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1.
J Environ Manage ; 281: 111861, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422911

RESUMO

Invasive macroalgae represent one of the major threats to marine biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and structure, as well as being important drivers of ecosystem services depletion. Many such species have become well established along the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula. However, the lack of information about the distribution of the invaders and the factors determining their occurrence make bioinvasions a difficult issue to manage. Such information is key to enabling the design and implementation of effective management plans. The present study aimed to map the current probability of presence of six invasive macroalgae: Grateloupia turuturu, Asparagopsis armata, Colpomenia peregrina, Sargassum muticum, Undaria pinnatifida, and Codium fragile ssp. fragile. For this purpose, an extensive field survey was carried out along the coast of the north-western Iberian Peninsula. Species distribution models (SDMs) were then used to map the presence probability of these invasive species throughout the study region on the basis of environmental and anthropogenic predictor variables. The southern Galician rias were identified as the main hotspots of macroalgal invasion, with a high probability of occurrence for most of the species considered. Conversely, the probability of presence on the Portuguese coast was generally low. Physico-chemical variables were the most important factors for predicting the distribution of invasive macroalgae contributing between 57.27 and 85.24% to the ensemble models. However, anthropogenic factors (including size of vessels, number of shipping lines, distance from ports, population density, etc.) considerably improved the estimates of the probability of occurrence for most of the target species. This study is one of the few to include anthropogenic factors in SDMs for invasive macroalgae. The findings suggest that management actions aimed at controlling these species should strengthen control and surveillance at ports, particularly in southern Galician rias. Early detection should be of main concern for risk assessment plans on the Portuguese coast.


Assuntos
Alga Marinha , Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente) , Espécies Introduzidas
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111909, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486406

RESUMO

In this investigation, δ13C and δ15N isotope ratios and heavy metal levels were assessed in macroalgae, sediment samples, and benthic species from northern parts of the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. The highest δ15N values in algal samples (11±0.42), indicative of anthropogenic organic N inputs, were detected in the Sadaf region, whereas the lowest values (3.17 ±â€¯0.12), indicative of anthropogenic inorganic inputs, were detected in the Parvaz region. In addition to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), contamination factors (CF), enrichment factors (EF), contamination degree (CD), pollution load index (PLI), geo accumulation index (Igeo), and potential ecological risk index (RI) were employed to assess the anthropogenic influence on sediment quality and to describe the sensitivity of the biota to toxic heavy metals. The obtained results demonstrate that the analyzed elements (Mn, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, Co, and V) had no ecological risk in the sampling area.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Alga Marinha , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos , Oceano Índico , Isótopos , Metais Pesados/análise , Omã , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 163: 111971, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503565

RESUMO

This study investigates the concentration of heavy metals in the macroalgae, seagrasses, mangroves, and crabs collected from Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve. The concentration of heavy metals ranged between 0.06 (Hg)-259 (Fe) µg/g in macroalgae, 0.09 (Pb)-377 (Fe) µg/g in seagrasses, 0.112 (Cd)-122 (Fe) µg/g in mangroves, and 0.11 (Cd) -240 (Fe) µg/g in crabs. The levels of heavy metals in the analyzed samples were found below the maximum residual limits (MRLs) prescribed by various National and International agencies. The result suggests that exposure to the analyzed metals through macroalgae consumption does not cause potential health risks to consumers (target hazard quotient (THQ), estimated exposure dose (EED), and hazard index (HI) <1). Hence, this study concludes that macroalgae that grow in the Gulf of Mannar regions are safe for human consumption and are suitable to prepare food supplements and bioceutical products.


