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1.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 25-35, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687427

RESUMO

The importance of food security and nourishment is recognized in Southern African region and in many communities, globally. However, the attainment of food security in Southern African countries is affected by many factors, including adverse environmental conditions, pests and diseases. Scientists have been insistently looking for innovative strategies to optimize crop production and combat challenges militating against attainment of food security. In agriculture, strategies of increasing crop production include but not limited to improved crop varieties, farming practices, extension services, irrigation services, mechanization, information technology, use of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Equally important is genetic modification (GM) technology, which brings new prospects in addressing food security problems. Nonetheless, since the introduction of genetically modified crops (GMOs) three decades ago, it has been a topic of public discourse across the globe, conspicuously so in Southern African region. This is regardless of the evidence that planting GMOs positively influenced farmer's incomes, economic access to food and increased tolerance of crops to various biotic and abiotic stresses. This paper looks at the issues surrounding GMOs adoption in Southern Africa and lack thereof, the discourse, and its potential in contributing to the attainment of food security for the present as well as future generations.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , África Austral , Agricultura , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
2.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 36-46, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32835603

RESUMO

Consumer preference for the mandatory labeling of genetically modified (GM) foods promotes public support for the implementation of GM food policies. This study analyzes consumers' preference for the traceability of GM soybean oil. Survey data were collected through a self-administered survey covering 804 randomly sampled urban residents in the eastern, central and western regions of China. Using a logit model, this analysis examines the impacts of influential factors on consumers' preference for traceability. The results show that about 56.5% of the respondents have a positive preference for the traceability of GM soybean oil. Factors increasing the preference for traceability include a better perception of the attributes of nutrition benefit and potential health risk, perceived inadequacy of simple mandatory labels, more attention paid to food labels, and distrust in the agencies overseeing GM food safety. Enhancing consumers' perceptions of GM-related attributes and awareness of food labels will help improve the mandatory labeling management of GM foods.


Assuntos
Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Óleo de Soja , China , Comportamento do Consumidor , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Inquéritos e Questionários
3.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 146-157, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138666

RESUMO

This study examined the influence of consumers' knowledge on their perceptions and purchase intentions toward genetically modified foods, and the implications of these consumer responses for sustainable development in the food industry. This study distinguished between objective and subjective knowledge and identified how an imbalance between the two knowledge types influenced consumers' attitudes and purchase intentions toward genetically modified foods. Results of a multinomial regression analysis showed that consumers with higher levels of education, income, and food involvement and more exposure to negative information about genetically modified foods tended to overestimate their actual knowledge level. The overestimation group showed a higher risk perception, lower benefit perception, and lower intention to purchase genetically modified foods than other participants. Consumers with less education and higher income were more likely to underestimate their knowledge.


Assuntos
Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Comportamento do Consumidor , Intenção , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(4): 569-573, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of genetically modified maize with Cry1Ab and epsps genes on immune function in F3 rats. METHODS: A total of 180 weaning SD rats for F0 generation were randomly divided into three groups, which were treated with AIN-93 G feed control diet, parental maize diet and genetically modified maize diet respectively. After three generations of breeding, antibody producing cells determination, concanavalin A(ConA)-induced lymphocyte transformation test, natural killer(NK)cells activities assay, whole blood lymphocyte subtype detection, delayed type hypersensitivity test and immunity organ index were performed. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between parental maize diet and genetically modified maize diet in terms of the number of antibody-producing cells, ConA-induced spleen lymphocyte proliferation, NK cell activity, whole blood lymphocyte subsets, delayed type hypersensitivity and thymus index(P>0. 05). CONCLUSION: Under the conditions of this experiment, no significant effects were found on immune function of F3 SD rats through the three generation development study of genetically modified maize with CrylAb and epsps genes.


Assuntos
Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Zea mays/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Endotoxinas , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340355

RESUMO

Genetically edited food utilizes new techniques that may decrease all of the risks associated with genetically modified food, or "GMO" food. Safety and labeling regulations for genetically edited food are still new, and it is challenging for the consumer to differentiate it from conventional food. Although genetically edited food has the potential for reducing the risks associated with the gene introduction process, consumer perceptions toward it are still unclear. The research has compared the regulations governing GMO food and genetically edited food in Japan, Europe, and the United States. We found that the genetically edited food regulations in Japan are the most science-based, in the meaning that genetically edited food products are allowed to be sold without any safety evaluation. Based on the difference among regions, we further studied the potential acceptance level for such products among Japanese consumers, where regulation seemed science-based as policy. To understand the factors that may affect the adoption of genetically edited food among youth in Japan, we utilized the structural equation modeling (SEM) method with 180 surveys of Japanese university students to measure six factors: Knowledge, Attitude Towards Technology, Perceived Benefits, Perceived Risks, Trust, and Willingness to Purchase. The survey was conducted twice with an intervention in the middle to measure the effect of science communication, and we found significant differences when comparing the two datasets. The results of this survey indicate the importance of increasing knowledge and the positive role of science communication in increasing the adoption and trust of biotechnology products, such as genetically edited food.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adolescente , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Japão , Masculino
6.
Acta Med Port ; 33(4): 252-260, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32238239

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Transgenic (genetically modified) foods are being grown, sold and eaten in Portugal. As such it is important that physicians stay up to date on any negative health consequences of such foods. This study aimed to identify their opinion, knowledge and training needs regarding transgenic foods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 278 physicians responded to a survey Results: In terms of opinion, 85.8% of physicians had a neutral position, 12.5% had a negative view and a minority (1.7%) was positive. However, 79.8% had a low level of knowledge, 17.7% had an average level of knowledge and only 2.5% showed a high level of knowledge regarding the subject. It should be noted that 91.4% of physicians consider that it is useful to carry out some kind of training during their university education and 65.1% said that it would be very useful during the professional life to have continuing education concerning the issue. Most physicians (83%) could be grouped together according to their interest in learning more. The other group (17%) showed lack of interest. DISCUSSION: Physicians are considered reliable sources, to whom the general population can turn to in order to access valuable health information, which suggests the need to stay up-to-date regarding transgenic foods. CONCLUSION: This is a pioneering study on Portuguese physicians and transgenic foods. Results point to a need for specific training concerning this issue.


Assuntos
Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Médicos/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Educação Médica Continuada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Portugal , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229659, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101588

RESUMO

The cultivation of genetically modified organisms (GMO) continues to expand worldwide. Still, many consumers express concerns about the use of GMO in food or feed, and many countries have legislated on labelling systems to indicate the presence of GMO in commercial products. To deal with the increased number of GMO events and to address related regulations, alternative detection methods for GMO inspection are required. In this work, a genosensor based on Surface Plasmon Resonance under continuous flow was developed for the detection and quantification of a genetically modified soybean (event GTS 40-3-2). In a single chip, the simultaneous detection of the event-specific and the taxon-specific samples were achieved, whose detection limits were 20 pM and 16 pM, respectively. The reproducibility was 1.4%, which supports the use of the chip as a reliable and cost-effective alternative to other DNA-based techniques. The results indicate that the proposed method is a versatile tool for GMO quantification in food and feed samples.


Assuntos
Soja/genética , Ressonância de Plasmônio de Superfície/métodos , DNA de Plantas/genética , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados/classificação , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados/química , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
10.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 137: 111129, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935424

RESUMO

A subchronic toxicity study were conducted in Wistar Han RCC rats to evaluate the potential health effects of genetically modified (GM), drought-tolerant wheat MGX11-10. Rats were fed a rodent diet formulated with MGX11-10 and were compared with rats fed a diet formulated with its corresponding non-transgenic control Jimai22 and rats fed a basal diet. MGX11-10 and Jimai22 were ground into flour and formulated into diets at concentrations of 16.25, 32.5, or 65%, w/w% and fed to rats (10/sex/group) for 13 weeks. Compared with rats fed Jimai22 and the basal-diet group, no biologically relevant differences were observed in rats fed the GM diet with respect to body weight/gain, food consumption/efficiency, clinical signs, mortality, ophthalmology, clinical pathology (hematology, prothrombin time, urinalysis, clinical chemistry), organ weights, and gross and microscopic pathology. Under the conditions of this study, the MGX11-10 diets did not cause any treatment-related effects in rats following at least 90 days of dietary administration as compared with rats fed diets with the corresponding non-transgenic control diet and the basal-diet group. The MGX11-10 diets are considered equivalent to the diets prepared from conventional comparators. The results demonstrated that MGX11-10 wheat is as safe and wholesome as the corresponding non-transgenic control wheat.


Assuntos
Triticum/genética , Triticum/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Secas , Feminino , Farinha/efeitos adversos , Farinha/análise , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/efeitos adversos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triticum/efeitos adversos , Triticum/química
11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(3): 899-906, 2020 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31891505

RESUMO

Convenient, portable, and low-cost multiplex nucleic acid testing (NAT) systems are the trends in the fields of food safety, environmental microorganisms, molecular diagnosis, etc. In this study, we developed a novel system for visual monitoring of multiple nucleic acids combining a mini-disk capillary array (diameter = 17 mm, embedded with 6-10 capillaries), visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), and quick DNA extraction called mDC-LAMP. The performance and applicability of mDC-LAMP in testing multiple nucleic acids were evaluated and verified employing genetically modified contents analysis as an example. All of the results confirmed that mDC-LAMP has the advantages of high specificity without any cross contamination, high sensitivity with a limit of detection of 25 copies/reaction, high throughput with flexible channel sensors, easy fabrication, and low costs. We believe that mDC-LAMP is a competitive choice for on-spot monitoring of multiple nucleic acids in terms of the easy fabrication/operation, low costs, and suitable performance presented in the nucleic acids test.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/economia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Zea mays/genética
12.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1376, 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992721

RESUMO

Part of the studies involved in safety assessment of genetically engineered crops includes characterizing the organization, integrity, and stability of the inserted DNA and evaluating the potential allergenicity and toxicity of newly-expressed proteins. Molecular characterization of the introduced DNA in provitamin A biofortified rice event GR2E confirmed insertion of a single copy of the transfer-DNA in the genome and its inheritance as a single locus. Nucleotide sequencing of the inserted DNA confirmed it was introduced without modifications. The phytoene synthase, and carotene desaturase proteins did not display sequence similarity with allergens or toxins. Both proteins were rapidly digested in simulated gastric fluid and their enzymatic activity was inhibited upon heat treatment. Acute oral toxicity testing of the protein in mice demonstrated lack of adverse effects. These evidences substantiated the lack of any identifiable hazards for both proteins and in combination with other existing comparative analyses provided assurance that food derived from this rice is safe. This conclusion is in line with those of the regulatory agencies of US Food and Drug Administration, Health Canada and Food Standard Australia and New Zealand.


Assuntos
Biofortificação , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Oryza/genética , Provitaminas , Vitamina A , Animais , Genoma de Planta , Geranil-Geranildifosfato Geranil-Geraniltransferase , Camundongos , Provitaminas/análise , Provitaminas/genética , Vitamina A/análise , Vitamina A/genética
13.
Food Chem ; 305: 125426, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31522124

RESUMO

Genetically modified (GM) Atlantic salmon, AquAdvantage (AquAd), was the first GM animal approved officially for human consumption. Many countries monitor the use of this product under their GM regulations, but a pragmatic system for AquAd-specific detection is needed. Here, we developed a real-time polymerase chain reaction method with high sensitivity for detection of AquAd in foods. This method showed high specificity for the AquAd transgene and the detection limit was 12.5-25 targeted DNA copies per test reaction. An inter-laboratory study using the method developed demonstrated reproducibility at >0.1% (w/w) AquAd content.


Assuntos
Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Salmo salar/genética , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
14.
J Law Health ; 33(1): 17-46, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841616

RESUMO

The United States government, until recently, did not require the labeling of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). On July 29, 2016, President Barack Obama signed into law the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard (NBFDS). This law directs the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to create regulations that require manufacturers to disclose certain bioengineered products on food labels. On December 20, 2018, the USDA released the final regulations for the NBFDS, which requires food manufactures, importers, and certain retailers to ensure bioengineered foods are appropriately disclosed. The final regulations include provisions that will leave the majority of GMO derived foods unlabeled. The final regulations also restrict approximately 100 million Americans from accessing GMO information by allowing QR codes to replace clear and transparent labeling, an issue that will be discussed in further detail later in this Note. This Note explores why you, as a consumer, may want to know whether your food contains GM products, and furthermore, why you as a consumer have a moral and legal right to know.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/ética , Rotulagem de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Rotulagem de Alimentos/tendências , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Legislação sobre Alimentos/ética , Legislação sobre Alimentos/tendências , Austrália , Direitos Civis , Meio Ambiente , União Europeia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Conhecimento , Obrigações Morais , Praguicidas , Religião , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Agriculture/legislação & jurisprudência , United States Food and Drug Administration/legislação & jurisprudência
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31757100

RESUMO

: Guided by the theory of reasoned action and media system dependency theory, this study examined attitude towards genetically modified foods (GMF) among university students in Kunming, China, as well as personal and media factors related to such attitude. Data were collected from an online survey with 467 university students across eight universities in Kunming. Results showed that attitude towards GMF were more negative than positive. Moreover, food neophobia and media attention were negatively associated with attitude towards GMF. In contrast, perceived benefit was positively associated with attitude towards GMF. Although the interaction between media dependency and media attention was significant, simple slope analysis confirmed that the interaction slopes were nonsignificant, suggesting that media attention did not moderate the association between media dependency and attitude towards GMF in this study. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(49): 13506-13508, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725270

RESUMO

Since 2011, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has implemented combined difference and equivalence testing of agronomic, phenotypic, and composition data in the risk assessment of genetically modified crops. A short perspective is provided on misunderstandings that have shown up in published criticisms of the approach to equivalence testing, different viewpoints regarding the questions to be answered, and new developments in statistical modeling.


Assuntos
Produtos Agrícolas/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Humanos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Medição de Risco
17.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223910, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31665171

RESUMO

Food labels may have both informational and signaling influences on consumer demand. We conduct a choice experiment with over 1,300 subjects to examine the signaling effect of the food product labels on consumer demand for other competing products in the market. Specifically, we focus on the genetically modified (GM) text labeling for fresh produce (strawberries, apples, and potatoes) in the United States. Contrary to some previous studies, our results indicate that the absence-claim label (Not-GM) does not have a negative impact on the demand for related conventional products. Instead, we find that consumer demand for unlabeled products is significantly enhanced with the introduction of presence-claimed GM labels. Our results contribute to the ongoing discussion of the enactment of mandatory labeling for GM foods by the federal U.S. government. Our results suggest that, in the case of direct text disclosure labels, consumers may no longer differentiate between unlabeled products and Not-GM-labeled products after the mandatory GM labeling law is in effect.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Frutas/genética , Verduras/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Comportamento do Consumidor/economia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Política Pública , Adulto Jovem
18.
Public Underst Sci ; 28(8): 991-1004, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547775

RESUMO

This study examines messages contributed by scientists and laypeople to an online discussion about genetically modified food in China with the aim to understand whether and how scientists and laypeople apply different communication strategies with regard to framing, interaction features, and writing style. Both answers (N = 100) and comments (N = 2416) related to genetically modified food on Zhihu, the most popular social Q&A site in China, were analyzed. The analysis reveals that though there were no significant attitude differences between scientists and laypeople, the two groups tended to frame genetically modified food from quite different perspectives. Also, although scientist users were not perfect rationalists during online discussions, they were more likely to be both high-quality content contributors and active discussion facilitators.


Assuntos
Atitude , Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Disseminação de Informação , China , Humanos , Internet
20.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(8): 2845-2853, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418211

RESUMO

The safety of feed derived from genetically modified (GM) crops is one of the focuses of attention. To evaluate the ecotoxicological effects of transgenic mCry1Ac maize (BT799) on fish, zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed extruded feeds containing either 20% GM maize (GMF) or its parental control maize (PF), GM maize meal (GMM) or its parental control maize meal (PMM), and a control commercial feed (CF), respectively. The growth performance, histopathology, reproduction, antioxidant enzyme activity and mRNA expression levels of sensitive protein in the liver were investigated over the course of a 98-day feeding trial. The results showed that transgenic mCry1Ac maize had no significant effect on growth, histopathology of the liver, brain and intestinal tract, fecundity, hatching rate of fertilized eggs, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activity, mRNA expression levels of SOD and CAT, or heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and vitellogenin (VTG) in the liver. However, zebrafish fed the commercial feed exhibited significantly greater weight, longer length, and higher specific growth rate than those fed feeds (GMF and PF) and maize meals (GMM and PMM). The hatching rate of zebrafish in the feed groups was significantly lower than that of the maize meal groups and the commercial feed group. The mRNA transcriptional levels of VTG were significantly higher in the liver for the feed groups (3.85±0.76) than that for the maize meal groups (1.60±0.56). These results suggest that transgenic mCry1Ac maize has no ecotoxicological effects on zebrafish. However, the differences in nutrient composition and palatability between the extruded experimental feeds and the commercial feed would lead to significant diffe-rences in some parameters.


Assuntos
Alimentos Geneticamente Modificados , Zea mays/genética , Ração Animal , Animais , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Testes de Toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia
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