Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.389
Filtrar
1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(6): 1571-1578, 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927886

RESUMO

Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is a secondary metabolite of allicin, a volatile organosulfur flavoring compound generated by the crushing of garlic. These compounds have various medicinal effects such as antiplatelet activity. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time the cellular mechanism involved in the inhibition of platelet aggregation by DATS and dipropyl trisulfide (DPTS), which is a saturated analogue of DATS. Washed murine platelets were incubated with these sulfides, and platelet aggregation was evaluated by light transmission aggregometry. The amount of reaction products produced by DATS, DPTS, and glutathione (GSH) was measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compared with DPTS, DATS potently inhibited platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, U46619, and collagen. N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM), which is commonly used to modify sulfhydryl groups, also suppressed platelet aggregation. The reactivity of DATS with GSH was higher than that of DPTS. These data suggested that DATS inhibited platelet aggregation through the reaction of sulfhydryl groups.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos/química , Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Compostos de Sulfidrila/farmacologia , Sulfetos/química , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Animais , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/fisiologia , Dissulfetos/química , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Alho/química , Glutationa/química , Camundongos , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química
2.
Food Chem ; 313: 126132, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927207

RESUMO

Analytical method was developed for determining the total residue of ethofumesate (ET) herbicide using GC-MS/MS. The ET residues were analyzed as a sum of ET, 2-keto-ethofumesate (KET), and open-ring-2-keto-ethofumesate (OKET) and its conjugate. The extracted samples were partitioned with hexane and NaOH solution. For ET analysis, the hexane layer was cleaned up by a silica gel cartridge prior to GC-MS/MS analysis. For the analyses of the metabolites, the aqueous layer was heated with HCl to hydrolyze the conjugates, thereafter, heated in acetic anhydride to convert OKET to KET, and cleaned up by a silica gel cartridge prior to GC-MS/MS analysis. The method was validated for ET, KET, and OKET in garlic, onion, and sugar beet at 0.3 and 0.01 mg/kg. The recoveries were 94-113%, with relative standard deviations of <6%. The limits of detection were 0.0005 mg/kg for all analytes. The proposed method is suitable for regulatory analysis.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Mesilatos/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Alho/química , Limite de Detecção , Cebolas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Food Chem ; 312: 126081, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31901831

RESUMO

We analyzed the aroma of aged garlic extract (AGE) using a sensomics approach to elucidate the effect of the aging process on AGE aroma. Sensory analysis showed a high intensity of the "acid", "seasoning," and "metallic" odor in AGE. The aroma of AGE exhibited more complex notes compared to those of fresh garlic which were characterized as "pungent." Aroma components of AGE were evaluated using aroma extract dilution analysis. Thirty-nine odorants were detected as key odorants in AGE. Allyl methyl sulfide (sulfury), 2-methoxyphenol (smoky), 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (seasoning-like), eugenol (spicy) and ethyl butanoate (fruity), which were mostly absent in fresh garlic, contributed to the AGE aroma. These results suggest that chemical reactions that occur during the aging process of garlic are important for the development of the characteristic aroma of AGE.


Assuntos
Alho/química , Odorantes/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Técnicas de Diluição do Indicador , Fatores de Tempo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 135: 110976, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31743742

RESUMO

This paper aimed to establish the optimal conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from domestic garlic (Allium sativum L.) using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) approach. A 4-factor-3-level central composite design was used to optimize ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to obtain a maximum yield of target responses. Maximum values of the two output parameters: 19.498 mg GAE/g fresh weight of sample total phenolic content and 1.422 mg RUT/g fresh weight of sample total flavonoid content were obtained under optimum extraction conditions: 13.50 min X1, 59.00 °C X2, 71.00% X3 and 20.00 mL/g X4. Root mean square error for training, validation, and testing were 0.0209, 3.6819 and 1.8341, respectively. The correlation coefficient between experimentally obtained total phenolic content and total flavonoid content and values predicted by ANN were 0.9998 for training, 0.9733 for validation, and 0.9821 for testing, indicating the good predictive ability of the model. The ANN model had a higher prediction efficiency than the RSM model. Hence, RSM can demonstrate the interaction effects of basic inherent UAE parameters on target responses, whereas ANN can reliably model the UAE process with better predictive and estimation capabilities.


