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1.
Molecules ; 26(7)2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808054

RESUMO

The main protease (Mpro) is a major protease having an important role in viral replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the novel coronavirus that caused the pandemic of 2020. Here, active Mpro was obtained as a 34.5 kDa protein by overexpression in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The optimal pH and temperature of Mpro were 7.5 and 37 °C, respectively. Mpro displayed a Km value of 16 µM with Dabcyl-KTSAVLQ↓SGFRKME-Edans. Black garlic extract and 49 polyphenols were studied for their inhibitory effects on purified Mpro. The IC50 values were 137 µg/mL for black garlic extract and 9-197 µM for 15 polyphenols. The mixtures of tannic acid with puerarin, daidzein, and/or myricetin enhanced the inhibitory effects on Mpro. The structure-activity relationship of these polyphenols revealed that the hydroxyl group in C3', C4', C5' in the B-ring, C3 in the C-ring, C7 in A-ring, the double bond between C2 and C3 in the C-ring, and glycosylation at C8 in the A-ring contributed to inhibitory effects of flavonoids on Mpro.


Assuntos
/antagonistas & inibidores , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , /genética , Dimetil Sulfóxido/farmacologia , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Alho/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas/química , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Temperatura
2.
J Food Sci ; 86(2): 366-375, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448034

RESUMO

Liver damage is a common liver disorder, which could induce liver cancer. Oral antioxidant is one of the effective treatments to prevent and alleviate liver damage. In this study, three flavonoids namely myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin were isolated and identified from Laba garlic. The isolated compounds were investigated on the protective effects against H2 O2 -induced oxidative damages in hepatic L02 cells and apoptosis inducing mechanism in hepatic cancer cells HepG2 by using MTT assay, flow cytometry and western blotting analysis. Myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin showed proliferation inhibition on HepG2 cells with IC50 value of 44.32 ± 0.213 µM, 49.68 ± 0.192 µM, and 54.32 ± 0.176 µM, respectively. While they showed low toxicity on normal cell lines L02. They could significantly alleviate the oxidative damage towards L02 cells (P < 0.05), via inhibiting the morphological changes in mitochondria and upholding the integrity of mitochondrial structure and function. The fluorescence intensity of L02 cells pre-treated with myricetin, isoquercitrin, and isorhamnetin (100 µM) was 89.23 ± 1.26%, 89.35 ± 1.43% and 88.97 ± 0.79%, respectively. Moreover, the flavonoids could induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells via Bcl-2/Caspase pathways, where it could up-regulate the expression of Bax and down-regulate the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, pro-Caspase-3, and pro-Caspase-9 proteins in a dose dependent manner. Overall, the results suggested that the flavonoids from Laba garlic might be a promising candidate for the treatment of various liver disorders. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Flavonoids from Laba garlic showed selective toxicity towards HepG2 cells in comparison to L02 cells via regulating Bcl-2/caspase pathway. Additionally, the isolated flavonoids expressively barred the oxidative damage induced by H2 O2 in L02 cells. These results suggested that the flavonoids from laba garlic could be a promising agent towards the development of functional foods.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Caspases/metabolismo , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Alho/química , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/análise , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/genética , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Quercetina/análise , Quercetina/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(3): 1020-1026, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448852

RESUMO

The aroma of aged garlic extract (AGE) has been recently characterized as a complexity of seasoning-like, metallic, fatty, and acidic notes; most of the important aroma compounds were identified in a previous study. Besides the 25 previously identified aromas of AGE, several of the odor compounds that contribute to the acidic notes were isolated and identified using various analytical techniques, including gas chromatography coupled with an olfactometry monitoring system (GC-O), accurate and high-performance preparative GC system, GC-MS analysis, and sensory evaluation. The identified aromas include: 2,4-dimethyl-1,3-dithiolane, 2,5-dimethyl-1,4-dithiane, and 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dithiane. Interestingly, AGE contains all stereoscopic isomers of each of these components. An aroma recombinant composed of the newly identified acidic odors with other key odorants showed good agreement with the aroma of AGE.