Assuntos
Braquiúros , Lebres , Metais Pesados , Alga Marinha , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Índia , Ilhas , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Oecologia ; 195(1): 225-234, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394129

RESUMO

Unraveling the processes that drive diversity patterns remains a central challenge for ecology, and an increased understanding is especially urgent to address and mitigate escalating diversity loss. Studies have primarily focused on singular taxonomic groups, but recent research has begun evaluating spatial diversity patterns across multiple taxonomic groups and suggests taxa may have congruence in their diversity patterns. Here, we use surveys of the coral reef benthic groups: scleractinian corals, macroalgae, sponges and gorgonians conducted in the Bahamian Archipelago across 27 sites to determine if there is congruence between taxonomic groups in their site-level diversity patterns (i.e. alpha diversity: number of species, and beta diversity: differences in species composition) while accounting for environmental predictors (i.e. depth, wave exposure, market gravity (i.e. human population size and distance to market), primary productivity, and grazing). Overall, we found that the beta diversities of these benthic groups were significant predictors of each other. The most consistent relationships existed with algae and coral, as their beta diversity was a significant predictor of every other taxa's beta diversity, potentially due to their strong biotic interactions and dominance on the reef. Conversely, we found no congruence patterns in the alpha diversity of the taxa. Market gravity and exposure showed the most prevalent correlation with both alpha and beta diversity for the taxa. Overall, our results suggest that coral reef benthic taxa can have spatial congruence in species composition, but not number of species, and that future research on biodiversity trends should consider that taxa may have non-independent patterns.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Alga Marinha , Animais , Biodiversidade , Recifes de Corais , Ecologia , Humanos
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 324: 124594, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453518

RESUMO

Catalytic pyrolysis of ulva lactuca (UL) macroalgae was studied over a series of ZrO2 supported metal such as Co, Ni and Co-Ni metal catalysts at temperature range of 300-500 °C. Highest bio-oil yield (47.8 wt%) was found with Co-Ni/ZrO2 (10 wt%) catalyst while non-catalytic yielded 42.5 wt% bio-oil. Moreover with increases the metal amount to 15 wt%, the bio-oil yield slightly increased (49.2 wt%). The bio-oil quality significantly improved with using the catalysts compared to the non-catalytic pyrolysis. Catalytic pyrolysis also revealed that introducing Co-Ni into the ZrO2 could result in higher surface area and which increased active sites. Catalytic bio-oils were consisted of mainly long chain hydrocarbon in the range of C6-C16. Moreover, the catalytic bio-oils were showed the higher 'high heating value' (HHV) 38.1 MJ/kg as compare to non-catalytic bio-oils (29.4 MJ/kg). Catalysts have been showed excellent recyclability on bio-oil yield and compounds selectivity.


Assuntos
Alga Marinha , Ulva , Biocombustíveis , Catálise , Temperatura Alta , Óleos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Pirólise
6.
Food Chem ; 334: 127562, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32707368

RESUMO

Brown seaweeds are traditionally used as food in Asian countries, and they are a valuable source of bioactive compounds. Herein, a novel high-throughput methodological approach was developed for the tracing of compounds with radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities in Saccharina japonica and Undaria pinnatifida methanol extracts. The seaweed metabolites were separated by a novel high-performance thin-layer chromatography method, the bioactive bands were identified by bioautography assays. The bioactive compounds were characterized with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear trap quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry. Stearidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and arachidonic acids were identified as major components having radical scavenging and antimicrobial activities. The suggested method provides a fast identification and quantification of bioactive compounds in multicomponent biological samples.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/análise , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada/métodos , Alga Marinha/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Ácidos Araquidônicos/análise , Ácidos Araquidônicos/farmacologia , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/análise , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Laminaria/química , Laminaria/metabolismo , Alga Marinha/metabolismo , Undaria/química , Undaria/metabolismo
7.
Food Chem ; 336: 127725, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32768912

RESUMO

Thirty one samples from different macroalgae species have been studied to determine the influence of several parameters such as the harvesting season, the geographical origin, the species or a pretreatment procedure on their volatile composition. A Multiple Head Space Sorptive Extraction methodology coupled to Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry Detection (MHSSE-GC-MS) has been used to analyze 44 volatile compounds that can be found in the different samples. Of all the factors, the collection season proved to be the most influential, followed by origin with significantly lower volatile compounds concentrations found in the samples collected in spring and in southern Spain. A Principal Component Analysis showed that beta ionone, benzaldehyde, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, together with some acids were the most strongly affected by the season, with highest values in those samples that had been collected in the autumn. On the other hand, the pretreatment (raw, salting or dehydration) proved to have a low influence.