Assuntos
Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Alho/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Químicos , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Solventes/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas
5.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1541-1546, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769025

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Citrus sinensis, Allium sativum, Ocimum basilicum, Mentha spicata, Curcuma longa, Carica papaya, Andrographis paniculata, Azadirachta indica, Cymbopogon citratus and Acorus calamus were compared in the form of extracts of chloroform, hexane and aqueous media for their effectiveness in repelling Tribolium castaneum. Filter paper of 9 cm in diameter was cut into halves. Using a micro-pipette, each extract was applied to one half of the filter paper. The volume applied was kept constant at 0.6 mL per 30 cm2 . The filter paper was dried and reattached leaving a 0.5 cm gap between, in a Petri-plate. Ten adults of T. castaneum were introduced and the repellency was observed after 30, 60 and 180 min. RESULTS: The aqueous extract of C. papaya exhibited the highest repellency (82-97%) followed by that of garlic bulbs (aqueous extract) with 86.67% repellency. Further, gunny bags were sprayed separately using bottle sprayers with the two most effective extracts at a constant volume of 42 mL per 575 cm2 . These treated gunny bags were compared with malathion-treated gunny bags in the insect management unit. The observations were taken after 2, 8 and 24 h. Papaya leaf extract-treated gunny bags showed relative repellent activity similar to that of malathion-treated gunny bags after 24 h of treatment. Thus, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of aqueous extract of papaya leaves was performed. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that extract of papaya leaves containing 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (8.47% peak area) can be used as a repellent biopesticide. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Repelentes de Insetos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tribolium/efeitos dos fármacos , Andrographis/química , Animais , Azadirachta/química , Carica/química , Curcuma/química , Cymbopogon/química , Alho/química , Repelentes de Insetos/química , Repelentes de Insetos/isolamento & purificação , Mentha spicata/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Tribolium/fisiologia
6.
Food Chem ; 306: 125625, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606635

RESUMO

A novel ultrasonic-assisted vacuum drying technique for dehydrating garlic slices to give high quality products was developed. Garlic slices were dried at 60 °C using four methods: ultrasonic-assisted vacuum drying (USVD), vacuum drying (VD), ultrasonic-assisted drying (USD), and convective drying (CD, the control with no vacuum or ultrasonic applied). Drying kinetics, water-content changes, and properties of the garlic slices were assessed. Univariate linear and partial-least-squares regression models were used to predict the properties from low-field nuclear magnetic resonance parameters. USVD gave the shortest drying time (180 min less than CD) and provided a better garlic color and texture, and allicin retention rate than the other methods. Higher correlations between low-field nuclear magnetic resonance parameters and quality properties were found by partial-least-squares regression (PLSR) than by univariate analysis, with the analysis results being credible. Overall, ultrasonic-assisted vacuum drying produced high-quality products with its properties predicted well by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Alho/química , Ultrassom , Cor , Cinética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Vácuo
7.
Food Chem ; 305: 125499, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606694

RESUMO

The quality of garlic is mainly attributed to organosulfur compounds that are the secondary metabolites of certain amino acids. Herein, a sensitive and rapid method for the simultaneous determination of 7 organosulfur compounds and 21 amino acids using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was developed. Then the levels of these 28 compounds and allicin in garlic among 242 samples from 6 provinces in China were profiled with multivariate data analysis. The results showed that garlic was rich in organosulfur compounds and could be a good supplement for amino acids. Contents of 29 compounds varied greatly among the provinces. The multivariate data analysis demonstrated two major groups for all samples, indicating that the location has a significant influence on the metabolism of garlic. Besides, the compositional differences of garlic from 6 provinces and correlations for growing conditions and contents of components were also analyzed.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Análise de Alimentos , Alho/química , Compostos de Enxofre/análise , Aminoácidos/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 656-664, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frozen preservation of lamb meat could be crucial for successful international trade. The shelf life of thawed meat is shorter than that of fresh meat, so techniques or procedures are required to improve post-thawing meat quality attributes. This study investigated the effect of alginate-based edible coatings after the incorporation of essential oils of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) on thawed lamb meat (longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle) quality after long-term frozen storage. Meat samples came from ten light lambs and the evolution of attributes related to shelf life, such as water-holding capacity, color stability, and lipid oxidation, was monitored during display (1, 4 and 7 days). Four meat treatments were evaluated: control (CON, uncoated meat), edible coat of alginate meat (ECA), and ECA with thyme or garlic essential oils (0.05%) (THY and GAR). RESULTS: The alginate-based edible coatings decreased exudative losses (P < 0.001) and modified color characteristics, especially increasing yellowness (P < 0.001) and chrome (P < 0.001). GAR decreased redness (P < 0.001) and the oxy/met ratio [R (630/580) wavelength light reflectance] or discoloration [R (630-580)]. THY was the treatment that best retained color during display and also showed a significantly lower lipid oxidation (P < 0.05) than CON and ECA, whereas GAR presented intermediate values. CONCLUSION: The addition of bioactive essential oils to alginate-based edible coatings improved preservation and shelf life of lamb meat after thawing. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/análise , Alho/química , Carne/análise , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Thymus (Planta)/química , Animais , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos/química , Oxirredução , Ovinos
9.
Food Chem ; 309: 125703, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670132

