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1.
J Environ Qual ; 49(5): 1384-1395, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33016445

RESUMO

Nutrients excreted from animals affect the nutritive value of manure as a soil amendment as well as the composition of gases emitted from manure storage facilities. There is a dearth of information, however, on how diet type in combination with dietary particle size affects nutrients deposited into manure storage facilities and how this affects manure composition and gas emissions. To fill this knowledge gap, an animal feeding trial was performed to evaluate potential interactive effects between feed particle size and diet composition on manure characteristics and manure-derived gaseous emissions. Forty-eight finishing pigs housed in individual metabolism crates that allowed for daily collection of urine and feces were fed diets differing in fiber content and particle size. Urine and feces were collected and stored in 446-L stainless steel containers for 49 d. There were no interactive effects between diet composition and feed particle size on any manure or gas emission parameter measured. In general, diets higher in fiber content increased manure nitrogen (N), carbon (C), and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and increased manure VFA emissions but decreased manure ammonia emissions. Decreasing the particle size of the diet lowered manure N, C, VFAs, phenolics, and indole concentrations and decreased manure emissions of total VFAs. Neither diet composition nor particle size affected manure greenhouse gas emissions.


Assuntos
Dieta/veterinária , Esterco , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Gases , Tamanho da Partícula , Suínos
2.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008059

RESUMO

COVID-19 related restrictions aimed at curbing the spread of the coronavirus result in changes in daily routines and physical activity which can have a negative effect on eating and health habits. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with diabetes and their nutrition and health behaviours. A survey conducted in July 2020 included 124 individuals with type 1 (n = 90) and 2 (n = 34) diabetes mellitus from Poland. To assess nutritional and health behaviours, an online questionnaire covering basic information, anthropometric data, and details regarding physical activity, eating, and hygiene habits was used. Almost 40% of all respondents with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) stated that their disease self-management had significantly improved. Over 60% of all participants declared that they had started eating more nutritious and regular meals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Enhanced hygiene, in particular, during the period, a statistically significant increase in hand sanitiser use was reported by respondents (18% vs. 82%, p < 0.001). The study demonstrated that the pandemic had a significant impact on the behaviour of patients with DM. Improved disease self-management and making healthy, informed food and hygiene choices were observed.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Autogestão , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Desinfecção das Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 55(10): 704-709, 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045779

RESUMO

The achievements and breakthroughs in scientific field have provided scientific evidence for the relationship amongst diet, nutrition and chronic diseases, including oral diseases. Thus many international organizations and the governments of most countries were pushed to pay their attention to the prevention of chronic diseases by dietary patterns. From 1989 to 2018, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and World Health Organization organized expert consultations for many times to issue a series of global strategies and action plans on diet and health. The governments of China, Japan and US had produced the Dietary Guidelines for Residents. The results showed that the morbidity and mortality of many chronic diseases had been decreased by following the dietary guidance. However, the scientific achievements did not seem to produce tremendous enhancement in public health for various reasons. In the present article, the authors analyses the relationship between contemporary dietary patterns and oral health, and make suggestions on preventing and controlling oral diseases via dietary patterns for policy makers and dental professionals.


Assuntos
Dieta , Política Nutricional , China , Japão , Saúde Pública
4.
Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 52(5): 881-885, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047723

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate nutritional knowledge, attitudes and dietary behaviors of teachers and students in a medical college in Beijing and their influencine factors, and to provide evidence for nutrition education and promotion. METHODS: The subjects of this study were teachers, as well as first-year and second-year graduate students, and first-year to third-year undergraduate students. The teachers and students were respectively sampled by stratified cluster sampling with equal proportion. t-test or ANOVA was used to compare the means between the groups, and multiple linear regression was used to analyze the influencing factors of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) score. RESULTS: The average score of nutrition knowledge was 5.7±1.5. The knowledge rate of nutrition was 57.3%. The average score of nutritional attitudes was 8.3±3.0. The mean nutritional behavior score was 5.1±2.0. The average nutritional KAP score was 19.1±4.6, with the teachers 19.9±5.2 higher than the students 18.9±4.5; the female 19.5±4.5 higher than the male 18.4±4.5; All the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). The scores of nutritional attitudes, nutritional behavior and total KAP scores of doctoral students were significantly higher than those of the undergraduate and postgraduate students (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The nutrition attitudes of teachers and students is relatively correct, the nutrition knowledge needs to be further strengthened, and there are some unreasonable aspects in the nutrition behaviors. Gender, identity and degree are the main influencing factors of the nutrition score of knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. It is necessary to carry out nutritional education in schools to improve the nutrition knowledge of teachers and students, correct bad eating habits, and promote the construction of healthy China action.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes , China , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4943, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009384

