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2.
J Chromatogr A ; 1622: 461119, 2020 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376013

RESUMO

Next to furan, other alkylfurans such as 2- and 3-methylfuran, 2-ethylfuran, 2,5-dimethylfuran, and 2-pentylfuran have been found concurrently in thermal processed food and fruit juices. To ensure an accurate quantification of these compounds, a method based on isotope dilution using all six respective internal standards and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed. Two injection techniques, static head space (HS) and solid phase micro extraction (SPME), were tested and compared for their performance. Validation was based on a single laboratory validation under repeatability condition. Good data for both techniques in baby food and cereals were obtained. Furthermore, validation was conducted successfully on fruit juices and infant formula using SPME injection and on coffee using HS injection. LOQ for all matrices was established at 5 µg/kg and 200 µg/kg in coffee samples, which corresponds to the lowest fortification level. Recovery was between 80 % and 110 % and repeatability obtained below 16 % at 50 µg/kg (7.4 % at 10 mg/kg for coffee samples), except few slight outliers.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Furanos/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Café/química , Grão Comestível/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida
3.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230978, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhoea are the leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia. Understanding the associations between infant and young child feeding (IYCF) and ARI and diarrhoea can inform IYCF policy interventions and advocacy in Ethiopia. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between IYCF practices and ARI and diarrhoea in Ethiopian children. METHODS: This study used the Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) data for the years 2000 (n = 3680), 2005 (n = 3528), 2011 (n = 4037), and 2016 (n = 3861). The association between IYCF practices and (i) ARI and (ii) diarrhoea were investigated using propensity score matching and multivariable logistic regression models. The IYCF practices include early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), predominant breastfeeding, introduction of complementary foods, continued breastfeeding at two years and bottle feeding. RESULTS: Infants and young children who were breastfed within 1-hour of birth and those who were exclusively breastfed had a lower prevalence of ARI. Infants who were exclusively and predominantly breastfed had a lower prevalence of diarrhoea. Early initiation of breastfeeding (Odds ratio [OR]: 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.72, 0.92) and EBF (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.83) were associated with lower risk of ARI. Bottle-fed children had higher odds of ARI (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.68). Early initiation of breastfeeding and EBF were associated with lower odds of diarrhoea (OR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.94 for Early initiation of breastfeeding and OR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.65 for EBF). Infants who were predominantly breastfed were less likely to experience diarrhoea (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.89). CONCLUSION: The recommended best practices for preventing ARI and diarrhoeal diseases in infants and young children namely: the early initiation of breastfeeding, EBF and avoidance of bottle feeding should be institutionalized and scale-up in Ethiopia as part of implementation science approach to cover the know-do-gaps.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Diarreia/epidemiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Alimentação Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/prevenção & controle , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Pontuação de Propensão , Infecções Respiratórias/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Risco
4.
Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill ; 13(2): 115-120, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207375

RESUMO

Large population studies estimated that the frequency of food allergies is increasing worldwide. In the last two decades, a 'second wave' of the allergy epidemic has emerged as a growing public health problem. EU regulation strengthened information to consumers about allergens in pre-packed food, since December 2014 it has been extended to non-prepacked foods by the Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Commission. The present work aims to present a five-year survey on the presence of nine types of allergen in several foods, including food of animal origin and baby food. The concentration found for each irregular allergen is generally low, but some samples with no gluten indication contained a concentration above 10 mg kg-1 with the highest value of 138.5 mg kg-1 in a dietetic food, during the screening in 2017. These data underline the importance and the necessity of a complete food labelling to protect the majority of allergic individuals.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Carne/análise , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar , Itália
5.
Food Chem ; 315: 126208, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032831

RESUMO

The aim of the current work was to evaluate the physicochemical, rheological, molecular, thermal and sensory properties of complementary food (CF) formulations prepared with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) flour (QF). It was observed that QF addition significantly affected the physicochemical and rheological properties of CF formulations, resulting in higher protein and crude fiber, but lower total sugar contents and increased storage (G') and loss (G″) modulus values. The glass transition temperature decreased due to QF addition. The FTIR spectra revealed the presence of aromatic amino acids derived from QF. GC, GC-MS and GC-O analyses revealed the presence of 50 aroma and 23 aroma-active compounds, among which aldehydes, alcohols and ketones were the most prevalent group of compounds. The formulation with 8% QF received the highest sensory scores. QF could be used to improve the physicochemical, rheological, thermal and sensory properties of CF products.