Assuntos
Alga Marinha/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Análise de Variância , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Análise de Componente Principal , Estações do Ano , Alga Marinha/metabolismo , Espanha
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141372, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853930

RESUMO

Biofouling is a complex phenomenon that affects all maritime dependent industries. The accumulation of both micro and macro-organisms in immerged structures increases significantly the maintenance expenses, and thus the use of antifouling substances is inevitable. Although with recognized antifouling properties, the available antifouling coatings are known to induce negative impacts in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, greener alternatives are urgently required. Living underwater, marine organisms are prone to biofouling and some have developed strategies to defend themselves against undesirable organisms, which include the production of bioactive substances. As a result, marine organisms are promising sources of natural antifouling substances. Within this framework, the marine invasive seaweeds Sargassum muticum and Asparagopsis armata were addressed for antifouling compounds biodiscovery. Both seaweeds revealed antifouling properties against microfoulers, namely algicidal and anti-biofilm activities; however Asparagopsis armata stand out for its capacity to inhibit marine bacteria and microalgae growth, to decrease biofilm formation, and for acting as a neurotransmitter disruptor through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. By addressing invasive species, the problematic of the biological material supply for industrial purposes is surpassed while mitigating the negative impacts of invasive species through specimen's collection.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica , Rodófitas , Sargassum , Alga Marinha , Organismos Aquáticos , Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Ecossistema
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124163, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33254444

RESUMO

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of Gracilaria corticata (GC) macroalgae was studied over a series of nickel-iron-layered double oxides (NiFe-LDO) supported on activated bio-char catalysts at 280 °C and different solvents medium. Maximum bio-oil yield (56.2 wt%) was found with 5%Ga/NiFe-LDO/AC catalyst at 280 °C under ethanol solvent. The catalytic HTL up-gradation decreased the bio-char yield significantly. However the bio-oil quality significantly improved with using the 5%Ga/NiFe-LDO/AC catalyst. Also, improved performance with higher amount of bio-oil and lower amounts of bio-char and gas were achieved, which is due the several reactions happening during the HTL process. Catalytic HTL also revealed that introducing NiFe-LDO nanosheets into the activated char could result in NiFe-LDO/AC catalysts of higher surface area and increased active sites. Being impregnated by 5%Ga, catalysts with improved acid sites and thereby, advanced deoxygenation and aromatization activities were achieved. Hence Ga/NiFe-LDO/AC could be considered as a promising catalyst HTL bio-oil upgrading.


Assuntos
Gracilaria , Alga Marinha , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Óleos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Temperatura , Água
10.
Bioresour Technol ; 319: 124176, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017778

RESUMO

In this work, the conversion of Enteromorpha clathrata into bio-oil through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) was investigated under different preparation conditions. A two-step reaction method was compared with single-step reaction. At a high temperature, bio-oil produced through the two-step hydrothermal reaction displayed slight changes in yield, but solid residue rate was low. The liquid-to-material ratio of the optimal preparation condition was 40/4 (mL/g). Bio-oil produced in each experiment at this ratio was further analyzed using GC/MS. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) quantitative calculation was used in analyzing and proving the possible reaction path of the conversion of furan compounds to aromatic compounds during a direct high-temperature liquefaction process. Results revealed that the two-step method can ensure a high bio-oil yield, while preventing the occurrence of side reactions caused by long-term high-temperature reactions, and improve the bio-oil quality.


Assuntos
Alga Marinha , Biocombustíveis , Biomassa , Óleos Vegetais , Polifenóis , Temperatura , Água
11.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 61(1): 60-74, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31968996

RESUMO

Marine polysaccharides originated from seaweeds, including agar, alginate, carrageenan, and fucoidan, possess various kinds of physiological activities and have been widely used in food, agricultural and medical areas. However, the application has been greatly limited by their poor solubility and low bioavailability. Thus marine oligosaccharides, as the degradation products of those polysaccharides, have drawn increasing attentions due to their obvious biological activities, good solubility and excellent bioavailability. This review will summarize the recent advances on the source, molecular structure and physiological activity of marine oligosaccharides, emphasizing their application as functional food additives. Furthermore, the relationship between the structure and the physiological activity of marine oligosaccharides is also elucidated and highlighted. The review concludes with an outlook toward potential applications for preparing the functional oligosaccharides in food biotechnology and agriculture fields.


