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1.
Bioresour Technol ; 344(Pt B): 126250, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728356

RESUMO

The myriad health benefits associated with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) laid the path for their application in the functional foods and nutraceutical industries. Fish being primarily exploited for extraction of EPA and DHA are unsustainable sources; thus, oleaginous microalgae turn out to be an alternative sustainable source. This review paper aims to provide the recent developments in the context of enhancing EPA and DHA production by utilising non-genetic tailoring and genetic tailoring methods. We have also summarized the legislation, public perception, and possible risks associated with the usage of genetically modified microalgae focusing on EPA and DHA production.


Assuntos
Ácido Eicosapentaenoico , Microalgas , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos , Alimento Funcional , Microalgas/genética
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2370: 67-95, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34611865

RESUMO

Food carbohydrates are macronutrients that are found in fruits, grains, vegetables, and milk products. These organic compounds are present in foods in the form of sugars, starches, and fibers and are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. These wide ranging macromolecules can be classified according to their chemical structure into three major groups: low molecular weight mono- and disaccharides, intermediate molecular weight oligosaccharides, and high molecular weight polysaccharides. Notably, the digestibility of specific carbohydrate components differ and nondigestible carbohydrates can reach the large intestine intact where they act as food sources for beneficial bacteria. In this review, we give an overview of advances made in food carbohydrate analysis. Overall, this review indicates the importance of carbohydrate analytical techniques in the quest to identify and isolate health-promoting carbohydrates to be used as additives in the functional foods industry.


Assuntos
Carboidratos/química , Análise de Alimentos , Alimento Funcional , Oligossacarídeos , Polissacarídeos , Amido
3.
Food Chem ; 367: 130697, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365248

RESUMO

Metabolomics is an important branch of systems biology, which can detect changes in the body's metabolism before and after the intervention of functional foods, identify effective metabolites, and predict the interventional effects and the mechanism. This review summarizes the latest research outcomes regarding interventional effects of functional foods on metabolic diseases via metabolomics analysis. Since metabolomics approaches are powerful strategies for revealing the changes in bioactive compounds of functional foods during processing and storage, we also discussed the effects of these parameters on functional food metabolites using metabolomics approaches. To date, a number of endogenous metabolites related to the metabolic diseases after functional foods intervention have been discovered. Unfortunately, the mechanisms of metabolic disease-related molecules are still unclear and require further studies. The combination of metabolomics with other omics technologies could further promote its ability to fully understand the precise biological processes of functional food intervention on metabolic diseases.


Assuntos
Alimento Funcional , Doenças Metabólicas , Humanos , Metabolômica
4.
Food Chem ; 367: 130759, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375888

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to perform phytochemical analysis of tea from Sambucus ebulus fruits concerning hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonol glucosides, stilbenes and proanthocyanidin mono-, di- and trimers content. In total, 33 compounds were identified and quantified using UPLC-DAD-ESI/MS/MS system and the results are presented in mg/g dry weight (DW). Among analyzed hydroxycinnamic acids, 5-Caffeoylquinic acid (114.17 mg/g) was most abundant, followed by 3-p-Coumaroylquinic acid (50.33 mg/g) and 3-p-Feruloylquinic acid, p-Coumaric acid glucoside and 4-p-Coumaroylquinic acid (31.36 mg/g, 29.78 mg/g and 27.70 mg/g, respectively). Flavonol glucosides were represented predominantly by Quercetin-3-O-galactoside, Quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-galactoside Quercetin-3-O-glucoside and Quercetin-3-O-rhamnosyl-glucoside (3.68 mg/g, 3.22 mg/g, 2.87 mg/g and 2.56 mg/g, respectively). trans-Resveratrol-3-O-glucoside, epicatechin (40.62 mg/g) and proanthocyanidin di- and -trimers (19.90 mg/g - 31.42 mg/g) also were present in the tea. ABTS cation decolorization assay revealed 1.248 mM UAE activity and the percent of DPPH radical scavenging was 14.25%, corresponding to 39.07 µM Trolox equivalents.