Assuntos
Alho/química , Compostos Heterocíclicos/química , Odorantes/análise , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Aromatizantes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Olfatometria , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Food Chem ; 343: 128404, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406570

RESUMO

Various drying techniques play an important role in foodstuff preservation. However, the role of different drying techniques on garlic quality is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of vacuum freeze-drying (VFD), hot air drying (HAD), infrared hot air drying (IRHAD), relative humidity drying (RHD) and pulsed vacuum drying (PVD) on the physical, rehydration, flavor, bioactive compounds and antioxidant characteristics of garlic slices. Results showed that garlic slices treated with VFD had an attractive color, low shrinkage, low hardness, and the lowest rehydration capacity. The volume shrinkage ratio, thermal stability and storage stability of garlic slices after HAD were the highest. Different dried garlic samples had different specific flavor fingerprints. IRHAD and RHD dried samples showed the highest rehydration capacity, content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The findings could provide a scientific basis to help in future large-scale production of good quality dried garlic products.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Aromatizantes/química , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Alho/química , Cor , Dessecação , Alho/metabolismo , Dureza , Análise de Componente Principal , Temperatura , Termogravimetria , Água/química , Água/metabolismo
5.
Molecules ; 26(3)2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499159

RESUMO

Allium sativum L. (garlic bulbs) and Allium fistulosum L. (Welsh onion leaves) showed quantitative differences of identified compounds: allicin and alliin (380 µg/mL and 1410 µg/mL in garlic; 20 µg/mL and 145 µg/mL in Welsh onion), and the phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, gentisic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, kaempferol, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, and rutin). The chemical composition determined the inhibitory activity of Allium extracts in a dose-dependent manner, on human normal cells (BJ-IC50 0.8841% garlic/0.2433% Welsh onion and HaCaT-IC50 1.086% garlic/0.6197% Welsh onion) and tumor cells (DLD-1-IC50 5.482%/2.124%; MDA-MB-231-IC50 6.375%/2.464%; MCF-7-IC50 6.131%/3.353%; and SK-MES-1-IC50 4.651%/5.819%). At high concentrations, the cytotoxic activity of each extract, on normal cells, was confirmed by: the 50% of the growth inhibition concentration (IC50) value, the cell death induced by necrosis, and biochemical determination of LDH, catalase, and Caspase-3. The four tumor cell lines treated with high concentrations (10%, 5%, 2.5%, and 1.25%) of garlic extract showed different sensibility, appreciated on the base of IC50 value for the most sensitive cell line (SK-MES-1), and the less sensitive (MDA-MB-231) cell line. The high concentrations of Welsh onion extract (5%, 2.5%, and 1.25%) induced pH changes in the culture medium and SK-MES-1 being the less sensitive cell line.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Alho/química , Humanos , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Cebolas/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Fenóis/toxicidade , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
6.
Food Chem ; 337: 127648, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777569

RESUMO

Amongst functional foods, garlic and its by-products stand out given their rich phytochemical profile. A comprehensive analytical approach becomes necessary to fully address garlic preparations health-promoting activities, considering the coexistence of several active ingredients from different chemical families. For this, we developed a multi-phytochemical protocol combining Ultrasound and Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction, coupled to Liquid Chromatography, for the determination of flavonols, organosulfur compounds, and inulin. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography showed an adequate resolution of flavonols and sugars in a shorter time. The protocol showed a suitable performance and acceptable quantitative yields for garlic powder, cooked garlic, black garlic, and liquid garlic flavouring samples. Additionally, the proposed methodology represented a useful tool to assess how the different garlic products related to functional properties, taking into account the various phytochemical families present in each sample. This is the first time a comprehensive and multi-phytochemical validated analysis of garlic preparations is proposed.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Alho/química , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Flavonóis/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Alimento Funcional/análise , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Inulina/análise , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Ultrassom
7.
Food Chem ; 336: 127587, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777657

RESUMO

Thermal processing or the digestion process can alter the forms of arsenic (As) present in food. Identification of As species is necessary to accurately determine the risk associated with food consumption. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) was used to investigate As species in rice, asparagus, and garlic boiled in water containing As(V), and in their bioaccessible fractions (solubilized As after gastrointestinal digestion). The XANES analysis revealed the presence of As(III) (11871.5 eV) or As(III)-S [As(III)-Cys, 11869.6 eV] solution in the cooked foods and in their bioaccessible fractions. The percentage of trivalent species (12-55%) followed the order asparagus ≫ rice ≈ garlic. In the asparagus and garlic samples, part of the As(V) (tetrahedral form) [11875 eV] that had been added appeared in the form of an octahedral As(V) compound [As(V)-glycerol, 11876 eV]. All these changes could considerably modify the risk associated with ingestion of As-contaminated food.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Espectroscopia por Absorção de Raios X/métodos , Asparagus (Planta)/química , Asparagus (Planta)/metabolismo , Culinária , Análise de Alimentos , Alho/química , Alho/metabolismo , Oryza/química , Oryza/metabolismo
8.
Food Chem ; 338: 128011, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32950006