Assuntos
Chenopodium quinoa/química , Alimentos Infantis , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Adulto , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Farinha/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Mães , Reologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura de Transição , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
7.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 10, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022139

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess if the commercialization of infant formulas, baby bottles, bottle nipples, pacifiers and nipple protectors is performed in compliance with the Norma Brasileira de Comercialização de Alimentos para Lactentes e Crianças de Primeira Infância e de Produtos de Puericultura Correlatos (NBCAL - Brazilian Code of Marketing of Infant and Toddlers Food and Childcare-related products). The commercial promotion of these products is prohibited by the Law 11,265. METHOD: Cross-sectional study conducted in 2017 through a census of all pharmacies, supermarkets and department stores that sold products covered by NBCAL in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro. Health professionals trained at NBCAL used structured electronic form for direct observation of establishments and for interviews with their managers. We created indicators to evaluate commercial practices and performed descriptive analyses. RESULTS: A total of 352 commercial establishments were evaluated: 240 pharmacies, 88 supermarkets and 24 department stores, of which 88% sold products whose promotion is prohibited by NBCAL. Illegal commercial promotions were found in 20.3% of the establishments that sold the products we investigated: 52 pharmacies (21.9%), four supermarkets (7.5%) and seven department stores (33.3%). The most frequent commercial promotion strategies were discounts (13.2%) and special exposures (9.3%). The products with the highest prevalence of infractions of NBCAL were infant formulas (16.0%). We interviewed 309 managers of commercial establishments; 50.8% reported unfamiliarity with the law. More than three-quarters of the managers reported having been visited at the establishments by commercial representatives of companies that produce infant formulas. CONCLUSION: More than a fifth of commercial establishments promoted infant formulas, baby bottles and nipples, although this practice has been banned in Brazil for thirty years. We think it is necessary to train those managers. Government agencies must monitor commercial establishments in order to inhibit strategies of persuasion and induction to sales of these products, ensuring mothers' autonomy in the decision on the feeding of their children.


Assuntos
Publicidade Direta ao Consumidor , Fórmulas Infantis/legislação & jurisprudência , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Substitutos do Leite/legislação & jurisprudência , Chupetas , Brasil , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Alimentos Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Legislação sobre Alimentos
8.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 14, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022142

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize complementary feeding and to analyze the influence of individual and contextual factors on dietary practices of low birth weight infants. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2,370 low birth weight infants aged 6 to 12 months included in the Breastfeeding Prevalence Survey in Brazilian Municipalities (2008), which covered the 26 state capitals, the Federal District and 37 municipalities. Dietary practices were assessed using two indicators: I) dietary diversity, characterized by the consumption of five food groups: meat, beans, vegetables, fruit and milk; II) consumption of ultra-processed foods, characterized by the ingestion of at least one of the following foods on the day prior to the survey: soda, or processed juice, or cookie, cracker and crisps. The covariates of interest were the socioeconomic characteristics of infants, mothers and health services. The contextual factor was the "municipal prevalence of child undernutrition." The individualized effect of the study factors on outcomes was assessed by multilevel Poisson regression. RESULTS: Approximately 59% of infants consumed ultra-processed foods, while 29% had diverse feeding. Mothers living in municipalities with child undernutrition prevalence below 10%, with higher education and working outside the home were more likely to offer dietary diversity. Consumption of ultra-processed foods was higher among infants living in municipalities with child undernutrition prevalence below 10%, whose mothers were younger and multiparous. CONCLUSIONS: The low prevalence of diverse feeding combined with the high prevalence of ultra-processed food consumption characterizes the low quality of feeding of low birth weight Brazilian infants. Individual and contextual factors impact the feeding quality of this population, suggesting the need for effective strategies to increase the consumption of fresh and minimally processed foods and decrease the consumption of ultra-processed foods by this vulnerable population.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Laticínios , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Infantis/classificação , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Med J Aust ; 212(6): 271-275, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981429

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To estimate the proportion of infants introduced to peanut and other common food allergens by 12 months of age; to collect information about parent-reported reactions to food. DESIGN, SETTING: Observational cohort study, applying the SmartStartAllergy SMS protocol and online questionnaire to parents of 12-month-old infants attending 69 Australian general practices between 21 September 2018 and 3 May 2019. PARTICIPANTS: 3374 parents recruited via the 69 participating general practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportions of infants who had eaten peanut and other common food allergens; proportions with parent-reported reactions to food. RESULTS: 1940 of 3374 invited parents participated in the study (response rate, 57%), of whom 836 (46%) completed the online questionnaire. At 12 months of age, 1673 of 1940 infants had eaten peanut-including foods (86.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84.6-87.7%); 235 of 1831 parents (12.8%; 95% CI, 11.3-14.5%) reported food-related reactions. Questionnaire responses indicated that dairy was the food type most frequently reported to cause a food-related reaction (72 of 835 exposed infants, 8.6%; 95% CI, 6.8-11%); peanut-related reactions were reported for 20 of 764 exposed children (2.6%; 95% CI, 1.6-4.0%). 97 of 250 parent-reported reactions to food (39%) did not include symptoms that suggested an IgE-mediated allergic reaction. CONCLUSION: Infant feeding practices in Australia have changed over the past decade; a large majority of infants are now fed peanut before 12 months of age. The SmartStartAllergy program allows monitoring of infant feeding practices in primary care, as well as of parent-reported reactions to food in infants.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/diagnóstico , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Aplicativos Móveis , Alérgenos/efeitos adversos , Arachis/efeitos adversos , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Smartphone , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1098: 66-74, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31948588