RESUMO

Despite their high vulnerability, insular ecosystems have been largely ignored in climate change assessments, and when they are investigated, studies tend to focus on exposure to threats instead of vulnerability. The present study examines climate change vulnerability of islands, focusing on endemic mammals and by 2050 (RCPs 6.0 and 8.5), using trait-based and quantitative-vulnerability frameworks that take into account exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Our results suggest that all islands and archipelagos show a certain level of vulnerability to future climate change, that is typically more important in Pacific Ocean ones. Among the drivers of vulnerability to climate change, exposure was rarely the main one and did not explain the pattern of vulnerability. In addition, endemic mammals with long generation lengths and high dietary specializations are predicted to be the most vulnerable to climate change. Our findings highlight the importance of exploring islands vulnerability to identify the highest climate change impacts and to avoid the extinction of unique biodiversity.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Ilhas , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Animais , Dieta , Análise de Componente Principal , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3421-3430, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876253

RESUMO

The emergence of COVID-19 in Brazil further explained the massive discrepancy between different social realities coexisting in the country, rekindling the discussions about food and nutrition security, similarly to what has been happening in other countries facing the same pandemic situation. In this paper, we argue that the risks to hunger and food security in Brazil have been present since 2016 and are now being exacerbated due to the emergence of the COVID-19 epidemic. This situation requires knowing the extent and magnitude of the issue and articulation of measures in the three governmental spheres(federal, municipal and state) to ensure access to adequate and healthy food and reduce the disease's adverse effectson the diet, health, and nutrition among the most vulnerable people. Thus, this work aims to contribute to the debate on the measures to be adopted by governments and society to promote and ensure food and nutrition security and prevent insecurity and the expansion of hunger during and after the social and health crisis created by the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Estado Nutricional , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Brasil , Dieta , Humanos , Fome , Pandemias , Política Pública , Populações Vulneráveis
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 741: 140220, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887000

RESUMO

Human-dominated environments alter the availability and quality of resources for many species, especially for scavengers that have large home ranges and plastic foraging behaviors that enable them to exploit novel resources. Along the western slope of the Andes, the modification of natural landscapes have resulted in significant declines in native prey, the introduction of non-native species, and an increase in the availability of anthropogenic resources. These factors have likely influenced the resources available to Andean condors (Vultur gryphus), however, data are lacking as to how condor's diet vary along their large latitudinal range. We evaluated differences in Andean condor diet along a ~2500 km latitudinal gradient in Chile from the heavily modified Central zone (32-34°S) to the more pristine Austral zone (44-56°S). We assessed diet composition through the identification of prey remains in condor pellets, and carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis of condor feathers and their primary prey identified from pellet analysis. Our results identified medium- and large-bodied domesticated mammals (ungulates) and introduced exotic species (lagomorphs) as common prey across the study area. Condors from the Central zone had the largest isotopic niche width, probably related to consumption of anthropogenic resources with distinctly high carbon isotope values indicative of C4-based foods likely acquired from landfills or corn-fed livestock. Isotopic niches for condors from the Southern and Austral zones almost completely overlapped. Andean condor diet is strongly influenced by local conditions determining differential access to prey sources. The high dependence of Andean condors on livestock across a large geographical area, and landfills in more (sub)urban areas, may help stabilize their populations via anthropogenic resources subsidies. Long-term dependence on such resources, however, may have health costs including contaminant exposure and greater mortality risk. These data will help identify potential threats related to resource availability and use, and better inform management and conservation decisions.