Assuntos
Sambucus , Antioxidantes/análise , Bulgária , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Frutas/química , Alimento Funcional , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Chá
5.
Food Chem ; 374: 131701, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34902813

RESUMO

Uptake of calcium from food depends on solubility of calcium salts in the intestines, and precipitation of calcium phosphates decreases bioaccessibility of food calcium. Citrate as a high affinity complex binder for calcium was found spontaneously to create strongly supersaturated solutions by rapid dissolution of calcium hydrogen phosphate characterized by short lag phases for precipitation. Gluconate with weaker affinity for calcium binding showed longer lag phases for precipitation from supersaturated solutions. For citrate/gluconate combinations, the highest degree of supersaturation with longest lag phases for precipitation were found by trial-and-error experiments for a citrate/gluconate ratio of 1:10 for dissolution of calcium hydrogen phosphate resulting in supersaturation factors around three and without precipitation for more than a month. The aim of the present study was to provide a physicochemical explanation of this robust supersaturation. Calcium speciation based on electrochemical calcium activity measurement identified a low [Ca2+]·[HCitr2-] product as critical for supersaturation.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico , Alimento Funcional , Cálcio , Fosfatos de Cálcio , Citratos , Gluconatos , Solubilidade
6.
Food Chem ; 370: 131019, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509152

RESUMO

Pleurotus is an edible mushroom from the well-known genus of Basidiomycetes; it is the second-most commonly consumed mushroom worldwide. This genus is characterized by the presence of steroids, fatty acids, and polysaccharides. Recently, Pleurotus has become popular as a functional food owing to its health benefits, primarily because they are a source of vitamins, fibers, minerals, and lipids. In natural products chemistry, dereplication techniques identify bioactive molecules from natural sources such as plants and fungi without isolating or characterizing molecules. We used dereplication techniques aided by the Global Natural Products Social Molecular Network to analyze the chemical composition of the methanolic extracts of six Pleurotus species (P. sapidus, P. ostreaus, P. ostreaus var. Florida, P. djamor, P. citrinopileatus, and P. pulmonarius), to identify bioactive molecules with nutraceutical properties. Using this technique, we identified several molecular families, including eight fatty acids and seven steroids. Our findings suggest that dereplication is a relatively rapid tool for characterizing fungal species and determining their nutraceutical value.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Pleurotus , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Polissacarídeos
7.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959750

RESUMO

Biofortification of food crops with iodine is a novel approach to preventing iodine deficiency in humans. The present study analyses the consumer target groups and the market potential of iodine-biofortified fruit and vegetables in Germany. For this purpose, an online survey of 1016 German fruit and vegetable consumers was conducted to investigate the acceptance of different product categories as well as relevant criteria for the market launch. The results show that iodine-biofortified fruit and vegetables are particularly attractive to consumers who purchase at farmers' markets, organic food shops, and farm stores. Out of this group, 39% of consumers rate such iodine-rich foods as very appealing. They attach importance to food that naturally contains iodine and prefer produce from integrated domestic cultivation. With their focus on sustainability and naturalness, this group of consumers clearly differs from typical users of dietary supplements, who are primarily concerned with health benefits. However, overall about 85% of respondents would prefer biofortified fruits and vegetables to supplements to improve their iodine supply. The greatest market potential for iodine-biofortified fruit and vegetables is to be expected in supermarkets, as this is the preferred food shopping location for most consumers. A total of 28% of those who buy here rate the biofortified foods presented as very appealing. Nevertheless, a successful market launch requires that the benefits of the new products are communicated according to the potential consumer group needs.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Frutas/química , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Verduras/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Biofortificação , Feminino , Alimentos Orgânicos/análise , Alimentos Orgânicos/provisão & distribuição , Frutas/provisão & distribuição , Alimento Funcional/análise , Alimento Funcional/provisão & distribuição , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Verduras/provisão & distribuição , Adulto Jovem
8.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959781

RESUMO

Chickpea-based foods are known for their low allergenicity and rich nutritional package. As an essential dietary legume, chickpea is often processed into milk or hummus or as an industrial source of protein and starch. The current study explores the feasibility of using the chickpea-derived prebiotic substances as a scaffold for growing Bacillus subtilis (a prospective probiotic bacterium) to develop synbiotic chickpea-based functional food. We report that the chickpea-derived fibers enhance the formation of the B. subtilis biofilms and the production of the antimicrobial pigment pulcherrimin. Furthermore, electron micrograph imaging confirms the bacterial embedding onto the chickpea fibers, which may provide a survival tactic to shield and protect the bacterial population from environmental insults. Overall, it is believed that chickpea-derived prebiotic substances provide a staple basis for developing functional probiotics and synbiotic food.


