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1.
Food Chem ; 335: 127629, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736156

RESUMO

Folate deficiencies are prevalent in countries with insufficient food diversity. Rice fortification is seen as a viable way to improve the daily intake of folates. This work reports an efficient process of rice fortification involving ultrasonic treatment and absorption of the folic acid fortificant. Increased porosity due to sonication allowed the efficient absorption of folic acid into the brown rice kernel up to 5.195 × 104 µg/100 g, a 1,982-fold increase from its inherent content. The absorbed folic acid in brown rice has 93.53% retention after washing and cooking. Fortification of ultrasound-treated milled rice with folic acid was also efficient affording 6.559 × 104 µg/100 g, a 4,054-fold increase from its basal content. The effect of fortification caused a decrease in the thermal and pasting temperatures. The fortification also caused yellow coloration, decrease in hardness, and increase in the adhesiveness of the rice. The resulting fortified brown rice showed improved textural properties favorable for consumers.


Assuntos
Absorção Fisico-Química , Ácido Fólico/química , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Oryza/química , Ondas Ultrassônicas , Adesividade , Cor , Dureza
2.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 724-730, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the relationship between fever and diarrhea 2-week prevalence and Yingyangbao(YYB) effective consumption among infants and young children. METHODS: A total of 2952 infants and young children aged from 6 to 24 month in 10 impoverished counties of Henan province were selected by multi-stage random sampling between June and September 2017. To acquire 2-week prevalence information of infants and young children, their caregivers were investigated by self-made questionnaire. The structural equation model was utilized in multi-factor analysis. RESULTS: After adjusting potential confounders, YYB effective consumption reduced2-week prevalence of fever(ß=-0. 279, P=0. 001) and diarrhea(ß=-0. 182, P=0. 042) among infants and young children. Nutrition knowledge and YYB benefit cognition of caregivers reduced2-week prevalence of fever(γ=-0. 002, 95%CI-0. 004~-0. 001, P=0. 003) and diarrhea(γ=-0. 001, 95%CI-0. 003~0. 000, P=0. 049) indirectly through chain mediation path of "nutrition knowledge-YYB benfit cognition-YYB effective consumption-fever/diarrheal". CONCLUSION: YYB effective consumption can reduce 2-week prevalence of fever and diarrhea among infants and young children. Nutrition knowledge and YYB benefit cognition can improve YYB effective consumption and thus reduce 2-week prevalence of fever and diarrhea indirectly.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , População Rural , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Alimentos Fortificados , Humanos , Lactente , Prevalência
3.
Arch Osteoporos ; 15(1): 168, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calcium is an essential mineral compound and one of the most abundant minerals in the human body. A long-term low calcium intake predisposes the bones to fractures, osteopenia, and osteoporosis. This study was conducted to assess calcium intake and knowledge of calcium-related information among healthcare students in King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-Hs). METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire that has been distributed as a soft copy of 289 participants aged 19 years or older and studied at KSAU-Hs. The questionnaire had three sections assessing demographical data, calcium knowledge, and calcium intake. The knowledge outcome variables were good and poor, and participants were categorized as good knowledge if they answer 11 or more of the 18 questions, while the intake outcome variables were sufficient and insufficient intake based on the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 1000 mg. RESULTS: Among all variables, 91.7% of the participants were found to be having an insufficient intake, and 74% were classified to be poor knowledge. As for knowledge, the highest score under the "Good" category were females 32.7% compared to males 22.2%, P = 0.05. The average intake of calcium was 497 mg/day. In terms of sufficient calcium intake, males scored 11.9% compared to females who scored 1.9% with a P value of 0.00. CONCLUSION: The results of this study have shown that there are significantly insufficient calcium intake and poor knowledge about calcium among healthcare students. The results indicate the urge to improve calcium intake and calcium knowledge among the healthcare students.


Assuntos
Cálcio/administração & dosagem , Alimentos Fortificados , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Minerais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5203, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33060603

RESUMO

Ending all forms of hunger by 2030, as set forward in the UN-Sustainable Development Goal 2 (UN-SDG2), is a daunting but essential task, given the limited timeline ahead and the negative global health and socio-economic impact of hunger. Malnutrition or hidden hunger due to micronutrient deficiencies affects about one third of the world population and severely jeopardizes economic development. Staple crop biofortification through gene stacking, using a rational combination of conventional breeding and metabolic engineering strategies, should enable a leap forward within the coming decade. A number of specific actions and policy interventions are proposed to reach this goal.