Assuntos
Aves , Comportamento Alimentar , Animais , Chile , Dieta , Plumas , Humanos
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 1): 114-120, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890373

RESUMO

Neuropsychiatric disorders are closely associated with a persistent low-grade inflammatory state. This suggests that the development of psychopathology is not only limited to the brain, but rather involves an additional systemic aspect, accounting for the large body of evidence demonstrating co-presentation of mental illness with chronic inflammatory conditions and metabolic syndromes. Studies have shown that inflammatory processes underlie the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms, with recent studies revealing not only correlative, but causative relationships between the immune system and psychopathology. Lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise may influence psychopathology, and this may occur via a bidirectional relationship. Mental illness may prevent health-seeking behaviours such as failing to maintain a balanced diet, whilst adopting a 'healthy' diet rich in fruits, vegetables and fish alongside nutritional supplementation correlates with a reduction in psychiatric symptoms in patients. Obesity and the gut microbiome have proven to be further factors which play an important role in inflammatory signalling and the development of psychiatric symptoms. In a related paper we focus on the role of exercise (another significant lifestyle factor) on mental health (Venkatesh et al. 2020). Lifestyle modifications which target diet and nutrition may prove therapeutically beneficial for many patients, especially in treatment-resistant subgroups. The current evidence base provides equivocal evidence, however future studies will prove significant, as this is a highly attractive therapeutic avenue, due to its cost efficacy, low side effect profile and preventative potential. By promoting lifestyle changes and addressing the limitations and barriers to adoption, these therapies may prove revolutionary for mental health conditions.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Saúde Mental , Estado Nutricional , Animais , Dieta , Humanos , Estilo de Vida
9.
Z Gastroenterol ; 58(9): 890-894, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947634

RESUMO

Epidemiological an clinical observations as well as results from animal studies indicate that nutrition can play a role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Exclusive enteral nutrition therapy represents an example for modulating inflammatory responses solely through diet modification. Therefore, caretakers, patients, families, doctors and nutritionists seek for more dietary options to control IBD. These options include partial enteral nutrition therapy as for example the socalled Crohn's disease exclusion diet. The following statement summarizes existing data and provides recommendations for the current management of enteral nutrition therapy in pediatric Crohn's disease.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/dietoterapia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Adolescente , Criança , Dieta , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/dietoterapia , Sociedades Médicas
10.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 394-400, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955221

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obesity, as well as a gonadal function, are pivotal factors influencing bone tissue metabolism. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of dietary induced obesity (DIO) on bone tissue metabolism in sham-operated (SHO) or ovariectomized (OVX) adult female Wistar rats. Additionally, the influence of DIO in SHO or OVX on the concentration of sclerostin in the blood serum was analyzed. After SHO or OVX, the rats were placed in groups (n=8) and either received a standard diet (11.5 MJ/kg) (SHO-CON; OVX-CON) or a high-energy diet (17.6 MJ/kg) (SHO-FAT; OVX-FAT). The experiment lasted for 90 days and allowed for the establishment of osteopenia in OVX females and obesity in the rats that had received the high-energy diet. RESULTS: The results of the study demonstrate that obesity or/and ovariectomy increases the resorption of femora and tibiae, hence decreasing the densitometric and mechanical parameters affecting the bone structure in adult females rats. The strongest osteodegenerative effect was seen in the OVX-FAT females. Interestingly, the degree of bone tissue degradation caused exclusively by ovariectomy was similar to that found in the obese sham-operated rats. CONCLUSIONS: Bone losses invoked by DIO seem to be independent from the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway inhibition induced by sclerostin. While further study is necessary, the obtained results suggest that the usage of sclerostin anti-body in the treatment of osteoporosis can be ineffective, and in obese patients the undertaking of such therapy should be reassessed.


Assuntos
Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas/sangue , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/complicações , Ovariectomia/efeitos adversos , Via de Sinalização Wnt , Animais , Reabsorção Óssea , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Obesidade/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
11.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13454, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959464

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of substituting ear corn silage (ECS) for commercial formula feed on milk production and milk fatty acid profiles in grazing dairy farms during the summer season. A field survey was conducted on five grazing dairy farms in every summer month of 2017, 2018, and 2019. Three of the five farms substituted fresh ECS for the commercial formula feed at a ratio of 2:1 from July of each year (ECS farms). Other farms maintained the same feeding management as before (non-ECS farms). An interview survey was conducted on each farm to calculate feed intake and milk yield per cow. Feed and milk samples were collected in each survey. Milk compositions and milk fatty acid profiles were determined. The substitution of ECS for the commercial formula feed did not affect milk yield or milk composition, but ECS farms maintained low levels of milk urea compared with non-ECS farms (p < .01). The ECS substitution also influenced some of the milk fatty acid proportions; C16:0 and C16:1 increased, and trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2, and the sum of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased, while these fatty acid proportions were maintained in non-ECS farms throughout the summer season (p < .05).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Bovinos/fisiologia , Indústria de Laticínios , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Lactação/fisiologia , Leite/metabolismo , Silagem , Zea mays , Animais , Feminino
12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 91, 2020 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901755

