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1.
Food Chem ; 307: 125535, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639574

RESUMO

The research of antioxidants and natural pigments to replace synthetic molecules is increasingly considering wastes from plant food supply chains. Red chicory (RCH) and red cabbage (RCA) are rich sources of polyphenols (PP), especially anthocyanins, well know natural pigments possessing strong antioxidant capacity and beneficial health effects. The aim of this work was to compare different solvents for PP extraction and to evaluate the effect of spray-drying encapsulation using modified starch on PP, antioxidant capacity (AOC) and color properties. Methanol:water (70:30) showed the best extraction capacity, while ethanol:water (70:30) extracts displayed the highest thermal stability. Ethanol:water extracts were spray-dried with a yield of 95-99% for both crops, while the efficiency of PP encapsulation was 79% (RCA) and 88% (RCH). Encapsulation improved retention of PP and AOC upon thermal treatment (RCH: 20-30%, RCA: 44-55%) without altering color properties. This process can be employed for the development of functional foods and supplements.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Chicória/química , Composição de Medicamentos , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Antocianinas/química , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes , Cor , Dessecação , Alimento Funcional , Polifenóis/química , Solventes
2.
Food Chem ; 308: 125522, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669945

RESUMO

Date palm is an important fruit bearing tree grown widely in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The date fruit and its by-products, such as seeds, have both nutritional and medicinal value. However, date fruit and seeds have not been fully considered as potential functional food ingredients to develop foods with promising health benefits. Based on the available information in the literature, fruit and seed of date palm are rich in phytochemicals, such as phenolics, anthocyanin, carotenoids, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols and dietary fiber. In addition, they were reported to possess several beneficial health properties explored under in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. Further research in this area would provide valuable information for the potential utilization of date fruit and seed as functional food ingredients. This review presents a comprehensive information about the bioactive compounds and nutraceutical properties of different varieties of date fruit and seed, as well as the potential for using them as functional food ingredients.


Assuntos
Phoeniceae/química , Animais , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Sementes/química
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 695-704, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31602647

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCn3PUFA) nanoemulsion enriched foods offer the potential to address habitually low oily fish intakes. Nanoemulsions increase LCn3PUFA bioavailability, although they may cause lipid oxidation. The present study examined the oxidative stability of LCn3PUFA algal oil-in-water nanoemulsions created by ultrasound using natural and synthetic emulsifiers during 5 weeks of storage at 4, 20 and 40 °C. Fatty acid composition, droplet size ranges and volatile compounds were analysed. RESULTS: No significant differences were found for fatty acid composition at various temperatures and storage times. Lecithin nanoemulsions had significantly larger droplet size ranges at baseline and during storage, regardless of temperatures. Although combined Tween 40 and lecithin nanoemulsions had low initial droplet size ranges, there were significant increases at 40 °C after 5 weeks of storage. Gas chromatograms identified hexanal and propanal as predominant volatile compounds, along with 2-ethylfuran, propan-3-ol and valeraldehyde. The Tween 40 only nanoemulsion sample showed the formation of lower concentrations of volatiles compared to lecithin samples. The formation of hexanal and propanal remained stable at lower temperatures, although higher concentrations were found in nanoemulsions than in bulk oil. The lecithin only sample had formation of higher concentrations of volatiles at increased temperatures, despite having significantly larger droplet size ranges than the other samples. CONCLUSION: Propanal and hexanal were the most prevalent of five volatile compounds detected in bulk oil and lecithin and/or Tween 40 nanoemulsions. Oxidation compounds remained more stable at lower temperatures, indicating suitability for the enrichment of refrigerated foods. Further research aiming to evaluate the oxidation stability of these systems within food matrices is warranted. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/química , Alimento Funcional/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsões/química , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Lecitinas/química , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Temperatura Ambiente , Vegetarianos
4.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(2): 341-350, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30596253