Assuntos
Biofortificação/métodos , Engenharia Metabólica/métodos , Cruzamento , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Países em Desenvolvimento , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados , Saúde Global , Humanos , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes , Minerais , Oryza , Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Formulação de Políticas , Provitaminas , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/economia , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Nações Unidas , Vitaminas
5.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986748

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated iron-rich plant-based foods, such as amaranth grain, to reduce anemia and iron deficiency anemia. Amaranth is rich in nutrients, but with high level of phytate. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of home processed amaranth grain containing bread in the treatment of anemia, hemoglobin concentration and iron deficiency anemia among two-to-five year-old children in Southern Ethiopia. METHOD: Children with anemia (hemoglobin concentration <110.0g/L) (N = 100) were identified by random sampling and enrolled in a 1:1 cluster randomized controlled trial for six months in 2017. The amaranth group (N = 50), received 150g bread containing 70% amaranth and 30% chickpea, the amaranth grain was processed at home (soaking, germinating, and fermenting) to decrease the phytate level. The maize group (N = 50), received 150g bread, containing processed maize (roasted and fermented) to give a similar color and structure with amaranth bread. Hemoglobin, ferritin, and CRP were measured at baseline and at the end of intervention. Hemoglobin and ferritin values were adjusted for altitude and infection, respectively. Generalized estimating equation and generalized linear model were used to analyze the data. RESULT: In the last follow-up measure anemia prevalence was significantly lower in the amaranth group (32%) as compared with the maize group (56%) [adjusted risk ratios, aRR: 0.39 (95%CI: 0.16-0.77)]. Hemoglobin concentration estimate of beta coefficient was significantly higher in the amaranth group compared with the maize group [aß 8.9g/L (95%CI: 3.5-14.3)], p-value <0.01. The risk of iron deficiency anemia is significantly lower in the amaranth group [aRR: 0.44 (95%CI: 0.23-0.83)] in the intention to treat analysis but not significant in the complete case analysis. There was no significant difference between groups in iron deficiency [aRR: 0.81 (95%CI: 0.55-1.19)]. CONCLUSION: Processed amaranth bread had favorable effects on hemoglobin concentration and has the potential to minimize anemia prevalence. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial registry number: PACTR201705002283263 https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/TrialDisplay.aspx?TrialID=2283.


Assuntos
Amaranthus , Anemia Ferropriva/dietoterapia , Pão , Ferro/metabolismo , Zea mays , Pré-Escolar , Suplementos Nutricionais , Etiópia , Feminino , Ferritinas/sangue , Alimentos Fortificados , Alimento Funcional , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Ferro/deficiência , Masculino
6.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 8(22): 435-438, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continued into 2020, and the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) associated death toll increased. OBJECTIVES: To analyze COVID-19 death rates in European countries or regions to determine whether there was a significant association between bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination policy and lower rates of COVID-19 related deaths. METHODS: Certain Northern European countries or regions had low death rates regardless of BCG policy. The authors assumed the consumption of foods containing salmiak (NH4Cl) was a common and peculiar cause of the reduced COVID-19 related death rates in these countries, because NH4Cl is a known lysosomotropic agent, which has been indicated to inhibit or prevent SARS-CoV infection. To check the possible effectiveness of salmiak consumption against COVID-19 related death, the authors used a linear regression model with the death rate as the dependent variable and BCG-policy and salmiak consumption score as independent variables. RESULTS: Using least squares regression and a robust standard error algorithm, the authors found a significant effect exerted by the independent variables (P < 0.0005 for BCG and P = 0.001 for salmiak). Salmiak score alone was significant (P = 0.016) when using least squares regression with robust error algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: The results seem to confirm an association between BCG-positive vaccination policy and salmiak consumption, and lower death rates from COVID-19. Implementing BCG vaccination policy and fortification of foods with salmiak (NH4Cl) may have a significant impact on the control of SARS-CoV epidemic.


Assuntos
Cloreto de Amônio , Vacina BCG , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Aromatizantes , Alimentos Fortificados , Política de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Fatores de Proteção
7.
Probl Sotsialnoi Gig Zdravookhranenniiai Istor Med ; 28(Special Issue): 723-728, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856815