Assuntos
Alga Marinha , Alginatos , Biotecnologia , Oligossacarídeos , Polissacarídeos
12.
Ambio ; 50(1): 60-73, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31997147

RESUMO

Farming of eucheumatoid seaweeds is a widespread, promising activity and an important livelihood option in many tropical coastal areas as for example in East Africa, Western Indian Ocean (WIO). Compared to other types of aquaculture, seaweed farming has generally low impact on the environment. Nonetheless, there are potential direct or indirect negative effects of seaweed farming, such as introduction of alien species and changes in local environmental conditions. Although farming has been practiced in this region during several decades, the knowledge concerning the actual environmental impacts from faming non-native eucheumatoid haplotypes and consequently how to manage farming activities to mitigate those is highly limited. In this review, we provide a summary of the current scientific knowledge of potential direct and indirect negative environmental effects linked to eucheumatoid seaweed farming such as alterations of benthic macrophyte habitats and loss of native biodiversity. Furthermore, we highlight knowledge gaps that are of importance to address in the near future, e.g., large-scale ecosystem effects and farms as potential vectors of pathogens. We also provide a number of feasible management recommendations to be implemented for a continued development of environmentally sustainable seaweed farming practices in the WIO region, which includes spatial planning of farms to avoid sensitive areas and farming of native haplotypes of eucheumatoids instead of introduced specimens.


Assuntos
Alga Marinha , África Oriental , Agricultura , Ecossistema , Oceano Índico
13.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127998, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835982

RESUMO

Macroalgae have often been studied as bioindicators for heavy metal pollution on sea coasts including the Arabian Gulf. On the Arabian Gulf coasts, heavy metals are continuously being released by industrial activities and therefore, pollution monitoring is needed. Biomonitoring studies using macroalgae has given highly different assessments due to the variability in algal species and sampling time points. We carried out a systematic monthly sampling of brown algae (Phaeophyta) from three locations on the western coast of the Arabian Gulf between September and February 2018. One urban area (Uqair) and two oil refining areas (Ras Tanura and Jubail) were monitored due to they have a common brown macroalgae species composition. The incidence of Cystoseira myrica, C. trinodis C. osmundacea, Hormophysa cuneiformis, Sargassum aquifolium, S. latifolium, S. filipendula and Padina boryana varied among the sites and with the time of year within the sites. The concentrations of Co, Cd and Pb varied among the sampling sites, the algal species and the sampling time points remarkably. A tentative time-trend increasing towards February was observed for some species. However, it appeared that neither optimum sampling time point, nor superior brown algae species could be recommended. The highest heavy metal accumulation was observed in Padina boryana. However, this species grew only on the two oil polluted sites. We concluded that some brown algae species can be used for biomonitoring heavy metal pollution on the western coast of the Arabian Gulf. The species incidence should be monitored systematically and the species used should be chosen locally and sampled at the same time of the year.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Poluição Ambiental , Feófitas , Alga Marinha , Tempo
14.
Chemosphere ; 263: 127983, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841878

RESUMO

The seaweed food has always been important in Asia, but recently increased in the Western diet. Superfood known for health benefits and rich in essential elements, can also accumulate high contents of heavy metals and iodine from the environment, becoming a health hazard. In particular for iodine, an appropriate labelling of seaweed is needed to warn the consumer of the potential risks. The aim of the study was to analyze the content of 20 heavy metals in seaweeds, distributed in Italy, by ICP-MS, also determining iodine and arsenic (total and inorganic fraction). A total of 72 samples of European and Asian seaweed of 8 genera were analyzed and the results correlated the content of heavy metals to genus, geographical origin and type of sample; 8.33% of the products lacked in the label of the indications of allergens, while 9.72% had irregularities in the label language. The highest concentration of elements was found in the Rhodophyta. The Aluminum level was the highest in the mixed seaweed (165.39 mg/kg) and for the Cadmium in the Asian seaweed (1.16 mg/kg). The amounts of Iron, Zinc and Magnesium, was highest in the Asian seaweed. The values of Arsenic (total and inorganic contents) were compared with the limits: 2.78% exceeds France and USA limits for inorganic, while higher content of total was found in Phaeophyta, which also showed the highest Iodine content (6770.80 mg/kg) that can be dangerous if not reported correctly in the label.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Arsênico/análise , Ásia , Cádmio/análise , França , Itália , Minerais , Feófitas , Rodófitas , Alga Marinha , Verduras
15.
Mar Drugs ; 18(12)2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327517