RESUMO

Globally, peanut seeds are grown for oil production, peanut butter, confections, snacks and protein extenders, leaving the peanut by-products (skins, peanut hulls) as waste for disposal. Numerous studies have identified the value added attributes of peanut skins and/or peanut skin extracts as an antioxidant, functional food ingredient, animal production feed ingredient, and antimicrobial agent. This manuscript presents a comprehensive review of the food and non-food uses of peanut skins and/or extracts, and new uses of this significant agricultural waste product produced in the peanut industry. An improved comprehensive knowledge and better understanding of the value added uses of peanut skins enables us to better define future food and non-food uses of this agricultural by-product.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Arachis , Animais , Alimento Funcional , Sementes
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 510, 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soybean is one of the most important crop sources of tocopherols (Toc). However, the content of α-Toc, an isoform with the highest vitamin E activity in humans, is low in most cultivars. With the aim of broadening genetic variability, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for a high seed α-Toc trait detected in a wild soybean and characterized the sequence polymorphisms and expression profiles of γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) genes as potential candidates. RESULTS: A recombinant inbred line population was developed from a cross between the low α-Toc breeding line TK780 and the high α-Toc wild accession B04009. The α-Toc content in seeds correlated strongly with the ratio of α-Toc to γ-Toc contents. QTL analysis using a high-density map constructed with 7710 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) generated by restriction site-associated DNA sequencing detected six QTLs involved in α-Toc biosynthesis. Of these, three in chromosomes (Chr) 9, 11, and 12 produced consistent effects during a 2-year trial. B04009 allele at QTLs in Chr9 and Chr12 and TK780 allele at the QTL in Chr11 each promoted the conversion of γ-Toc to α-Toc, which elevated the seed α-Toc content. SNPs and indels were detected between the parents in three γ-TMT genes (γ-TMT1, γ-TMT2, and γ-TMT3) co-located in the QTLs in Chr9 and Chr12, of which some existed in the cis-regulatory elements associated with seed development and functions. In immature cotyledons, γ-TMT3 was expressed at higher levels in B04009 than TK780, irrespective of two thermal conditions tested, whereas the expression of γ-TMT2 was markedly upregulated under higher temperatures, particularly in B04009. CONCLUSIONS: We identified QTLs consistently controlling α-Toc biosynthesis in wild soybean seeds in 2-year trials. The QTL on Chr9 had been previously identified in soybean, whereas the QTLs on Chr11 and Chr12 were novel. Further molecular dissections and characterization of the QTLs may facilitate the use of high α-Toc alleles from wild soybean in soybean breeding and an understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying α-Toc biosynthesis in soybean seeds.


Assuntos
Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Soja/genética , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo , Alelos , Cruzamento , Alimento Funcional , Endogamia , Metiltransferases/genética , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sementes/genética , Sementes/fisiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Soja/fisiologia , Tocoferóis
6.
J Food Sci ; 84(11): 3264-3274, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610613

RESUMO

Freshly squeezed sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) juices of Maraska Brac (BR), Maraska MA (MA), Oblacinska 18 (18), Oblacinska Osjecka (OS), Rexelle (REX), Heimann conserved (HEI), and Kelleris 16 (KEL) grown in different climate regions (Mediterranean and continental) in two consecutive harvest years were analyzed for quality and sensory properties. Obtained results showed that investigated sources of variation (cultivar, growing area, harvest year) significantly influenced physical, chemical, and sensory properties of tested juices. All juices had high soluble solids (SS) (17.26% to 25.89%), especially BR (24.19%), MA (25.89%), 18 (24.66%), and OS (23.61%). Juices also had considerable total phenols (TP) content (2.19 to 5.87 mg GAE ml-1 ) and antioxidant capacity (AC) (0.020 to 0.045 mmol TE mL-1 ) with BR, MA, REX, and HEI containing the highest amounts of bioactive compounds (BR = 5.87 mg GAE mL-1 , MA = 5.68 mg GAE mL-1 , REX = 4.42 mg GAE mL-1 , HEI = 4.27 mg GAE mL-1 ). Sensory evaluation showed that all juices had satisfying sensory profiles with BR, MA, 18, OS, and KEL juices scoring particularly high (5.3 to 8.9 of 10) in desirable sensory properties (color intensity [CI], sour cherry taste [SCT], harmonious taste [HT], taste fullness [TF], sour cherry odor [SCO], and viscosity [V]) of fresh sour cherry cloudy juice. Juices from Mediterranean area achieved higher values for SS, pH, SS/TA ratio, TP, AC, SCT, HT, TF, SCO, and V compared to continental zone juices. Harvest year with higher temperatures and less rainfall also resulted in higher SS, pH, TP, and AC as well as stronger expression of desirable sensory properties. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The results of this study provide an insight into sour cherry potential for use in functional food products, including today's popular smoothies, since it is fruit rich with health contributing compounds and possesses desirable sensory characteristics (color intensity, sour cherry taste, harmonious taste, taste fullness, sour cherry odor, and viscosity) at the same time, which can differ due to cultivar, climate diversity as well as weather conditions.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Prunus avium/química , Adulto , Antioxidantes/análise , Cor , Feminino , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Alimento Funcional/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Prunus avium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Controle de Qualidade , Paladar , Tempo (Meteorologia)
8.
J Food Sci ; 84(10): 2876-2882, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513725

