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1.
Food Chem ; 368: 130770, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34399181

RESUMO

Amino acids and sulfonic acid derivatives (Taurine-Tau; Hypotaurine-HypTau; Homotaurine-HTau) of 26 different species of commercial macroalgae, microalgae and 10 algae-enriched food products from the market were quantified in a single chromatographic run. Tau and analogues were predominantly distributed in red species followed by green and brown species. Palmaria palmata, Gracilaria longissima and Porphyra sp. were the species with the highest content of Tau and total sulfonic acid derivatives (TAD). Notwithstanding, relatively high concentrations of HTau were found in green algae Ulva lactuca and G. vermicullophyla as well as in the brown algae Undaria pinnatifida. HTau and HypTau were found at lower concentrations than Tau in all species, except in Ulva lactuca. The samples with the highest protein content were the green species Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis, and Afanizomenon-flos aquae, followed by the red algae Gracilaria longissima and Gracilaria vermicullophyla. Samples of pasta formulated with algae ingredients contained the highest levels of sulfonic acid derivatives, evidencing that these products can provide levels of TAD comparable to those found in foods of animal origin. This study provides, for the first time, quantitative information regarding the distribution of sulfonic acid derivatives and total amino acids in multiple algae species as well as the nutritional impact of the inclusion of algae ingredients in commercial food matrices.


Assuntos
Chlorella vulgaris , Microalgas , Rodófitas , Alga Marinha , Aminoácidos , Animais , Alimentos Fortificados , Taurina/análogos & derivados
2.
Food Chem ; 372: 131286, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818733

RESUMO

The investigation was undertaken to maximise the bioaccessibility of iron and zinc of a complementary food mix by multiple approaches of dephytinisation and addition of organic acids. A wheat, pulse and oilseed protein flour mix was dephytinized by phytase activation and different thermal treatments. As the mineral content of the mix was low, the spray dried mix was fortified with different iron and zinc salts to identify the salt with the highest bioaccessibility in this matrix. Based on the percent bioaccessibility, the mix with sodium iron EDTA and zinc oxide was chosen for fortification. Bioaccessibility was enhanced by the addition of fruit powders and pure organic acids. Fruit powders showed a significant increase, but citric acid at a higher dose was beneficial in enhancing bioaccessible iron. The strategy of dephytinisation followed by fortification and the addition of fruit powders or organic acids is promising in alleviating iron and zinc deficiencies.


Assuntos
Óxido de Zinco , Zinco , Farinha , Alimentos Fortificados , Ferro
3.
Food Chem ; 372: 131325, 2022 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649031

RESUMO

Vitamin d-fortified bread has been proposed as a strategy to increase the average daily intake and serum status of this nutrient. This review aimed to bring together the different types of scientific articles on vitamin d-fortified bread. The databases used for the research were PUBMED, WEB of SCIENCE and SCOPUS; all original indexed studies written in English, published between January 2000 and March 2021, were considered. Three important points were identified: i) theoretical models of fortification; ii) stability, bioaccessibility, and bioavailability studies of vitamin d-fortified breads; and iii) clinical effects of vitamin d-fortified breads. This review showed that vitamin d-fortified bread is a promising vehicle for fortification strategy effects, leading to increased serum concentrations of 25(OH)D and decreased parathyroid hormone. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the effects and effectiveness of this fortification strategy in the prevention/treatment of vitamin D deficiency.


Assuntos
Pão , Vitamina D , Colecalciferol , Alimentos Fortificados , Vitaminas
5.
J Glob Health ; 11: 18002, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34671465