Assuntos
Bacillus subtilis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cicer/microbiologia , Alimento Funcional/microbiologia , Prebióticos/microbiologia , Aminoácidos Sulfúricos/biossíntese , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Piperidinas , Probióticos/análise , Simbióticos/análise , Tecidos Suporte
9.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 4): e20210571, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34706010

RESUMO

Several works have shown different aspects of the use of the plant Moringa oleifera. However, few review studies bring an approach to its use in food preparation, specifying its role as a functional food and its use as a natural additive, focusing on food biochemistry and including sensory acceptance and safety. Composed by multiple bioactive substances, Moringa oleifera has the potential to be used as a food additive, mainly as a preservative with the potential to prevent lipid oxidation and other unwanted chemical reactions that lead to product deterioration. Furthermore, it can improve the physicochemical characteristics of food, increasing its quality and shelf life. It also promotes nutritional improvement, elevating protein, mineral, and vitamin levels. Despite this, the sensorial characteristics of this plant result in a low consumer acceptance of the fortified products, which is a problem for the food industry. Apart from inconclusive works, some data involving Moringa's safety are contradictory, resulting in its commercialization prohibition in Brazil in 2019. This review focused on important data about Moringa use to contribute to the literature and to the food industry, describing information about this medicinal plant effects on food products.


Assuntos
Moringa oleifera , Brasil , Aditivos Alimentares , Alimento Funcional , Minerais , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta
10.
Food Funct ; 12(19): 8920-8931, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606549

RESUMO

The effect of adding the chokeberry fruit additive to rape honey was studied with regard to the physicochemical properties and biological activity. Two samples of dried powdered fruits were used to enrich the honey (1 and 4% v/v) during creaming. The obtained products were characterized in terms of sugar content, acidity, conductivity, total phenolic, flavonoid and anthocyanin contents and HPTLC polyphenol profiles. The antioxidant properties of enriched honeys were studied in vitro (FRAP, DPPH, and ABTS) and in vivo using a S. cerevisiae model. The inhibitory effect against 5 bacterial strains and coronavirus surrogate bacteriophage phi6 was tested. The addition of chokeberry significantly modified the physicochemical properties of honey and enhanced its antioxidant potential (from 3 to 15 times). Using HPTLC analysis, the occurrence of flavonoids, phenolic acids, and anthocyanins in chokeberry enriched honey was determined. The modified honey protected yeast cells against H2O2-induced oxidative stress when used as a pretreatment agent. All tested bacteria were susceptible to enriched honey in a dose-dependent manner. The antiviral potential of enriched honey against the model bacteriophage was discovered for the first time. In terms of numerous health benefits determined, honey enriched with Aronia melanocarpa fruits can be considered as an interesting novel functional food, which may increase the consumption of chokeberry superfruits.


Assuntos
Frutas , Alimento Funcional , Mel , Photinia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Humanos , Picratos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684519

RESUMO

Due to the high proportion of impulse purchases and the short time devoted to purchase decisions, packaging and other extrinsic attributes are becoming increasingly important in demonstrating the health benefits of a functional food item to consumers as plausibly as possible. Our research aims at identifying the role of extrinsic features (claims related to ingredients and health claims, organic or domestic origin, as well as the shape and color of packaging), gathered in the course of in-depth literature analysis, in the case of a functional smoothie. Our online consumer questionnaire was completed by 633 respondents, and the answers were assessed by choice based conjoint analysis. Our results show that each examined attribute plays a role in the assessment of health effects. The color blue has the biggest impact on making the consumer believe in the health benefits of the product. This is followed by the indication of organic origin, then the statement emphasizing the natural quality of the ingredients. The assessment of the specific extrinsic attributes is affected by consumers' general health interest level, their involvement with food items, and their various demographic features.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Embalagem de Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Alimento Funcional , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Food Sci ; 86(11): 4775-4798, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34658044

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing the prevalence worldwide at an alarming rate, becoming a serious public health problem that mainly affects developing countries. Functional food research is currently of great interest because it contributes to developing nutritional therapy strategies for T2DM prevention and treatment. Bioactive compounds identified in some plant foods contribute to human health by mechanisms of action that exert biological effects on metabolic pathways involved in the development of T2DM. Hence, vegetables with high bioactive compounds content may be a source of functional value for the control of T2DM. Cabbages varieties (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) such as green (GCB), white (WCB), and red (RCB) are foods consumed (raw or cooked) and cultivated in different regions of the world. Scientific evidence shows that cabbage has multi-target effects on glucose homeostatic regulation due to its high content of bioactive compounds. It has also been shown to decrease damage to organs affected by T2DM complications, such as the liver and kidney. Additionally, it could contribute as a preventive by attenuating problems underlying the development of T2DM as oxidative stress and obesity. This review highlights the functional properties of cabbage varieties involved in glucose regulation and the main mechanisms of the action exerted by their bioactive compounds. In conclusion, cabbage is a valuable food that can be employed as part of nutritional therapy or functional ingredient aimed at the prevention and treatment of T2DM.