RESUMO

Microwave-powered cold plasma (CP) treatment was evaluated as a means to increase the antioxidant activity, water solubility, and dispersion stability of prickly pear cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) extract. The extract (2 g) was treated at various CP generation powers and treatment times at 25 °C to 28 °C. The antioxidant activity of the prickly pear cactus fruit extract increased by 1.8% and 1.7% after CP treatment at 750 W for 40 min and 856 W for 36 min, respectively. Both the water solubility and dispersion stability (delta backscattering) of the extract increased by 2.4% and 0.1%, respectively, following CP treatment at 644 W for 36 min. These results suggest the potential of CP treatment to increase the applicability of the prickly pear cactus fruit extract and possibly other insoluble natural antioxidant compounds in foods by improving their antioxidant activities and solubility in water. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Prickly pear cactus fruit is a functional food with a high antioxidant concentration. This study demonstrated that cold plasma treatment improved the water solubility and dispersion stability of prickly pear cactus fruit extract without altering or improving its antioxidant activity. The obtained results suggested the potential of applying cold plasma technology to improve the applicability of the extract, which is difficult to solubilize in food systems, to various processed foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Argônio/química , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Opuntia/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Gases em Plasma/química , Frutas/química , Alimento Funcional , Solubilidade
9.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 144, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493195

RESUMO

Chitinases are a group of hydrolytic enzymes that catalyze chitin, nd are synthesized by a wide variety of organisms. In nature, microbial chitinases are primarily responsible for chitin decomposition. Several chitinases have been reported and characterized, and they are garnering increasing attention for their uses in a wide range of applications. In the food industry, the direct fermentation of seafood, such as crab and shrimp shells, using chitinolytic microorganisms has contributed to increased nutritional benefits through the enhancement of chitin degradation into chitooligosaccharides. These compounds have been demonstrated to improve human health through their antitumor, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Moreover, chitinase and chitinous materials are used in the food industry for other purposes, such as the production of single-cell proteins, chitooligosaccharides, N-acetyl D-glucosamines, biocontrol, functional foods, and various medicines. The functional properties and hydrolyzed products of chitinase, however, depend upon its source and physicochemical characteristics. The present review strives to clarify these perspectives and critically discusses the advances and limitations of microbial chitinase in the further production of functional foods.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia , Quitinases/biossíntese , Alimento Funcional , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antineoplásicos , Antioxidantes , Antivirais , Bactérias/enzimologia , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Quitina/análogos & derivados , Quitina/metabolismo , Proteínas na Dieta , Fermentação , Indústria Alimentícia , Fungos/enzimologia , Glucosamina/análogos & derivados , Hidrólise , Fatores Imunológicos , Medicina , Alimentos Marinhos
10.
Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi ; 60(4): 119-125, 2019.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474653

RESUMO

Foods with Function Claims are allowed to label health claims based on scientific evidence evaluated by the manufacturers. To prevent health problems caused by inadequate use, the manufacturers should label proper safety information. To evaluate whether safety information is sufficiently provided, we conducted the adverse event review focused on popular functional ingredients using the database; Information system on safety and effectiveness for health food. The data suggested that causal factor of adverse events related to products containing soy isoflavone, ginkgo biloba extract and docosahexaenoic acid/eicosapentaenoic acid were overdose intake, concomitant use with certain medicines, and use by whom with an allergic predisposition. However, the safety information on the label was insufficient to prevent adverse events on each products' label. It is important not only to encourage food manufacturers to provide sufficient information based on safety review, but also to inform consumers about adverse events.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Alimento Funcional/normas , Legislação sobre Alimentos , Bases de Dados Factuais
11.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 36: 170-175, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383435