RESUMO

A new version of the hybrid potentiometric method (HPM) for evaluating the antioxidant activity (AOA) of fruits and vegetables, which we called contact (CHPM), is proposed. A screen-printed electrode pair coated by a membrane impregnated with a mediator serves as a sensor system. The potential shift, which is observed when the sensor system is exposed to the sample slice is used as a source of information. CHPM provides reproducible and correct results: relative standard deviation does not exceed 8.4% and recovery of model antioxidant at close to 100%. The AOA values of fruits and vegetables found by CHPM are in the range of 1-21 µmol-eq/g. Correlation between the AOA of slices and suspensions is found. The proposed CHPM can be used in on-site and in situ formats.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Frutas/química , Potenciometria/métodos , Verduras/química , Eletrodos , Frutas/metabolismo , Alho/química , Alho/metabolismo , Verduras/metabolismo
10.
Food Chem ; 312: 126086, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887623

RESUMO

Garlic-based extracts have been surveyed as healthy promoting supplements in relation to their content of organosulfur compounds. The present study investigated the effect of high pressure extraction and maceration, and four extraction solvents (three hydroalcoholic mixtures and sunflower oil) on the total and relative amounts of the main organosulfur compounds of clove and stem extracts of the Italian ecotype "Aglio Rosso di Sulmona" (Sulmona Red Garlic). Organosulfur compounds were more abundant in cloves than in stem extracts. High pressure extraction led to higher recoveries of hydrophilic compounds than maceration whereas the highest amounts of lipophilic compounds were detected in macerates. A higher alliin-to-allicin conversion ratio was detected in clove, in comparison to stem extracts. Sunflower oil fostered allicin decay to compounds such as ajoenes, vinyldithiins and sulfides. The use of specific extraction methods may lead to standardised grade extracts, both from native raw materials and by-products.


Assuntos
Alho/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Caules de Planta/química , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Ecótipo , Alho/genética , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Pressão , Syzygium
11.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(10): e201901002, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826148

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of garlic on formation of postoperative adhesions in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four Sprague dawley rats were divided into three groups. In Group 1 (sham), laparotomy was performed and stitched up. In Group 2 (control), after laparotomy was performed, punctate hemorrhage was induced by cecal abrasion in the cecum and 2 cc of saline was intraperitoneally administered to each rat. In Group 3 (experimental), after laparotomy was performed, punctate hemorrhage was induced by cecal abrasion in the cecum and each rat was intraperitoneally administered a sterile Allium sativum derivative. The rats in all groups were re-laparotomized on postoperative day 7; samples were obtained from the peritoneal tissue surrounding the cecum. RESULTS: In Group 3, there was a statistically significant difference in terms of inflammation, lymph node size, and free oxygen radicals; these parameters tended to increase. In terms of fibrosis evaluated using H&E and MT, there was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3. CONCLUSIONS: No positive outcomes indicating that Allium sativum reduces intra-abdominal adhesions were obtained. However, it caused severe inflammation in the tissue. Additionally, in immunohistochemical analyses conducted to detect oxidative stress, allium sativum increased the production of free oxygen radicals in the tissue.