RESUMO

Seaweeds are broadly distributed and represent an important source of secondary metabolites (e.g., halogenated compounds, polyphenols) eliciting various pharmacological activities and playing a relevant ecological role in the anti-epibiosis. Importantly, host (as known as basibiont such as algae)-microbe (as known as epibiont such as bacteria) interaction (as known as halobiont) is a driving force for coevolution in the marine environment. Nevertheless, halobionts may be fundamental (harmless) or detrimental (harmful) to the functioning of the host. In addition to biotic factors, abiotic factors (e.g., pH, salinity, temperature, nutrients) regulate halobionts. Spatiotemporal and functional exploration of such dynamic interactions appear crucial. Indeed, environmental stress in a constantly changing ocean may disturb complex mutualistic relations, through mechanisms involving host chemical defense strategies (e.g., secretion of secondary metabolites and antifouling chemicals by quorum sensing). It is worth mentioning that many of bioactive compounds, such as terpenoids, previously attributed to macroalgae are in fact produced or metabolized by their associated microorganisms (e.g., bacteria, fungi, viruses, parasites). Eventually, recent metagenomics analyses suggest that microbes may have acquired seaweed associated genes because of increased seaweed in diets. This article retrospectively reviews pertinent studies on the spatiotemporal and functional seaweed-associated microbiota interactions which can lead to the production of bioactive compounds with high antifouling, theranostic, and biotechnological potential.


Assuntos
Ecologia , Indústrias , Microbiota , Alga Marinha/química , Animais , Humanos
16.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1941): 20202575, 2020 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323081

RESUMO

Sedimentation and overfishing are important local stressors on coral reefs that can independently result in declines in coral recruitment and shifts to algal-dominated states. However, the role of herbivory in driving recovery across environmental gradients is often unclear. Here we investigate early successional benthic communities and coral recruitment across a sediment gradient in Palau, Micronesia over a 12-month period. Total sedimentation rates measured by 'TurfPods' varied from 0.03 ± 0.1 SE mg cm-2 d-1 at offshore sites to 1.32 ± 0.2 mg cm-2 d-1 at inshore sites. To assess benthic succession, three-dimensional settlement tiles were deployed at sites with experimental cages used to exclude tile access to larger herbivorous fish. Benthic assemblages exhibited rapid transitions across the sediment gradient within three months of deployment. At low levels of sedimentation (less than 0.6 mg cm-2 d-1), herbivory resulted in communities dominated by coral recruitment inducers (short turf algae and crustose coralline algae), whereas exclusion of herbivores resulted in the overgrowth of coral inhibitors (encrusting and upright foliose macroalgae). An 'inducer threshold' was found under increasing levels of sedimentation (greater than 0.6 mg cm-2 d-1), with coral inducers having limited to no presence in communities, and herbivore access to tiles resulted in sediment-laden turf algal assemblages, while exclusion of herbivores resulted in invertebrates (sponges, ascidians) and terrestrial sediment accumulation. A 'coral recruitment threshold' was found at 0.8 mg cm-2 d-1, below which net coral recruitment was reduced by 50% in the absence of herbivores, while recruitment was minimal above the threshold. Our results highlight nonlinear trajectories of benthic succession across sediment gradients and identify strong interactions between sediment and herbivory that have cascading effects on coral recruitment. Local management strategies that aim to reduce sedimentation and turbidity and manage herbivore fisheries can have measurable effects on benthic community succession and coral recruitment, enhancing reef resilience and driving coral recovery.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Recifes de Corais , Herbivoria , Animais , Pesqueiros , Peixes , Alga Marinha
17.
Mar Environ Res ; 162: 105163, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137597

