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1.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(3): 372-394, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze complementary feeding status and issues among 6-23 month infants and young children(IYC) in poor rural regions in China to figure out actions further IYC nutrition in China. METHODS: Using 2018 monitoring data from Project of Children Nutrition Improvement in Poor Rural Regions, 6-23 months infants were sampled with the method of a combination of provincial stratification, multi-stage stratified cluster, PPS and random equidistant. Complementary feeding practices were collected by 24 hours diet recall method and and parental knowledge on IYC feeding was collected by KAP questionnaire. Complementary diet was analyzed according to the World Health Organization& apos; s definition of infant and young child feeding indicators. Logistic regression model was used to analyze the influencing factors of minimum acceptable diet(MAD). RESULTS: A total of 40 910 infants(boys 21 153, girls 19 757) completed the survey. The proportion of infants 6-8 months of age who receive solid, semi-solid foods was 83.8%, the percentage of IYC who get minimum dietary diversity(MDD), minimum meal frequency(MMF), and MAD was 67.8%, 71.4% and 39.7%, respectively. The age of months, mother& apos; s educational level and parent& apos; s nutrition and feeding knowledge had significant impact on the outcome of MAD. The OR for month& apos; s age were 1.990 and 1.905(P& lt; 0.001), OR for mother education level was 1. 545(P& lt; 0.001) and OR for parent knowledge were 1.114 and 1.346(P& lt; 0.001). CONCLUSION: Complementary feeding practices were poor in terms of the proportion of infants 6-8 months of age who introduced complementary foods, MDD, MMF and MAD in poor region of China.


Assuntos
Alimentos Infantis , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
2.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923364

RESUMO

Pediatric obesity remains a challenge in modern society. Recently, research has focused on the role of the brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a potential target of intervention. In this review, we revised preclinical and clinical works on factors that may promote BAT or browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) from fetal age to adolescence. Maternal lifestyle, type of breastfeeding and healthy microbiota can affect the thermogenic activity of BAT. Environmental factors such as exposure to cold or physical activity also play a role in promoting and activating BAT. Most of the evidence is preclinical, although in clinic there is some evidence on the role of omega-3 PUFAs (EPA and DHA) supplementation on BAT activation. Clinical studies are needed to dissect the early factors and their modulation to allow proper BAT development and functions and to prevent onset of childhood obesity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo Marrom/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo Marrom/fisiologia , Dieta/métodos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Animais , Aleitamento Materno , Humanos , Alimentos Infantis , Camundongos , Prebióticos , Probióticos
3.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925049

RESUMO

The introduction of complementary foods during infancy marks an important step in the development of the infant gut microbiome. Infant cereals are popular weaning foods but consistent evidence on their effect on the intestinal microbiota, especially when differing in nutritional quality, is lacking. Fecal samples from 4-7-month-old Spanish infants who consumed infant cereals differing in whole grain and sugar content as first weaning foods were analyzed on changes in microbial composition by massively parallel sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene at baseline and after 7 weeks of intervention. Samples were obtained from a previous trial conducted in Spain demonstrating whole-grain cereal acceptability. In total, samples of 18 infants consuming 0% whole grain cereals with 24 g sugar (0-WG) and 25 infants consuming 50% whole grain cereals with 12 g sugar (50-WG) were analyzed. Microbial composition changed significantly over time (p = 0.001), per intervention group (p = 0.029) and per infant (p = 0.001). Abundance of genus Veillonella increased in both groups while Enterococcus decreased. Within the 0-WG group, phylum Actinobacteria decreased along with genus Bifidobacterium. In the 50-WG, we observed an increase in Lachnoclostridium and Bacteroides. In addition, 50-WG decreased Proteobacteria and Escherichia to levels lower than 0-WG. Although weaning itself appeared to be responsible for most changes, the increased presence of anaerobic fermenters together with inhibition of pathogenic Escherichia may indicate a supporting effect of infant cereals with 50% whole grains and a reduced sugar content over infant cereals manufactured with refined hydrolyzed flours on the infant microbiota. In fact, using a novel methodology for the identification of microbial signatures, we found two groups of microbial taxa predictive of infants consuming enriched whole-grain infant cereals with a high predictive value of about 93%.