RESUMO

Background: Food fortification can be an effective intervention to improve maternal and child health. Folic acid fortification can reduce neural tube defects due to folate deficiency. Iron fortification is effective to reduce maternal anemia due to iron deficiency. The paper describes the methods for estimating current coverage levels for iron fortification and folic acid fortification and estimates current impact of fortification in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) using the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods: The database was obtained from Global Fortification Data Exchange. We used the following indicators from the database: food intake, fortification standard, percent of food produced in industrial mills, and percent of industrially milled food that is fortified. Together with the recommended dietary allowances for women of reproductive age (WRA), we calculated percentage of WRA getting recommended intake through fortification and used the percentage as an estimate for fortification coverage. We then used LiST to estimate the health impact of fortification on maternal and child health. Results: Folic acid was fortified in 72 countries, with a median coverage of 43%. Iron was fortified in 87 countries, with a median coverage of 23%. Forty-six LMICs fortified either folic acid, iron, or both. And the weighted coverage of folic acid fortification and iron fortification were 34% and 19%, respectively. A greater percentage of WRA got appropriate levels of folic acid and iron via fortification in higher income countries. Based on LiST projection, it is estimated that in 2021, over 4 million anemia cases among WRA will be averted due to consumption of iron fortified food. About 1900 stillbirths and 3000 neonatal deaths due to neural tube defects will be averted due to consumption of folic acid fortified food. Conclusions: We estimated the coverage of folic acid fortification and iron fortification in LMICs and included them in the most recent version of LiST. Trends in coverage will be included in LiST as data become available. Our analysis shows that while most LMICs have fortification programs, currently the effects of these programs are limited either through low levels of fortification in industrialized food, low consumption of fortified food or both.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Defeitos do Tubo Neural , Criança , Feminino , Ácido Fólico , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ferro , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/prevenção & controle
6.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684356

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carotenoids and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were identified as essential components for eye health and are both naturally present in eggs. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the effect of the daily consumption of two eggs enriched with lutein/zeaxanthin and DHA on macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and on circulating xanthophyll and fatty acid concentrations in healthy participants. METHODS: Ninety-nine healthy volunteers consumed either two standard eggs or two enriched eggs per day for 4 months. MPOD was measured at baseline (V0) and at follow-up (V4) using a modified confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (primary outcome). Blood samples were collected to determine total plasma and lipoprotein fatty acids and lutein/zeaxanthin compositions at V0 and V4 (secondary outcomes). RESULTS: A slight but significant increase in MPOD was observed for all study participants consuming two eggs per day for 4 months at all eccentricities (0.5°, 1°, 2°, and 4°). Plasma and lipoprotein lutein, zeaxanthin, and DHA concentrations significantly increased in both groups but were greater in the enriched group (for the enriched group (V0 vs. V4): lutein, 167 vs. 369 ng/mL; zeaxanthin, 17.7 vs. 29.2 ng/mL; DHA, 1.89 vs. 2.56% of total fatty acids). Interestingly, lutein from high-density lipoprotein (HDL) was strongly correlated with MPOD at 0.5 and 1° eccentricities (rho = 0.385, p = 0.008, and rho = 0.461, p = 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: MPOD was slightly increased in both groups. Lutein, zeaxanthin, and DHA plasma concentrations were strongly enhanced in the enriched group compared with the standard group. A significant correlation was found between MPOD level and lutein concentration in HDL.


Assuntos
Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Alimentos Fortificados , Luteína/sangue , Pigmento Macular/sangue , Adulto , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Masculino , Fenômenos Ópticos , Cooperação do Paciente , Xantofilas/sangue , Adulto Jovem , Zeaxantinas/sangue
7.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684535

RESUMO

Suboptimal dietary intake is a critical cause of poor maternal nutrition, with several adverse consequences both for mothers and for their children. This study aimed to (1) assess maternal dietary patterns in India; (2) examine enablers and barriers in adopting recommended diets; (3) review current policy and program strategies to improve dietary intakes. We used mixed methods, including empirical analysis, compiling data from available national and subnational surveys, and reviewing literature, policy, and program strategies. Diets among pregnant women are characterized by low energy, macronutrient imbalance, and inadequate micronutrient intake. Supply- and demand-side constraints to healthy diets include food unavailability, poor economic situation, low exposure to nutrition counselling, food restrictions and taboos, adverse family influence and gender norms, and gaps in knowledge. Intervention strategies with potential to improve maternal diets include food-based programs, behavior change communication, and nutrition-sensitive agriculture interventions. However, strategies face implementation bottlenecks and limited effectiveness in real-world at-scale impact evaluations. In conclusion, investments in systems approaches spanning health, nutrition, and agriculture sectors, with evaluation frameworks at subnational levels, are needed to promote healthy diets for women.