RESUMO

This study is aimed to comparatively investigate the phytochemical profiles, focusing on the nutritional and phytochemical properties of common garlic (Allium sativum L.; CG) and elephant garlic (EG) (Allium ampeloprasum var. holmense) collected from the Val di Chiana area (Tuscany, Italy). The results showed a lower amount of fibers, demonstrating a higher digestibility of the bulb, and sulfur-containing compounds in EG rather than in CG. Untargeted metabolomic profiling followed by supervised and unsupervised statistics allowed understanding the differences in phytochemical composition among the two bulbs, both as raw bulbs, processed following the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process. Typical sulfur-containing compounds, such as alliin and N-gamma-glutamyl-S-allyl cysteine, could notably be detected in lower amounts in EG. EG maintains a distinct phytochemical signature during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Our findings support the distinct sensorial attributes of the bulbs.


Assuntos
Allium/química , Allium/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Cisteína/análise , Digestão , Alho/química , Alho/metabolismo , Itália , Metabolômica , Fenóis/análise , Raízes de Plantas/química , Metabolismo Secundário , Especificidade da Espécie , Compostos de Enxofre/análise
9.
Food Chem ; 339: 128081, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152874

RESUMO

In the present study, three-phase partitioning (TPP) coupled with gradient ethanol precipitation (GEP) was developed for the first time to extract and isolate polysaccharides (GPSs) from raw garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulbs. Four kinds of fructose polymers, namely, GPS35, GPS50, GPS65, and GPS80, were obtained at the final ethanol precipitation concentrations of 35%, 50%, 65%, and 80% (v/v), respectively, and their physicochemical characteristics and in vitro biological activities were investigated. Results indicated that GPS80 had higher carbohydrate (86.68% ± 0.90%) and uronic acid (12.89% ± 0.09%) contents, lower weight-average molecular weight (8.93 × 103 Da), and looser surface morphology than the other three GPSs. Furthermore, among the four GPSs, GPS80 exhibited the strongest antioxidant capacities, inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glycosidase, and nitric oxide stimulatory activity on RAW264.7 macrophage cells in vitro. Therefore, this study provides a simple and feasible technological strategy for producing bioactive polysaccharides from raw Allium vegetables.


Assuntos
Precipitação Química , Etanol/química , Alho/química , Caules de Planta/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenômenos Químicos , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Peso Molecular , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356853

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) toxic effects can overwhelm endogenous antioxidants and affect recuperation in fish. Thus, this study assessed antioxidative properties and ameliorating potentials of dietary supplemented garlic (D1), propolis (D2), and wakame (D3) on i) Cd bioconcentration, and ii) Cd induced toxicity during recuperation in Cd exposed Japanese medaka. In a 21-day exposure, control (0.0 mg Cd/L in water-C1) or Cd-treatment (0.3 mg Cd/L in water-T1) fish were fed medaka diets. Surviving fish in T1 were further depurated for 21-days and fed D1, D2, D3, or medaka diet (C2). Gill, liver, and muscle tissues were assessed weekly for Cd bioconcentration, metallothionein, (MT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Results showed reduced antioxidant activity by significantly increasing tissue Cd and LPO, and significantly reducing SOD activity and GSH content in gill and muscle upon Cd exposure. In contrast, D1, D2, and D3 diets significantly reduced tissue Cd and LPO, while increasing contents of MT and GSH, and SOD activity, significantly. Other condition indices in D1, D2 and D3 groups were also significantly higher than those in C2 groups. In conclusion, dietary supplementation significantly increased recuperation and tissue functions in fish, in the order D1 > D2 > D3> C2.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Cádmio/toxicidade , Alho/química , Oryzias/metabolismo , Própole/química , Undaria/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
11.
Food Chem ; 340: 127934, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890858