Assuntos
Açúcares da Dieta/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Grãos Integrais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Espanha , Desmame
4.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33925946

RESUMO

Previous findings suggest that parental feeding practices may adapt to children's eating behavior and sex, but few studies assessed these associations in toddlerhood. We aimed to study the associations between infant's appetite or children's genetic susceptibility to obesity and parental feeding practices. We assessed infant's appetite (three-category indicator: low, normal or high appetite, labelled 4-to-24-month appetite) and calculated a combined obesity risk-allele score (genetic risk score of body mass index (BMI-GRS)) in a longitudinal study of respectively 1358 and 932 children from the EDEN cohort. Parental feeding practices were assessed at 2-year-follow-up by the CFPQ. Three of the five tested scores were used as continuous variables; others were considered as binary variables, according to the median. Associations between infant's appetite or child's BMI-GRS and parental feeding practices were assessed by linear and logistic regression models, stratified on child's sex if interactions were significant. 4-to-24-month appetite was positively associated with restrictive feeding practices among boys and girls. Among boys, high compared to normal 4-to-24-month appetite was associated with higher use of food to regulate child's emotions (OR [95% CI] = 2.24 [1.36; 3.68]). Child's BMI-GRS was not related to parental feeding practices. Parental feeding practices may adapt to parental perception of infant's appetite and child's sex.


Assuntos
Apetite , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais
5.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800994

RESUMO

Childhood is a window of opportunity for the prevention of the obesity pandemic. Since "the first 1000 days of life" is a period in which healthy eating habits must be acquired, it should be the target for preventive strategies. Baby-led weaning (BLW) is an emergent way of weaning that could influence children's health. The nutrition committees of the main pediatric societies affirm there is not enough evidence to support which is the best method of weaning. The aim was to determinate the influence of BLW on the infant's weight gain compared to the traditional spoon-feeding, and to assess if it could decrease the risk of obesity in children. A systematic review was conducted, following the PRISMA method. Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched. Out of 747 articles, eight studies (2875 total infants) were included (two randomized control trials, 6 observational studies). Results were indecisive, while some studies seem to demonstrate lower weight gain in infants that apply BLW, others show inconclusive results. The risk of bias in all included studies was moderate or high. In conclusion, more clinical trials and prospective studies should be done prior to providing a general recommendation about the best method of weaning to reduce the risk of obesity.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Alimentos Infantis , Obesidade Pediátrica , Índice de Massa Corporal , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Estado Nutricional , Sobrepeso , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Desmame , Ganho de Peso
6.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670442

RESUMO

There has been an important shift in the New Zealand infant food market over the past decade, with the majority of complementary foods now sold in "pouches". Along with the increasing market share of commercial infant food pouches internationally, there have been growing concerns about their nutritional quality. However, research examining the nutritional quality of these pouches compared to other forms of commercial infant foods in New Zealand has not been undertaken. Nor have any studies reported the free sugars or added sugars content of these foods. To address this knowledge gap, a cross-sectional survey of infant foods sold in New Zealand supermarkets was conducted in 2019-2020. Recipes and nutrient lines were developed for the 266 foods identified (133 food pouches). The energy, iron, vitamin B12, total sugars, free sugars, and added sugars content of infant food pouches and other forms of commercial infant foods per 100 g were compared, both within food groups and by age group. Infant food pouches contained similar median amounts of energy, iron, and vitamin B12 to other forms of commercial infant foods but contained considerably more total sugars (8.4 g/100 g vs. 2.3 g/100 g). However, median free sugars and added sugars content was very low across all food groups except for "dairy" and "sweet snacks". All "dry cereals" were fortified with iron whereas none of the infant food pouches were. Therefore, consuming food pouches to the exclusion of other commercial infant foods may place infants at risk of iron deficiency if they do not receive sufficient iron from other sources.