Assuntos
Dieta , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Agricultura , Comportamento , Ingestão de Alimentos , Escolaridade , Família , Feminino , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Renda , Índia , Masculino , Micronutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Gravidez , Fatores Socioeconômicos
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258715, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34710105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Globally, moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) affects approximately 5% of children below five years of age. MAM is a persistent public health problem in Ethiopia. The current approach in Ethiopia for managing MAM is a supplementary feeding program; however, this is only provided to chronically food-insecure areas. The objective of the study was to compare a local-ingredients-based supplement (LIBS) with the standard corn-soy blend plus (CSB+) in treating MAM among children aged 6 to 59 months to test the hypothesis that the recovery rate achieved with LIBS will not be more than 7% worse than that achieved with CSB+. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used an individual randomized controlled non-inferiority trial design with two arms, involving 324 children with MAM aged 6 to 59 months in Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia. One hundred and sixty-two children were randomly assigned to each of the two arms. In the first arm, 125.2 g of LIBS with 8 ml of refined deodorized and cholesterol-free sunflower oil/day was provided. In the second arm, 150 g of CSB+ with 16 ml of refined deodorized and cholesterol-free sunflower oil/day was provided. Each child was provided with a daily ration of either LIBS or CSB+ for 12 weeks. Both intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses were done. ITT and PP analyses showed non-inferiority of LIBS compared with CSB+ for recovery rate [ITT risk difference = 4.9% (95% CI: -4.70, 14.50); PP risk difference = 3.7% (95% CI: -5.91, 13.31)]; average weight gain [ITT risk difference = 0.10 g (95% CI: -0.33 g, 0.53 g); PP risk difference = 0.04 g (95% CI: -0.38 g, 0.47 g)]; and recovery time [ITT risk difference = -2.64 days (95% CI: -8.40 days, 3.13 days); PP difference -2.17 days (95% CI: -7.97 days, 3.64 days]. Non-inferiority in MUAC gain and length/height gain was also observed in the LIBS group compared with the CSB+ group. CONCLUSIONS: LIBS can be used as an alternative to the standard CSB+ for the treatment of MAM. Thus, the potential of scaling up the use of LIBS should be promoted. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pan-African Clinical Trial Registration number: PACTR201809662822990.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Soja/química , Zea mays/química , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia
9.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684398

RESUMO

Zinc (Zn) deficiency is estimated to affect over one billion (17%) of the world's population. Zn plays a key role in various cellular processes such as differentiation, apoptosis, and proliferation, and is used for vital biochemical and structural processes in the body. Widely used biomarkers of Zn status include plasma, whole blood, and urine Zn, which decrease in severe Zn deficiency; however, accurate assessment of Zn status, especially in mild to moderate deficiency, is difficult, as studies with these biomarkers are often contradictory and inconsistent. Thus, sensitive and specific biological markers of Zn physiological status are still needed. In this communication, we provide the Zn status index (ZSI) concept, which consists of a three-pillar formula: (1) the LA:DGLA ratio, (2) mRNA gene expression of Zn-related proteins, and (3) gut microbiome profiling to provide a clear assessment of Zn physiological status and degree of Zn deficiency with respect to assessing dietary Zn manipulation. Analysis of five selected studies found that with lower dietary Zn intake, erythrocyte LA:DGLA ratio increased, mRNA gene expression of Zn-related proteins in duodenal and liver tissues was altered, and gut microbiota populations differed, where the ZSI, a statistical model trained on data from these studies, was built to give an accurate estimation of Zn physiological status. However, the ZSI needs to be tested and refined further to determine its full potential.


Assuntos
Dieta , Zinco/metabolismo , Ácido 8,11,14-Eicosatrienoico/sangue , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Galinhas , Duodeno/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/química , Alimentos Fortificados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Ácido Linoleico/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/deficiência
10.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684406