RESUMO

As the important compounds in black garlic, the physicochemical properties and bioactivities of melanoidin (MLD) were investigated in this study. The results showed that MLD possessed strong metal-ion chelating capacity and radical scavenging activities which were positively correlative with molecular weight (MW). During the simulated digestion in vitro, the ultraviolet absorption, browning degree and MW distribution of MLD remained the same as initial. It proved that the MLD from black garlic could be indigestible like the dietary fiber with little loss of volatile compounds and polysaccharides. Remarkably, the bioactivities of MLD were reduced significantly under the treatment of α-amylase or hydrochloric acid, while they were stable and retained over 60% after adding pepsin and pancreatin. This study provides fundamental evidences for further research and widely application of MLD and black garlic in the production of functional food or food additives.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Alho/química , Polímeros/química , Polímeros/farmacologia , Digestão , Ácido Clorídrico/química , Quelantes de Ferro/química , Peso Molecular , Polímeros/farmacocinética , alfa-Amilases/química
12.
Food Chem ; 337: 127790, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32799165

RESUMO

The effects of different high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) conditions on the composition, morphology, rheology, thermal behavior, color, and stability of high molecular weigh melanoidins from black garlic were investigated. Because HHP promoted Maillard reaction, HHP treatments decreased the aldehyde content from 46.76% to 11.92% but increased ketones and heterocyclic contents 4.46% to 6.66% and 9.32% to 11.55%, respectively. HHP treatments induced production of five compounds that were not present in the control sample, including 5-methyl-2(3H)-furanone, 3-methyl-2-cyclopentenone, 2,3-dihydrofuran, 2-ethylfuran, and 2-vinylfuran. The surface of HHP-treated melanoidins was rough and wrinkled, and composed of large particles compared with the control. In addition, HHP reduced viscosity of melanoidins solution at a shear rate of 1-10 s-1. Moreover, HHP improved the thermal stability and the stability under UV light of black garlic melanoidins. In general, HHP treatment enhanced the composition and structure of black garlic melanoidins and improved stability.


Assuntos
Alho/química , Polímeros/química , Pressão Hidrostática , Reologia , Viscosidade
13.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Spices, i.e., curcumin, ginger, saffron, and cinnamon, have a thousand-year history of medicinal use in Asia. Modern medicine has begun to explore their therapeutic properties during the last few decades. We aimed to perform a systematic literature review (SLR) of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of spice supplementation on symptoms and disease activity in patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondylarthritis, or psoriatic arthritis). METHODS: An SLR of RCTs, reviews, and meta-analyses was performed, searching for articles in MEDLINE/PubMed. Abstracts from international rheumatology and nutrition congresses (2017-2020) were also scrutinized. The risk of bias of the selected studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool and the Jadad scale. RESULTS: Altogether, six studies, assessing the use of spice supplementation only in RA patients, were included: one on garlic supplementation, two on curcumin, one on ginger, one on cinnamon, and one on saffron supplementation. Garlic, ginger, cinnamon, or saffron supplementation was associated with a decrease in RA clinical activity. However, several points limit the external validity of these studies. No conclusion on the impact of curcumin supplementation on RA activity could be drawn due to low-quality studies. CONCLUSIONS: Garlic, ginger, cinnamon, and saffron supplementation could have a beneficial effect on RA activity, but the risk of bias of these studies is difficult to assess and data are too limited to recommend them in daily practice.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Artrite Reumatoide/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Especiarias , Adulto , Cinnamomum zeylanicum/química , Crocus/química , Feminino , Alho/química , Gengibre/química , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Anticancer Res ; 40(11): 6345-6354, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33109572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The clinical course of acute leukemia is complicated, and it is often necessary to combine or change treatment methods due to the rapid increase and spread of malignant cells. In this study, the potential anti-leukemia activities of prepared garlic essential oil (GEO) and some organosulfur compounds contained therein were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Garlic essential oil component identification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). MTT assay evaluated cytotoxicity of tested samples. Leukemia cell differentiation was determined by NBT assay. Apoptosis and related mechanisms were investigated by western blotting. RESULTS: GC-MS analysis confirmed that the two most abundant constituents, diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATriS), constituted 80% of the composition. GEO and DADS exhibited the best effects in terms of significant production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), induction apoptosis and potentiation differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cell line HL-60 cells. The GEO-mediated apoptosis was alleviated by the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). CONCLUSION: The anti-leukemia activity of GEO and organosulfur compound DADS through the action of ROS elevation was herein confirmed.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Alho/química , Leucemia Promielocítica Aguda/patologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Compostos de Enxofre/farmacologia , Células HL-60 , Humanos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 82(2): 281-294, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886258