Assuntos
Alho/química , Doenças Peritoneais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Fibrose , Radicais Livres/análise , Imuno-Histoquímica , Laparotomia , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfonodos/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Peritoneais/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Aderências Teciduais/patologia , Aderências Teciduais/prevenção & controle
12.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 28(12): 1609-1614, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During cerebral ischemia, energy restoration through the regulation of glucose transporters and antioxidant defense mechanisms is essential to maintain cell viability. Antioxidant therapy has been considered effective to attenuate brain damage; moreover, the regulation of transcription factors that positively regulate the expression of glucose transporters is associated with this therapy. Recently, it has been reported that the use of antioxidants such as S-allylcysteine (SAC), a component of aged garlic extract (AGE), improves survival in experimental models of cerebral ischemia. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of AGE and SAC on the level of mRNA expression of the main neuronal glucose transporter (GLUT3) and the glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) in rats with transient focal cerebral ischemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cerebral ischemia was induced in male Wistar rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. The animals were sacrificed after different reperfusion times (0-48 h). Animals injected with AGE (360 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) and SAC (300 mg/kg, i.p.) at the beginning of reperfusion were sacrificed after 2 h. The mRNA expression level was analyzed in the fronto-parietal cortex using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). RESULTS: Two major increases in GLUT3 expression at 1 h and 24 h of reperfusion were found. Both treatments increased GLUT3 and GCLC mRNA levels in control and under ischemic/reperfusion injury animals. CONCLUSIONS: This data suggests that SAC and AGE might induce neuroprotection, while controlling reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, as indicated by the increase in GCLC expression, and regulating the energy content of the cell by increasing glucose transport mediated by GLUT3.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Alho , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/metabolismo , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Isquemia Encefálica/metabolismo , Cisteína/análogos & derivados , Cisteína/farmacologia , Alho/química , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 134: 110862, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568853

RESUMO

Stable isotope ratio analysis of the major bioelements (δ2H, δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, δ34S), considered for the first time as a whole, was used to attempt a geographical characterization of red garlic (Allium sativum L.) cultivated throughout different Italian territories (Abruzzo, Lazio and Sicily). Up to now, no official methods are available to determine the geographical origin of this type of product. In this context, the Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry method (IRMS) represents a powerful analytical technique. The characteristic ranges of variability of the five isotope ratios in 56 red Italian garlic samples are here presented as well as their relationships. The geographical origin has some influence over the different ratios, although their data distribution shows some overlap when Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is applied. In spite of the relative closeness of the sampling sites, a model with very good predictive performance of the geographical classification was achieved byLinear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and k-nearest neighbours (k-NN) method. Moreover, preliminary class modelling based on Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) supports the ability of stable isotope ratios analysis for the geographical traceability of garlic.


Assuntos
Deutério/análise , Alho/química , Isótopos de Oxigênio/análise , Geografia , Itália , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(19)2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581442

RESUMO

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has been used extensively as a food ingredient and medicinally, but the effect on asthmatic airway inflammation has not been studied in detail. We accordingly explored the protective effects exerted by various garlic fraction extracts against airway inflammation with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p)-induced allergic asthma in vivo and in vitro. Garlic extraction was realized using n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, n-butanol, and water in sequence to obtain different fraction extracts. Mice were orally administered different fractions (80 mg/kg) daily for four weeks. The histological results showed that the water fraction could ameliorate lung-based goblet cell hyperplasia, inflammatory cell infiltration, and mucus hypersecretion. The water fraction extracts decreased IgE and IgG1, and they decreased inflammatory cells as quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); however, they increased IgG2a in serum. Moreover, the water fraction extracts increased IFN-γ and IL-12 (both constituting Th1 cytokines) in BALF, but they reduced IL-13, -4, and -5 (all constituting Th2 cytokines), and also inhibited the expression of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α. The water fraction also inhibited the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signal pathways in A549 cells. These findings suggest that water fraction extracts of garlic have a clear anti-inflammatory effect on Der p-induced allergic asthma.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/farmacologia , Antígenos de Dermatophagoides/imunologia , Alho/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/imunologia , Animais , Antiasmáticos/química , Antiasmáticos/isolamento & purificação , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Contagem de Leucócitos , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/isolamento & purificação , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Hipersensibilidade Respiratória/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12191-12198, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588747

RESUMO

Fermented black garlic has multiple beneficial biological activities, including cardiovascular protection, anticancer, hepatoprotective, and antibacterial properties. In this study, metabolic differences in the properties of black and fresh garlic were investigated via liquid chromatography quadrupole/time-of-flight-based metabolomics, leading to the identification of characteristic components. Fermented black garlic samples and their Amadori products (AC) promoted angiogenesis, prevented thrombus formation by rescuing chemical-induced vascular lesions in zebrafish, and inhibited H2O2-induced injury of endothelial cells, thus reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. AC suppressed activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway through inhibition of p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, in turn, increasing the availability of c-Fos/c-Jun or c-Jun/c-Jun complexes for apoptotic resistance. Clarification of the associated signaling pathways should therefore provide a solid foundation for optimization of black garlic-based therapies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Alho/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Metabolômica , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Peixe-Zebra
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(10): e201901002, Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054669