RESUMO

Corn flour-based porridge like dough, ugali, is the staple food of low-income population in sub-Saharan Africa. Lack of vitamin A, carotenoids, and dietary fibers brings about serious health issues to this population. In this study, vegetables including bok choy, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, Chinese onion stalk (C_onion), mushroom, are added during the cooking of ugali, as nutritional supplements. The freeze-dried powder of each vegetable was used for its long storage, stable nutrients, and similar particle size. Sub-Saharan African assessors were trained and sensory evaluated the six different vegetable fortified ugali with the plain, unfortified as the control on five attributes. The plain ugali was indistinguishable with the C_onion stalk fortified in color, with the carrot and C_onion stalk fortified in odor, with all vegetables (except broccoli and mushroom) fortified ugali in taste, with carrot and C_onion stalk fortified in granularity, and with cabbage, carrot, C_onion stalk fortified in viscosity. Preference ranking analysis showed that the C_onion stalk fortified ugali is even more favorably preferred than the plain, unfortified ugali, probably due to the umami components in C_onion that serve as the taste enhancer. This study indicates that Chinese onion stalk is a potential vegetable supplement to population in the sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Alimentos Fortificados , Verduras , Zea mays , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cebolas , Paladar , Adulto Jovem
11.
12.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 124: 104088, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34717275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food fortification as part of the food-first approach in nursing homes is a strategy that may increase energy and protein intake. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to determine the effect of nutrition interventions using fortification, nutrient-dense or enriched food and/or drinks on energy and protein intake in residents living in nursing homes, compared to the standard menu with or without oral nutritional support products. The secondary aim was to identify and synthesise outcomes of these interventions on weight change, nutritional status, acceptability, cost-effectiveness, and cost-benefit. METHODS: A systematic search of seven databases was undertaken. After reviewing all titles/abstracts then full-text papers, key data were extracted and synthesised narratively and through meta-analysis. The quality of included studies was assessed using the Quality Criteria Checklist for Primary Research. RESULTS: Of 3,098 articles retrieved, 16 were included, 13 in the meta-analysis. There were 891 participants, with the study duration ranging from four to 26 weeks. The groups receiving the fortified diet had a significantly higher energy intake (Hedges' g = 0.69 (CI 0.36-1.03), p < 0.0001) and protein intake (Hedges' g = 0.46 (CI 0.17-0.74), p = 0.003) compared with the groups receiving the standard menu +/- ONS. The meta-analysis revealed I2 values of 77% for energy (p < 0.0001) and 60% for protein (p = 0.003), indicating considerable statistical heterogeneity across included studies. Benefits to weight and nutritional status of residents were recorded in some studies. Where reported, cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of menu fortification/supplementation were variable. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review with meta-analyses has shown that fortified menus may significantly increase energy and protein intakes compared with standard menus in nursing homes. As such, the findings of this review support further use of fortified diets in this setting. Further research is warranted comparing food fortification to standard menus, with a particular focus on evaluating the effect on weight, nutritional status and cost-effectiveness of the intervention. STUDY REGISTRATION: PROSPERO no. CRD42020162796.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Estado Nutricional , Idoso , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Casas de Saúde , Nutrientes
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 10: CD012649, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arsenic is a common environmental toxin. Exposure to arsenic (particularly its inorganic form) through contaminated food and drinking water is an important public health burden worldwide, and is associated with increased risk of neurotoxicity, congenital anomalies, cancer, and adverse neurodevelopment in children. Arsenic is excreted following methylation reactions, which are mediated by folate. Provision of folate through folic acid supplements could facilitate arsenic methylation and excretion, thereby reducing arsenic toxicity. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of provision of folic acid (through fortified foods or supplements), alone or in combination with other nutrients, in lessening the burden of arsenic-related health outcomes and reducing arsenic toxicity in arsenic-exposed populations. SEARCH METHODS: In September 2020, we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 10 other international databases, nine regional databases, and two trials registers. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing the provision of folic acid (at any dose or duration), alone or in combination with other nutrients or nutrient supplements, with no intervention, placebo, unfortified food, or the same nutrient or supplements without folic acid, in arsenic-exposed populations of all ages and genders. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included two RCTs with 822 adults exposed to arsenic-contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh. The RCTs compared 400 µg/d (FA400) or 800 µg/d (FA800) folic acid supplements, given for 12 or 24 weeks, with placebo. One RCT, a multi-armed trial, compared FA400 plus creatine (3 g/d) to creatine alone. We judged both RCTs at low risk of bias in all domains. Due to differences in co-intervention, arsenic exposure, and participants' nutritional status, we could not conduct meta-analyses, and therefore, provide a narrative description of the data. Neither RCT reported on cancer, all-cause mortality, neurocognitive function, or congenital anomalies. Folic acid supplements alone versus placebo Blood arsenic. In arsenic-exposed individuals, FA likely reduces blood arsenic concentrations compared to placebo (2 studies, 536 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). For folate-deficient and folate-replete participants who received arsenic-removal water filters as a co-intervention, FA800 reduced blood arsenic levels more than placebo (percentage change (%change) in geometric mean (GM) FA800 -17.8%, 95% confidence intervals (CI) -25.0 to -9.8; placebo GM -9.5%, 95% CI -16.5 to -1.8; 1 study, 406 participants). In one study with 130 participants with low baseline plasma folate, FA400 reduced total blood arsenic (%change FA400 mean (M) -13.62%, standard error (SE) ± 2.87; placebo M -2.49%, SE ± 3.25), and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) concentrations (%change FA400 M -22.24%, SE ± 2.86; placebo M -1.24%, SE ± 3.59) more than placebo. Inorganic arsenic (InAs) concentrations reduced in both groups (%change FA400 M -18.54%, SE ± 3.60; placebo M -10.61%, SE ± 3.38). There was little to no change in dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in either group. Urinary arsenic. In arsenic-exposed individuals, FA likely reduces the proportion of total urinary arsenic excreted as InAs (%InAs) and MMA (%MMA) and increases the proportion excreted as DMA (%DMA) to a greater extent than placebo (2 studies, 546 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), suggesting that FA enhances arsenic methylation. In a mixed folate-deficient and folate-replete population (1 study, 352 participants) receiving arsenic-removal water filters as a co-intervention, groups receiving FA had a greater decrease in %InAs (within-person change FA400 M -0.09%, 95% CI -0.17 to -0.01; FA800 M -0.14%, 95% CI -0.21 to -0.06; placebo M 0.05%, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.10), a greater decrease in %MMA (within-person change FA400 M -1.80%, 95% CI -2.53 to -1.07; FA800 M -2.60%, 95% CI -3.35 to -1.85; placebo M 0.15%, 95% CI -0.37 to 0.68), and a greater increase in %DMA (within-person change FA400 M 3.25%, 95% CI 1.81 to 4.68; FA800 M 4.57%, 95% CI 3.20 to 5.95; placebo M -1.17%, 95% CI -2.18 to -0.17), compared to placebo. In 194 participants with low baseline plasma folate, FA reduced %InAs (%change FA400 M -0.31%, SE ± 0.04; placebo M -0.13%, SE ± 0.04) and %MMA (%change FA400 M -2.6%, SE ± 0.37; placebo M -0.71%, SE ± 0.43), and increased %DMA (%change FA400 M 5.9%, SE ± 0.82; placebo M 2.14%, SE ± 0.71), more than placebo. Plasma homocysteine: In arsenic-exposed individuals, FA400 likely reduces homocysteine concentrations to a greater extent than placebo (2 studies, 448 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), in the mixed folate-deficient and folate-replete population receiving arsenic-removal water filters as a co-intervention (%change in GM FA400 -23.4%, 95% CI -27.1 to -19.5; placebo -1.3%, 95% CI -5.3 to 3.1; 1 study, 254 participants), and participants with low baseline plasma folate (within-person change FA400 M -3.06 µmol/L, SE ± 3.51; placebo M -0.05 µmol/L, SE ± 4.31; 1 study, 194 participants). FA supplements plus other nutrient supplements versus nutrient supplements alone In arsenic-exposed individuals who received arsenic-removal water filters as a co-intervention, FA400 plus creatine may reduce blood arsenic concentrations more than creatine alone (%change in GM FA400 + creatine -14%, 95% CI -22.2 to -5.0; creatine -7.0%, 95% CI -14.8 to 1.5; 1 study, 204 participants; low-certainty evidence); may not change urinary arsenic methylation indices (FA400 + creatine: %InAs M 13.2%, SE ± 7.0; %MMA M 10.8, SE ± 4.1; %DMA M 76, SE ± 7.8; creatine: %InAs M 14.8, SE ± 5.5; %MMA M 12.8, SE ± 4.0; %DMA M 72.4, SE ±7.6; 1 study, 190 participants; low-certainty evidence); and may reduce homocysteine concentrations to a greater extent (%change in GM FA400 + creatinine -21%, 95% CI -25.2 to -16.4; creatine -4.3%, 95% CI -9.0 to 0.7; 1 study, 204 participants; low-certainty evidence) than creatine alone. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate-certainty evidence that FA supplements may benefit blood arsenic concentration, urinary arsenic methylation profiles, and plasma homocysteine concentration versus placebo. There is low-certainty evidence that FA supplements plus other nutrients may benefit blood arsenic and plasma homocysteine concentrations versus nutrients alone. No studies reported on cancer, all-cause mortality, neurocognitive function, or congenital anomalies. Given the limited number of RCTs, more studies conducted in diverse settings are needed to assess the effects of FA on arsenic-related health outcomes and arsenic toxicity in arsenic-exposed adults and children.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Adulto , Criança , Creatina , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos
14.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500637