Assuntos
Brassica , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Alimento Funcional , Humanos
13.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641277

RESUMO

The effects of immunomodulatory activity of two types of carboxymethyl pachymaran (CMP-1 and CMP-2) on cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced mice were investigated. Both CMP-1 and CMP-2 were found to restore the splenomegaly and alleviate the spleen lesions and the mRNA expressions of TLR4, MyD88, p65 and NF-κB in spleen were also increased. CMP-1 and CMP-2 could enhance the immunity by increasing the levels of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ, Ig-A and Ig-G in serum. In addition, CMP-1 could increase the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and reduce the relative richness of Firmicutes at the phylum level. CMP-1 and CMP-2 could reduce the relative abundance Erysipelatoclostridum at the genus level. CMP-1 and CMP-2 might enhance the immune function of immunosuppression mice by regulating the gene expression in the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway and changing the composition and abundance of the intestinal microbiota. The results suggested that CMP-1 and CMP-2 would be as potential immunomodulatory agents in functional foods.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Glucanos/química , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Esplenomegalia/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bacteroidetes/classificação , Bacteroidetes/genética , Bacteroidetes/isolamento & purificação , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Firmicutes/classificação , Firmicutes/genética , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Alimento Funcional , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Filogenia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Esplenomegalia/induzido quimicamente , Esplenomegalia/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
14.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641346

RESUMO

In this study, we present the isolation and characterization of the structure of six gallotannins (1-6), three ellagitannins (7-9), a neolignan glucoside (10), and three related polyphenolic compounds (gallic acid, 11 and 12) from Trapa bispinosa Roxb. pericarp extract (TBE). Among the isolates, the structure of compound 10 possessing a previously unclear absolute configuration was unambiguously determined through nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism analyses. The α-glucosidase activity and glycation inhibitory effects of the isolates were evaluated. Decarboxylated rugosin A (8) showed an α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, while hydrolyzable tannins revealed stronger antiglycation activity than that of the positive control. Furthermore, the identification and quantification of the TBE polyphenols were investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet detection and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis, indicating the predominance of gallic acid, ellagic acid, and galloyl glucoses showing marked antiglycation properties. These findings suggest that there is a potential food industry application of polyphenols in TBE as a functional food with antidiabetic and antiglycation activities.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Lythraceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Dicroísmo Circular , Ácido Elágico/isolamento & purificação , Indústria Alimentícia , Alimento Funcional/análise , Ácido Gálico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Gálico/isolamento & purificação , Glucosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/isolamento & purificação , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray
15.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641451

RESUMO

Resistant starch (RS) is a part of insoluble dietary fiber, and it could be recognized as a functional food ingredient in some types of confectionery products that lack dietary fiber. Unlike dark and milk chocolate, white chocolate does not contain fat-free cocoa solids rich in dietary fiber. In the present study, 5%, 10%, and 15% of white chocolate were substituted with RS in order to improve the nutritional value of enriched white chocolate. The influence of RS on rheological, textural, and thermal properties of the chocolate fat phase was firstly investigated, and then further influence on physical properties, dietary fiber content, and sensory characteristics of enriched white chocolates were investigated. The obtained results showed that enriched chocolates had increased content of total dietary fiber and reduced total fats and protein content in accordance with the added amount of RS. At the same time, RS increased viscosity and reduced the hardness and volume mean diameter in enriched chocolates in accordance with the added amount. RS improved the nutritional composition of white chocolate by increasing the content of dietary fiber. At the same time, RS did not impair the color and sensory characteristics of enriched white chocolates.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Chocolate/análise , Chocolate/classificação , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Amido Resistente/metabolismo , Reologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Alimento Funcional/análise , Humanos , Viscosidade
16.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500592

RESUMO

Lippia graveolens is a traditional crop and a rich source of bioactive compounds with various properties (e.g., antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, UV defense, anti-glycemic, and cytotoxicity) that is primarily cultivated for essential oil recovery. The isolated bioactive compounds could be useful as additives in the functional food, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Carvacrol, thymol, ß-caryophyllene, and p-cymene are terpene compounds contained in oregano essential oil (OEO); flavonoids such as quercetin O-hexoside, pinocembrin, and galangin are flavonoids found in oregano extracts. Furthermore, thermoresistant compounds that remain in the plant matrix following a thermal process can be priced in terms of the circular economy. By using better and more selective extraction conditions, the bioactive compounds present in Mexican oregano can be studied as potential inhibitors of COVID-19. Also, research on extraction technologies should continue to ensure a higher quality of bioactive compounds while preventing an undesired chemical shift (e.g., hydrolysis). The oregano fractions can be used in the food, health, and agricultural industries.