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common health disorders among children. Some patients do not respond to methylphenidate or cannot tolerate its side effects. Sweet almond syrup as a Persian Medicine preparation has been used for many years. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sweet almond for ADHD children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty children aged 6-14 years with ADHD were recruited to the study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups to receive either methylphenidate or sweet almond syrup. The outcomes were assessed using the Parent and Teacher ADHD Rating Scale every two weeks for 8 weeks. RESULTS: Results showed that the two treatments had similar effects on symptom reduction in ADHD children. No significant differences were observed between the two groups (F=2.3, df=1, p=0.13, F=0.57, df=1, p=0.47). CONCLUSION: Sweet almond may be an effective treatment for ADHD children.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Metilfenidato/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Prunus dulcis , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(16)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426291

RESUMO

Mitochondria play a central role in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression and in the control of cell death signalling during the progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Associated with the metabolic syndrome, NAFLD is mostly driven by insulin-resistant white adipose tissue lipolysis that results in an increased hepatic fatty acid influx and the ectopic accumulation of fat in the liver. Upregulation of beta-oxidation as one compensatory mechanism leads to an increase in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle flux and ATP generation. The progression of NAFLD is associated with alterations in the mitochondrial molecular composition and respiratory capacity, which increases their vulnerability to different stressors, including calcium and pro-inflammatory molecules, which result in an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that, altogether, may ultimately lead to mitochondrial dysfunction. This may activate further pro-inflammatory pathways involved in the progression from steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH). Mushroom-enriched diets, or the administration of their isolated bioactive compounds, have been shown to display beneficial effects on insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation by regulating nutrient uptake and lipid metabolism as well as modulating the antioxidant activity of the cell. In addition, the gut microbiota has also been described to be modulated by mushroom bioactive molecules, with implications in reducing liver inflammation during NAFLD progression. Dietary mushroom extracts have been reported to have anti-tumorigenic properties and to induce cell-death via the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. This calls for particular attention to the potential therapeutic properties of these natural compounds which may push the development of novel pharmacological options to treat NASH and HCC. We here review the diverse effects of mushroom-enriched diets in liver disease, emphasizing those effects that are dependent on mitochondria.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Agaricales/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/patologia , Alimento Funcional/análise , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia
13.
Molecules ; 24(16)2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426346

RESUMO

Daidzein is a common isoflavone, having multiple biological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-allergy, and anti-aging. α-Tocopherol is the tocopherol isoform with the highest vitamin E activity including anti-allergic activity and anti-cancer activity. Hesperetin is a flavone, which shows potent anti-inflammatory effects. These compounds have shortcomings, i.e., water-insolubility and poor absorption after oral administration. The glycosylation of bioactive compounds can enhance their water-solubility, physicochemical stability, intestinal absorption, and biological half-life, and improve their bio- and pharmacological properties. They were transformed by cultured Nicotiana tabacum cells to 7-ß-glucoside and 7-ß-gentiobioside of daidzein, and 3'- and 7-ß-glucosides, 3',7-ß-diglucoside, and 7-ß-gentiobioside of hesperetin. Daidzein and α-tocopherol were glycosylated by galactosylation with ß-glucosidase to give 4'- and 7-ß-galactosides of daidzein, which were new compounds, and α-tocopherol 6-ß-galactoside. These nine glycosides showed higher anti-allergic activity, i.e., inhibitory activity toward histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells, than their respective aglycones. In addition, these glycosides showed higher tyrosinase inhibitory activity than the corresponding aglycones. Glycosylation of daidzein, α-tocopherol, and hesperetin greatly improved their biological activities.