RESUMO

The most common cause of iron deficiency is an improperly balanced diet, in which the body's need for iron cannot be met by absorption of this element from food. Targeted iron supplementation and food fortification may be the main treatments for iron deficiency in the population. However, many iron-rich supplements and foods have low bioavailability of this element. In our study, we used yeast enriched with iron ions to produce flatbread. The yeast cells accumulated iron ions from the medium supplemented with Fe(NO3)3·9H2O, additionally one of the cultures was treated with pulsed electric field in order to increase the accumulation. The potential bioavailability of iron from flatbread containing 385.8 ± 4.12 mg of iron in 100 g dry mass was 10.83 ± 0.94%. All the flatbreads had a moderate glycemic index. There were no significant differences in antioxidant activity against DPPH• between flatbread with iron-enriched and non-iron-enriched yeast. Sensory evaluation showed that this product is acceptable to consumers since no metallic aftertaste was detected. Iron enriched flatbread can potentially be an alternative to dietary supplements in iron deficiency states.


Assuntos
Pão/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/microbiologia , Alimentos Fortificados/microbiologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Anemia Ferropriva/metabolismo , Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Índice Glicêmico/fisiologia , Humanos
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 341: 125871, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34523563

RESUMO

High concentration of NH4+-N in food waste digestate (FWD) produced from biological treatment of food waste is considered as a major threat on the composting process resulting in production of immature compost. Hence, a laboratory batch composting study was conducted to examine the feasibility of using biochar as a physical additive to ameliorate the inhibitory effect of NH4+-N and to mitigate the nitrogen loss during FWD composting. FWD was co-composted with tobacco biochar at a dosage of 0%, 2.5%, 5% or 10% (dw) in bench-scale composters with a controlled aeration system. The addition of 10% biochar enhanced the degradation rate resulting in 44% higher carbon decomposition than the control. Besides, 10% biochar amendment reduced NH3 and N loss by 58% and 5%, respectively and significantly reduced NH4+-N content to HKORC limit of < 700 mg/kg dw within 5 days showing the beneficiary impact of biochar addition.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio , Compostagem , Eliminação de Resíduos , Carvão Vegetal , Alimentos Fortificados , Cinética , Nitrogênio/análise , Solo
16.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34578992

RESUMO

Foods with voluntary nutritional additions are a fast-growing sector of the global food industry. In Canada, while the addition of nutrients to foods has been regulated through fortification regulations, parallel policies which aim to encourage product innovation have also allowed for the voluntary addition of nutrients and other novel ingredients to 'supplemented' and 'functional' foods. Concerns have been raised that the consumption of these products may have negative repercussions on population health, such as high nutrient intakes inappropriate for certain population subgroups (e.g., children) and the shifting of dietary patterns to include more unhealthy foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, nutritional quality, and marketing characteristics of foods with added nutrients in the Canadian market. We found many nutritionally-enhanced foods contained high levels of nutrients beyond recommended intakes, despite these nutrients having no evidence of inadequacy in the Canadian population. Additionally, a large proportion of foods with added nutrients had poor nutrient profiles (were deemed 'less healthy' than their non-enhanced counterparts) and carried heavy marketing on their labels, regardless of their nutritional quality. Taken together these findings raise concerns about foods with voluntary nutrient additions and suggest the need to further investigate consumer attitudes and decision-making towards these foods.


Assuntos
Abastecimento de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos Fortificados/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimento Funcional/estatística & dados numéricos , Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Canadá , Criança , Dieta/tendências , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Indústria Alimentícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Alimentícia/tendências , Ingredientes de Alimentos/análise , Ingredientes de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Alimento Funcional/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Política Nutricional , Valor Nutritivo , Prevalência
17.
Nutrients ; 13(9)2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34579013

RESUMO

Most vitamins are primarily ingested from foods. However, it has been reported that intakes of some vitamins do not meet the nutrition reference values even in high-income countries. In this case, vitamin-fortified foods and/or vitamin supplements are helpful to fix insufficient/deficient status. However, it is not clear whether consumers are aware of their nutritional status or whether they use these products efficiently. To address this issue, we conducted an online cross-sectional questionnaire survey among 14,741 Japanese adults (over 20 years old, 7489 males and 7252 females) concerning the perceptions and prevalence of vitamin-fortified food and/or vitamin supplements. Differences in distribution among groups were compared using the chi-squared test. According to dietary habits, 33.2% of the participants consumed a well-balanced diet every day, but 25.5% could not because of time (41.6%) or money (36.9%) constraints. The perception of each vitamin varied: the highest was for vitamin C (93.2%) and the lowest was for biotin (41.9%). In addition, only a portion of the participants believed that they took sufficient amounts of each vitamin; the highest was vitamin C (22.3%) and the lowest was biotin (5.2%). Despite this situation, most did not use vitamin-fortified food and/or vitamin supplements due to economic reasons. Among vitamin-fortified food and/or vitamin supplement users, the purposes for the usage of these products were varied, such as maintaining health (80.5%), supplementation of nutrients (47.8%), beauty-related purposes (27.5%), and to prevent infectious disease (23.2%). To remedy nutritional status in individuals, it is important to improve not only consumer awareness but also the environment, which can lead consumers to use acceptable vitamin products without any burden.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Desnutrição/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Percepção , Adulto Jovem
18.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(5): 304-309, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569737