Assuntos
Comércio/tendências , Indústria Alimentícia/tendências , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Valor Nutritivo , Carboidratos da Dieta/análise , Açúcares da Dieta/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Ferro na Dieta/análise , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Vitamina B 12/análise
7.
Food Funct ; 12(7): 2938-2949, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33710204

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to implement a gastric digestion step using recombinant human gastric lipase (rHGL) in an in vitro pediatric gastro-intestinal digestion model to achieve a physiologically relevant gastric contribution to total gastro-intestinal lipid digestion. A commercial infant formula (NAN Comfort stage 1 (NAN1)) with 3.4% lipid and an in-lab prepared oil-in-water emulsion, emulsified with soy phosphatidylcholine (SPCemul), with 3.5% lipid (oil-blend containing Akonino NS, MEG-3 and ARASCO oils) were subjected to in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion. To achieve a physiologically relevant level of gastric digestion, 50 min of in vitro gastric digestion, using either 0, 3.75 or 7.5 TBU mL-1 rHGL, was followed by 90 min of in vitro intestinal digestion, using either 0 or 26.5 TBU mL-1 pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PTL) from porcine pancreatin. The digestion of the substrates was assessed using titration-based quantification supported by HPLC-ELSD analysis. In vitro gastric digestion of NAN1 and SPCemul with either 3.75 or 7.5 TBU mL-1 rHGL contributed with 10-27% of the total gastro-intestinal digestion, corresponding to the reported contribution in human infants. At the end of the gastro-intestinal digestion (t = 140 min), the combined lipolytic effect of rHGL and PTL was additive during digestion of SPCemul, but not for the digestion of NAN1, as all lipase activity combinations resulted in a similar degree of NAN1 digestion. The effect of gastric digestion with rHGL on total digestion therefore appeared to be substrate dependent. To conclude, a gastric digestion step using rHGL resulting in physiologically relevant gastric contribution to the observed gastro-intestinal digestion was successfully implemented into an in vitro pediatric gastro-intestinal digestion model.


Assuntos
Digestão/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos Infantis , Lipase/farmacologia , Pancreatina/farmacologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido
8.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 194, 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685405

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended infant feeding practices for HIV exposed infants is low in developing countries. There is no nationwide representative study was done in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the pooled prevalence of WHO-recommended infant feeding practices among HIV-positive mothers in Ethiopia. METHODS: EMBASE, PubMed, Google Scholar, CINHAL, Web of Science, Cochrane library, and hand searches of references were extensively searched to find out the primary articles. This study was included in all primary articles published in peer review journals regarding the recommended infant feeding practices in Ethiopia. Reviewers were used a standardized Microsoft Excel format to extract the data and analyzed it with Stata 11 version software. The pooled prevalence of recommended infant feeding practices among HIV exposed infants was estimated by a random-effect model. The sources of variation between the studies were identified by the I 2 statistics test. Furthermore, the source of heterogeneity was checked by subgroup and meta-regression analyses. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out for included articles to identify extreme values that affect the outcome of pooled results. RESULTS: A total of twenty-one articles were included in this study. The random effect pooled prevalence of WHO-recommended infant feeding practices in Ethiopia was 82.76% (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 75.4, 90.11) with the heterogeneity of I2 = 93.7 with a value of p < 0.001. The subgroup analysis result showed that the highest prevalence of WHO-recommended infant feeding practices was observed in the retrospective cohort study design, 89.45%, and the lowest prevalence was found in cross-sectional studies, 80.67%. Mothers who disclosed their HIV serostatus to their spouses OR = 2.88(2.27, 3.66) and attended antenatal care visits OR = 4.62(3.13, 6.83) were more likely to follow the WHO-recommended infant feeding practices than their counterparts. CONCLUSION: Two out of ten HIV exposed infants received mixed feeding in Ethiopia. Health professionals should support and counsel HIV positive mothers to disclose their HIV serostatus to their spouses and advertisements in general or community health workers can get this message out to encourage using antenatal care services during the pregnancy period were recommended to increase the adoption of WHO recommended infant feeding practices and decrease their infant's risk of morbidity, including HIV infection.


Assuntos
Aleitamento Materno/métodos , Infecções por HIV , Alimentos Infantis , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Materno , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Lactente , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673542