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the dietary characteristics of participants in the NutriNet Brasil cohort immediately before and during the covid-19 pandemic. METHODS: Our data stem from an adult cohort created to prospectively investigate the relationship between diet and morbidity and mortality from chronic non-communicable diseases in Brazil. For this study, we selected the first participants (n = 10,116) who answered twice to a simplified questionnaire on their diet the day before, the first time when entering the study, between January 26 and February 15, 2020, and the second between May 10 and 19, 2020. The questionnaire inquiries about the consumption of healthy (vegetables, fruits and legumes) and unhealthy (ultra-processed foods) eating markers. Comparisons of indicators based on the consumption of these markers before and during the pandemic are presented for the study population and according to gender, age group, macro-region of residence and schooling. Chi-square tests and t-tests were used to compare proportions and means, respectively, adopting p < 0.05 to identify significant differences. RESULTS: For all participants, we found a modest but statistically significant increase in the consumption of healthy eating markers and stability in the consumption of unhealthy food markers. This favorable pattern of dietary changes during the pandemic occurred in most sociodemographic strata. We observed a less favorable changing pattern, with a tendency to increasing consumption of healthy and unhealthy food markers, in the Northeast and North macro-regions and among people with less schooling, suggesting social inequalities in the response to the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: If confirmed, the trend of increased consumption of ultra-processed foods in underdeveloped regions and by people with less schooling is concerning, as eating these foods increases the risk of obesity, hypertension and diabetes, whose presence increases the severity and lethality of covid-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Dieta/tendências , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Brasil , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Morbidade , Pandemias
14.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(8): 557-565, 2020 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933607

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the prevalence and determinants of folic acid (FA) supplementation in Chinese couples planning for pregnancy and in women during early pregnancy. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study based on the Shanghai PreConception Cohort (SPCC) study. Data on FA supplementation and socio-demographic features were collected using questionnaires. Couples visiting clinics for pre-pregnancy examination and pregnant women at < 14 gestational weeks were recruited in Shanghai, China, between March 2016 and September 2018. Results: Among the pregnancy planners, 42.4% (4,710/11,099) women and 17.1% (1,377/8,045) men used FA supplements, while 93.4% (14,585/15,615) of the pregnant women used FA supplements. FA supplement use was higher in female pregnancy planners who were older ( RR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08-1.18), had higher education ( RR: 1.71, 95% CI: 1.53-1.92), and were residing in urban districts ( RR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.11) of FA supplementation; female pregnancy planners with alcohol consumption ( RR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.90-0.99) had lower odds of FA supplementation. In early pregnancy, women with higher educational level ( RR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.03-1.06), who underwent pre-pregnancy examination ( RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03) had higher odds of using an FA supplement; older aged ( RR: 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98-0.99), and multigravida ( RR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96-0.98) had lower odds of FA supplementation. Conclusion: Although the majority of pregnant women took FA supplements, more than half of the women planning for pregnancy did not. Urgent strategies are needed to improve pre-conception FA supplementation.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Adulto , China , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(3): 208-218, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fruit and vegetable intake has been reported as one of the significant protective factors against the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study aimed to assess the possible preventive effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on developing CVD. METHODS: A total of 398 participants (205 cases and 193 controls) referred for elective coronary angiography with clinical suspicion of coronary artery disease to Prince Hamza Hospital in Amman were enrolled in this case-control study. Dietary data were collected separately from each patient using interview-based food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The findings of the present study revealed that a total consumption of 3 servings of vegetable per day decreased significantly the risk of CVD to about 54% (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.22-0.97, p = 0.033). Consumption of banana was found to reduce the risk of CVD to about 44% and 62% when consuming 1-2 and 3-6 servings/week, respectively, with p-value for trend 0.004. For the vegetables, the consumption of grape leaves and stuffed vegetables in general was significantly associated with lower risk of CVD. Increasing cauliflower consumption of 1-2 servings per week decreased CVD risk to about 37% (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.38-0.98). Consuming up to 3-6 servings per week of mixed vegetables (OR = 0.10, 95% CI: 0.01-0.83) and onion (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.22-0.80) revealed an inverse association with CVD development. CONCLUSIONS: Adding to the present evidence, consumption of some fruits and vegetables could be considered as preventive factor against developing CVD. However, the association of consuming vegetables with preventing CVD was higher than the fruit consumption.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas , Verduras , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção
16.
S Afr Med J ; 110(8): 796-801, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is a complex process influenced by factors such as smokers' nicotine dependence levels, socioeconomic status (SES) and other lifestyle behaviours. Little is known about these relationships in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between nicotine dependence, SES, lifestyle behaviours and lifetime quit attempts among adult smokers in SA. METHODS: This study used data from 2 651 participants aged ≥16 years in the 2011 South African Social Attitudes Survey. Information on SES (measured by asset ownership), binge drinking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, intention to quit smoking and lifetime quit attempts was extracted. Nicotine dependence was measured using the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI). All data were weighted to account for the complex survey design and to yield nationally representative estimates. Data analysis included binary logistic regression with high nicotine dependence (HND) defined as HSI ≥4 and lifetime quit attempts as separate outcomes. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 20.1% (31.6% for males and 9.5% for females), and was highest in the mixed-ancestry group (37.0%). Overall, 14.5% of smokers had HND, with a higher proportion in the high-SES group. The odds of HND increased with every 10  years of smoking history (odds ratio (OR) 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40 - 3.00) but decreased among participants who reported frequent physical activity (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.18 - 0.86) and those who planned to quit (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.19 - 0.75). Quit attempts were more likely among participants who reported frequent fruit and vegetable intake (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.07 - 2.98) and less likely among those reporting binge drinking (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.16 - 0.59) or assessed as having HND (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.17 - 0.58). CONCLUSIONS: Most adult smokers in SA have low nicotine dependence. However, the association of HND with high SES in this study suggests that although cessation treatment based on an integrated lifestyle behavioural intervention package may suffice for most smokers, a more intense cessation treatment package is needed for smokers of higher SES.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Classe Social , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(8): 1291-1295, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867438

RESUMO

Objective: To identify dietary patterns among children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 and the associations between these patterns and family characteristics. Methods: A stratified cluster sampling method was used. Data was collected on 2 438 students and their parents through physical examinations and questionnaires. Students were from 16 schools (4 urban primary schools, 4 rural primary schools, 4 urban middle schools, and 4 rural middle schools) in Fangshan district, Beijing. Dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis. Rank sum tests and Pearson correlation analysis were used to analyze the correlations between family characteristics and the scores on dietary patterns. Generalized linear mixed models were used to examine the associations between family characteristics and dietary patterns, for univariate analyses. Results: Two dietary patterns were identified: the risk pattern and the protective pattern. Results from the univariate analyses showed that maternal BMI was associated with the risk pattern (P=0.011). All factors, including the only-child, parental education level, monthly household income, paternal age at birth and maternal BMI, were related to the protective pattern (all P<0.05) except for the paternal BMI. After adjusting for gender, age, locations of residence (urban-rural) and BMI z-score, children with a lower parental education level and higher monthly household income were more likely to adhere to the risk pattern (ß=-0.10, 95%CI:-0.16- -0.04; ß=0.07, 95%CI: 0.02-0.12, respectively). For the protective pattern, the scores were positively associated with parental education level (ß=0.08, 95%CI: 0.02-0.14), monthly household income (ß=0.06, 95%CI: 0.02-0.11) and maternal age at birth (ß=0.02, 95%CI: 0.00-0.03). Children from the one-child families were more likely to adhere to the protective pattern (ß=-0.13, 95%CI: -0.22- -0.03). Conclusions: Differences of dietary behaviors were seen among children and adolescents from families with different characteristics. Protective patterns for children from families with lower parental education, lower monthly household income, lower maternal age at birth or multiple children etc. should be promoted. Risk patterns of children with lower parental educational or higher monthly household income also need to be corrected.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Características da Família , Adolescente , Pequim , Criança , Humanos
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 743: 140665, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32927525

RESUMO

This study screened six different species of forest plants and then further evaluated the most promising plant, giant milkweed (Calotropis gigantea), for the potential to improve nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) through inhibiting rumen protozoa in vitro. Ground leaves of giant milkweed at 1.6 and 3.2 mg/mL decreased the counts of Entodinium cells by 41.30% and 58.89%, respectively, and damaged their cell surface structure. Dasytricha, Isotricha, Epidinium, Ophryoscolex, and Diplodinium were not affected, while total bacterial and archaeal populations did not decrease. Ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration decreased by 50.64% and 33.33% at 1.6 g/mL and 3.2 mg/mL, respectively. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production and methane production remained unaffected, but butyrate production increased. The giant milkweed leaves contained (per gram of dry matter) 3636 µg phenolics including 205.9 µg of 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2079 µg flavonoids including 1197.5 µg of quercetin and 91.4 µg of myricetin, and 490 µg alkaloids including 219.8 µg of anthraquinone glycosides. The effective inhibition of Entodinium was accompanied by a decrease in NH3-N concentration, and methane production did not increase except for the dose of 1.6 mg/mL. Giant milkweed may be used as a new feed additive or an alternative to chemicals or antibiotics for sustainable animal husbandry enhancing NUE in ruminants.


Assuntos
Calotropis , Cilióforos , Microbiota , Ração Animal , Animais , Dieta , Fermentação , Metano , Rúmen
19.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 546-553, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928353

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Development of dietary literacy questionnaire for school-age children's diet providers and evaluation of its reliability and validity. METHODS: Based on the main theoretical basis of dietary literacy definition, a pool of dietary literacy questionnaires for school-age children's daily diet providers was prepared by expert group discussion through the Delphi method. The initial scale was formed by method such as expert panel discussions. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to investigate the daily dietary providers of 1137 urban and rural children in Hefei in November 2018. The t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to analyze the decision value, correlation analysis and internal consistency analysis. The structural equation model was constructed to evaluate the structural validity of the questionnaire. One week after the interval, 90 school-age children's daily diet providers using random sampling were retested, and the test-retest reliability was analyzed. The reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using Cronbach'α, Guttman coefficient, and structural validity. Further analysis of the differences in the educational level of children's diet providers and the scores of urban and rural questionnaires. RESULTS: A total of 1043 valid questionnaires were returned. 894(85. 7%) were children's parents and 128(12. 3%) were children's grandparents or maternal grandparents. After expert group discussion, the questionnaire preliminarily identified four first-level indicators to provide attitudes, actions, skills and environment for daily dietary providers about children's meals. The average authority coefficient of experts was 0. 87. The study finally retained 30 items, including the four dimensions of attitudes, actions, skills and environment provided by the daily diet providers of school-age children to the children's diet. The cumulative variance contribution rate was 52. 470%. The Cronbach' α coefficient of the questionnaire was 0. 874, the split-half reliability was 0. 813, and the test-retest reliability was 0. 878. Structural equation model fitting index: χ~2/df=2. 28, RMSEA=0. 042, NFI=0. 841, GFI=0. 927, AGFI=0. 912, RFI=0. 821, IFI=0. 904, TLI=0. 891, CFI=0. 903. In addition, the differences in scores of different education levels, urban and rural questionnaires and different dietary behaviors of children were statistically significant(P<0. 05), and the questionnaires had good discriminant validity. CONCLUSION: The reliability and validity of the dietary literacy questionnaire for school-age children's daily diet providers is good, and it can provide reference for evaluating the dietary quality of school-age children's dietary providers.


Assuntos
Dieta , Alfabetização , Criança , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , População Rural , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 613-616, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928357

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dietary exposure level of advanced glycation end products(AGEs) in the diet of Shenzhen residents. METHODS: 3 markets, 6 supermarkets and 10 chain catering units in Shenzhen were selected as sampling points. 196 food samples were collected in 11 categories in batches from December 2016 to October 2017. The AGEs content database was obtained by detecting carboxy methyl lysine by ELISA competition method. Combined with the food consumption data of Shenzhen residents in the 2011 survey of dietary and nutritional status of Shenzhen residents, through Monte Carlo simulation, the probability distribution of AGEs dietary exposure was calculated by using the Latin hypercube method from the AGEs content data and consumption data, and the result were expressed by the exposure corresponding to different percentiles(P50 and P95). RESULTS: In Shenzhen, 50% of the population had a dietary exposure of more than 37. 2 mg/d per person, while 5% of the population had a dietary exposure of more than 65. 9 mg/d per person. The first three factors that had a great impact on the dietary exposure of AGEs were the AGEs content of cereal and its products, the AGEs content of meat and its products, and the consumption of cereal and its products. The top three sources of AGEs exposure for both P50 and P95 were cereal and its products and its products taste, meat and its products. CONCLUSION: 5% of Shenzhen residents had a high intake of AGEs, which mainly came from cereals and their products, condiments, meat and their products.


Assuntos
Dieta , Carne , Exposição Dietética , Grão Comestível , Estado Nutricional
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