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Wheat flour enrichment is a public health strategy recommended to prevent micronutrient deficiencies, including iron deficiency. The objective of this study was to determine iron content in enriched wheat flour and flour products and their contribution to nutritional recommendations for children. POPULATION AND METHODS: Observational, analytical, cross-sectional study based on the total diet study method. Enriched wheat flour (as per Law no. 25630) and the most frequently consumed flour products were analyzed. Products were selected using a questionnaire on the frequency of food intake and a 24-hour recall interview with the parents of children aged 6 months to 7 years. Food iron levels were determined based on atomic absorption spectrometry and their contribution to the estimated average requirement was assessed. RESULTS: Enriched flour and flour products showed the expected iron amount, except for French bread and breadcrumbs. The contribution of studied products to iron requirements was 7 % in children aged 6 months to 1 year, 81 % in those aged 1-3 years, and 45 % in those older than 4 years. CONCLUSIONS: Except for French bread and breadcrumbs, studied flour and flour products showed the expected enrichment level. The consumption of this type of food does not provide significant amounts of iron to infants, but it does to children older than 1 year.


Assuntos
Farinha , Ferro , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Lactente , Triticum
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501649

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess whether the standard therapy of ready-to-use therapeutic food in the treatment of uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is effective in improving developmental potential and weight gain in children aged under five years. A multicenter pretest-posttest study was conducted among 91 children aged under five with uncomplicated SAM in Pakistan. Study participants completed their eight weeks' therapy of ready-to-use therapeutic food according to the World Health Organization's (WHO) standard guidelines. The study outcome was the proportion of children with improved developmental potential in all domains in comparison with the pretreatment status and children gaining >15% of their baseline weight; mean weight-for-height/length z-score after completing eight weeks' therapy of ready-to-use therapeutic food. The Denver Development Screening Tool II was used for developmental screening. Significant changes (p < 0.05) were observed for developmental status milestones in terms of gross motor, fine motor, and personal/social milestones, as well as language and global development milestones. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.961) between initial weight and weight at the last visit (p < 0.001). Ready-to-use therapeutic food is effective in improving development potential as well as promoting weight gain in children aged under five with uncomplicated SAM if provided according to WHO guidelines.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Desnutrição Aguda Grave , Peso Corporal , Criança , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Lactente , Paquistão , Resultado do Tratamento , Ganho de Peso
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD013092, 2021 09 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34564844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaemia is a prevalent health problem worldwide. Some types are preventable or controllable with iron supplementation (pills or drops), fortification (sprinkles or powders containing iron added to food) or improvements to dietary diversity and quality (e.g. education or counselling). OBJECTIVES: To summarise the evidence from systematic reviews regarding the benefits or harms of nutrition-specific interventions for preventing and controlling anaemia in anaemic or non-anaemic, apparently healthy populations throughout the life cycle. METHODS: In August 2020, we searched MEDLINE, Embase and 10 other databases for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in anaemic or non-anaemic, apparently healthy populations. We followed standard Cochrane methodology, extracting GRADE ratings where provided. The primary outcomes were haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, anaemia, and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA); secondary outcomes were iron deficiency (ID), severe anaemia and adverse effects (e.g. diarrhoea, vomiting). MAIN RESULTS: We included 75 systematic reviews, 33 of which provided GRADE assessments; these varied between high and very low. Infants (6 to 23 months; 13 reviews) Iron supplementation increased Hb levels and reduced the risk of anaemia and IDA in two reviews. Iron fortification of milk or cereals, multiple-micronutrient powder (MMNP), home fortification of complementary foods, and supplementary feeding increased Hb levels and reduced the risk of anaemia in six reviews. In one review, lipid-based nutrient supplementation (LNS) reduced the risk of anaemia. In another, caterpillar cereal increased Hb levels and IDA prevalence. Food-based strategies (red meat and fortified cow's milk, beef) showed no evidence of a difference (1 review). Preschool and school-aged children (2 to 10 years; 8 reviews) Daily or intermittent iron supplementation increased