RESUMO

The article provides an overview of official documents and scientific literature on the development of a policy of enrichment of vitamins and minerals with diets of the population at the level of international organizations in various countries and in the world as a whole. International programs on micronutrient fortification of food products are considered from the standpoint of protecting public health. The article focuses on the availability and effectiveness of ways to improve the vitamin and mineral status of various social groups.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Saúde da População , Dieta , Micronutrientes , Vitaminas
8.
BMJ ; 370: m2397, 2020 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32699176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of food supplementation on improving working memory and additional measures including cerebral blood flow in children at risk of undernutrition. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: 10 villages in Guinea-Bissau. PARTICIPANTS: 1059 children aged 15 months to 7 years; children younger than 4 were the primary population. INTERVENTIONS: Supervised isocaloric servings (≈1300 kJ, five mornings each week, 23 weeks) of a new food supplement (NEWSUP, high in plant polyphenols and omega 3 fatty acids, within a wide variety and high fortification of micronutrients, and a high protein content), or a fortified blended food (FBF) used in nutrition programs, or a control meal (traditional rice breakfast). MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was working memory, a core executive function predicting long term academic achievement. Additional outcomes were hemoglobin concentration, growth, body composition, and index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi). In addition to an intention-to-treat analysis, a predefined per protocol analysis was conducted in children who consumed at least 75% of the supplement (820/925, 89%). The primary outcome was assessed by a multivariable Poisson model; other outcomes were assessed by multivariable linear mixed models. RESULTS: Among children younger than 4, randomization to NEWSUP increased working memory compared with the control meal (rate ratio 1.20, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.41, P=0.03), with a larger effect in the per protocol population (1.25, 1.06 to 1.47, P=0.009). NEWSUP also increased hemoglobin concentration among children with anemia (adjusted mean difference 0.65 g/dL, 95% confidence interval 0.23 to 1.07, P=0.003) compared with the control meal, decreased body mass index z score gain (-0.23, -0.43 to -0.02, P=0.03), and increased lean tissue accretion (2.98 cm2, 0.04 to 5.92, P=0.046) with less fat (-5.82 cm2, -11.28 to -0.36, P=0.04) compared with FBF. Additionally, NEWSUP increased CBFi compared with the control meal and FBF in both age groups combined (1.14 mm2/s×10-8, 0.10 to 2.23, P=0.04 for both comparisons). Among children aged 4 and older, NEWSUP had no significant effect on working memory or anemia, but increased lean tissue compared with FBF (4.31 cm2, 0.34 to 8.28, P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood undernutrition is associated with long term impairment in cognition. Contrary to current understanding, supplementary feeding for 23 weeks could improve executive function, brain health, and nutritional status in vulnerable young children living in low income countries. Further research is needed to optimize nutritional prescriptions for regenerative improvements in cognitive function, and to test effectiveness in other vulnerable groups. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03017209.


Assuntos
Anemia/dietoterapia , Disfunção Cognitiva/dietoterapia , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Desnutrição/dietoterapia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Sucesso Acadêmico , Anemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Circulação Cerebrovascular/fisiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Suplementos Nutricionais/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Alimentos Fortificados/provisão & distribução , Guiné-Bissau/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento/métodos , Masculino , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Micronutrientes/provisão & distribução , Medição de Risco
9.
Food Chem ; 333: 127447, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32688304

RESUMO

Quantification of the specific folate vitamers to estimate total folate in foods is not standardized. A collaborative study, including eight European laboratories, was conducted in order to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of the method for folate quantification in foods using the plant-origin γ-glutamyl hydrolase as part of the extraction procedure. The seven food samples analyzed represent the food groups; fruits, vegetables, dairy products, legumes, offal, fish, and fortified infant formula. The homogenization step was included, and six folate vitamers were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Total folate content, expressed as folic acid equivalent, was 17-490 µg/100 g in all samples. Horwitz ratio values were within the acceptable range (0.60-1.94), except for fish. The results for fortified infant formula, a certified reference material (NIST 1869), confirmed the trueness of the method. The collaborative study is part of a standardization project within the Nordic Committee on Food Analysis (NMKL).