RESUMO

The efficacy of Allium sativum and Cannabis sativa against Rhipicephalus microplus ticks was evaluated using the adult immersion and the larval packet test. In addition, an in silico approach was utilized by performing a docking study in order to identify the active ingredients from both plants. Results showed a comparatively high lethal effect of A. sativum and C. sativa on egg laying (index of egg laying = 0.26 and 0.24, respectively), egg hatching (33.5 and 37.1, respectively), and total larval mortality (100%, both), at 40 mg/mL. When applied to cattle which had been inoculated with larvae ticks, it was observed that a 45% solution of both herbal extracts significantly reduced the number of ticks by 96 h post treatment. We analyzed in silico 27 known active molecules from both plants and identified in the PubChem database to explore the hypothesis that the effect found on ticks was based on inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Vitamin E and cannabidiol are the most potent AChE inhibitors with docking scores of -15.85 and -14.38, respectively. Based on these findings, we conclude that A. sativum and C. sativa may potentially be used for the control of R. microplus, and should be further investigated as a potential supplement to or replacement of synthetic acaricides.


Assuntos
Acaricidas , Cannabis/química , Doenças dos Bovinos/prevenção & controle , Alho/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rhipicephalus , Infestações por Carrapato/veterinária , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Larva , Infestações por Carrapato/prevenção & controle
16.
J Food Sci ; 85(9): 2843-2851, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790195

RESUMO

The U.S. Army and NASA need ready-to-eat meals with extended shelf-life for military operations and future manned space missions. For traditional heat sterilization methods, aluminum foil laminated pouches are used to achieve a shelf-life of 3 to 5 years at room temperature. However, those packages are not suited for advanced thermal processing technologies based on microwave energy. This research investigated the effect of polymeric packaging materials on storage stability of garlic flavor, vitamin C, and color of garlic mashed potatoes processed with microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) technology. Three types of high-barrier metal oxide-coated polymer pouches were used for MATS process, designed to achieve lethality approximately F0 = 6 min. Aluminum foil-based pouches were used for retort process as control. Results demonstrated that both oxygen and water vapor barrier properties (oxygen transmission rate [OTR] and water vapor transmission rate [WVTR]) of the polymer pouches were affected by MATS processing. OTR increased by three to nine times, while WVTR increased by 5 to 20 times after processing. The MATS process resulted in 13% to 16% vitamin C loss, while retort process resulted in 18% loss in garlic mashed potato. The kinetics of vitamin C indicated that metal oxide-coated high-barrier packages (after processing OTR <0.1 cc/m2 .day; WVTR <1.0 g/m2 .day) could replace aluminum foil-based pouches for MATS processed shelf-stable ready-to-eat garlic mashed potatoes. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Garlic mashed potatoes in polymer packages processed in a microwave-assisted thermal sterilization (MATS) system had better retention of vitamin C compared to samples packaged in aluminum laminated pouches and processed in retort. Polymer packages combined with MATS processing could potentially provide safe, better quality, and nutritious shelf-stable food products for military and space missions.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Fast Foods/análise , Embalagem de Alimentos/instrumentação , Alho/química , Pasteurização/métodos , Solanum tuberosum/química , Cor , Aromatizantes/análise , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Micro-Ondas , Odorantes/análise , Pasteurização/instrumentação , Polímeros/química , Vapor/análise , Paladar
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(6): e206628, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589229