RESUMO

Complementary feeding (CF) is an important determinant of early and later life nutrition with great implications for the health status and the development of an adequate growth. Parents can choose between homemade foods (HMFs) and/or commercial infant foods (CIFs). There is no consistent evidence as to whether HMFs provide a better nutritional profile and variety over CIFs. The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional profiles and food variety of HMFs versus CIFs in the Spanish market targeted for infants (6-11 months) and young children (12-18 months). Thirty mothers with their children aged 6 to 18 months were included in this cross-sectional study, following a 3-day weighed food diary of which HMFs were collected and chemically analyzed. HMFs meals for infant provided significantly lower energy, higher protein and higher fiber, for young children provided significantly higher protein and fiber than CIFs meals. HMFs fruit purees for infant shown significantly higher fiber and for young children provided higher energy than CIFs. HMFs meals contained a significantly greater number of different vegetables than CIFs meals (3.7 vs. 3.3), with carrot as the most frequently used in both. However, in CIFs fruit purees shown higher different fruits than HMFs, in both the banana was the fruit most frequently used. There was a predominance of meat and lack of oily fish and legumes in both HMFs and CIFs meals. HMFs and CIFs were equally characterized by a soft texture and yellow-orange colours. Importantly, our findings emphasize the need for clear guidelines for the preparation of HMFs as well as the promotion of food variety (taste and textures) in both HMFs and CIFs to suit infants' and young children's nutritional and developmental needs.


Assuntos
Alimentos Infantis/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Valor Nutritivo , Culinária , Dieta , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Frutas , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Espanha , Verduras
10.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 126(5): 555-561.e2, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines on the early introduction of allergen-containing foods are evolving; however, little national data exist defining current allergen-feeding practices. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the consumption rates of foods containing egg and peanut among infants and toddlers before the guideline changes in 2017. METHODS: The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study 2016 was conducted nationally among 3235 caregivers with a child under 4 years of age. The 24-hour dietary recalls were reviewed for peanut or egg ingredients. Participants were categorized as "consuming peanut or egg-containing foods" or "not consuming peanut or egg-containing foods." Data on physician-diagnosed food allergies and avoidance were collected. RESULTS: The consumption rates of peanut- and egg-containing foods were low. For the age group of 4 to 5.9 months, 0.3% reported peanut consumption and 2.4% reported egg consumption. For the age group of 6 to 8.9 months, 0.9% reported eating peanut-containing foods and 13.0% egg, and for the age group of 9 to 11.9 months, 5.5% were consuming peanut-containing foods and 33.2% egg-containing foods. Peanut or egg ingredients were identified in the diet of children whose caregivers reported avoidance. CONCLUSION: Before the publication of the 2017 Addendum Guidelines for the Prevention of Peanut Allergy, there were low rates of reported peanut consumption across the study population with less than 1% of any age group before 9 months of age and less than 6% in any age group before 12 months of age consuming peanut on the 24-hour recall day. In addition, reported egg consumption was low and increased with age. These results serve as an important baseline comparison for future studies evaluating the implementation and impact of early peanut and egg introduction.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Hipersensibilidade a Ovo/prevenção & controle , Hipersensibilidade a Amendoim/prevenção & controle , Alérgenos/imunologia , Arachis/imunologia , Pré-Escolar , Ovos , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/análise
11.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 2: CD002777, 2021 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33620090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In-hospital growth of preterm infants remains a challenge in clinical practice. The high nutrient demands of preterm infants often lead to growth faltering. For preterm infants who cannot be fed maternal or donor breast milk or may require supplementation, preterm formulas with fat in the form of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) or long chain triglycerides (LCTs) may be chosen to support nutrient utilization and to improve growth. MCTs are easily accessible to the preterm infant with an immature digestive system, and LCTs are beneficial for central nervous system development and visual function. Both have been incorporated into preterm formulas in varying amounts, but their effects on the preterm infant's short-term growth remain unclear. This is an update of a review originally published in 2002, then in 2007. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of formula containing high as opposed to low MCTs on early growth in preterm infants fed a diet consisting primarily of formula.  SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2020, Issue 8), in the Cochrane Library; Ovid MEDLINE Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily, and Ovid MEDLINE(R); MEDLINE via PubMed for the previous year; and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), on 16 September 2020. We also searched clinical trials databases and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing the effects of feeding high versus low MCT formula (for a minimum of five days) on the short-term growth of preterm (< 37 weeks' gestation) infants. We defined high MCT formula as 30% or more by weight, and low MCT formula as less than 30% by weight. The infants must be on full enteral diets, and the allocated formula must be the predominant source of nutrition. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors assessed each study's quality and extracted data on growth parameters as well as adverse effects from included studies. All data used in analysis were continuous; therefore, mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were reported. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 10 eligible trials (253 infants) and extracted relevant growth data from 7 of these trials (136 infants). These studies were found to provide evidence of very low to low certainty. Risk of bias was noted, as few studies described specific methods for random sequence generation, allocation concealment, or blinding. We found no evidence of differences in short-term growth parameters when high and low MCT formulas were compared. As compared to low MCT formula, preterm infants fed high MCT formula showed little to no difference in weight gain velocity (g/kg/d) during the intervention, with a typical mean difference (MD) of -0.21 g/kg/d (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.24 to 0.83; 6 studies, 118 infants; low-certainty evidence). The analysis for weight gain (g/d) did not show evidence of differences, with an MD of 0.00 g/d (95% CI -5.93 to 5.93; 1 study, 18 infants; very low-certainty evidence), finding an average weight gain of 20 ± 5.9 versus 20 ± 6.9 g/d for high and low MCT groups, respectively. We found that length gain showed no difference between low and high MCT formulas, with a typical MD of 0.10 cm/week (95% CI -0.09 to 0.29; 3 studies, 61 infants; very low-certainty evidence). Head circumference gain also showed little to no difference during the intervention period, with an MD of -0.04 cm/week (95% CI -0.17 to 0.09; 3 studies, 61 infants; low-certainty evidence). Two studies reported skinfold thickness with different measurement definitions, and evidence was insufficient to determine if there was a difference (2 studies, 32 infants; very low-certainty evidence). There are conflicting data (5 studies) as to formula tolerance, with 4 studies reporting narrative results of no observed clinical difference and 1 study reporting higher incidence of signs of gastrointestinal intolerance in high MCT formula groups. There is no evidence of effect on the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), based on small numbers in two trials. Review authors found no studies addressing long-term growth parameters or neurodevelopmental outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence of very low to low certainty suggesting no differences among short-term growth data for infants fed low versus high MCT formulas. Due to lack of evidence and uncertainty, neither formula type could be concluded to improve short-term growth outcomes or have fewer adverse effects. Further studies are necessary because the results from included studies are imprecise due to small numbers and do not address important long-term outcomes. Additional research should aim to clarify effects on formula tolerance and on long-term growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes, and should include larger study populations to better evaluate effect on NEC incidence.