Assuntos
Antialérgicos/síntese química , Cosméticos/síntese química , Glicosídeos/síntese química , Hesperidina/síntese química , Isoflavonas/síntese química , alfa-Tocoferol/síntese química , Animais , Antialérgicos/metabolismo , Biocatálise , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Cosméticos/metabolismo , Alimento Funcional/análise , Glicosídeos/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Hesperidina/metabolismo , Humanos , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Masculino , Mastócitos/citologia , Mastócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Mastócitos/metabolismo , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/antagonistas & inibidores , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Solubilidade , Tabaco/citologia , Tabaco/metabolismo , alfa-Tocoferol/metabolismo
14.
J Food Sci ; 84(9): 2666-2673, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441517

RESUMO

Natural plant extracts are increasingly used as functional feed ingredients in animal husbandry and food ingredients in human alternative medicine to improve welfare and health. We investigated in 20 growing pigs via functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses to olfactory stimulation with two sensory functional feed ingredients, A and B, at two different concentrations. Functional ingredient A contained extracts from Citrus sinensis (60% to 80%), and ingredient B contained a mixture of extracts Oreganum vulgarae (40% to 55%) and Cymbopogon flexuosus (20% to 25%). Increased concentration of ingredients induced a higher activation in reward and cognitive areas compared to lower concentrations. Moreover, considering both ingredients at the highest concentration, the ingredient A elicited higher brain responses in brain areas involved in hedonism/pleasantness compared to ingredient B, and more specifically in the caudate nucleus and orbitofrontal cortex. Our findings shed new light in the scope of emotion regulation through olfactory modulation via sensory functional ingredients, which opens the way to further preclinical studies in animal models and translational research in the context of nutrition, welfare, and health. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Functional food/feed ingredients are gaining interest for improving health and welfare in humans and animals. Besides representing an alternative to antibiotics for example, food ingredients and their sensory characteristics might have a positive impact on emotions and consequently on well-being. Functional brain imaging in large animals such as in the pig model is a promising approach to investigate the central and behavioural effects of food ingredients, and determine the most effective blends and concentrations to modulate internal and emotional states.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Apetite/farmacologia , Encéfalo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Olfato , Animais , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Alimento Funcional , Extratos Vegetais , Olfato/efeitos dos fármacos , Olfato/fisiologia , Suínos
15.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466265

RESUMO

Polysaccharides are ubiquitous biomolecules found in nature that contain various biological and pharmacological activities that are employed in functional foods and therapeutic agents. Natural polysaccharides are obtained mainly by extraction and purification, which may serve as reliable procedures to enhance the quality and the yield of polysaccharide products. Moreover, structural analysis of polysaccharides proves to be promising and crucial for elucidating structure-activity relationships. Therefore, this report summarizes the recent developments and applications in extraction, separation, purification, and structural analysis of polysaccharides of plants and fungi.


Assuntos
Fungos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Sequência de Carboidratos , Alimento Funcional , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade
16.
Mar Drugs ; 17(8)2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374944

RESUMO

Microalgae are considered as excellent candidates for bioactive compounds, yet microalgal residues remaining after the extraction of one or two compounds are usually discarded, which is not economical. This study demonstrates the alkaline extraction of proteins from Chlorella pyrenoidosa residue after lipid and pigment extractions, and their functional properties. Single-factor experiments and response surface methodology were used to obtain the optimal conditions for protein extraction. Based on our results, a maximum protein yield of 722.70 mg/g, was obtained under the following extraction conditions: sodium hydroxide concentration 7.90%, extraction temperature 70.00 °C, extraction time 34.80 min, and microalgal residue concentration 8.20 mg/mL. The molecular weight of microalgal residue protein isolate (MRPI) was mainly distributed at the regions of 0.18-0.50 kDa, 0.50-1.50 kDa, and 1.50-5.00 kDa. The essential amino acid content was greater than the values recommended by FAO/WHO standards; a high essential amino acid index value (1.49) was another good indication that MRPI is suitable for human consumption. Moreover, MRPI exhibited excellent emulsifying properties and antioxidant activity, which suggests it may be useful as an emulsifying agent and antioxidant. These findings could improve the extraction methods of functional protein from microalgal residue and add value to microalgae-based bioactive compound production processes.


Assuntos
Chlorella/química , Microalgas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Aminoácidos Essenciais/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Emulsificantes/química , Emulsificantes/isolamento & purificação , Emulsificantes/farmacologia , Alimento Funcional , Lipídeos/isolamento & purificação , Peso Molecular , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pigmentos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Hidróxido de Sódio/química , Temperatura Ambiente
17.
Adv Food Nutr Res ; 89: 95-164, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351531

RESUMO

The objective of the present chapter was to demonstrate the state of the art in the recent advances in nutritional and functional components of dairy products research. In this chapter, the main mechanisms responsible and essential for a better understanding of nutritional and functional values of the components of milk and dairy products are highlighted. It also includes a discussion about the positive impacts of fermented milk, cheese, butter, ice cream, and dairy desserts components on the consumer's health.