RESUMO

A streamlined analytical workflow was developed for the analysis of infant drink samples using a miniature mass spectrometry system preceded by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and extraction nano-electrospray ionization. Potential chemical contaminants in infant drinks (milk, lactic acid bacteria beverage, and fruit juice) were extracted and enriched using a custom-made stainless-steel SPME probe, which was coated with a thin layer of polyaniline and multi-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposites (PANI/MWCNTs) by electrochemical deposition. The resulting porous microstructure has a larger surface area and enhanced microextraction efficiency, with enrichment factors ranging from 3055 to 8695 for exemplary analytes of antibiotics, bisphenol A, and perfluorinated compounds. The enriched analytes on the electrochemically fabricated SPME probe were simultaneously desorbed and ionized within a pulled glass capillary by extraction nano-electrospray ionization. The ionized species were subjected to instrumental analysis on a miniature ion trap mass spectrometer with adequate tandem mass spectrometry capability. The developed method was optimized and validated in terms of sensitivity, linearity, repeatability, and recovery. The integrated experimental protocol combining SPME, ambient ionization, and miniature mass spectrometry is promising for rapid, on-site screening of hazardous substances in food to ensure consumer health.


Assuntos
Laticínios/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Sondas Moleculares/química , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Humanos , Lactente , Espectrometria de Massas
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31936289

RESUMO

Rice-based products are widely used to feed infants and young children. However, the association of rice-based products and high arsenic (As) concentrations have been investigated in a number of studies, but there is limited information from Australia. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the As concentration and dietary exposure in infant rice milk, cereal, crackers and pasta as well as to investigate the relationship between As concentration and rice content, rice type and product origin. Total arsenic (tAs) concentrations were determined by nitric acid digestion and ICP-MS while inorganic arsenic (iAs) was determined by acid extraction, followed by ICP-MS with an interfaced hydride generation system. Nearly 75% of samples had inorganic As exceeding the EU maximum levels for infants and children (0.1 mg kg-1) and the mean iAs percentage of total reached as high as 84.8%. High tAs concentration was positively correlated with rice content and also related to brown (wholegrain). Estimates of dietary exposure showed that infants consuming large amounts of rice pasta or crackers will have an increased risk of health impact associated with excess intake of As through dietary exposure. Moreover, the current Australian guidelines for As in rice (1 mg kg-1) are above the WHO or EU guideline and therefore, will be less protective of high sensitivity consumers like infants and children.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Contaminação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Oryza/química , Arsenicais/análise , Austrália , Pré-Escolar , Grão Comestível/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/normas
13.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(1): 220-222, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746311

RESUMO

Complementary food hygiene is important to reduce infant exposures to enteric pathogens; however, interventions to improve food hygiene in low- and middle-income countries often ignore the larger context in which childcare occurs. In this study, we explore on observational and qualitative information regarding childcare in an informal community in Kenya. Our findings demonstrate that behaviors associated with food contamination, such as hand feeding and storing food for extended periods, are determined largely by the larger social and economic realities of primary caretakers. Data also show how caregiving within an informal settlement is highly dynamic and involves multiple individuals and locations throughout the day. Findings from this study will help inform the development and implementation of food hygiene interventions in informal urban communities.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Alimentos Infantis , População Urbana , Adulto , Cuidadores , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Áreas de Pobreza
14.
Minerva Med ; 111(2): 141-152, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755668

RESUMO

Early life feeding habits may potentially alter future metabolic programming and body composition. Complementary feeding is the period of time when infants introduce food different from milk in their diet, together with a gradual reduction of the intake of milk (either breast milk or formula), to finally acquire the diet model of their family. This period is important in the transition of the infant from milk feeding to family foods, and is necessary for both nutritional and developmental reasons. The timing for introducing complementary foods and the method of feeding have changed over time. Available literature data show increasing interest and concerns about the impact of complementary feeding timing and modality on the onset of later non-communicable disorders, such as overweight and obesity, allergic diseases, celiac disease, or diabetes. While international scientific guidelines on complementary feeding have been published, many baby food companies' websites, blogs, and books, in most European countries exist. The aim of this manuscript is to look over current recommendations, and to revise "old myths." The adoption of an adequate weaning method is a cornerstone in the development of life-long health status. A correct strategy could reduce the risk of feeding disorders and other health problems later in life.