Assuntos
Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triglicerídeos/análise , Viés , Estatura , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/efeitos adversos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Triglicerídeos/efeitos adversos , Triglicerídeos/química , Ganho de Peso
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 411: 125073, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454569

RESUMO

Food intake has been identified as a major route for infants to short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs, respectively), but evaluations of SCCPs and MCCPs exposure for infants via dietary sources are limited. Here, SCCPs and MCCPs were analyzed in three categories of commonly used infant foods from the Chinese market. The mean concentrations (range) of SCCPs in infant formulas, cereals, and purees were 7.95 (2.32-54.2), 4.26 (2.73-8.81), and 4.66 (1.33-8.43) ng g-1 fresh weight, respectively, and the mean (range) MCCP concentrations were 4.77 (1.67-20.9), 2.91 (1.21-8.24), and 1.89 (0.53-5.41) ng g-1 fresh weight, respectively. Chlorinated paraffins (CP) concentrations in whole milk samples were significantly higher than those detected in the other infant foods (p < 0.01). This study is the first to determine the occurrence of CPs in baby purees. The estimated margin of exposure (MOE) values (SCCPs-MOE and MCCPs-MOE) in this study were all greater than 1000, indicating that there were no health risks posed by CP contamination in infant foods. Principal component analysis indicated that foods of animal origin were more influenced by MCCPs than those of plant-origin, indicating different contamination patterns of CPs between food groups.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados , Parafina , Animais , China , Ingestão de Alimentos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis
13.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 56(3): 197-211, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463404

RESUMO

A simple, rapid and sensitive screening method by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the identification of 7 macrolides (clarithromycin, erythromycin, oleandomycin, spiramycin, tilmicosin, troleandomycin and tylosin) and 8 quinolones (ciprofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, flumequine, moxifloxacin, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin and ofloxacin) in meat and egg-based baby foods. Sample preparation was performed using an alkaline modified QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe) extraction method without additional clean-up steps. A simplex-lattice mixture experimental design was used in the optimization of the QuEChERS extraction solvent. The developed method was successfully validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and the European Community Reference Laboratories Residues Guidelines regarding the validation of screening methods 20/01/2010, adopting a fixed permited tolerance for relative ion ratio. Samples of baby food (n = 44) commercialized in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed using the validated method and none of them presented residues of the searched macrolides and quinolones, with a screening target value of 5 µg kg-1.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Macrolídeos/análise , Quinolonas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Antibacterianos/análise , Fracionamento Químico , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Ovos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Carne
14.
J Food Sci ; 86(2): 276-283, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438222