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of garlic on formation of postoperative adhesions in rats. Methods: Twenty-four Sprague dawley rats were divided into three groups. In Group 1 (sham), laparotomy was performed and stitched up. In Group 2 (control), after laparotomy was performed, punctate hemorrhage was induced by cecal abrasion in the cecum and 2 cc of saline was intraperitoneally administered to each rat. In Group 3 (experimental), after laparotomy was performed, punctate hemorrhage was induced by cecal abrasion in the cecum and each rat was intraperitoneally administered a sterile Allium sativum derivative. The rats in all groups were re-laparotomized on postoperative day 7; samples were obtained from the peritoneal tissue surrounding the cecum Results: In Group 3, there was a statistically significant difference in terms of inflammation, lymph node size, and free oxygen radicals; these parameters tended to increase. In terms of fibrosis evaluated using H&E and MT, there was no significant difference between groups 2 and 3. Conclusions: No positive outcomes indicating that Allium sativum reduces intra-abdominal adhesions were obtained. However, it caused severe inflammation in the tissue. Additionally, in immunohistochemical analyses conducted to detect oxidative stress, allium sativum increased the production of free oxygen radicals in the tissue.


Assuntos
Animais , Doenças Peritoneais/prevenção & controle , Alho/química , Doenças Peritoneais/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Fibrose , Imuno-Histoquímica , Aderências Teciduais/patologia , Aderências Teciduais/prevenção & controle , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Radicais Livres/análise , Laparotomia , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfonodos/patologia
17.
BMJ ; 366: l5016, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511230

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of Helicobacter pylori treatment, vitamin supplementation, and garlic supplementation in the prevention of gastric cancer. DESIGN: Blinded randomized placebo controlled trial. SETTING: Linqu County, Shandong province, China. PARTICIPANTS: 3365 residents of a high risk region for gastric cancer. 2258 participants seropositive for antibodies to H pylori were randomly assigned to H pylori treatment, vitamin supplementation, garlic supplementation, or their placebos in a 2×2×2 factorial design, and 1107 H pylori seronegative participants were randomly assigned to vitamin supplementation, garlic supplementation, or their placebos in a 2×2 factorial design. INTERVENTIONS: H pylori treatment with amoxicillin and omeprazole for two weeks; vitamin (C, E, and selenium) and garlic (extract and oil) supplementation for 7.3 years (1995-2003). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes were cumulative incidence of gastric cancer identified through scheduled gastroscopies and active clinical follow-up through 2017, and deaths due to gastric cancer ascertained from death certificates and hospital records. Secondary outcomes were associations with other cause specific deaths, including cancers or cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: 151 incident cases of gastric cancer and 94 deaths from gastric cancer were identified during 1995-2017. A protective effect of H pylori treatment on gastric cancer incidence persisted 22 years post-intervention (odds ratio 0.48, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.71). Incidence decreased significantly with vitamin supplementation but not with garlic supplementation (0.64, 0.46 to 0.91 and 0.81, 0.57 to 1.13, respectively). All three interventions showed significant reductions in gastric cancer mortality: fully adjusted hazard ratio for H pylori treatment was 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.99), for vitamin supplementation was 0.48 (0.31 to 0.75), and for garlic supplementation was 0.66 (0.43 to 1.00). Effects of H pylori treatment on both gastric cancer incidence and mortality and of vitamin supplementation on gastric cancer mortality appeared early, but the effects of vitamin supplementation on gastric cancer incidence and of garlic supplementation only appeared later. No statistically significant associations were found between interventions and other cancers or cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: H pylori treatment for two weeks and vitamin or garlic supplementation for seven years were associated with a statistically significant reduced risk of death due to gastric cancer for more than 22 years. H pylori treatment and vitamin supplementation were also associated with a statistically significantly reduced incidence of gastric cancer. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00339768.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter/terapia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/terapia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Biópsia , China/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Alho/química , Mucosa Gástrica/microbiologia , Mucosa Gástrica/patologia , Gastroscopia , Infecções por Helicobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/patologia , Helicobacter pylori/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/microbiologia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/patologia , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/prevenção & controle , Análise de Sobrevida , Taxa de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
18.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500271