Assuntos
Alimentos Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente/fisiologia , Política Nutricional , Desmame , Fatores Etários , Anemia Ferropriva/etiologia , Anemia Ferropriva/prevenção & controle , Doença Celíaca/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/prevenção & controle , Dieta Vegetariana , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/prevenção & controle , Lactente , Fórmulas Infantis , Infecções , Ferro/administração & dosagem , Ferro/deficiência , Política Nutricional/tendências , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661665

RESUMO

Food safety becomes imperative when it aims to protect infants. The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of emerging contaminants of which some act as endocrine-disruptors in baby food. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), parabens and antibiotics were analysed in 112 baby food of different categories (meat, fish, vegetables, fruit, cheese). As regard POPs, PFASs and antibiotics, no residues were detected, while one sample showed methyl-paraben (4.14 ng g-1), whereas another three contained propyl-paraben (median 1.70 ng g-1). Special attention must be paid on parabens metabolites, as 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, the principal parabens metabolite, was detected in all samples (median 176.7 ng g-1). It may be present as a degradation product, but also, it can be released from vegetables and fruits during food processing. It is recommended to collect more data on natural vs non-natural occurrence of parabens and metabolites to evaluate the exposure of sensitive population vs ADI published by the European Food Safety Authority and European Medicines Agency.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Humanos , Lactente
16.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 190(3): 867-879, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506906

RESUMO

2-monoglyceride (2-MAG) was essential to produce high purity of 1, 3-Oleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol (OPO), an important infant formula additive. Traditional synthesis of 2-MAG requires chemical solvent to solve the high melting point substrate, yielding the risk of solvent residue in OPO. This paper developed a solvent-free synthesis route of 2-MAG by alcoholysis of high melting point tripalmitin (PPP). Ethyl palmitate (EP), one of the reaction byproducts, was added in the beginning of alcoholysis process to promote the solubleness of high melting point PPP, avoiding the addition of toxic chemical solvent. The product of alcoholysis was separated by two-step molecular distillations. Separated DAG was used to produce 2-MAG and the final conversion of 2-MAG reached about 85.90%, with the purity of 92.36%. 2-MAG was trans-esterified to OPO with ethyl oleate, and the yield of OPO was up to 85.06% with 80.17% palmitic acid located on sn-2 position. The solvent-free synthesis route avoids the usage of hazardous chemical solvents, providing safer infant formula additive.


Assuntos
Álcoois/química , Glicerídeos/química , Alimentos Infantis , Monoglicerídeos/química , Solventes/química , Triglicerídeos/química
20.
Rev. Hosp. Niños B.Aires ; 62(276): 22-27, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1099902

RESUMO

En la actualidad no se reconocen tratamientos definitivos de curación para las reacciones alérgicas a los alimentos, siendo la forma más eficaz, la prevención, es decir eliminar los alérgenos de las dietas de aquellos individuos con sensibilidad a componentes que desencadenen efectos adversos. Existe un número importante de alimentos que en su contenido poseen dichos alérgenos. Cuando por alguna razón de salud, los niños deben ser hospitalizados, las instituciones públicas que poseen Centros de Elaboración de Fórmulas Lácteas Infantiles, son los responsables de proporcionar la alimentación láctea. Esta alimentación que brindan los servicios de nutrición de los hospitales representa uno de los pilares fundamentales en la recuperación y/o mantenimiento de la salud del paciente hospitalizado. En referencia a la gestión de los alérgenos en hospitales públicos, es necesario prestar especial atención a todo el proceso que desarrolla el servicio. Dada la ausencia de guías para la prevención del contacto cruzado por alérgenos en servicios hospitalarios y muy especialmente en aquellos donde se elaboran fórmulas lácteas infantiles, en este trabajo, se presentan las directrices básicas para evitar su producción


At present, definitive treatments of cure for allergic reactions to food are not recognized, being the most effective way, prevention, that is, eliminating allergens from the diets of those individuals with sensitivity to components that trigger adverse effects. There are a significant number of foods that contain such allergens in their content. When, for any reason of health, children must be hospitalized for treatment, the public institutions that have Infant Milk Formulation Centers are responsible for providing milk feeding. This food provided by the hospital's nutrition services represents one of the fundamental pillars in the recovery and/or maintenance of the hospitalized patient's health. In reference to the management of allergens in public hospitals, it is necessary to pay special attention to the entire process that develops the service. Given the absence of guidelines for the prevention of cross-contamination by allergens in hospital services and especially in those where infantile milk formulas are elaborated, in this work, the basic guidelines to avoid their production are presented


Assuntos
Humanos , Alérgenos , Alimentos Infantis , Alimentos Formulados , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Hipersensibilidade
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