RESUMO

This review considers how research in China has progressed our understanding and subsequent improved control of Cronobacter. This emergent bacterial pathogen is associated with neonatal infections through the ingestion of contaminated prepared feed. The review includes large-scale surveys of various sources of the organism, including infant formula production facilities. The analysis of over 20,000 samples is presented. Over 10,000 being from powdered infant formula and other infant foods as well as environmental sampling of production facilities, the remaining being from food, food ingredients, and human carriage. A major advance in China was adopting DNA-sequence-based methods (that is, multilocus sequence typing, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-cas array profiling, and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis) for the identification and genotyping of the organism. These methods have considerably advanced our understanding of the taxonomy, ecology, and virulence of this organism. In turn, this has improved source tracking of the organism both in infant formula production facilities and epidemiological investigations. Furthermore, whole-genome sequencing has revealed a range of virulence and persistence mechanisms as well as plasmid-borne multidrug resistance traits. China now has reliable and robust methods for accurate microbial source tracking of Cronobacter for use both in the food production environment and epidemiological analysis.


Assuntos
Cronobacter , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , China , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Cronobacter/genética , Cronobacter/isolamento & purificação , Cronobacter/patogenicidade , Cronobacter sakazakii/classificação , Cronobacter sakazakii/genética , Cronobacter sakazakii/patogenicidade , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/transmissão , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/microbiologia , Fórmulas Infantis/microbiologia , Recém-Nascido , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Virulência
15.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 18(1): 13, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In order to measure and understand trajectories of parental feeding practices and their relationship with child eating and weight, it is desirable to perform assessment from infancy and across time, in age-appropriate ways. While many feeding practices questionnaires exist, none is presently available that enables tracking of feeding practices from infancy through childhood. The aim of the study was to develop a version of the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) for parents with infants and toddlers (< 2 years) to be used in conjunction with the original FPSQ for older children (≥2 years) to measure feeding practices related to non-responsiveness and structure across childhood. METHODS: Constructs and items for the FPSQ for infants and toddlers were derived from the existing and validated FPSQ for older children and supplemented by a review of the literature on infant feeding questionnaires. Following expert review, two versions of the questionnaire were developed, one for milk feeding parents and one for solid feeding parents. Data from two studies were combined (child ages 0-24 months) to test the derived constructs with Confirmatory Factor Analysis for the milk feeding (N = 731) and solid feeding (N = 611) versions. RESULTS: The milk feeding version consisted of four factors (18 items) and showed acceptable model fit and good internal reliability: 'feeding on demand vs. feeding routine' (α = 0.87), 'using food to calm' (α = 0.87), 'persuasive feeding' (α = 0.71), 'parent-led feeding' (α = 0.79). The same four factors showed acceptable model fit for the solid feeding version (21 items), likewise with good internal reliability (α = 0.74, 0.86, 0.85, 0.84 respectively). Two additional factors (13 items) were developed for the solid feeding version that appeared developmentally appropriate only for children aged 12 months or older: 'family meal environment' (α = 0.81) and 'using (non-)food rewards' (α = 0.92). The majority of factor-factor correlations were in line with those of the original FPSQ. CONCLUSIONS: The FPSQ milk and solid feeding versions are the first measures specifically developed as precursors to the FPSQ to measure parental feeding practices in children < 2 years, particularly practices related to non-responsiveness and structure. Further validation in more diverse samples is required.