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Ácido Fólico/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/normas , Laticínios/análise , Grão Comestível/química , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Análise de Alimentos/normas , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Frutas/química , Humanos , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/normas , Verduras/química
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD011302, 2020 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32677706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anaemia is a condition where the number of red blood cells (and consequently their oxygen-carrying capacity) is insufficient to meet the body's physiologic needs. Fortification of wheat flour is deemed a useful strategy to reduce anaemia in populations. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of wheat flour fortification with iron alone or with other vitamins and minerals on anaemia, iron status and health-related outcomes in populations over two years of age. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and other databases up to 4 September 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included cluster- or individually randomised controlled trials (RCT) carried out among the general population from any country aged two years and above. The interventions were fortification of wheat flour with iron alone or in combination with other micronutrients. Trials comparing any type of food item prepared from flour fortified with iron of any variety of wheat were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the search results and assessed the eligibility of studies for inclusion, extracted data from included studies and assessed risk of bias. We followed Cochrane methods in this review. MAIN RESULTS: Our search identified 3048 records, after removing duplicates. We included nine trials, involving 3166 participants, carried out in Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Kuwait, Phillipines, Sri Lanka and South Africa. The duration of interventions varied from 3 to 24 months. One study was carried out among adult women and one trial among both children and nonpregnant women. Most of the included trials were assessed as low or unclear risk of bias for key elements of selection, performance or reporting bias. Three trials used 41 mg to 60 mg iron/kg flour, two trials used less than 40 mg iron/kg and three trials used more than 60 mg iron/kg flour. One trial employed various iron levels based on type of iron used: 80 mg/kg for electrolytic and reduced iron and 40 mg/kg for ferrous fumarate. All included studies contributed data for the meta-analyses. Seven studies compared wheat flour fortified with iron alone versus unfortified wheat flour, three studies compared wheat flour fortified with iron in combination with other micronutrients versus unfortified wheat flour and two studies compared wheat flour fortified with iron in combination with other micronutrients versus fortified wheat flour with the same micronutrients (but not iron). No studies included a 'no intervention' comparison arm. None of the included trials reported any other adverse side effects (including constipation, nausea, vomiting, heartburn or diarrhoea). Wheat flour fortified with iron alone versus unfortified wheat flour (no micronutrients added) Wheat flour fortification with iron alone may have little or no effect on anaemia (risk ratio (RR) 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61 to 1.07; 5 studies; 2200 participants; low-certainty evidence). It probably makes little or no difference on iron deficiency (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.07; 3 studies; 633 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and we are uncertain about whether wheat flour fortified with iron increases haemoglobin concentrations by an average 3.30 (g/L) (95% CI 0.86 to 5.74; 7 studies; 2355 participants; very low-certainty evidence). No trials reported data on adverse effects in children, except for risk of infection or inflammation at the individual level. The intervention probably makes little or no difference to risk of Infection or inflammation at individual level as measured by C-reactive protein (CRP) (moderate-certainty evidence). Wheat flour fortified with iron in combination with other micronutrients versus unfortified wheat flour (no micronutrients added) Wheat flour fortified with iron, in combination with other micronutrients, may or may not decrease anaemia (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.31; 2 studies; 322 participants; low-certainty evidence). It makes little or no difference to average risk of iron deficiency (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.00; 3 studies; 387 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and may or may not increase average haemoglobin concentrations (mean difference (MD) 3.29, 95% CI -0.78 to 7.36; 3 studies; 384 participants; low-certainty evidence). No trials reported data on adverse effects in children. Wheat flour fortified with iron in combination with other micronutrients versus fortified wheat flour with same micronutrients (but not iron) Given the very low certainty of the evidence, the review authors are uncertain about the effects of wheat flour fortified with iron in combination with other micronutrients versus fortified wheat flour with same micronutrients (but not iron) in reducing anaemia (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.71; 1 study; 127 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and in reducing iron deficiency (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.97; 1 study; 127 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The intervention may make little or no difference to the average haemoglobin concentration (MD 0.81, 95% CI -1.28 to 2.89; 2 studies; 488 participants; low-certainty evidence). No trials reported data on the adverse effects in children. Eight out of nine trials reported source of funding with most having multiple sources. Funding source does not appear to have distorted the results in any of the assessed trials. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Eating food items containing wheat flour fortified with iron alone may have little or no effect on anaemia and probably makes little or no difference in iron deficiency. We are uncertain on whether the intervention with wheat flour fortified with iron increases haemoglobin concentrations improve blood haemoglobin concentrations. Consuming food items prepared from wheat flour fortified with iron, in combination with other micronutrients, has little or no effect on anaemia, makes little or no difference to iron deficiency and may or may not improve haemoglobin concentrations. In comparison to fortified flour with micronutrients but no iron, wheat flour fortified with iron with other micronutrients, the effects on anaemia and iron deficiency are uncertain as certainty of the evidence has been assessed as very low. The intervention may make little or no difference to the average haemoglobin concentrations in the population. None of the included trials reported any other adverse side effects. The effects of this intervention on other health outcomes are unclear.


Assuntos
Anemia/dietoterapia , Farinha , Alimentos Fortificados , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Triticum , Adolescente , Adulto , Anemia/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ácido Edético/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Compostos Férricos/administração & dosagem , Compostos Ferrosos/administração & dosagem , Fumaratos , Hemoglobina A/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Ferro/deficiência , Masculino , Micronutrientes/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD013392, 2020 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncertainty exists about the optimal point at which multi-component fortifier should be added to human milk for promoting growth in preterm infants. The most common practice is to start fortification when the infant's daily enteral feed volume reaches 100 mL/kg body weight. Another approach is to commence fortification earlier, in some cases as early as the first enteral feed. Early fortification of human milk could increase nutrient intake and growth rates but may increase the risk of feed intolerance and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). OBJECTIVES: To assess effects on growth and safety of early fortification of human milk versus late fortification in preterm infants To assess whether effects vary based upon gestational age (≤ 27 weeks; 28 to 31 weeks; ≥ 32 weeks), birth weight (< 1000 g; 1000 to 1499 g; ≥ 1500 g), small or appropriate for gestational age, or type of fortifier (bovine milk-based human milk fortifier (HMF); human milk-based HMF; formula powder) SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2019, Issue 8); OVID MEDLINE (R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Daily and Versions (R) (1946 to 15 August 2019); MEDLINE via PubMed (1 August 2018 to 15 August 2019) for the previous year; and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literatue (CINAHL) (1981 to 15 August 2019). We searched clinical trials databases and reference lists of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that compared early versus late fortification of human milk in preterm infants. We defined early fortification as fortification started at < 100 mL/kg/d enteral feed volume or < 7 days postnatal age, and late fortification as fortification started at ≥ 100 mL/kg/d feeds or ≥ 7 days postnatal age. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Both review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and independently extracted data. We analysed treatment effects in individual trials, and we reported risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous data and mean difference (MD) for continuous data, with respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included two trials with a total of 237 infants. All participants were very low birth weight infants (birth weight < 1500 g). Early fortification was started at 20 mL/kg/d enteral feeds in one study and 40 mL/kg/d in the other study. Late fortification was started at 100 mL/kg/d feeds in both studies. One study used bovine milk-based fortifier, and the other used human milk-based fortifier. Meta-analysis showed that early fortification may have little or no effect on growth outcomes including time to regain birth weight (MD -0.06 days, 95% CI -1.32 to 1.20 days), linear growth (MD 0.10 cm/week, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.22 cm/week), or head growth (MD -0.01 cm/week, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.06 cm/week) during the initial hospitalisation period. Early fortification may have little or no effect on the risk of NEC (MD -0.01, 95% CI -0.07 to 0.06). The certainty of evidence was low for these outcomes due to risk of bias (lack of blinding) and imprecision (small sample size). Early fortification may have little or no effect on incidence of surgical NEC, time to reach full enteral feeds, extrauterine growth restriction at discharge, proportion of infants with feed interruption episodes, duration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN), duration of central venous line usage, or incidence of invasive infection, all-cause mortality, and duration of hospital stay. The certainty of evidence was low for these outcomes due to risk of bias (lack of blinding) and imprecision (small sample size). We did not have data for other outcomes such as subsequent weight gain after birth weight is regained, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease, postdischarge growth, and neurodevelopmental outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence is insufficient to support or refute early fortification of human milk in preterm infants. Further large trials would be needed to provide data of sufficient quality and precision to inform policy and practice.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Recém-Nascido de muito Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leite Humano , Peso ao Nascer , Enterocolite Necrosante/epidemiologia , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233671, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584881

RESUMO

Growth faltering among children during the first five years of life is a common problem among low and middle-income countries. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a nutrient-rich, food-based supplement given to Vietnamese rural women prior to and/or during pregnancy on the growth of their infants during first 24 months of life and to identify maternal and newborn factors associated with the infant's growth. This prospective cohort study included 236 infants born to mothers who had received nutritional advice or a food supplement from pre-conception to term or from mid-gestation to term as part of a prior randomized controlled trial. Infant anthropometry and feeding information were monitored monthly and the infant weight for age Z-score (WAZ), length for age Z-score (LAZ), and weight for length Z-score (WLZ) were assessed at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of age using mixed-effects regression modeling. Compared to the non-supplemented mothers, infants born to mothers receiving food supplementation from mid-gestation to term had significantly higher WLZ only at 18 months (p = 0.03) and did not differ in other outcomes. Supplementation from pre-conception to term did not affect infant growth at any time point during the first 24 months. In the entire study cohort, maternal height and gestational weight gain were positively associated with the infant's WAZ and LAZ from 6 to 24 months of age. Programs designed to improve gestational weight gain among women performing demanding physical work throughout a reproductive cycle may improve postnatal infant growth. Trial registration: Registered Clinical Trials.Gov: NCT01235767.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Alimentos Fortificados/estatística & dados numéricos , Ganho de Peso na Gestação/fisiologia , Exposição Materna , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Vietnã , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Nutr ; 150(8): 2183-2190, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32534454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Food fortification is implemented to increase intakes of specific nutrients in the diet, but contributions of fortified foods to nutrient intakes are rarely quantified. OBJECTIVES: We quantified iron, vitamin A, and iodine intakes from fortified staple foods and condiments among women of reproductive age (WRA). METHODS: In subnational (Nigeria, South Africa) and national (Tanzania, Uganda) cross-sectional, clustered household surveys, we assessed fortifiable food consumption. We estimated daily nutrient intakes from fortified foods among WRA by multiplying the daily apparent fortifiable food consumption (by adult male equivalent method) by a fortification content for the food. Two fortification contents were used: measured, based on the median amount quantified from individual food samples collected from households; and potential, based on the targeted amount in national fortification standards. Results for both approaches are reported as percentages of the estimated average requirement (EAR) and recommended nutrient intake (RNI). RESULTS: Fortified foods made modest contributions to measured iron intakes (0%-13% RNI); potential intakes if standards are met were generally higher (0%-65% RNI). Fortified foods contributed substantially to measured vitamin A and iodine intakes (20%-125% and 88%-253% EAR, respectively); potential intakes were higher (53%-655% and 115%-377% EAR, respectively) and would exceed the tolerable upper intake level among 18%-56% of WRA for vitamin A in Nigeria and 1%-8% of WRA for iodine in Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda. CONCLUSIONS: Fortified foods are major contributors to apparent intakes of vitamin A and iodine, but not iron, among WRA. Contributions to vitamin A and iodine are observed despite fortification standards not consistently being met and, if constraints to meeting standards are addressed, there is risk of excessive intakes in some countries. For all programs assessed, nutrient intakes from all dietary sources and fortification standards should be reviewed to inform adjustments where needed to avoid risk of low or excessive intakes.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Iodo/administração & dosagem , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Vitamina A/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 1000-1008, May-June, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129715

RESUMO

The addition of different oil blends in the feed of finishing pigs was evaluated. Twenty-four castrated male finishing pigs were used in a randomized block design containing four treatments and six replicates. The treatments consisted of: Reference ration (RR) - 100% soybean oil feed; and the combination of the different oils: Blend1 - 50.0% soybean oil (SO), 25.0% flaxseed oil (FO), 12.5% olive oil (OO) and 12.5% canola oil (CO); Blend2 - 25.0% SO, 50.0% FO, 12.5% OO and 12.5% CO; and Blend3 - 25.0% SO, 12.5% FO, 12.5% OO and 50.0% CO. The performance, quantitative and qualitative carcass parameters, fatty acids profile and economic feasibility of the diets were evaluated. The use of blends in the diets did not influence the performance or carcass quality, but increased marbling and carcass yield. The fatty acid profile of the loin presented greater amounts of stearic acid in Blend3 and higher percentage of unsaturated fatty acids in animals fed with Blend1. The fatty tissue presented greater amounts of myristic acid in Blend1 and oleic acid in Blend3. The reference ration was the most economic. The Blends did not affect performance or carcass characteristics and improved the fatty acid profile.(AU)


Foi avaliada a utilização de diferentes blends de óleo em dietas de suínos em terminação. Foram utilizados 24 suínos, machos, castrados, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de: ração referência (RR) - 100% de ração com utilização de óleo de soja; e a combinação de diferentes óleos: Blend1 - 50,0% de óleo de soja (OS), 25,0% de óleo de linhaça (OL), 12,5% de óleo de oliva (OO) e 12,5% de óleo de canola (OC); Blend2 - 25,0% OS; 50,0% OL; 12,5% OO e 12,5% OC; e Blend3 - 25,0% OS; 12,5% OL; 12,5% OO e 50,0% OC. Foram avaliados os parâmetros de desempenho, a qualidade de carcaça, o perfil de ácidos graxos e a viabilidade econômica. O uso de blends nas dietas não influenciou o desempenho ou a qualidade da carcaça, mas aumentou o marmoreio e o rendimento de carcaça. O perfil de ácidos graxos do lombo apresentou maiores quantidades de ácido esteárico com a utilização do Blend3 e maior porcentagem de ácidos graxos insaturados nos animais alimentados com o Blend1. O tecido adiposo apresentou maiores quantidades de ácido mirístico quando se forneceu o Blend1 e de ácido oleico com o Blend3. A ração testemunha foi a mais econômica. As misturas não afetaram o desempenho e as características de carcaça e melhoraram o perfil de ácidos graxos da carne.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Suínos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Monoinsaturados/administração & dosagem , Ácido Linoleico , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Alimentos Fortificados
15.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): 160-165, jun. 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1102717

RESUMO

Introducción. La fortificación y suplementación son estrategias para la prevención de carencias de micronutrientes. El objetivo fue describir la procedencia de la ingesta del hierro y ácido fólico a lo largo del ciclo vital de la población de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Población y métodos. Análisis de la información de la Primera Encuesta Alimentaria y Nutricional de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires 2011, que tomó una muestra probabilística por conglomerados. El consumo se recabó con recordatorio de 24 horas. Se calculó el aporte de hierro y ácido fólico, y se categorizó en contenido natural, harina de trigo enriquecida, leche del Plan Materno Infantil, alimentos fortificados y suplementos. Resultados. De los 5369 individuos evaluados, prácticamente, la totalidad obtenía hierro y ácido fólico de contenido natural (el 58 % y el 29 % del consumo, respectivamente). Más del 90 % consumía harina de trigo enriquecida, que aportaba el 28 % del hierro y el 54 % del ácido fólico. Los alimentos fortificados mostraron consumo y aporte muy variable. La leche del Plan Materno Infantil mostró muy baja participación, inclusive en grupos específicos. El aporte de suplementos fue bajo, excepto en < 2 años (el 30 % consumía suplementos de hierro, que aportaban el 38 % de este).Conclusión. Además del aporte natural de los alimentos, la harina de trigo enriquecida representó una importante contribución en el consumo de ácido fólico y hierro de esta población; los alimentos fortificados y los suplementos tuvieron una participación diferente según el grupo etario.


Introduction. Fortification and supplementation are two strategies for micronutrient deficiency prevention. The objective of this study was to describe the source of iron and folic acid intake throughout the life cycle in the population of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires.Population and methods. Analysis of the information collected in the First Survey on Nutritional Food Intake of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (2011), which had a probability cluster sampling design. Consumption was assessed by means of a 24-hour recall. Iron and folic acid intake was estimated and categorized into natural content, enriched wheat flour, milk from the Maternal and Child Plan, fortified foods, and supplements.Results. Out of the 5369 studied individuals, practically all got iron and folic acid from natural contents (58 % and 29 % of intake, respectively). More than 90 % consumed enriched wheat flour, which provided 28 % of iron and 54 % of folic acid. Fortified food consumption and intake varied greatly. Milk intake from the Maternal and Child Plan was small, even in specific groups. Intake from supplements was low, except in children < 2 years old (30 % consumed iron supplements, which accounted for 38 % of iron).Conclusion. In addition to natural intake from foods, enriched wheat flour accounted for a major source of folic acid and iron in this population; intake from fortified foods and supplements varied by age group.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alimentos Fortificados , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Consumo de Alimentos , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suplementos Nutricionais , Farinha , Anemia/prevenção & controle
16.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 111(6): 1301-1302, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488256
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234395, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525930

RESUMO

As rice is an important staple food globally, research for development and enhancement of its nutritional value it is an imperative task. Identification of nutrient enriched rice germplasm and exploiting them for breeding programme is the easiest way to develop better quality rice. In this study, we analyzed 113 aromatic rice germplasm in order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underpinning nutrition components and determined by measuring the normal frequency distribution for Fe, Zn, amylose, and protein content in those rice germplasm. Comparatively, the germplasm Radhuni pagal, Kalobakri, Thakurbhog (26.6 ppm) and Hatisail exhibited the highest mean values for Fe (16.9 ppm), Zn (34.1 ppm), amylose (26.6 ppm) and protein content (11.0 ppm), respectively. Moreover, a significant linear relationship (R2 = 0.693) was observed between Fe and Zn contents. Cluster analysis based on Mahalanobis D2 distances revealed four major clusters of 113 rice germplasm, with cluster III containing a maximum 37 germplasm and a maximum inter-cluster distance between clusters III and IV. The 45 polymorphic SSRs and four trait associations exhibited eight significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) located on eight different chromosomes using composite interval mapping (CIM). The highly significant QTL (variance 7.89%, LOD 2.02) for protein content (QTL.pro.1) was observed on chromosome 1 at 94.9cM position. Also, four QTLs for amylose content were observed with the highly significant QTL.amy.8 located on chromosome 8 exhibiting 7.2% variance with LOD 1.83. Only one QTL (QTL.Fe.9) for Fe content was located on chromosome 9 (LOD 1.24), and two (QTL.Zn.4 and QTL.Zn.5) for Zn on chromosome 4 (LOD 1.71) and 5 (LOD 1.18), respectively. Overall, germplasm from clusters III and IV might offer higher heterotic response with the identified QTLs playing a significant role in any rice biofortification breeding program and released with development of new varieties.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Amilose/análise , Biofortificação/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/química , Produtos Agrícolas/classificação , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Genes de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Ferro/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Oryza/química , Oryza/classificação , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Proteínas de Vegetais Comestíveis/análise , Análise de Regressão , Sementes/química , Sementes/genética , Zinco/análise
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233924, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human breast milk (BM) fortification is required to feed preterm newborns with less than 32 weeks of gestation. However, addition of fortifiers increases osmolarity and osmolarity values higher than 450 mOsm/kg may be related to gastrointestinal pathology. Hence, fortifier selection and dosage are key to achieve optimal feeding. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effect on osmolality of adding different fortifications, including recently developed formulations, to BM and to study evolution of osmolarity over time in supplemented BM. METHODS: Frozen mature BM from 10 healthy mothers of premature newborns was fortified with each of the following human milk fortifiers (HMF): AlmirónFortifier®, NANFM85®, or PreNANFM85®. In addition, fortified BMs were modified with one of the following nutritional supplements (NS): Duocal MCT®, Nutricia® AminoAcids Mix, or Maxijul®. Osmolality of BM alone, fortified and/or supplemented was measured at 1 and 22 hours after their preparation. All samples were kept at 4°C throughout the study. RESULTS: Osmolality of BM alone was close to 300 mOsm/kg and did not change over 22 hours. When equicaloric amounts of HMF AlmirónFortifier®, NANFM85®, and PreNANFM85® were added to BM, osmolality increased roughly to 480 mOsm/kg with the first two fortifiers and only to 433±6 mOsm/kg with the third one. Upon addition of any of four different NSs to BM modified with AlmirónFortifier® and NANFM85®, osmolality reached values greater than 520 mOsm/kg, while osmolality of PreNANFM85® with two out of the four NSs remained below 490 mOsm/kg. NSs supplementing carbohydrates and hydrolysed proteins resulted into a higher increase of BM osmolarity. Osmolality increased significantly with time and, after 22h, only BM modified with PreNANFM85® remained below 450 mOsm/kg. CONCLUSIONS: Upon addition of the HMFs tested, BM osmolality increases significantly and keeps raising over time. All HMFs but the recently developed PreNAN FM85® at 4% exceed the AAP recommended threshold for osmolarity of 450 mOsm/kg. Addition of NSs to PreNAN FM85® at 4% significantly increases osmolality above 450 mOsm/Kg. Thus, using PreNAN FM85® at 5% may be preferable to adding nutritional supplements since nutritional recommendations by the ESPGHAN are reached with a lower increase in osmolality.


Assuntos
Alimentos Fortificados , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/fisiologia , Leite Humano/química , Nutrientes/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Nutrientes/química , Concentração Osmolar
19.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232425, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365065

RESUMO

The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of incorporating different legume flours (faba bean, lentil or split pea flours) on the pasta protein network and its repercussion on in vitro protein digestibility, in comparison with reference dairy proteins. Kinetics and yields of protein hydrolysis in legume enriched pasta and, for the first time, the peptidomes generated by the pasta at the end of the in vitro gastric and intestinal phases of digestion are presented. Three isoproteic (21%) legume enriched pasta with balanced essential amino acids, were made from wheat semolina and 62% to 79% of legume flours (faba bean or F-pasta; lentil or L-pasta and split pea or P-pasta). Pasta were prepared following the conventional pastification steps (hydration, mixing, extrusion, drying, cooking). Amino acid composition and protein network structure of the pasta were determined along with their culinary and rheological properties and residual trypsin inhibitor activity (3-5% of the activity initially present in raw legume flour). F- and L-pasta had contrasted firmness and proportion of covalently linked proteins. F-pasta had a generally weaker protein network and matrix structure, however far from the weakly linked soluble milk proteins (SMP) and casein proteins, which in addition contained no antitrypsin inhibitors and more theoretical cleavage sites for digestive enzymes. The differences in protein network reticulation between the different pasta and between pasta and dairy proteins were in agreement in each kinetic phase with the yield of the in vitro protein hydrolysis, which reached 84% for SMP, and 66% for casein at the end of intestinal phase, versus 50% for L- and P-pasta and 58% for F-pasta. The peptidome of legume enriched pasta is described for the first time and compared with the peptidome of dairy proteins for each phase of digestion. The gastric and intestinal phases were important stages of peptide differentiation between legumes and wheat. However, peptidome analysis revealed no difference in wheat-derived peptides in the three pasta diets regardless of the digestion phase, indicating that there was a low covalent interaction between wheat gluten and legume proteins.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta/química , Proteínas na Dieta/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/farmacocinética , Animais , Culinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Fabaceae/química , Farinha/análise , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Hidrólise , Técnicas In Vitro , Cinética , Lens (Planta)/química , Proteínas do Leite/química , Proteínas do Leite/farmacocinética , Valor Nutritivo , Ervilhas/química , Agregados Proteicos , Triticum/química , Vicia faba/química
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233456, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437465

RESUMO

The presence of selenium in European soil is low and this causes its deficiency in livestock and, in consequence, in humans. This study aimed to obtain Lentinula (L.) edodes mycelium with the maximum content of selenium. This species was used for experiment based on its documented medicinal properties. Calves were fed with selenium-enriched L. edodes mycelium, and serum selenium concentration, average daily weight gains and selected immune parameters were estimated. The selenium-enriched mushroom was found to be safe based on cytotoxicity tests (MTT and LDH tests) and for this reason it was used for further experiments. The mean quantity of selenium in the serum of calves fed with selenium-enriched L. edodes mycelium was significantly higher than that of control calves. Additionally, the calves fed with selenium-enriched L. edodes mycelium had higher body weight gains than those of control calves. White blood cell counts and subpopulations of lymphocytes in the experimental and control calves were within the reference range. The administration of L. edodes enriched with selenium had a beneficial effect on state of health of the calves.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Alimentos Fortificados , Selênio , Cogumelos Shiitake , Animais , Bovinos , Solo
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