Assuntos
Lippia/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Cosméticos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Food Res Int ; 148: 110599, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507744

RESUMO

Mushrooms have been recognized for their culinary attributes for long and were relished in the most influential civilizations in history. Currently, they are the focus of renewed research because of their therapeutic abilities. Nutritional benefits from mushrooms are in the form of a significant source of essential proteins, dietary non-digestible carbohydrates, unsaturated fats, minerals, as well as various vitamins, which have enhanced its consumption, and also resulted in the development of various processed mushroom products. Mushrooms are also a crucial ingredient in traditional medicine for their healing potential and curative properties. The literature on the nutritional, nutraceutical, and therapeutic potential of mushrooms, and their use as functional foods for the maintenance of health was reviewed, and the available literature indicates the enormous potential of the bioactive compounds present in mushrooms. Future research should be focused on the development of processes to retain the mushroom bioactive components, and valorization of waste generated during processing. Further, the mechanisms of action of mushroom bioactive components should be studied in detail to delineate their diverse roles and functions in the prevention and treatment of several diseases.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Suplementos Nutricionais , Alimento Funcional , Minerais , Vitaminas
18.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 60: 306-314, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508939

RESUMO

The highlands evoke both fascination and awe. Regardless of the reason to live in the highlands, symptoms related to altitude sickness are unbearable because of low atmospheric pressure, low oxygen concentration, strong ultraviolet radiation, cold, and psychological factors. Food and herbal medicines and/or health-care foods have protected highland dwellers owing to their multisystem regulation. These versatile products combine health-care properties with medical values by enhancing immunity, relieving physical fatigue, improving sleep, and augmenting hypoxia tolerance, with rare side effects. We therefore aimed to provide a more comprehensive analysis of these nutraceuticals, which can be used to prevent and treat symptoms of altitude hypoxia in the Chinese market. Finally, we dissect a new perspective for their promotion and development from molecular aspects.


Assuntos
Doença da Altitude , Alimento Funcional , Doença da Altitude/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Altitude/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipóxia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipóxia/prevenção & controle , Medicina Tradicional , Raios Ultravioleta
19.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 72(3): 229-238, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34553876

RESUMO

Blackcurrant (BC) is a well-known and appreciated berry fruit in our country and Poland is the largest BC producer among European Union countries and the second, after Russia, producer in the world. Due to the short shelf life of BC, its consumption in fresh form is relatively low , therefore the berries are processed into juices, jams, jellies, and freeze-dried products or alcoholic beverages. The high nutritional value of BC berries result from high content of bioactive compounds (among others, vitamin C, anthocyanins, pectins, organic acids, as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids contained in seeds of the fruit). Anthocyanins (ANTs) create the largest group among all polyphenolic compounds contained in BC. The results from different studies confirm that ANTs are important in attenuation oxidative stress parameters in the organism, and therefore can reduce the risk of certain non-communicable chronic diseases. Consumption of unprocessed and processed blackcurrants (i.e. juices and products containing fruit extracts) may support the nutrition therapy of cardiovascular diseases, certain eye diseases and may normalize the lipid profile of the blood plasma. Additionally, the beneficial profile of unsaturated fatty acids from BC seeds supports the therapy of autoimmune diseases. This article is attempts to summarize the results of the studies on the anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor and antimicrobial effects of BC bioactive compounds including the mechanisms of their action depending on the form of the fruit (e.g. juice, whole fruit extract, dried pomace, or seed oil). The article also highlights the potential use of BC in production of functional food, important in the dietary prevention of non-communicable chronic diseases resulting from increased oxidative stress in the organism.


Assuntos
Ribes , Antocianinas , Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Frutas , Alimento Funcional , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais
20.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 219, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pears have been world-widely used as a sweet and nutritious food and a folk medicine for more than two millennia. METHODS: We conducted a review from ancient literatures to current reports to extract evidence-based functions of pears. RESULTS: We found that pears have many active compounds, e.g., flavonoids, triterpenoids, and phenolic acids including arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, etc. Most of researchers agree that the beneficial compounds are concentrated in the peels. From various in vitro, in vivo, and human studies, the medicinal functions of pears can be summarized as anti-diabetic,-obese, -hyperlipidemic, -inflammatory, -mutagenic, and -carcinogenic effects, detoxification of xenobiotics, respiratory and cardio-protective effects, and skin whitening effects. Therefore, pears seem to be even effective for prevention from Covid-19 or PM2.5 among high susceptible people with multiple underlying diseases. CONCLUSION: For the current or post Covid-19 era, pears have potential for functional food or medicine for both of communicable and non-communicable disease.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Alimento Funcional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pyrus/química , COVID-19 , Flavonoides , Humanos , Fenóis , Triterpenos
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