RESUMO

Garlic and formulations containing allicin are used widely as fungicides in modern agriculture. However, limited reports are available on the allelopathic mechanism of green garlic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and its component allelochemicals. The aim of this study was to investigate VOCs of green garlic and their effect on scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cucumber. In this study, green garlic VOCs were collected by HS-SPME, then analyzed by GS-MS. Their biological activity were verified by bioassays. The results showed that diallyl disulfide (DADS) is the main allelochemical of green garlic VOCs and the DADS content released from green garlic is approximately 0.08 mg/g. On this basis, the allelopathic effects of green garlic VOCs in vivo and 1 mmol/L DADS on scavenging of ROS in cucumber seedlings were further studied. Green garlic VOCs and DADS both reduce superoxide anion and increase the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide of cucumber seedlings. They can also regulate active antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, POD), antioxidant substances (MDA, GSH and ASA) and genes (CscAPX, CsGPX, CsMDAR, CsSOD, CsCAT, CsPOD) responding to oxidative stress in cucumber seedlings.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Dissulfetos/farmacologia , Alho/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/análise , Compostos Alílicos/isolamento & purificação , Cucumis sativus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cucumis sativus/genética , Dissulfetos/isolamento & purificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/análise , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feromônios/isolamento & purificação , Feromônios/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plântula/efeitos dos fármacos , Plântula/metabolismo , Superóxidos/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110729, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381944

RESUMO

The present study aimed to develop a consortium of nutritive fermented food products, supplemented with phytochemicals, with reduced toxicological contents. We developed new flavored Doenjang products (protein rich) fermented with lotus, ginkgo, and garlic plant extract-based Meju (termed as EMD) as the starter culture and by using traditional Meju (termed as TMD), where these plant extracts were added later during the fermentation process. Fermented Doenjang samples were analyzed for reduced levels of biogenic amines (BAs), aflatoxins, and microbial hazards, (including Bacillus cereus) as well as for their nutritive contents and antioxidant potential, after varying periods of fermentation (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months). All Doenjang samples prepared using plant extracts and their mixtures (1% and 10%) showed desired reduction in B. cereus counts, BAs, aflatoxins, and other foodborne pathogens as well as showed potent antioxidant abilities, including phenolic/flavonoid contents. Based on the higher efficiency in reducing various toxicants, Ginkgo biloba leaf extract added TMD samples were selected for the development of Doenjang products as an innovative approach, with great potential to improve the quality and safety of soybean fermented products in the Korean market, offering enhanced health benefits and reduced risks of toxicity.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Carga Bacteriana , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Bacillus cereus/isolamento & purificação , Linhagem Celular , Cor , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/análise , Alho/química , Ginkgo biloba/química , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Coreia (Geográfico) , Lotus/química , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja/química , Soja/microbiologia
20.
Toxicol Mech Methods ; 29(9): 702-709, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364917

RESUMO

Leukopenia is the early clinical manifestation of benzene poisoning. The aim of our research was to evaluate the preventive effects of three kinds of garlic preparations on benzene induced leukopenia. The mouse model of Leukopenia was established with benzene orally. At the same time, mice were administrated with garlic homogenate (GH), garlic oil (GO) or diallyl trisulfide (DATS) as preventional measures. The counts of white blood cells (WBC), the organ indexes, pathological examinations, blood biochemical parameters, weight gains, and food intakes were evaluated to observe the protective effect and potential adverse events. The results demonstrated that the counts of WBC increased by 144.04%, 140.07%, and 148.34%, respectively, after intervention by GH (400 mg/kg), GO (60 mg/kg) and DATS (30 mg/kg), compared with that in the model group. The spleen and thymus indexes in the benzene model group were 44.99% and 54.04% lower than those in the blank control group, the number of spleen nodules reduced and the thymus atrophy, which were restored by three garlic preparations at different degree. The results suggested that the three preparations all could prevent the leukopenia and protect the organ injuries induced by benzene. However, the spleen index and weight gains revealed that GH and GO brought more adverse events than DATS.


Assuntos
Compostos Alílicos/farmacologia , Benzeno/toxicidade , Alho/química , Leucopenia/prevenção & controle , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Sulfetos/farmacologia , Compostos Alílicos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Contagem de Leucócitos , Leucopenia/sangue , Leucopenia/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Preparações de Plantas/efeitos adversos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/patologia , Sulfetos/efeitos adversos , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/patologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA