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1.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 104985, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907723

RESUMO

This study aims at (1) experimentally estimating first sexual maturation of the European sardine S. pilchardus, (2) using the results to calibrate existing bioenergetic models. During the 183 days-experiment, fish growth and body condition were assessed by biometry, and gonads were weighed when present. Age, wet weight and total length at first maturity were estimated at 262 days, 10.79 ± 0.75 g, and 11.26 ± 0.21 cm, respectively. Including these traits in biphasic Von Bertalanffy models did not significantly improve simulations for either length or weight data, meaning that energy allocation was not impacted by these traits. The implementation of the results in the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) calibration procedure strengthened the parameter set of the existing model, but resulted in significant changes in the energy allocation. Our results are a first step that will allow the design of new experiments to further quantify maturation and reproduction rates in diverse environmental conditions, consolidating DEB model calibration.


Assuntos
Peixes , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gônadas
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4764, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958769

RESUMO

Industrial-scale harvest of species at risk of extinction is controversial and usually highly regulated on land and for charismatic marine animals (e.g. whales). In contrast, threatened marine fish species can be legally caught in industrial fisheries. To determine the magnitude and extent of this problem, we analyze global fisheries catch and import data and find reported catch records of 91 globally threatened species. Thirteen of the species are traded internationally and predominantly consumed in European nations. Targeted industrial fishing for 73 of the threatened species accounts for nearly all (99%) of the threatened species catch volume and value. Our results are a conservative estimate of threatened species catch and trade because we only consider species-level data, excluding group records such as 'sharks and rays.' Given the development of new fisheries monitoring technologies and the current push for stronger international mechanisms for biodiversity management, industrial fishing of threatened fish and invertebrates should no longer be neglected in conservation and sustainability commitments.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Peixes , Invertebrados , Animais , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção/economia , Pesqueiros/economia , Peixes/classificação , Invertebrados/classificação , Biologia Marinha , Alimentos Marinhos/classificação , Alimentos Marinhos/economia , Alimentos Marinhos/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 203: 110957, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888620

RESUMO

Due to growing commercial interest as a fishing resource and its intermediate position in the marine trophic chains as both prey and predator, cephalopods can play an important role in mercury (Hg) transfer along the marine food webs, since they can bioaccumulate this metal in its tissues. Our study aims to analyze Hg accumulation in Loligo forbesi caught in the Azores Archipelago (Portugal) quantifying Hg in different tissues (mantle and stomach), as well in the squid stomach content, in order to evaluate the efficiency of Hg transfer from prey to predator. Hg data from the tissues was used to estimate the weekly tolerable Hg intake due to squid consumption. Overall data indicate that Hg measured in the stomach tissue (0.1 ± 0.01 µg g-1) was significantly higher than Hg levels found in the mantle (0.04 ± 0.001 µg g-1) and stomach contents (0.01 ± 0.001 µg g-1). BMF (bioaccumulation factor) was >1 for all the samples, indicating a biomagnification process from prey to predator. Hg concentration in the mantle tissue was correlated with mantle size; although females present higher Hg levels than males, the difference was found to be not related to gender but rather to the fact that females had larger bodies. Finally, considering the Hg concentration found in the mantle and the permitted Hg levels, it is advisable to consume up to 1050-1890g of squid per week, according to the regulatory agencies. Thus, our results indicate that, since these doses are respected, consumption of squids from the Azorean waters do not pose a risk to humans.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Exposição Dietética/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Loligo/metabolismo , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Cadeia Alimentar , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/análise , Portugal , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
4.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127413, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32947681

RESUMO

Fishing is part of the traditional activities of Indigenous people in Canada. However, it is also a route of exposure to methylmercury, a known neurotoxicant, and this is a concern for those who rely on fish as part of their diet. The probable weekly intake (PWI) of methylmercury from six species of fish was calculated for Indigenous community members (N = 1406), grouped by age and sex, and compared to Canadian and international provisional reference doses to assess exposure. Mixed-effects regression models were also used to estimate the input of methylmercury into the blood, and Hazard Quotients (HQ) were used to assess potential effects. Of the species of fish in our study, walleye and lake trout contributed the most to methylmercury intake. There was a positive association between the consumption of walleye and the total blood mercury concentrations of mercury in women and men (R2A = 0.40 and 0.47, respectively), and to a lesser extent, children. Similar results were observed for the consumption of lake trout. The 95th-percentile HQ for girls (3.16) and boys (3.18) from the consumption of lake trout was relatively high, and to a lesser extent, so was the HQ for walleye and pike. The consumption of some species of fish increases the exposure to methylmercury, however, taking a balanced approach, there are health benefits associated with the consumption of fish that must be considered. To mitigate future exposure to methylmercury, we recommend follow-up blood monitoring and local-geospatial-based assessments.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Adolescente , Animais , Baías , Canadá , Criança , Dieta , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo , Quebeque , Alimentos Marinhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
5.
J Environ Manage ; 271: 110925, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778262

RESUMO

Estuarine structured habitats, including benthic cultivation structure, are widely cited as substantial nursery and feeding grounds for fish and macroinvertebrates. Activities such as locomotion and foraging behaviour of sediment-dwelling species, however, may be hindered in the presence of the obstacles. In this study, collected field evidence demonstrated that habitat utilization of the juvenile tri-spine horseshoe crab Tachypleus tridentatus, an iconic and endangered macroinvertebrate, was adversely affected by high-density intertidal oyster rubble zones. Despite the fact that the utilization area of individual juvenile horseshoe crabs was independent of the presence of these obstacles, the abundance and number of positional fixes of tagged juveniles in these areas were lower. The effects of these obstacles and their associated topographic changes on the movement of the juvenile horseshoe crabs was investigated in a simulated laboratory experiment. Both the simulated oyster cultches and hummocks formed between the cultches reduced the total distance and displacement of the feeding trail, and less juveniles preferred to forage on elevated, dry hummocks (dry at low tide) formed between the cultches. Our findings suggested that oyster cultches and rubbles reduced the habitat quality for juvenile horseshoe crabs. On-bottom oyster cultivation activities seeking to conserve horseshoe cabs by avoiding nursery habitats should instead consider off-bottom or offshore cultivation methods.


Assuntos
Caranguejos Ferradura , Ostreidae , Animais , Ecossistema , Peixes , Alimentos Marinhos
6.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 159: 111512, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777545

RESUMO

Swordfish is a widely consumed fish worldwide. The aim of this work was to evaluate levels of As, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu, Al, Cr, Ni, Se, Cd, Pd and Hg in 28 samples of swordfish muscles, coming from zone of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) namely 37.1 and 37.2, in order to assess potential public health risks. 100% of the samples had Cd levels not detectable, 32.14% of samples exceeded European maximum limits set for Hg. Health risk assessment showed a not dangerous condition for Al (0.65% of Tolerable Weekly Intake), Ni (0.27% of Tolerable Daily Intake) and Pb (0.68% of Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake), but very hazardous states for Hg (159.69% of Tolerable Weekly Intake) and As (1099.45% for minimum value of Benchmark Dose Limit). Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) showed dangerous values only for As and Hg. Analytical data of the present study suggest a swordfish prudent consumption.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Animais , Peixes , Humanos , Mar Mediterrâneo , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
7.
J Environ Radioact ; 222: 106360, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791373

RESUMO

A radiological box model of the Aegean Sea has been developed simulating the dispersion and fate of radionuclides in the marine environment. The model incorporates all transfer processes within abiotic and biotic compartments in combination with appropriate site-specific information. The model was calibrated using empirical radiological data, with the simulation of 137Cs dispersion after the Chernobyl. Environmental sensitivity analysis has been carried out based on Chernobyl 137Cs fallout, in terms of doses to representative marine organisms (fish, crustacean and molluscs) and human population. Comparison of the results with doses from natural sources and sensitivity estimations for shallow marine environments has been performed in order to reveal the vulnerability of each sub-region. The main characteristics and parameters controlling the radioecological processes are also discussed.


Assuntos
Monitoramento de Radiação , Poluentes Radioativos da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Radioisótopos de Césio , Peixes , Humanos , Alimentos Marinhos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236871, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745115

RESUMO

Element bioaccessibility consists of the fraction of the element that is mobilized from food matrices into digestive extractants. The degree of bioaccessibility of a toxic metal is a fundamental consideration in estimating its bioavailability. In addition, gaining a better understanding of the essential elements released into the gastro intestinal fluids allows a more thorough assessment of the health benefits of food matrices in the field of nutrition science. In the present study, an in vitro digestion model simulating gastro-intestinal digestion (GID) was used to investigate the bioaccessibility of stable elements in mixed leaf salad and 210Po in various foods (meat, seafood, vegetables). The simulation was carried out over three phases: after a pre-treatment with a saliva solution, raw and cooked seafood samples were subjected to a complete simulated gastrointestinal digestion (gastric digestion followed by bile-pancreas digestion). The 210Po bioaccessibility was found to range from 16.2±9.39% to 62.8±17.7% and from 6.26±2.15% to 67.5±13.1% for raw and cooked food respectively. Moreover, bioaccessibility could not be determined for As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Hg, La, Pb, Sb, Sn, Te, Th, Tl, Ti, U. It proved to be poor (1-16%) for Al, Fe and S; fair (40-50%) for Cu, P, and Si; and high (>50%) for Ba, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, Rb, Sr, Zn. The results show that bioaccessibility varies according to the chemical form of the element in the food as well as the matrix composition.


Assuntos
Disponibilidade Biológica , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Polônio/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Digestão , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Carne/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Verduras/química
9.
Toxicon ; 186: 19-25, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738246

RESUMO

The first survey of the phycotoxin profile in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the coastal waters of Bosnia and Herzegovina (The Bay of Neum, Middle Adriatic Sea) in correlation to the Makarska City Bay (Croatia, Middle Adriatic Sea) was conducted in 2017. Throughout the monitoring period, occasions of gymnodimine (GYM) and azaspiracid (AZA2) shellfish toxicity were recorded in concentrations that do not endanger human health. The occurrence of yessotoxins (YTXs), the most common toxins found in the Adriatic Sea, was correlated to the presence of the Gonyaulax species, a potential source of YTX. The DSP group of toxins is represented by the ester-OA. Phytoplankton analysis confirmed the presence of dinoflagellates from the Prorocentrum genus, a species associated with DSP toxicity. Occurrence frequency and variability of toxin composition were investigated in conjunction to physico-chemical parameters in the surrounding sea water. In the central Adriatic Sea, the infestation period ranges in general from June to August. However, the depuration phase extended beyond September in the Bay of Neum, increasing the length of the decontamination period.


Assuntos
Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Venenos de Moluscos/análise , Frutos do Mar/estatística & dados numéricos , Animais , Croácia , Dinoflagelados , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Cíclicos/análise , Iminas/análise , Mytilus , Oxocinas/análise , Fitoplâncton , Alimentos Marinhos , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Compostos de Espiro/análise
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(8): e0008540, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776933

RESUMO

High-intensity clonorchiasis infection is associated with serious outcomes, including cancer. Understanding the infection intensity of Clonorchis sinensis and its risk factors in local endemic regions could facilitate effective control measures. In a county located in a highly endemic area in Guangxi Province, P. R. China, local residents were randomly enrolled in the study; helminth egg examinations were performed with the Kato-Katz method, and the intensity of infection was identified as mild, moderate or heavy. Knowledge, attitudes, and high-risk behaviours were investigated among those infected with Clonorchis sinensis. A total of 2521 local residents participated in this study, and the Clonorchis sinensis-positive proportion was 28.9% (728 persons). Among the infected persons, the percentages of mild, moderate and heavy infections were 66.2%, 28.4% and 5.4%, respectively. Males experienced a higher proportion of moderate and heavy infections (37.5%) than females (18.1%) (p<0.05). The highest infection proportion among the different levels of infection intensity was identified among persons aged 30-59 years (15.7% for moderate and heavy infections). Among the 509 persons who reported eating raw fish, 302 persons (59.3%) had eaten raw fresh fish for more than 10 years, and 131 (25.7%) persons ate raw fish ≥12 times a year. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that eating raw fish 12-50 times in the last year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.74, 95%CI: 1.09-2.80) and eating raw fish >50 times in the last year (aOR = 2.89, 95%CI: 1.20-7.50) were risk factors for high-intensity infections (moderate and heavy). The overall infection proportion was high in the study area, with a large group of residents experiencing high-intensity infections. High frequency of raw fish consumption was associated with high-intensity infections. Intervention strategies targeting people with a high frequency of raw fish consumption should be implemented to reduce the probability of severe consequences.


Assuntos
Clonorquíase/epidemiologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Alimentos Crus , Alimentos Marinhos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Clonorquíase/diagnóstico , Clonorquíase/parasitologia , Clonorchis sinensis , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alimentos Crus/parasitologia , Fatores de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111355, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753169

RESUMO

This study assesses the microplastics (MPs) levels in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and seawater from a southern Mediterranean lagoon (Bizerte lagoon, Northern Tunisia) and discusses the potential effects of its consumption on human health. Polyethylene was the most abundant in mussels and seawater, followed by polypropylene and cellophane. The lowest and highest average MPs concentrations were recorded in the lagoon channel and southern area of the lagoon, respectively, for both mussels (2.6 ± 1.7-12.0 ± 1.4 items mussel-1) and seawater (0.2 ± 0.1-0.7 ± 0.2 items L-1). Mussels in areas highly polluted with fibers and polyethylene were found to have higher potential to ingest and/or adhere higher numbers of these particles. The annual dietary intake of MPs by Tunisians through the consumption of local mussels was estimated at 4.2 items capita-1 year-1. Even though MPs are not biodegraded and can be excreted by humans, their potential human health risks are discussed in this paper.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Água do Mar , Tunísia
12.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 157: 111366, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658711

RESUMO

External damages are indicators of the overall quality of fish and fish welfare. Haddock is an important commercial species widespread in the North Atlantic, but few studies related to quality have been carried out on this species. We studied the levels of external damages on haddock captured with a demersal trawl in the Northeast Atlantic. Further, we investigated to what extent the compulsory sorting grid and diamond mesh codend gear configuration employed in this trawl fishery is responsible for the external damages observed during the capture process. We evaluated external damages on 563 haddock captured over 22 hauls. In general, the results showed that catching haddock without any gear inflicted damages using demersal trawls is challenging. However, the results also showed that the severity of most damages is low and the probability to catch haddock with no external damage can be significantly increased removing the grid and changing codend design.


Assuntos
Pesqueiros , Gadiformes , Animais , Peixes , Probabilidade , Alimentos Marinhos
13.
Food Chem ; 332: 127389, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645674

RESUMO

Food allergens that cause anaphylactic reactions have become an important health problem worldwide. Among them, shrimp is a popular seafood in many cuisines. The best way to avoid allergic reactions is to mitigate the intake of food allergens. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of shrimp DNA. Using LAMP primers, the identification of shrimp DNA by the LAMP assay was specific and rapid (within 30 min). It exhibited no cross-reaction with the DNA of other Crustacea, including crabs and lobster, and at least 0.01% shrimp DNA existed in the test sample. Additionally, the sensitivity of LAMP for detecting shrimp DNA was 100-fold greater than that of conventional PCR. LAMP for the detection of shrimp DNA was reproducible regardless of whether the genomic DNA was extracted from boiled, steamed or roasted shrimp samples. In summary, the LAMP assay established herein not only could be potentially used for diagnosing shrimp DNA but could also be applicable for identifying shrimp allergens in commercial food products in marketplaces.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/análise , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Penaeidae/genética , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Alérgenos/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Braquiúros/genética , Primers do DNA/metabolismo , Nephropidae/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Alinhamento de Sequência
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646069

RESUMO

Women of childbearing age who are susceptible to mercury exposure were studied to understand the relation between mercury intake through fish and shellfish consumption and mercury exposure indices from blood, hair, and urine samples. A total of 711 women of childbearing age from coastal areas with a high concentration of mercury exposure in Korea were studied. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, dietary intake of fish and shellfish using the simple Food Frequency Questionnaire. Mercury concentration was estimated from the collected samples of blood, hair, and urine. The geometric mean of blood methyl mercury concentration of mercury exposure through seafood was 3.06 µg/L for the low tertile, 3.12 µg/L for the middle tertile, and 3.60 µg/L for the high tertile, indicating a clear tendency of blood methyl mercury to increase as the mercury exposure by fish and shellfish intake ascended. For total blood mercury and hair mercury, the middle and high tertiles had higher values than the low. Mercury exposure through fish and shellfish intake is a main factor for an increase of blood methyl mercury concentration in women of childbearing age. More attention needs to be paid to mercury exposure through seafood intake, considering the serious effect mercury concentration has on women of childbearing age.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Cabelo/metabolismo , Mercúrio/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Mercúrio/sangue , Mercúrio/urina , República da Coreia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Frutos do Mar
15.
Food Chem ; 332: 127397, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645675

RESUMO

Polyphosphates are permitted as food additives (Regulation EC No 1129/2011) but their undeclared utilisation is considered fraudulent. They improve water holding capacity of the seafood, preventing biochemical/physical changes during commercialization. The key objective of this study was the detection of polyphosphate in various seafood categories, by means of high-performance ion-exchange chromatography with suppressed conductometry (HPIEC-SCD) coupled to Q-Exactive Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS-Orbitrap). Ten frozen cuttlefish samples did not reveal any treatment, while in ten frigate tunas, high concentration of orthophospate was found. Unambiguous hexametaphosphate presence was demonstrated in four prawn samples, while triphosphate was quantified (11.2 ± 4 ug/g) in another four prawn samples that contained orthophosphate (10225 ± 1102 ug/g), as well. Other samples sporadically encompassed polyphosphates profiles that varied according species and processing type. This analytical approach provided sustenance in better understanding regarding utilization of polyphosphates through HRMS fingerprinting of anionic species that would be specific in food safety control.


Assuntos
Aditivos Alimentares/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Polifosfatos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia por Troca Iônica , Decapodiformes , Limite de Detecção , Espectrometria de Massas
16.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 2): 115151, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673992

RESUMO

Microplastics (MP) are omnipresent contaminants in the oceans, however little is known about the MP transfer between marine compartments and species. Three connected laboratory experiments using the filter-feeding mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the omnivorous polichaete Hediste diversicolor were conducted to evaluate whether the filtering action by mussels affects the vertical transfer of MP of different sizes (MPSMALL = 41 µm; MPLARGE = 129 µm) and densities (polyamide = 1.15 g cm-3; polypropylene = 0.92 g cm-3) across compartments and species with different feeding modes. Mussels significantly removed MP from the water column by incorporating them into biodeposits. This effect was particularly evident for the MPSMALL, whose deposition from the water column to the bottom was enhanced (about 15%) by the action of mussels. The incorporation of MP into faecal pellets increased the particles' sinking velocity by about 3-4 orders of magnitude. Conversely, the MP presence significantly decreased the depositional velocities of faecal pellets, and the magnitude of this effect was greater with increasing MP size and decreasing density. The MP incorporation into mussels' biodeposits also more than doubled the amount of MP uptake by H. diversicolor. We conclude that detrital pathways could be a transfer route of MP across marine compartments and food webs, potentially affecting the distribution of MP in sediments and creating hot-spots of bioavailable MP.


Assuntos
Mytilus , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
17.
Environ Pollut ; 266(Pt 3): 115184, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683089

RESUMO

The biofiltration capacity of bivalve populations is known to alleviate the effects of coastal eutrophication. However, this important ecosystem service could potentially be impaired by the increasing microplastic abundance in near shore environments. It is known that relatively large microplastics (∼500 µm) impair the filtration capacity of bivalves. However, the effect of smaller microplastics, and specifically microfibers, is not known even though they are more common in many natural systems and similar in size to phytoplankton, the main food source of mussels. Here, we investigated the effects of long-term exposure to microfibers (MFs), which are smaller than 100 µm, on the biofiltration capacity of the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Our findings show that long-term exposure (here 39 days) to microfibers significantly reduced (21%) the clearance of phytoplankton (Tetraselmis sp). While previous studies have shown that larger microplastics can decrease the filtration capacity of mussels after short-term exposure, our findings suggest that, for smaller MFs, mussel's clearance capacity is significantly affected after long-term exposure (39 days in this study). This may be due to the accumulation of MFs in the digestive system. In addition, the most efficient phytoplankton consumers were more susceptible to MF accumulation in the digestive system. This suggests that prolonged exposure to MF of coastal mussels could negatively impact the biofiltration of more potent individuals, thus decreasing the ecosystem service potential of the population as a whole.


Assuntos
Mytilus edulis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Plásticos , Alimentos Marinhos
18.
Food Chem ; 332: 127380, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603916

RESUMO

The occurrence of 46 antibiotics (amphenicols, cephalosporins, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluroquinolones, macrolides, nitrofurans, penicillins, quinolones, sulfamides and tetracyclines) in Argentinean market fish were investigated by UPLC-MS/MS. Veterinary and human antimicrobials enrofloxacin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, doxycycline and oxytetracycline were detected in 100% of the samples, being to our knowledge the first report of clarithromycin in edible fish muscle. Maximum Residual Limits were exceeded for at least one antibiotic in 82% of pacú, 57% of shad, 57% of trout and 50% of salmon samples. Chloramphenicol, furazolidone and nitrofurantoin (banned compounds in food items) were detected in 41%, 22% and 4% of the samples, respectively. Based on the estimated daily intake calculation, samples do not pose a serious risk to public health. Further investigation on the chronic impact and risk calculation of the mixture of antibiotics on the aquatic environment and human health is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Peixes , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Argentina , Resíduos de Drogas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Medição de Risco
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 745: 140795, 2020 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-cholera Vibrio bacteria are a major cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Raw oysters are commonly implicated in gastroenteritis caused by pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus. In response to outbreaks in 1997-1998, the US Food and Drug Administration developed a nation-wide quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters in 2005. The QMRA identified information gaps that new research may address. Incidence of sporadic V. parahaemolyticus illness has recently increased and, as oyster consumption increases and sea temperatures rise, V. parahaemolyticus outbreaks may become more frequent, posing health concerns. Updated and region-specific QMRAs will improve the accuracy and precision of risk of infection estimates. OBJECTIVES: We identify research to support an updated QMRA of V. parahaemolyticus from oysters harvested in Chesapeake Bay and Puget Sound, focusing on observational and experimental research on post-harvest practices (PHPs) published from 2004 to 2019. METHODS: A predefined search strategy was applied to PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Science.gov, NAL Agricola, and Google Scholar. Study eligibility criteria were defined using a population, intervention, comparator, and outcome statement. Reviewers independently coded abstracts for inclusion/exclusion using predefined criteria. Data were extracted and study quality and relevance evaluated based on published guidance for food safety risk assessments. Findings were synthesized using a weight of evidence approach. RESULTS: Of 12,174 articles retrieved, 93 were included for full-text review. Twenty-seven studies were found to be high quality and high relevance, including studies on cold storage, high hydrostatic pressure, depuration, and disinfectant, and other PHPs. High hydrostatic pressure consistently emerged as the most effective PHP in reducing abundance of V. parahaemolyticus. DISCUSSION: Limitations of the knowledge base and review approach involve the type and quantity of data reported. Future research should focus on PHPs for which few or no high quality and high relevance studies exist, such as irradiation and relaying.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Ostreidae , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Animais , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
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