin and auxin levels mediated at the transcript and protein levels.


Assuntos
Giberelinas , Alface , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Alface/genética , Alface/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(28): 42913-42928, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35092588

RESUMO

To investigate the molecular mechanism of Cd-accumulating difference between Lactuca sativa cultivars, full-length transcriptome comparison, as well as biochemical validation, have been conducted between Cd pollution-safe cultivar (Cd-PSC, cv. LYDL) and high-Cd-accumulating cultivar (cv. HXDWQ). The full-length transcriptome of L. sativa cultivars was achieved for the first time. The results showed high Cd compartmentalization in the cell wall of cv. LYDL was ascribed to the enhanced cell wall biosynthesis under Cd stress, which was consistent with the high cellular debris Cd level (32.10-43.58%). The expression levels of transporter genes in cv. HXDWQ were about 1.19 to 1.21-fold higher than those in cv. LYDL, which was in accordance with the high ratio of easy migrative Cd chemical forms (68.59-81.98%), indicating the high Cd accumulation in the shoot of cv. HXDWQ was ascribed to the higher transportation capacity in cv. HXDWQ. Moreover, the Cd-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was associated with the higher Cd detoxification and tolerance in cv. HXDWQ rather than in cv. LYDL. The study provides new insights into the Cd-induced transcriptomic difference between L. sativa cultivars and further contributes to the molecular breeding of L. sativa Cd-PSC.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Celulose/metabolismo , Alface/genética , Alface/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 820: 153271, 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074371

RESUMO

Arsenic (As) contamination has become a global problem, especially in developing countries, where a significant percentage of the population depends on groundwater for drinking. Arsenic toxicity depends on its chemical form. Herein, we evaluated the phytotoxicity of arsenite [As(III)], including As accumulation and adverse physiological responses (e.g., growth inhibition, oxidative stress, and metabolic disturbances). Furthermore, this result was compared with the mechanism of the phytotoxicity of arsenate [As(V)] that we previously explored. As accumulated mainly in the roots (29.33-88.73 mg/kg) of lettuce, only a small amount was transferred to the leaves (0.08-0.22 mg/kg); arsenic mainly existed in the form of As(III) in plants. As(III) was positively correlated with Mn in the leaves and roots and negatively correlated with Ca in roots and Mg in leaves, consistent with the increase in SOD activity and the destruction of the chloroplast membrane. Plants responded differently to As(III) and As(V) in terms of the antioxidant response and metabolic response. CAT activity in leaves was reduced following As(III) exposure and increased upon As(V) exposure. Furthermore, As(III) decreased the levels of some products of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and induced abnormal metabolism of secondary metabolites, such as phenol and niacin. The present study explored arsenic accumulation induced by As(III), the related physiological and biochemical responses and subsequent metabolite redistribution, and provided insights into the effects of different As species on plants.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Arsenitos , Arsênio/metabolismo , Arsenitos/metabolismo , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Alface/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
19.
Environ Geochem Health ; 44(5): 1649-1665, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34676509

RESUMO

A study was carried out to evaluate the absorption of potentially toxic elements from mining Technosols by three types of vegetable plants (broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and onion (Allium cepa)), the different parts of which are intended for human and farm animal consumption (leaves, roots, edible parts). The preliminary results obtained highlight the importance of the design of the mining Technosols used for agricultural purposes, obtained from soils and sediments of mining origin and amended with residues of high calcium carbonate concentrations (limestone filler and construction and demolition wastes). The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, and the total metal(loid)s concentration (As, Pb, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) of the soil, rhizosphere, aqueous leachates and plant samples was monitored, the translocation and bioconcentration factors (TF and BCF, respectively) being calculated. The characterization of the soils included a mobilization study in media simulating different environmental conditions that can affect these soils and predicting the differences in behavior of each Technosol. The results obtained showed that the levels of potentially toxic elements present in the cultivated species are within the range of values mentioned in the literature when they were cultivated in soils with calcareous amendments. However, when the plants were grown in contaminated soils, the potentially toxic elements levels varied greatly according to the species, being higher in onions than in lettuce. Experiments with the use of lime filler or construction and demolition wastes for soil remediation result in crops that, in principle, do not present health risks and are similar in development to those grown on non-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Alface/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/análise , Mineração , Plantas Comestíveis , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
20.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118354, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34648839

RESUMO

Contamination of microcystins (MCs) in plant-soil system have become a serious problem worldwide, however, it remains largely unknown how to alleviate the potential risk of consuming MCs-contaminated plants. In the present study, attapulgite, biochar and peat were used as soil amendments to reduce MCs bioaccumulation in lettuce. Lettuce irrigated with 10 µg L-1 microcystin-LR (MC-LR) were growing in two different kinds of soils with or without soil amendments. Results showed that all soil amendments effectively reduced MC-LR bioaccumulation in lettuce roots and leaves. Compared with the control treatment, the MC-LR concentrations in leaves in treatments with attapulgite, biochar and peat decreased by 41.5%, 30.6%, 57.0% in soil A and 38.9%, 43.2%, 54.7% in soil B, respectively. Peat application was most effective in reducing MC-LR bioaccumulation. The decreased soil free MC-LR concentrations were positively correlated with MC-LR concentrations in lettuce, indicating decreased bioavailability of MC-LR by soil amendments. It is noteworthy that soil total MC-LR concentration in peat treatment significantly decreased by 33.3% and 29.4% in soil A and soil B, respectively, compared with the controls. According to the results from high-throughput sequencing, peat amendment increased the α-diversity of soil bacterial community and boosted the abundance of Sphingomonas and Methylobacillus (dozens of MC-degrading bacteria belong to these genera). This was in line with the results of soil total MC-LR concentration. It can be speculated that peat application directly and/or indirectly promoted microbial degradation of MC-LR in soils. This work proposed an effective way to alleviate the potential risks of MCs contamination in plant-soil system.


Assuntos
Alface , Microcistinas , Bioacumulação , Alface/metabolismo , Toxinas Marinhas , Microcistinas/metabolismo , Solo
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