Assuntos
Métodos de Alimentação/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Austrália , Peso Corporal , Alimentação Artificial , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Análise Fatorial , Família , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pais , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Food Chem ; 344: 128692, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349504

RESUMO

An easy and reliable method based on a novel electroanalytical nanostructured sensor has been developed to perform quantification of vitamin C in commercial and fortified cow-milk-based formulae and foods for infants and young children. The work is motivated by the need of a reliable analytical tool to be applied in quality control laboratories for the quantitative assessment of vitamin C where its rapid and cost-effective monitoring is essential. The ad hoc designed sensor, based on disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes modified with Au nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide flakes, exhibits a LOD of 0.088 mg L-1. The low cost, easy sample preparation, fast response and high reproducibility (RSD ≈ 8%) of the proposed method highlight its suitability for usage in quality control laboratories for determining vitamin C in real complex food matrices, envisaging the application of the sensing platform in the determination of other compounds relevant in food chemistry and food manufacturing.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas/métodos , Ouro/química , Grafite/química , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Animais , Eletrodos , Alimentos Fortificados/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Limite de Detecção , Leite/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
17.
J Chromatogr A ; 1636: 461735, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316560

RESUMO

A novel magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) material (Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2-G2) had been prepared and employed for adsorption and analysis of seven quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) in infant fruit and vegetable products coupled with high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In this paper, Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2-G2 was synthesized based on Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2 and dendrimer (G2) consisting of cyanuric chloride and imidazole. The morphology, configuration and magnetic behavior of the magnetic material were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Critical parameters affecting extraction efficiency, such as the adsorbent amount, sample pH, extraction time, the type of eluent, and desorption time, were optimized. The proposed method provided good linearity with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9992-0.9999, low limits of detection (LODs) (0.05-0.50 µg kg-1) and limits of quantitation (LOQs) (0.20-2.00 µg kg-1). The satisfactory method recoveries in three spiked infant fruit and vegetable products samples were between 80.12% and 101.35% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 12.04%. In summary, the established method was an effective sample preparation method and showed good prospect for the analysis of QACs in complex matrices.


Assuntos
Dendrímeros/química , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Magnetismo , Nanopartículas/química , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Óxido Ferroso-Férrico/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imidazóis/química , Lactente , Limite de Detecção , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário/isolamento & purificação , Dióxido de Silício/química , Extração em Fase Sólida , Triazinas/química , Verduras/química , Verduras/metabolismo , Difração de Raios X
18.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 49(5): 731-743, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33070814

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feeding status of infants and their feeder's feeding literacy in poor rural areas of Gansu Province. METHODS: From November 2018 to January 2019, a multi-stage cluster random sampling method was used to select 1200 infant and child families aged 0 to 23 months in 40 villages of Gansu Province. A standardized questionnaire from the Chinese Nutrition Society(CNS)was used to investigate the basic situation of infant and young children's families, the situation of breastfeeding and the addition of supplementary food, and parents feeding knowledge, attitude behavior(KAP). Using chi-square test, logistic regression and other method to statistically describe and infer the collected data. RESULTS: A total of 1193 infants and 1165 feeders were investigated. The exclusive breastfeeding rate of infants and young children under the age of 6 months was 39. 02%. The rate of continuous breastfeeding at 1 year old was 37. 40%, and the rate of continuous breastfeeding at 2 years old was 20. 88%, the difference between the two was significant(χ~2=13. 498, P<0. 01). The supplementary food supplement rate of infants and children over 6 months was 94. 37%, the highest supplementary supplement for cereals and potatoes(98. 01%), and the lowest percentage for beans and nuts(23. 51%), and the distribution of supplementary foods at different ages was significantly different(χ~2=52. 336, P<0. 01). The qualification rate of infants and young children's minimum dietary diversity was 64. 13%, the minimum eating frequency qualification rate was 70. 64%, the minimum acceptable dietary intake qualification rate was 42. 16%, and the qualification rates of various indicators were significantly different between different months(χ~2=85. 421, P<0. 01;χ~2=19. 66, P<0. 01; χ~2=17. 261, P<0. 01). The KAP score passing rate of infant caregivers was 37. 34%, and there was a statistical difference between the age of infants and young children, the education level and the sex of the caregiver(χ~2=9. 411, P<0. 05;χ~2=25. 901, P<0. 01;χ~2=3. 874, P<0. 05). Taking low-month-old infants and young children, low education and male caregivers as controls, infants and young children aged over 12 months, high school education and female caregivers were the protective factors of KAP scores(P<0. 05). CONCLUSION: The problems of infant breastfeeding and supplementary feeding in poor rural areas of Gansu Province were serious, and the knowledge and skills of raising people were scarce, which were related to the age of infants and young children, the education and the sex of raising people.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Lactente , População Rural , Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estado Nutricional
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