RESUMO

Importance: The associations of lifestyle factors with gastric cancer (GC) are still underexplored in populations in China. Long-term nutritional supplementation may prevent GC in high-risk populations, but the possible effect modification by lifestyle factors remains unknown. Objective: To evaluate how lifestyle factors, including smoking, alcohol intake, and diet, may change the risk of GC incidence and mortality and whether the effects of vitamin and garlic supplementation on GC are associated with major lifestyle factors. Design, Setting, and Participants: This is a secondary analysis of the Shandong Intervention Trial, a masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that aimed to assess the effect of vitamin and garlic supplementations and Helicobacter pylori treatment on GC in a factorial design with 22.3 years of follow-up. The study took place in Linqu County, Shandong province, China, a high-risk area for GC. Data were collected from Jully 1995 to December 2017. Overall, 3365 participants aged 35 to 64 years identified in 13 randomly selected villages who agreed to undergo gastroscopy were invited to participate in the trial and were included in the analysis. Data analysis was conducted from March to May 2019. Interventions: Participants received vitamin and garlic supplementation for 7.3 years, H pylori treatment for 2 weeks (among participants with H pylori ), or placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcomes were GC incidence and GC mortality (1995-2017). We also examined the progression of gastric lesions (1995-2003) as a secondary outcome. Results: Of the 3365 participants (mean [SD] age, 47.1 [9.2] years; 1639 [48.7%] women), 1677 (49.8%) were randomized to receive active vitamin supplementation, with 1688 (50.2%) receiving placebo, and 1678 (49.9%) receiving active garlic supplementation, with 1687 (50.1%) receiving placebo. Overall, 151 GC cases (4.5%) and 94 GC deaths (2.8%) were identified. Smoking was associated with increased risk of GC incidence (odds ratio, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.003-2.93) and mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.01; 95% CI, 1.01-3.98). Smoking was not associated with changes to the effects of vitamin or garlic supplementation. The protective effect on GC mortality associated with garlic supplementation was observed only among those not drinking alcohol (never drank alcohol: HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.15-0.75; ever drank alcohol: HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.55-1.54; P for interaction = .03), and significant interactions were only seen among participants with H pylori (never drank alcohol: HR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.12-0.78; ever drank alcohol: HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.52-1.60; P for interaction = .04). No significant interactions between vitamin supplementation and lifestyle factors were found. Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial, smoking was associated with an increased risk of GC incidence and mortality. Not drinking alcohol was associated with a stronger beneficial effect of garlic supplementation on GC prevention. Our findings provide new insights into lifestyle intervention for GC prevention, suggesting that mass GC prevention strategies may need to be tailored to specific population subgroups to maximize the potential beneficial effect. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00339768.


Assuntos
Alho/química , Helicobacter pylori/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Vitaminas/farmacologia , Adulto , Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Gastroscopia/métodos , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Sulfetos/farmacologia
19.
Food Chem ; 324: 126883, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344350

RESUMO

Freeze-thaw cycles (FTC) pretreatment was employed before the vacuum freeze-drying of garlic slices, aimed at improving the drying process and the quality of the end product. Cell viability, water status, internal structure, flavor, chemical composition and thermogravimetric of garlic samples were evaluated. The results indicated that FTC pretreatment reduced the drying time (22.22%-33.33%) and the energy consumption (14.25%-15.50%), owing to the water loss, the increase in free water, and the formation of porous structures. The FTC pretreatment improved thermal stability, flavor and chemical composition content of dried products. The antioxidant activity of polysaccharides extracted from FTC pretreated dried products was higher than that of the unpretreated dried product due to the reduction in polysaccharide molecular weight. This research could pave a route for future production of dried garlic slices having good quality by using the FTC pretreatment, with lower energy consumption and shorter drying time.


Assuntos
Dessecação , Liofilização , Alho/química , Aromatizantes/análise , Congelamento , Alho/metabolismo , Peso Molecular , Células Vegetais/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Análise de Componente Principal , Vácuo , Água/química , Microtomografia por Raio-X
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3719, 2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111899

RESUMO

The production of "Laba" garlic is limited to the homemade method with long processing time and non-uniform color quality. Innovative food processing technologies including high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and high pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD) were applied to the processing of "Laba" garlic. Products prepared at different treatment pressures (200, 350 and 500 MPa of HHP; 4, 7 and 10 MPa of HPCD) were compared by evaluating the texture, color, flavor and sensory qualities. The results indicated that HHP treatment at 200 MPa was optimal for retaining the textural quality of "Laba" garlic, which was mainly attributed to the compacted cells and the increased Ca2+-cross linked cell-cell adhesion. HHP had greater effect on facilitating the formation of the attractive green color of "Laba" garlic than HPCD. The flavor profiles of "Laba" garlic were modified after treatments, with pungent compounds decreased to non-detectable. The results from sensory study confirmed that "Laba" garlic treated by HHP at 200 MPa was most acceptable to consumers. Moreover, considering the treatment capacity and feasibility of commercialization, HHP would be a promising technology in production of "Laba" garlic with improved quality and efficiency.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Alho/química , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cor , Manipulação de Alimentos/instrumentação , Humanos , Pressão Hidrostática , Controle de Qualidade , Paladar
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