Hb levels and reduced the risk of anaemia and ID in two reviews. One review found no evidence of difference in Hb levels, but an increased risk of anaemia and ID for the intermittent regime. All suggested that zinc plus iron supplementation versus zinc alone, multiple-micronutrient (MMN)-fortified beverage versus control, and point-of-use fortification of food with iron-containing micronutrient powder (MNP) versus placebo or no intervention may increase Hb levels and reduce the risk of anaemia and ID. Fortified dairy products and cereal food showed no evidence of a difference on the incidence of anaemia (1 review). Adolescent children (11 to 18 years; 4 reviews) Compared with no supplementation or placebo, five types of iron supplementation may increase Hb levels and reduce the risk of anaemia (3 reviews). One review on prevention found no evidence of a difference in anaemia incidence on iron supplementation with or without folic acid, but Hb levels increased. Another suggested that nutritional supplementation and counselling reduced IDA. One review comparing MMN fortification with no fortification observed no evidence of a difference in Hb levels. Non-pregnant women of reproductive age (19 to 49 years; 5 reviews) Two reviews suggested that iron therapy (oral, intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM)) increased Hb levels; one showed that iron folic acid supplementation reduced anaemia incidence; and another that daily iron supplementation with or without folic acid or vitamin C increased Hb levels and reduced the risk of anaemia and ID. No review reported interventions related to fortification or dietary diversity and quality. Pregnant women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years; 23 reviews) One review apiece suggested that: daily iron supplementation with or without folic acid increased Hb levels in the third trimester or at delivery and in the postpartum period, and reduced the risk of anaemia, IDA and ID in the third trimester or at delivery; intermittent iron supplementation had no effect on Hb levels and IDA, but increased the risk of anaemia at or near term and ID, and reduced the risk of side effects; vitamin A supplementation alone versus placebo, no intervention or other micronutrient might increase maternal Hb levels and reduce the risk of maternal anaemia; MMN with iron and folic acid versus placebo reduced the risk of anaemia; supplementation with oral bovine lactoferrin versus oral ferrous iron preparations increased Hb levels and reduced gastrointestinal side effects; MNP for point-of-use fortification of food versus iron and folic acid supplementation might decrease Hb levels at 32 weeks' gestation and increase the risk of anaemia; and LNS versus iron or folic acid and MMN increased the risk of anaemia. Mixed population (all ages; 22 reviews) Iron supplementation versus placebo or control increased Hb levels in healthy children, adults, and elderly people (4 reviews). Hb levels appeared to increase and risk of anaemia and ID decrease in two reviews investigating MMN fortification versus placebo or no treatment, iron fortified flour versus control, double fortified salt versus iodine only fortified salt, and rice fortification with iron alone or in combination with other micronutrients versus unfortified rice or no intervention. Each review suggested that fortified versus non-fortified condiments or noodles, fortified (sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate; NaFeEDTA) versus non-fortified soy sauce, and double-fortified salt versus control salt may increase Hb concentration and reduce the risk of anaemia. One review indicated that Hb levels increased for children who were anaemic or had IDA and received iron supplementation, and decreased for those who received dietary interventions. Another assessed the effects of foods prepared in iron pots, and found higher Hb levels in children with low-risk malaria status in two trials, but no difference when comparing food prepared in non-cast iron pots in a high-risk malaria endemicity mixed population. There was no evidence of a difference for adverse effects. Anaemia and malaria prevalence were rarely reported. No review focused on women aged 50 to 65 years plus or men (19 to 65 years plus). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Compared to no treatment, daily iron supplementation may increase Hb levels and reduce the risk of anaemia and IDA in infants, preschool and school-aged children and pregnant and non-pregnant women. Iron fortification of foods in infants and use of iron pots with children may have prophylactic benefits for malaria endemicity low-risk populations. In any age group, only a limited number of reviews assessed interventions to improve dietary diversity and quality. Future trials should assess the effects of these types of interventions, and consider the requirements of different populations.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva , Anemia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia/epidemiologia , Anemia/prevenção & controle , Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Animais , Criança , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Ferro , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Masculino , Micronutrientes , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
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