RESUMO

Shallow coastal zones may provide cross-habitat nutrient subsidies for benthic communities offshore, as macrophyte matter can drift to deeper sediments. To study the relative importance of carbon and nutrient flows derived from different primary food sources in a coastal ecosystem, the diets of clam Macoma balthica, polychaete Marenzelleria spp. and mussel Mytilus trossulus were examined across environmental gradients in the northern Baltic Sea using a triple-isotope approach (i.e. 13C, 15N and 34S) and Bayesian mixing models (MixSIAR). Our results suggest that in shallow habitats, production from Fucus vesiculosus is the primary energy source for M. balthica. The proportion of macroalgae-derived matter in the diet of M. balthica and Marenzelleria spp. decreased following a depth gradient. Our models for M. trossulus indicate that the pelagic POM dominates its diet. Our results indicate a trophic connectivity between shallow macrophyte-dominated and deeper habitats, which receive significant amounts of nutrient subsidies from shallower areas.


Assuntos
Alga Marinha , Animais , Países Bálticos , Teorema de Bayes , Ecossistema , Cadeia Alimentar , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise
18.
Mar Drugs ; 18(11)2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138151

RESUMO

Seaweed lectins, especially high-mannose-specific lectins from red algae, have been identified as potential antiviral agents that are capable of blocking the replication of various enveloped viruses like influenza virus, herpes virus, and HIV-1 in vitro. Their antiviral activity depends on the recognition of glycoprotein receptors on the surface of sensitive host cells-in particular, hemagglutinin for influenza virus or gp120 for HIV-1, which in turn triggers fusion events, allowing the entry of the viral genome into the cells and its subsequent replication. The diversity of glycans present on the S-glycoproteins forming the spikes covering the SARS-CoV-2 envelope, essentially complex type N-glycans and high-mannose type N-glycans, suggests that high-mannose-specific seaweed lectins are particularly well adapted as glycan probes for coronaviruses. This review presents a detailed study of the carbohydrate-binding specificity of high-mannose-specific seaweed lectins, demonstrating their potential to be used as specific glycan probes for coronaviruses, as well as the biomedical interest for both the detection and immobilization of SARS-CoV-2 to avoid shedding of the virus into the environment. The use of these seaweed lectins as replication blockers for SARS-CoV-2 is also discussed.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Lectinas/química , Manose/química , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Alga Marinha/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico
19.
Bioresour Technol ; 318: 124263, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099101

RESUMO

In the fermentation and bioenergy industry, terrestrial biomass is usually fractionated and the collected components, such as starch, are processed separately. Such a separation has not been reported for seaweeds. In this work, the direct hydrothermal processing of the whole green seaweed Ulva sp. biomass is compared to processing of separated starch and cellulose, to find the preferable route for monosaccharide, hydrochar, and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production. Glucose was the major released monosaccharide. A significant share of the glucose yield comes from the starch fraction. The highest hydrochar yield with the lowest ash content was obtained from the separated cellulose fraction. The highest PHA yield was obtained using a whole Ulva sp. hydrolysate fermentation with Haloferaxmediterranei. Economic analysis shows the advantage of direct Ulva sp. biomass fermentation to PHA. The co-production of glucose and hydrochar does not add significant economic benefits to the process under plausible prices of the two outputs.


Assuntos
Poli-Hidroxialcanoatos , Alga Marinha , Ulva , Biomassa , Monossacarídeos
20.
Mar Environ Res ; 161: 105074, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070933

RESUMO

In the current scenario of climate change characterized by a generalized warming, many species are facing local extinctions in areas with conditions near their thermal tolerance threshold. At present, the southern limit of the geographical distribution of several habitat-forming algae of cold-temperate affinities is located in the Northwest Iberian Peninsula, and the Rías Baixas may be acting as contemporary refugia at the range edge. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze future changes induced by ocean warming in this area that may induce changes in macroalgae populations. The Delft3D-Flow model forced with climatic data was used to calculate July-August sea surface temperature (SST) for the present (1999-2018) and for the far future (2080-2099). Mean daily SST was used to develop and calibrate a mechanistic geographical distribution model based on the thermal survival threshold of two intertidal habitat-forming macroalgae, namely Himanthalia elongata (L.) S.F.Gray and Bifurcaria bifurcata R. Ross. Results show that H. elongata will become extinct in the Rías Baixas by the end of the century, while B. bifurcata will persist and may occupy potential free space left by the decline in H. elongata.


Assuntos
Feófitas , Alga Marinha , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Europa (Continente)
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