Assuntos
Laticínios , Valor Nutritivo , Alimento Funcional , Humanos
18.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336978

RESUMO

Background: In Japan, a new type of foods with health claims, called Foods with Function Claims (FFC), was introduced in April 2015 in order to make more products available that are clearly labeled with certain health functions. Regarding substantiating product effectiveness, scientific evidence for the proposed function claims must be explained by systematic reviews (SRs), but the quality of SRs was not clear. The objectives of this review were to assess the quality of SRs based on the FFC registered on the Consumer Affairs Agency (CAA) website in Japan, and to determine whether the CAA's verification report in 2016 was associated with improvement in the quality of SRs. Methods: We evaluated the reporting quality of each SR by the AMSTAR checklist on methodological quality. We searched the database from 1 April to 31 October 2015 as the before-SR and from 1 July 2017 to 31 January 2018 as the after-SR. Results: Among the 104 SRs reviewed, 96 final products were included: 51 (53.1%) were supplements, 42 (43.8%) were processed foods without supplements, and 3 (3.1%) were fresh foods. Of the 104 SRs, 92 (88.5%) were qualitative reviews (i.e., without meta-analysis) and 12 (11.5%) performed a meta-analysis. The average quality score of before-SRs and after-SRs was 6.2 ± 1.8 and 5.0 ± 1.9, respectively, a statistically significant decrease (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Overall, the methodology and reporting quality of after-SRs based on the FFC were poorer than those of before-SRs. In particular, there were very poor descriptions and/or implementations of study selection and data extraction, search strategy, evaluation methods for risk of bias, assessment of publication bias, and formulating conclusions based on methodological rigor and scientific quality of the included studies.


Assuntos
Alimento Funcional , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Viés , Órgãos Governamentais , Humanos , Japão , Projetos de Pesquisa
19.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337054

RESUMO

Olives (Olea europaea L.) are classic ingredients in the Mediterranean diet with well-known health benefits, but their lipid composition has not been fully addressed. In this work, we characterised triacylglycerol (TAG) and polar lipid profiles of the olive pulp while using a complementary methodological approach that was based on solid-phase extraction to recover the neutral lipid (NL) and the polar lipid-rich fractions. The TAG profile was analysed in the NL-fraction by C30 reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) and the polar lipid profile by normal-phase hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), with both being coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and ESI-MS/MS. This approach identified 71 TAG ions that were attributed to more than 350 molecular species, with fatty acyl chain lengths from C11:0 to C26:0, including different polyunsaturated acyl chains. The polar lipids included 107 molecular species that belonged to 11 lipid classes that comprised phospholipids, glyceroglycolipids, glycosphingolipids, and betaine lipids. In addition to polyunsaturated fatty acids, some of the phospholipids, glycolipids, and glycosphingolipids that were identified in the olive pulp have been described as biologically active molecules. Lipidomic phenotyping of the olive pulp has led to the discovery of compounds that will allow for a better assessment of its nutritional value and new applications of bioactive lipid components in this functional food.


Assuntos
Frutas/metabolismo , Alimento Funcional , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipídeos , Olea/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa , Frutas/química , Lipídeos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Olea/química , Portugal , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Triglicerídeos/química , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9121-9123, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339705

RESUMO

As part of the 256th American Chemical Society National Meeting that was held in Boston, MA, U.S.A., in August 2018, the symposium on "Health-Promoting Food Ingredients" was organized in collaboration with Dr. Agnes Rimando (rest in peace). This symposium aimed to present the latest advances related to food ingredients (e.g., pure compounds, extracts, or additives) that potentially confer health benefits and reduce the development of lifestyle-related metabolic disorders (e.g., hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes, among others). The studies presented included the evaluation of functional properties of bioactive compounds commonly found in foods, with an emphasis in (poly)phenols (anthocyanins, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins), and dietary fiber and their interaction with gut microbiota. Many studies were focused on whole extracts of foods and the bioactivity measured in vivo at the cellular level. The role of (poly)phenols in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes was highlighted.


Assuntos
Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Alimento Funcional/análise , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/dietoterapia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos
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